A Science Investigatory Project Presented to Cavite National Science High School Regional Science High School Region IV A - CALABARZON

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Biotechnology

IV ± Hydrogen

Gretshine Milay Shiela Acosta Ralph Rian de Ocampo

MARJORIE M.DIGMA Biotechnology Teacher

February 2010

color. odor and appearance like the commercial one. texture. Thus. soybeans and the blender. vinegar. . the researchers assumed based on the criteria and judging that there homemade tofu has good taste. Marjorie M. This study aimed to find a good alternative on the commercial tofu that can be brought on the market. texture. The materials used in making the white cheese were sauce pan. It was tasted by Mrs. The soybeans were blended and was drained (with the soymilk). odor and appearance of homemade tofu will be suitable to the taste of the students and also teachers. they said that it should be cooked longer to make more delicious and tasty.ABSTRACT The research study in making homemade tofu aimed to determine whether the taste. Results showed that almost every one that tasted the researcher¶s homemade tofu said that it is like the commercial ones. stirrer. Digma and some IV ± Hydrogen students. Flavouring was added and vinegar was addd too which will act as a coagulator. It was leave overnight was cook in the morning. salt. color. However.

6 CHAPTER II: METHODOLOGY«««««««««««««««««.TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page Title Page«««««««««««««««««««««««««««i Abstract«««««««««««««««««««««««««««.7 D. Significance of the Study«««««««««««««««««.2 C..ii Table of Contents«««««««««««««««««««««««... Materials and Equipment«««««««««««««««««. Review of Related Literature««««««««««««««««2 D....iii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION««««««««««««««««««1 A.8 CHAPTER III: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION«««««««««««. Background of the Study«««««««««««««««««. Flow Chart««««««««««««««««««««««.....11 .7 A.. Research Design««««««««««««««««««««..10 CHAPTER V: RECOMMENDATION«««««««««««««««.9 CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION««««««««««««««««««..1 B. Definition of Terms««««««««««««««««««««....7 C.. General Procedure«««««««««««««««««««...7 B..

The use and production of Tofu were first limited to urban centers with influential Chinese minorities. as well as its versatility. If the water is drained and changed daily. along with many different foods which had become staples of the Filipino diet. A. It is widely eaten as tokwa (a dry fried variation). Tofu was introduced to the archipelago in the 10-13th centuries by Song Chinese mariners and merchants. it will make the tofu slightly chewier. the tofu should last for one week.Tofu in the Philippines is essential to the daily diet as taho. such as Tondo or Cebu. which is a staple or alternative to meat in main meals. long before the Spanish arrival in the 17th century. but were quickly spread to even remote native villages and islands. Fresh tofu is usually packaged in water and should be refrigerated and kept in water until used. Background of the Study . Tofu can be frozen for up to three months.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Tofu is known for its extraordinary nutritional benefits. Tofu. and in numerous regional dishes. Freezing will change its texture however. Tofu is sold in water-filled packs or in aseptic cartons. also known as soya curd. is a soft cheese-like food made by curdling soya milk with a coagulant. Tofu is a rather bland tasting product that easily absorbs the flavours of the other ingredients.

most tofu producers begin by making their own . This study will help and contribute to the food industry of our beloved country nowadays especially to the people who wants to make their own and want to experience making this exciting tofu. wine is good for our heart and it will be better if you¶re the one who made it. This can be also a source of income for some people who are fond of eating. By making your own tofu.These days. recommend it to your friends to make your own homemade tofu. Significance of the Study These days. Review of Related Literature Tofu is made by coagulating soy milk and pressing the resulting curds. and now is their turn to make their own. Making this tofu can be also a good habit for the person who enjoys eating tofu. This study may also help the health of the consumers because when we are buying the product we don¶t have idea on how the producer make it and if they are really using the right ingredients. And besides. and if they are following the true procedure and if they can assure the consumer¶s health. Although pre-made soy milk may be used. B. tofu out in the market doesn¶t taste good and you can¶t assure if it¶s clean. This could be a source of income to the people instead using the commercial brand. you can be sure of the materials you use are clean and you can adjust it according to your taste. tofu out in the market doesn¶t taste good and you can¶t assure if it¶s clean. C.

which produces a very fine textured tofu that is almost jelly-like. less commonly.  Other edible acids: Though they can affect the taste of the tofu more. grinding. . can also be used to coagulate soy milk and produce tofu. This process is accomplished with the aid of coagulants.[18] Commonly used together with calcium sulfate to give soft tofu a smooth tender texture. This coagulant is used especially for "silken" and softer tofus. the exact origin of tofu production may never be known or proven. acids such as acetic acid (vinegar) and citric acid (such as lemon juice). While there are many theories regarding tofu's origins.[15] The third type of coagulant. is not yet used commercially but shows potential for producing both firm and "silken" tofu. Two types of coagulants (salts and acids) are used commercially. fresh) soybeans. enzymes. boiling and straining dried (or. historical information is scarce enough as to relegate the status of most theories to either speculation or legend. Coagulation of the protein and oil (emulsion) suspended in the boiled soy milk is the most important step in the production of tofu. Acid coagulants  Glucono delta-lactone (GDL): A naturally occurring organic acid also used in cheese making. Like the origins of cheese and butter.[19] Tofu originated in ancient China.soy milk. which is produced by soaking. although little else is known about the exact historic origins of tofu and its method of production. and vary in efficacy and texture. and confers an almost imperceptible sour taste to the finished product.

The tofu curds are allowed to cool and become firm. the soy curd is cut and strained of excess liquid using cheese cloth or muslin and then lightly pressed to produce a soft cake. Firm tofu is higher in protein. barbecued or served in soups. Different textures result from different pore sizes and other microscopic features in tofus produced using each coagulant. The finished tofu can then be cut into pieces. pickled. The curds are processed differently depending on the form of tofu that is being manufactured. scrambled. smoked. and techniques for its production and preparation were eventually spread to many other parts of Asia. the curd is strained and molded in a square mold and the end product is called molded bean. Tofu was widely consumed in ancient China. flavored or further processed.What is known is that tofu production is an ancient technique. such as Asian dry tofu or Western types of tofu. baked. are further pressed to remove even more liquid. . Firmer tofus. Types of tofu Firm tofu . In Vietnam. Tofu manufacturers may choose to use one or more of these coagulants. and the solution is then stirred into boiled soy milk until the mixture curdles into a soft gel. grilled. since they each play a role in producing a desired texture in the finished tofu.Firm tofu is dense and can be cubed and stir-fried. fats and calcium than other types of tofu. For soft silken tofu or tofu flower the soy milk is curdled directly in the tofu's selling package. The coagulant mixture is dissolved into water. For standard firm Asian tofu.

Reduce cholesterol . an excellent substitute for meat in many vegetarian recipes. When making tofu. This calcium originates from the coagulant (nigari). tofu reduces heart disease by lowering the level of the "bad" LDL cholesterol. remain bound to the soy protein.Tofu is rich in isoflavones. This is because the soybean¶s fiber is removed during the manufacturing process.Tofu is rich in both high quality protein and B-vitamins. Tofu is. Easy to digest . When making tofu.As most other soyfoods. Isoflavones will reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Silken tofu . As opposed to soya milk. Rich in isoflavones . . genistein and daidzein. Firm tofu contains about 35 mg isoflavones per 100g. the soy proteins are precipitated with calcium. tofu contains a lot of calcium.An additional benefit of tofu is that it is extremely easy to digest. and as the result maintaining the level of "good" HDL cholesterol. Benefits of tofu Rich in Nutrients .Soft tofu . a disease associated with reduced bone density and increased bone fractures. Calcium in tofu contributes to the prevention of osteoporosis. therefore.Soft tofu is more suited for recipes in which tofu needs to be blended. the soy isoflavones. In Japan. silken tofu is consumed as such with some soy sauce.Silken tofu has a creamy structure and is also used in blended dishes. providing tofu with a ready source of calcium.

is a food made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks . may result from prolonged heating.Isoflavones will also lower rates of breast cancer and prostate cancer. D. an example is the setting of a gel.a separation or precipitation from a dispersed state of suspensoid particles resulting from their growth. and reduce menopausal symptoms including mood swings and hot flushes. or from a condensation reaction between solute and solvent. b. addition of an electrolyte. Definition of Terms a. Tofu. Coagulation.

They soy bean were place in the water over night to remove the skin. a budget pack of vinegar . C. A. A bowl was used as container for the vinegar and other additives. A container is brought for the tofu and also for draining the tofu from the vinegar. General Procedure A bag of soy beans were bought from Naic market. cooking of tofu and mixing of the coagulator on the tofu. for the milk to be removed. The cloth was used for draining the mixture. Researchers brought a pan to cook the tofu and a plate to present it. The teaspoon and tablespoon were used for measuring the additives. Materials and Equipment A cheesecloth was used to separate the soymilk from the tofu. It was blended. In a bowl. Design The research study includes the following major processes are preparing of the ingredients and other materials like cooking utensils and cheesecloth. B.CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the specific equipment and procedures on how homemade tofu was prepared.

half teaspoon of salt. CLEANING OF CONTAINERS BUYING OF SOYBEANS FROM THE F. D. Flow Chart E. MARKET BLENDING OF SOY BEANS DRAINING COOKING THE TOFU TOFU WAS PRESENTED cooking of tofu and soymilk draining tasting . sugar and Magic Sarap(optional) were mixed with the tofu.was placed. It was left overnight. Then the tofu was cooked in school and presented.

7 4. Many were a little disappointed with the appearance but it didn¶t affect the taste.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Data Based from the qualitative and quantitative data gathered. Unfortunately she didn¶t accept and said that we need to repeat the product. However.The tofu was made and was let to taste by the researcher¶s biotechnology teacher. In our second attempt. the homemade tofu is acceptable to the taste of the people. The researcher¶s respondent was from the other groups that were with us and had tasted our first attempt of tofu. The following results were obtained to test if the homemade tofu is acceptable to the taste of the people. Characteristics Taste Appearance Texture Odor Color Mean 1 4 3 3 4 5 2 4 2 4 5 4 3 4 4 3 5 5 Mean 4 3 3. we had cooked the tofu but the researcher¶s biotechnology teacher said that she needs to see the raw product first before tasting it but all of it was cooked already. Almost all the respondent rate the homemade tofu as 4. the color and odor was excellent.3 4.7 3. The tofu was rated from 1-5 where 5 is the highest.9 Table 1. .CHAPTER III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION With the results obtained the homemade Tofu is acceptable based on its taste. odor. appearance. some of the characteristics were change by the researcher like the taste. The researchers advised those who love to eat tofu to try making their own so they can decide based on their taste and how they want to present it. appearance and texture should be improve to be more favorable to the buyers. All the benefits of this homemade TOFU are also the same as the commercial ones. . It has a few qualities to become a known tofu. texture. Mainly. however. It was concluded that the homemade tofu is clean. and color. tasty and easy to make. it has the capability to be an income in the market.

the researchers recommend adding vinegar as coagulant to have a shape that is more presentable and be very careful in cooking because it can be easily separate when cooking. The same as this study. Then store it better in a warm place and avoid it from moving.CHAPTER V RECOMMENDATION For further studies and better results. . another product of biotechnology can be conducted to compare the results.

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