Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Education/Jobs Affirmative
Education/Jobs Affirmative............................................................................................................................................1 1AC – Plan Text..............................................................................................................................................................4 1AC – Inherency.............................................................................................................................................................5 1AC – Inherency ............................................................................................................................................................6 1AC – Economy..............................................................................................................................................................7 1AC – Economy..............................................................................................................................................................9 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................10 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................11 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................12 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................13 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................14 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................15 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................16 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................17 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................18 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................19 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................20 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................21 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................22 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................23 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................24 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................25 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................26 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................27 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................29 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................30 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................31 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................33 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................34 1AC – Solvency............................................................................................................................................................35 1AC – Solvency............................................................................................................................................................36 Economy – Ext: No Jobs  Protectionism..................................................................................................................37 Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness.........................................................................................................................38 Economy – AT: Buy America  Protectionism..........................................................................................................39 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ ........................................................................................................40 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2]...............................................................................................41 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2]...............................................................................................42 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2].................................................................................................43 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2].................................................................................................44 Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2].................................................................................................45 Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2].................................................................................................46 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List..........................................................................................................47 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................48 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................49 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................50 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars.......................................................................................................................51 Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ.......................................................................................................................52 Economy – 2AC War Add-on.......................................................................................................................................53 CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE.......................................................................................................................................54 CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on...................................................................................................................................55 CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2]................................................................................................................................56 CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2]................................................................................................................................57 CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................58

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................60 CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................61 CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !)...............................................................................................................................62 CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2].....................................................................................................................63 CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2].....................................................................................................................64 CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on......................................................................................................................................65 CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2].............................................................................................................66 CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [2/2].............................................................................................................67 CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Venture Capital Add-on........................................................................................................68 CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on................................................................................................................69 CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Job Shortages.........................................................................................................................70 CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Chemical Industry Impact......................................................................................................71 Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB.................................................................................................72 Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. Standards Key to DIB.........................................................................................73 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2]...................................................................................74 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2]...................................................................................75 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on............................................................................................76 Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg..............................................................................................78 Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness.....................................................................................79 Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness.....................................................................................80 Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves.............................................................................................................81 Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good....................................................................................................................82 Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good....................................................................................................................83 Solvency – Title I Key..................................................................................................................................................84 Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key........................................................................................................................................85 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation.........................................................................................................86 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on...........................................................................................................87 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on.....................................................................................................88 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on.........................................................................................................89 NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom..................................................................................................................................90 NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools..............................................................................................................................91 NCLB Bad – High-Stakes.............................................................................................................................................92 NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone....................................................................................................................93 NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good......................................................................................................................94 NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse...................................................................................................................................95 AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA)......................................................................................................................................96 AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants)..........................................................................................................................97 AT: Teachers Unions Bad.............................................................................................................................................98 AT: Teachers Unions Bad.............................................................................................................................................99 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................100 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................101 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................103 AT: States – Standards Key........................................................................................................................................104 AT: States – Uniformity Fails.....................................................................................................................................105 AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE...................................................................................................................................106 AT: States – Spending DA..........................................................................................................................................107 AT: States – Trade-off DA..........................................................................................................................................108 AT: States – Cali Econ DA.........................................................................................................................................109 AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending.............................................................................................................................110 AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2]................................................................................................................................111 AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2]................................................................................................................................113 Ext: Texas Spills Over................................................................................................................................................114 AT: States – Links to Politics.....................................................................................................................................115 AT: Repeal NCLB CP.................................................................................................................................................116 AT: Higher Education CP...........................................................................................................................................117 AT: Liberal Arts CP....................................................................................................................................................118

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

AT: Disads..................................................................................................................................................................119 AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA..................................................................................................................................120 Plan Popular – Teachers Unions.................................................................................................................................121 Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan.........................................................................................................122 Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda................................................................................................123 Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats..........................................................................................................................124 Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns...................................................................................................................................125 Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples....................................................................................................................126 Plan Unpopular...........................................................................................................................................................127 Plan Unpopular – Political Capital..............................................................................................................................128 Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns..............................................................................................................................129 2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]..........................................................................................................................................130 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5]..........................................................................................................................................131 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5]..........................................................................................................................................132 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5]..........................................................................................................................................133 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5]..........................................................................................................................................134 Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education.......................................................................................................135

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Plan Text Plan: The United States federal government should increase need-based allocations under Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 to include uniform proficiency standards for science. technology. engineering. and mathematics through career and technical education programs. Astead. / 4 .

Peace through superior firepower. Arkansas. depending on which results in a higher weighting. According to the House stimulus bill. / 5 . Astead. Mississippi. As a result. Title I stimulus distribution is expected to be the same in 2009 and 2010. Mehta. $13 billion in Title I funds is a small part of the total pot of stimulus funding (as much as $140 billion) aimed for education. of the 10 states expected to receive the most Title I stimulus funding per poor student. their Title I stimulus allocations differ dramatically.3 percent. We hope that the final stimulus bill enables those funds to do just that. Title I stimulus funding appears to be allocated randomly. with little connection to student poverty levels. Admittedly. Mississippi has the most students living in poverty (27. DC and New York. New Hampshire. it favors states with many small districts that educate a large proportion of poor students or states with large districts but relatively small proportions of poor students.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. These outcomes for the Title I stimulus allocations are unexpected. As might be expected.493. We used 2007 census data for our analysis. Utah appears slated to receive the least Title I stimulus funding per poor student at $428. Utah has 10. These findings show that current allocations do not effectively target states with the largest impoverished Yesterday we took a look at total stimulus funding per student as estimated by the House Education and Labor Committee's stimulus allocation data. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Inherency Contention : Inherency Stimulus increased Title I education funding – but it’s not targeted towards low-income schools Cohen 1/29 (Jennifer. Both of these formulas target funds based on the number of poor students in a state or district as measured by the census. This is unexpected given that Wyoming ranks fairly low in terms of percent of students living in poverty . only two of them. Alabama. allocations are the result of complicated Title I funding formulas that don't appear to do a great job of providing the maximum benefit to states with large impoverished populations. six of them are in the top 25 states in terms of student poverty . The Targeted formula allocates dollars based on either the actual number of poor students or the proportion of poor students. is expected to receive $1.2 percent of students in poverty and ranks 47 th out of 51 on that indicator. Conversely. (. The District of Columbia ranks third in terms of student population living in poverty at 24. New America Foundation. Oklahoma. but its sole purpose is to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for poor students. Funds should flow to states and districts with the neediest populations. and state expenditure factors.) Although Louisiana ranked 29 th in per poor student funding in the stimulus allocation with $593. http://www. it would rank 41st with $531 per poor student using 100% EFIG. Furthermore. In fact.. Nevada would move from 33rd ($564 per poor student) to 46th ($505 per poor student) in per poor student funding. it is only expected to receive $503 dollars in Title I funding per poor student via the stimulus.2 percent) of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.002 in Title I funds per poor student.Arizona. Instead. Our analysis suggests that Wyoming is expected to receive the most stimulus funding per poor student at $1. the state with the smallest number of students living in poverty .newamerica. of the ten states expected to receive the least Title I stimulus funding per student. Even though Utah and Wyoming have similar percentages of students living in poverty. However. Grant allocations are skewed by small state minimums. The lack of continuity between projected Title I stimulus funding per poor student and percent of students living in poverty can in some part be attributed to the complicated formulas used to calculate the Title I distributions. the Targeted Grant formula uses poverty weights to provide more money to districts with larger impoverished populations. hold harmless amounts.8 percent and New York ranks 14th with 18. Ed Money Watch.43rd out of 51 at 10.9 percent. Writer. Today. To the untrained eye. 7. we will take a closer look at the estimated 2009 Title I funding distributions per poor student in each state and the District of Columbia (Puerto Rico is not included in Census estimates).8 percent. distribution of stimulus Title I funds will be channeled through two Title I funding formulas: 50 percent through Targeted Grants and 50 percent through Education Finance Incentive Grants (EFIGs). and Tennessee. rank in the top 25 states in terms of student poverty.

The Fordham study measured test scores of 36 elementary and middle schools against accountability rules in 28 states. / 6 . he said. "A high school diploma needs to mean something." he said. said Chester E.S. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Inherency No Child Left Behind creates a patchwork of state standards for proficiency causing overall education to stagnate Quaid. "And it's produced results I would call unfair from one state to the next." he said. Mehta. such as Arizona and Wisconsin. But they met yearly progress goals in states with lower standards. president of the nonprofit Fordham Some schools deemed to be failing in one state would get passing grades in another under the No Child Left Behind law. 2/20. 9 – Staff Writer." Education Secretary Arne Duncan said recently. which conducted the study with the Kingsbury Center at the Northwest Evaluation Association. Under No Child Left Behind.washingtontimes. an often controversial issue on which previous presidents have trod lightly." Every state. Astead. no matter where it's from.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. U. and we actually don't. study finds. It found the schools failed to meet yearly progress goals in states with more rigorous standards.and career-ready and are benchmarked against international standards. "But the notion that we have 50 different goal posts doesn't make sense. The study underscores wide variation in academic standards from state to state. Fordham Institute.. such as Massachusetts. The study comes as the Obama administration indicates it will encourage states to adopt common standards. the study found. “Academic standards vary by state. "I know that talking about standards can make people nervous. a national study found. Finn Jr. states have a patchwork of rules that vary from state to state. Washington Times (Libby. It was issued Thursday by the Thomas B. needs standards that make children college. No Child Left Behind is misleading.” http://www. "It misleads people into thinking that we have a semblance of a national accountability system for public schools." Peace through superior firepower.

63% added at least 75 minutes per week.S. These approaches will fail – science. and 19% added 150 minutes or more per week. In physics. and more than half (54%) did so by 150 minutes or more per week. The depressing reality is that when it comes to educating the next generation in these subjects. mathematics. Eight out of ten districts that reported increasing time for ELA did so by at least 75 minutes per week . You don't have to be a scientist to recognize that the status quo is a recipe for big trouble. now ranks below 13 other countries in the percentage of 24-year olds with a college degree in these subjects.cep-dc. Technology. students in science and engineering majors have been flat or declining-even as the demand for these skills increases. Astead.cfm?fuseaction=document. If you are an educator in science like me.S. tech. 8 . “STEM Among districts that reported adding time for math. http://www. students reach their senior year of high school. earth. the Center on Education Policy (CEP) conducted a deeper analysis of 2006-07 survey data first reported in July 2007 on the amount of instructional time devoted to specific subjects.S. not just for the future of American technological leadership.S. “Instructional Time in Elementary Schools. Among the disciplines that the National Science Foundation includes under STEM are engineering. brace yourself for what you will find if you look for data on science education in America collected during the past few years. computer science.” February. the largest international study of scientific achievement ever conducted. students have fallen far behind their competitors in much of Western Europe and in advanced Asian nations like Japan. / 7 . on average. science. Most high school graduates are not adequately prepared for college-level science courses. Among the districts that reported both increasing time for ELA or math and reducing time in other subjects. or lunch. This trend has disturbing implications. on average. and math education are key to job growth and the economy Paulus. Mehta.html? elr=KArksLckD8EQDUoaEyqyP4O:DW3ckUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aUdcOy9cP3DieyckcUsI) STEM is the acronym for Science. high school seniors scored last among 16 countries tested. India.Head Research Associate @ Center on Education Policy (Jennifer. atmospheric and ocean sciences. By the time U. agricultural sciences. For example. Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32%. biological sciences. That's one reason why enrollments of U. Here is what we learned about the magnitude of changes in instructional time in elementary schools from districts that reported increases or decreases in time for certain subjects since NCLB took effect in 2002: The shifts in instructional time toward English language arts (ELA) and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of increases and decreases.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Districts that increased instructional time for ELA and/or math did so by 43%.” The Star Tribune. http://www. engineering. 72% indicated that they reduced time by a total of at least 75 minutes per week for one or more of these other subjects. 9 – Professor @ North Hennepin Community College (Dr. Most districts that increased time for ELA or math also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods. Eugenia. U.showDocumentByID&nodeID=1&DocumentID=234) As part of an ongoing study of the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). psychology. It is reported that just 26% of the 2003 high school graduates scored high enough on the ACT science test to have a good chance of completing a first-year college science course. they rank below their counterparts in 17 other countries in math and science literacy.S. according to the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. more than half (53%) of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies. China and South Korea. economics and other natural and social/behavioral sciences. A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects. down from third place 25 years ago. including social studies. recess. and the same percentage (53%) cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science. America is no longer a world contender. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Contention : The Economy No Child Left Behind is destroying focus on STEM education – overvalues ELA McMurrer. physical sciences. Engineering and Mathematics. U. The physical education. but for the Peace through superior firepower. In fact. art and music.

This is creating an imbalance between the supply of such workers and the burgeoning demand for them. Mehta. placing the Peace through superior firepower. Already. there is a shortage of highly-skilled workers and a surplus of lesser-skilled workers. Kostrinsky Wave One broader economy. / 8 . Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.

we also see Americans increasingly concerned about competing for jobs against people from around the world. But Hanushek figures that the 4% annual increase alone would be enough to offset the entire cost of America's public K-12 school system for the same year. Astead. Until recently. We also see protectionist rhetoric particularly pronounced in this political year where the benefits of trade are being openly questioned by individuals from across the political spectrum. U. some countries seem resolved that the only sure protection is the rejection of foreign capital. broader restrictions on foreign direct investment. 8 – former Under Secretary for International Affairs within the United States Department of the Treasury. U. such as Bush tax cuts. Finally. jobs requiring a PhD in science and technology were filled by people who were born abroad. schools is vital to maintaining America's global leadership. doctoral positions and graduate programs in science at the nation's leading universities are often filled with foreign students.S.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Improving the teaching and learning of mathematics and science in U. In an increasingly globalized world. This message has reached Capitol Hill.S.S. as the global competition for science and engineering talent is intensifying. companies are global leaders in a variety of industries. Because the quality of a nation's workforce has such a huge influence on productivity. The consequences of this could be enormous. Similarly. That may not sound like much.S. and only 30 percent seeing them as a good thing. And their U. no text omitted] future of the U. While some investments may pose genuine national security concerns. but it is also the result of a broad-based transformation underway across regions and within all sectors of our economy. Peace through superior firepower. a stunning 38% of U.S. and to maintain or improve their global leadership position they have to hire the best talent. employees benefit as these companies maintain their competitive edge and grow. Many Americans are also fearful about the implications of foreign investment. concerns about national security have led Congress and the public to take a careful look at investment from outside our borders. Consider what would happen if the U.ustreas. could raise the performance of its high school students in math and science to the levels of Western Europe within a despite its clear benefits to the United States and Colombia. the United States may not be able to rely on the international market to meet its needs. wherever that talent may be. gross domestic product would then be 4% higher than otherwise by 2025 and 10% higher in 30 years. appears threatening to Americans already skeptical about the overall benefits of globalization. Hanushek. But this is a difficult reality for many Americans to accept.htm) Unfortunately. as an example. the recent market developments have contributed to a climate of increased distrust and anxiety among Americans that is fueling support for protectionist policies. According to the Eric A. effective school reform could easily stimulate the economy more than conventional strategies. Market downturns combined with job losses to foreigners is creating momentum towards protectionism McCormick. up from 24% in 1990. also pose serious economic risks. The Dubai Ports World case epitomizes this concern. International competition from free trade. "Looking Past Today: Staying Competitive in a Changing Global Economy" http://www. However. Many countries are now considering further restrictions on foreign investment in certain sectors of their economies. In 2000. where there is reluctance to pass the Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. Previously served as Deputy National Security Advisor to the President for International Economic Affairs (David H. whether explicit or implicit.. Mehta. America has compensated for its failure to adequately educate the next generation by importing brainpower. science and engineering workforce in peril. Talent is the most important commodity in the global marketplace and ever more fungible as advanced technology makes borders less relevant. a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution in Stanford University. A recent Pew Research Center poll found that 48 percent of Americans see free trade agreements as a bad thing for the country. And it is not just in the United States. This is partially due to concerns created by the economic downturn. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy [Paulus Continues. / 9 .S. as do the frequent headlines about investment by sovereign wealth funds. and are also considering limits to sovereign wealth fund investment. bright young Indian or Chinese scientists may well have better opportunities at home than in the U. As globalization accelerates.S. In the wake of September 11th.

depends to fund its deficits. Later. "Protectionism protects nobody. And competitive markets have spurred the innovation revolution that has made the U. The solution for the displaced worker is job retraining and adjustment assistance. and world trade plummeted.S. The pain tends to be localized while the benefits are spread broadly. is the biggest exporter in the world. They are an irresponsible and self-defeating response to a downturn in world economic activity. The specialization that trade makes possible allows all of us to live better. retaliation could cost America more jobs than the provision would create. Citizens like me in New Jersey would be far worse off if we could not buy pineapples from Hawaii. "Congress Wants a Trade War" http://online. does not manufacture enough steel to meet domestic demand. and to improve the safety net available to displaced workers during the transition period. The House of Representatives' version of the economic stimulus bill contains a provision that only American-made steel and other products be used for the infrastructure projects. wine and vegetables from California. No one person's benefit can compare with the loss felt by the textile worker. Buy American provisions and other forms of protectionism will destroy jobs. the U. It could also destabilize the global capital flows on which the U. 2/5 – professor of economics at Princeton University (Burton G. The U.S. and that is why free trade is often a tough sell. The situation is the same with respect to world trade. and by threatening to destabilize trade and capital flows. and the spread of "beggar thy neighbor" policies throughout the world.and imparts the flexible skills that make our citizens ready for the future jobs that we cannot even imagine. Buy American provisions invite retaliation by other nations. Both we and the Chinese are better off if we can import inexpensive clothing from China and sell them large-scale computers and data storage equipment. We also need to revamp our educational system so that it prepares workers for the jobs that are available today -." He's right. and to British Prime Minister and Labour Party head Gordon Brown. Hostility has been no less evident in Europe and China. But the total benefits do exceed the costs.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. which essentially shut off imports into the U. This House provision caused a palpable anxiety during the recent World Economic Forum at Davos. Our trading partners retaliated.S. This Buy American momentum is bad economics.S. Let's hope that President Obama presses his Democratic colleagues in Congress to listen to him. and America's closest allies are furious. Mehta." He said on ABC News that he doesn't want anything in the stimulus bill that is "going to trigger a trade war. the provision could delay some shovel-ready infrastructure projects. Suppose that we did not allow free trade between the 50 American states. just as the world economy was sinking as it is today. protectionist sentiments are rising. Most economic historians now conclude that the tariff contributed importantly to the severity of the world-wide Great Depression. Mr. President Barack Obama told Fox News that "we can't send a protectionist message.S. In 1930..) We must avoid repeating the disastrous mistakes of the past. Wrapped in the cloak of "Buy American" patriotism. If the provision is not diluted. Obama will find a very hostile reception during his first international trip to Canada later this month. To be sure. Foreign steel would only be allowed if domestic products were either unavailable or drove up the cost of the project by 25% or more. not create them. least of all the poor. the economic powerhouse that it is. If I am a textile worker whose job is lost because Chinese imports have caused my factory to close. Astead. Beggar-thy-neighbor policies create more beggars and hostile neighbors. especially during times of hardship. / 10 .S. wheat from Kansas.html) As the world-wide recession the Senate version of the bill contains even stronger anti-free-trade provisions. The European Union has said that it will not stand by idly if the U. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Protectionist momentum in the context of jobs collapses the economy and causes trade wars Malkiel. Moreover. The risks of retaliation and a trade war are very real. since sufficient American-made materials may not be immediately available.S. I feel the pain far more acutely than consumers feel the benefits of cheap clothing. (That act is still on the books although it was weakened during the 1980s. As Mr. violates its trade agreements and its obligations to the World Trade Organization. Since the U. "Buy American" would effectively ban Canadian steel products and other raw materials from infrastructure projects receiving stimulus funds.wsj. as one of his last acts. Asked about Buy American on Tuesday. Brown put it at Davos. such trade does not make everyone better off. President Herbert Hoover made the situation even worse by signing a "Buy America Act" requiring all federal government projects to use American materials. Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. it risks turning a global recession into a 1930s-style depression. and oil from Texas and Louisiana while we sell pharmaceuticals to the rest of the country." Peace through superior firepower.

7 – senior fellow and director of Hudson Institute's Center for Employment Policy. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Protectionism escalates and causes nuclear exchange Garten. That's not Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. many of which have repeatedly been proposed by President Bush and rejected by Congress. a global advisory firm (Jeffrey E. The temptation for governments to whip up enthusiasm for something that distracts citizens from their economic woes -. Peace through superior firepower. / 11 .is great. and enables them to change jobs more easily.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=5285&pubType=Trd) In addition to workforce training. with its implicit autarchic and save-yourself character. would mitigate the negative impacts of free trade on the small pool of affected workers. Mehta. rather than just one. The Dangers of Turning economic nationalism is also sure to poison geopolitics. Whether or not they are democracies.en/) About Trade & Technology. could we see an even more irrational activity from Pyongyang? As the Pakistani economy goes into the tank. We need to reduce our high-school dropout rates—by incorporating vocational training. 9 – professor at the Yale School of Management and chairman of Garten Rothkopf.a war or a jihad against unpopular minorities. Such changes. Astead. Truth http://www. embodies exactly the wrong spirit and runs in precisely the wrong direction from the global system that will be necessary to create the future we all want. 3-3-09. than sliding toward protectionism. "Adjusting to Free Trade" http://www. Department of Labor (Diana. is a civil war with Cold War overtones between Europe and Russia be in the cards? And beyond all that. Governments under economic pressure have far fewer resources to take care of their citizens and to deal with rising anger and social tensions. As an economically enfeebled South Korea withdraws foreign aid from North Korea.hudson. The point is. how will economically embattled and inward-looking governments be able to deal with the critical issues that need global resolution such as control of nuclear weapons. their tenure can be threatened by popular resentment. As happened in the 1930s.S. economic nationalism. or a treaty to manage climate change. or help to the hundreds of millions of people who are now falling back into poverty? Incorporating vocational training into high schools stops the slide toward protectionism Furchtgott-Roth. America needs to take a fundamental look at its education system. will the government be more likely to compromise with terrorists to alleviate at least one source of pressure? As Ukraine strains under the weight of an IMF bailout. Addressing these workers’ problems would be far better for the economy. This prepares them for a succession of careers. for example -. if necessary—and encourage young people to get as much education as possible. and for most other American workers. She is the former chief economist at the U.

social scientists have tried to understand why democracies and wealth go together. Reductions in trade had a devastating impact on Argentina in the 1930s. My father was born in Berlin in 1930.” The Boston Globe. My own research finds little connection between trade and economic growth among rich or middle-income countries. The appeal of democracy's enemies increases when democracies. a 20 percent drop in the ratio of trade to GDP is associated with per capita incomes growing by 1 percent less per year. when democracy still held sway over most of Central and Western Europe. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Free trade contains all other impacts by increasing democratic independence – protectionism results in backsliding and war Glaeser. The United States had adopted the Smoot-Hawley Tariff. and us. like the Weimar Republic. Since dictators are far more likely to slaughter their own people. Astead. Mehta. Democracy is bolstered by prosperity and damaged by downturns. Few findings in social science are more robust than the fact that democracies almost never fight one another. are unable to deliver economic success. If the current downturn causes democracies to become dictatorships. Today as we contemplate an international recession. Since the pioneering work of Martin Lipset 50 years ago. To avoid the terrible path of the 1930s that led to prolonged depression and global conflict. for many of our trading partners have only a tenuous link to peaceful democracy. Protectionism is bad economics and worse foreign policy." That clause sends a terrible message to our trading partners. thuggish dictators snuffed out nascent republics and Europe descended into the madness of war. “Building walls with US trading partners. My colleague Robert Barro found that this link exists not because democracies increase prosperity. But the United States is now contemplating policies that threaten our ability to argue that an economically connected world is stronger and safer. it is worth remembering that worse terrors than double-digit unemployment have stalked human history. Trade is crucial for the prosperity of the world's poorer countries . protectionism is pessimism's progeny. especially during a downturn. where democracies are least stable. safer. world trade declined by two-thirds. In the dark years that followed. The Recovery Act's "Buy American" clause forbids spending on public works "unless all of the iron. lexis) FREE TRADE is a child of economic confidence. then the probability of conflict between those places and our own democracy will increase. but in the poorest places. Peace through superior firepower. America may be faced with the awful choice of military intervention or standing by and watching the deaths mount. and manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the United States. ending decades of democracy and ushering in a long period of dictatorship and political turmoil. Free trade brings prosperity to the world's poorer countries.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the United States must maintain its commitment to globalization. setting off a global tariff war. at the start of an earlier global downturn. policy-makers have again cried "buy American. steel. In today's fearful economic climate. Between 1929 and 1934. director of the Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston (Edward L. 9 – professor of economics at Harvard University." and embraced interventions that support domestic producers at the expense of our trading partners. but because prosperity supports democracy. / 12 . strengthening their transitions to democracy and making their citizens.

Hewlett-Packard. state and local governments mandate or incentivize more energy from alternative sources. Growing Workforce Needs The demand for sustainability has created two parallel workforce phenomena— the development of new careers in the green industry. such as solar panel installers and wind turbine technicians. As the San Francisco Chronicle reported after a summit on green-collar jobs. along with local business and industries. They exist in sectors as diverse as landscaping and automotive manufacturing. From construction to business management. the need for human capital is proving to be a barrier to the continued growth and expansion in energy efficiency and sustainability. executive director of the American Wind Energy Association. In many instances. and employers seeking more “green-collar” workers often face bleak prospects.pdf) High-tech companies like Siemens. and aim to invest in and expand these programs and opportunities so that even Peace through superior firepower. technical education is key Hyslop. A report commissioned by the American Solar Energy Society attributed 8. / 13 . manufacturing and construction technology.000 hybrid automobiles in 2007. in manufacturing. and the “greening” of all other jobs. sustainability issues are growing very important in a number of career pathways. Mehta. Apple.5 million jobs in 2006 to renewable energy or energy efficient industries. homes already have some type of solar energy system. the Apollo Alliance predicts that the nation could generate three to five million more green jobs over the next 10 years. should look to CTE programs as the answer to this workforce challenge. To some capacity. roofers. About 250. However. Unfortunately. and another 2. the new jobs often lack qualified applicants. construction managers and electricians. SunMicrosystems. has estimated that by 2030. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Contention : Job Training Green initiatives growing and demand for green jobs is inevitable – but worker shortages kill effectiveness. Despite the fact that the term “sustainability” has only been around for two Twenty-eight states have mandates generally requiring that up to 25 percent of their energy be obtained through renewable sources in the next two decades.acteonline. and mainstream public interest has only recently peaked. high wage and in high demand. For example.11 As federal. the demand to make buildings more energy efficient increases the need for insulation workers. the industry lacks the skilled workforce necessary to implement and use these technologies.S. 8 – Assoc Director of Public Policy @ Association for Career and Technical Education (Alisha. there must be a greater focus by policymakers and business and industry leaders on providing the training and retraining necessary to help shape this new workforce and ensure the continued pipeline of skilled workers. Americans purchased more than 330. there is a tremendous shortage of individuals with the necessary skills in sustainability practices.8 and rental car companies are increasing their fleets of hybrids as well. construction and operation.500 homeowners have installed their own wind turbine. while the technologies to support the sustainability industry have been or are being created. Community and political leaders.12 For example. Randall Swisher. “California’s new green tech economy won’t get very far if the state doesn’t develop the workforce that eco-friendly businesses need. carpenters.13 These jobs are high skill. building inspectors. but with skilled-worker shortages in areas like engineering. and needs more workers with experience in green building Many jobs in green industries use the same technical skills as existing industries.10 This should serve to further increase the demand for new products and processes focused on generating and conserving energy.000 U. high-quality CTE programs already exist around the country to help prepare students for sustainable careers. http://www. CTE Provides Solutions Career and technical education (CTE) programs are poised and ready to ease the workforce bottleneck that could limit job growth in sustainability and meet the need for green-collar job training across career areas.6 and Subaru Isuzu Automotive7 have launched green initiatives. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. creating products and processes that conserve energy and resources.” California already lacks enough solar panel installers.15 The sustainability industry has the power to dramatically revive employment in many areas around the country as green-collar careers can replace the jobs of workers in areas with stagnant job growth or layoffs. nearly a half-million new jobs could be created in the wind industry.

Jay Hansen. auto mechanics and technology. CTE offers unique opportunities for students to explore career options at the same time they are receiving the strong academic foundation necessary to succeed in the 21st century economy. Often organized around 16 career clusters. For example. Food. leaders of California’s State Building and Construction Trades Council think the state needs more CTE in high schools.” with more specific programs of study that link secondary and postsecondary coursework. and that students are exposed to careers in sustainability early enough to consider them as future options. and sets an example through state-of-the-art green buildings that become part of the curriculum. It is also the answer to ensuring that students gain the sustainability knowledge they need to be successful in whatever career they may choose.”21 Hansen’s comments point to the need to expose students to careers in green areas early in their educational experience.22 Aiken University High School in Cincinnati has instituted a special environmental sciences program where coursework in all subjects is linked to environmental issues. A CTE Tech Prep articulation agreement that provides college credit will allow students to follow a clear career path to Cincinnati State University in a variety of environmental fields. / 14 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. For example. placing CTE offers early exposure to students regarding sustainable energy career options through curriculum integration. CTE programs are flexible and responsive to economic and workforce needs. and Natural Resources” and “Manufacturing. Exposing Students to Green Curriculum Today’s CTE is becoming more rigorous in response to the growing skill needs in the current affect the environment. such as “Agriculture. Mehta. CTE has often been turned to as the answer as policymakers around the country examine ways to reform high schools and help more students earn high school diplomas and transition to postsecondary education. no text omitted] more students can participate. legislative and political director. A number of high schools have started to offer this type of exploration and integration of sustainability concepts. “We’re not going to be able to build anything and do any green retrofits until we have a workforce to do that. said. we’re going to lose a lot of people. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE [Hyslop Continues. Astead.23 Peace through superior firepower. an “ECOnomics” course will combine 11th-grade economics standards with a look at how the forces of the market. provides the “cutting edge” training necessary to ensure future employees meet workforce pipeline needs. and at the same time remains extremely relevant to students and their lives. If we wait until they’re out of high school to start training them. California’s Lake Tahoe Unified School District has plans for a green academy at South Tahoe High School that would expose students to careers in green construction.

lib.vt. Absent effective CTE. Despite the limited research on how NCLB affects CTE programs.allbusiness. These programs should be recognized for their leadership and expanded so that even more students can participate. In fact. the adequate yearly progress (AYP) provision. “Career and technical education (CTE) is not immune from the provisions of NCLB” (p. Phelps (2002) points out that.html) At all levels of education. “In many states CTE students are now in the same ‘high-stakes kettle’ as students in other tracks…One hypothesis is that CTE is an area to which students with low scores or special needs are steered” (p. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. Peace through superior firepower. CTE school reform initiatives. 5). Community and political leaders.8 decline in the percentage of students who are occupational concentrators. Without critical CTE activities providing a skilled and ready workforce. Finally. CTE programs focused on a wide variety of green ideas and practices are now in place to ensure the continued pipeline of skilled workers with a strong knowledge foundation. 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr.” 4/1/09. all of the investments in new energy. suggested that “NCLB was ‘squeezing career and technical education’ out of the curriculum”. and science. Around the country. anecdotal evidence suggests otherwise. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE NCLB kills focus on science and engineering career education Fletcher. The remainder of this manuscript will explain the various aspects in which the NCLB policy may affect CTE programs. 9 – Assoc Director of Public Policy @ Association for Career and Technical Education (Alisha. Austin and Mahlman (2002) add. 1). these aspects include CTE teacher qualifications.2 decline in the amount of vocational credits earned and a 2. / 15 . 2004) found a national . green sustainability movements will collapse along with local businesses and industries. CTE has an essential role to play in energy and environmental sustainability. should look to CTE programs as the answer to the sustainability workforce challenge. the National Assessment of Vocational Education ([NAVE].edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher. math. “CTE's Role in Energy and Environmental Sustainability. Astead. Tom Applegate.efficient and sustainable technology will be for naught. in an article by Lewis (2004). and CTE legislation objectives. http://www. Mehta. this manuscript will point out various implications for CTE programs. ). from career exploration to specific job training. president of the ACTE.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.pdf) It is possible that many assume the NCLB policy does not affect CTE programs because the objectives of NCLB appear to be directed towards the core academic courses such as English. However. he further stated that if that is the result “then we really shot ourselves in the foot in terms of some of our other missions in education” (¶ 7).” http://scholar.

in recent decades energy prices have been extremely volatile. Second. In addition. such as natural gas. the goal is to assemble a feasible. http://www.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Many of these problems have been reduced through end-of-pipe controls and other measures over recent decades. atmospheric mercury. / 16 . it encourages the substitution of fuels with lower emissions of greenhouse gasses and other pollutants.2 Improving enbergy security It is impossible to run a modern society without substantial amounts of energy.are trapping extra solar heat. First. and the policy package addresses this issue in two ways. Combustion of fossil fuels is the principal source of air pollution and a number of other environmental problems. Instead.S. can lead to increased environmental impacts even when emissions (or other damages) per unit of output are declining. including carbon dioxide. but is also the principal source of sulfur dioxide that causes acid rain. However. Steve Bernow and Bill Dougherty.most notably carbon dioxide. Center for a Sustainable Economy. and other pollutants.have been virtually eliminated. such as coal. and puts aggregate emissions of major The consumption of coal. Tellus Institute (James P. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. a necessary by-product of fossil fuel combustion . Proposals to expand oil drilling may endanger sensitive natural habitats such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. which have contributed to two major U. In a similar vein. 2 . recessions. One goal of this project was to improve national energy security. for example. To achieve this. This report did not set any particular target or goal for emissions reduction. atmospheric lead . industries and households alike. and continued economic growth.g. more efficient use of electricity could help protect industry from the economic impacts of electricity price spikes such as those recently seen in California. threatening the economic health of U. for those with higher emissions. on a downward path for every major sector of the economy. while good in itself.e. Reducing consumption of oil. Astead. is to significantly curtail greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. and a number of serious environmental problems . and natural gas has introduced a number of unintended side effects throughout the world.1.Economic Policy Institute. the policy set examined here focuses on improvements in energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy resources. we improve energy efficiency in all sectors in order to reduce the vulnerability of the economy by cutting the share of energy purchases in total industry costs and household budgets. A substantial reduction in fossil fuel consumption will be necessary if the U. with potentially catastrophic worldwide consequences. Andrew Hoerner. Ongoing events such as the recent string of years with record-breaking average temperatures and the thinning of glacial and polar ice make clear that this is a problem that will become increasingly urgent over time.S.5 The vast majority of the world's leading scientists now agree that human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases . Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Efficiency and renewable projects solve climate change and oil dependence Barrett. Overall air and water quality have improved by some measures.epi.S. petroleum.. cost-effective package that achieves substantial energy savings and related environmental benefits. J. other problems have proven more intractable. One central example of such a problem is global warming. we expand the diversity of energy sources so that choice is increased and markets become more difficult to manipulate. Coal is the nation's primary source of electricity. would help to avoid the periodic economic instability that arises from fluctuations in world oil prices. 1. However.

5m years to the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Peace through superior firepower. Or perhaps the beginning of our extinction. Many scientists warn that this historical event may be analogous to the present: the warming caused by human emissions could propel us towards a similar hothouse Earth. who warned that "if we get to a four-degree rise it is quite possible that we would begin to see a runaway increase". Billions would undoubtedly die. the more sunshine is absorbed by the sea. All the world's coastal plains would be lost. And as the Arctic warms. when sea levels rose by about 120 metres to create the Channel. cities. http://www. The more the ice melts. complete with ports. This is a remarkable understatement. with more frequent and severe droughts. floods and and much of the world's most productive farmland. To see how far this process could go.000 gigatonnes of carbon into the atmosphere. and sea levels rose to 100m higher than today. The Earth's carrying capacity would be hugely reduced. "the end of living and the beginning of survival" for humankind. The collapse of the polar ice caps would become inevitable. Lush subtropical forests grew in polar regions. / 17 . notably the summer melting of the Arctic sea ice.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the release of billions of tonnes of methane – a greenhouse gas 70 times stronger than carbon dioxide over 20 years – captured under melting permafrost is already under way. But the idea that we could adapt to a 4C rise is absurd and [Quals Added] We need to get prepared for four degrees of global warming. Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from the American Association for the Advacement of Science] told the Guardian last week. and the more the Arctic warms. the North Sea and Cardigan Bay out of dry land. both as CO2 and as methane from bogs and seabed sediments. bringing long-term sea level rises of 70-80 metres. Global warming on this scale would be a catastrophe that would mean. Sir David King [Director of the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at the University of Oxford]. when a global temperature increase of 6C coincided with the release of about 5. Watson's call was supported by the government's former chief scientific adviser. 8/11. At first sight this looks like wise counsel from the climate science adviser to Defra. Mehta. transport and industrial infrastructure. The world's geography would be transformed much as it was at the end of the last ice age. Weather would become extreme and unpredictable. look 55. Bob Watson [PhD in Chemistry. in the immortal words that Chief Seattle probably never spoke. It appears that an initial warming pulse triggered other warming processes. 8 – Environmental Researcher (Oliver. The climate system is already experiencing significant feedbacks. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Warming causes extinction Tickell.

this chain reaction becomes increasingly difficult to stop. so much ice had melted that both the Northwest and Northeast passages were open. as well as sub-Saharan African countries. whether humans were the cause. 7 – *President of the Center for American Progress and ** Senior National Security Analyst at the Center for American Progress (John and Peter. it will be the developing nations in the earth's low latitudinal bands. they re not." If anything. and their cascading geopolitical implications are identified in this essay. That debate is long since over. the United Nations formed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (lPCC) and charged its scientists with synthesizing the peer-reviewed science and developing broad-based conclusions. Every national academy of science. And it wasn't a one-time accident. even a relatively small climatic shift can trigger or exacerbate food shortages. but this time was different . long lists of Nobel laureates. of course. human migration. 32. there's no serious question about the general shape of what's to come. Foreign Policy. which can lead to conflict over remaining resources. such as what we're now seeing in the Arctic. The Security Implications of Climate Change. said this shouldn't have happened until sometime late in the 21st century. where they are situated.both because member countries must sign off on the conclusions and because there's a time lag. In the summer of 2007. 9 – Environmental Studies @ Middlebury (Bill. p. the spread of disease. Indeed. and in recent years even the science advisors of President George W. Astead. In the developing world.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Timeframe is irrelevant – must stop irreversible chain reactions Podesta and Ogden. It is therefore critical that policymakers do all they can to prevent the domino of the first major climate change consequence. The most threatening first dominos. Iss. or about as certain as science gets) that heattrapping emissions from human activities have caused "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century. in November 2007. there is a more thorough scientific process here than on almost any other issue: Two decades ago. By the end of the summer season in 2008. from toppling. and natural resource competition. that will be most adversely affected by climate change. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE The warming debate is over – it’s real and caused by humans McKibben. / 18 . The computer models. there was 25 percent less ice than ever measured before. many scientists now think that the IPCC has been too conservative . whether it be food scarcity or the outbreak of disease. Although the details of future forecasts remain unclear. there was great controversy over whether the planet was warming. ice in the Arctic Ocean melted. Bush have agreed that we are heating the planet. which can create new food shortages in new regions. These crises are all the more dangerous because they are interwoven and self-perpetuating: water shortages can lead to food shortages. which can drive human migration. destructive weather events. which are just a few years old. The Washington Quarterly 31. 170. The reports have found since 1995 that warming is dangerous and caused by humans. Peace through superior firepower. The panel's most recent report. Even skeptics can't dispute such alarming events. water scarcity. even though the IPCC projects that temperature increases at higher latitudes will be approximately twice the global late September. Its last report synthesized data from the early part of the decade. Jan/Feb) "Scientists Are Divided" No. In other words. Winter 2007) Consequently. not the latest scary results. you could circumnavigate the Arctic on open water. and whether it would be a significant problem. Once underway. In the early years of the global warming debate. Mehta.1. found it is "very likely" (defined as more than 90 percent certain. It melts a little every summer.

transportation.asp?storyCode=160650&sectioncode=34) Education Magazine The oil age is 150 years old and now just about half over. However. ongoing pursuits.S. however. and must remain. Chairperson. agriculture being heavily dependent on petroleum for synthetic nutrients and water supply.6 Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. What goes up must come down. In short. “The extinction of Hydrocarbon Man?” Times Higher http://www. One company has publicly reported5 achievements of more than 20 percent improvement in energy efficiency in a ten year period from 1994 to 2004. Astead. which is the highest price in the world. and in the 21st century we will have to deal with the downside. socialism and communism that sought an equitable reward from this abundant energy have run their course. etc. energy use constitutes about 24 percent of the global consumption of energy. The U. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Oil economy causes extinction Campbell. chemical process industry (CPI) consumes nearly 25 percent of this.) Competition with other industries (transportation. 54-55) The high standard of living accorded by the availability of food. have brought the realization that fundamental changes in energy use are necessary for continued sustainability of the chemical and allied industries. and improved productivity. these include business risks associated with the: Increasingly higher cost of energy which is reflected in the increasing production cost of chemical products. The implications for sustainability of the high energy use in the CPI are well documented.S.1 The U. and natural gas combined). The readily available and relatively inexpensive sources of fossil fuels that the chemical industry has enjoyed for the last century are in part responsible for the present situation. may peak not long after oil for not wholly unrelated reasons. as oil production peaks. etc) for fossil fuel resources. COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY under the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology.3. This places the U.) as well as ones causing acid rain and ground-level ozone pollution (NOx. discovery and implementation of innovative and more energy efficient technology are. It may turn out to be virtual wealth as the fuel that drives it becomes first expensive and then in short supply. leaving a global economy seemingly bent on concentrating wealth. electricity. a consultancy that specialises in petroleum forecasts and depletion analysis (C. reduced emissions. And.S. We are now on the cusp.timeshighereducation. Indeed.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.2 Industrial activity accounts for 33 percent of all the energy (fossil fuels. Impacts on global climate change from emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2. However the exploration.S.7 percent of all the energy resources used in the United States. the price of a barrel of oil reached more than $60. there are numerous examples of real gains made by the chemical industry in addressing the high energy intensity. The price of natural gas is at an all time high in the United States. and recreation. 99 – partner with Petroplan. the chemical products resulting from these advances require considerable energy input or intensity. sustainability is key to maintaining a competitive chemical industry Trainham et al. 88 percent of which is derived from fossil fuels (petroleum. and is likely to continue to fluctuate. We have consumed about 820 billion barrels of the 1. energy use in the CPI is significant. domestic.4 or about 7. etc. Recently. / 19 . etc. are the result of great advances in chemical and biological sciences and technology. 5 (James A. It is logical for environmentalists to predict apocalypse. with the mean value staying substantially above the price over the last 20 years. shelter.A Workshop Report. Uncertainties in the reliability of supply. chemical industry at an economic competitive disadvantage. too. The fourfold increase in oil prices since the mid-1990s has driven the CPI to discover energy efficient technologies that have contributed to more useful products. Global events in the last three decades. Trainham III. The great social struggles of capitalism. clothing. These two books in their different ways will help us understand our predicament. Population.800 billion readily available to us. water.J. Yet there is much that we could do to ameliorate the transition to a leaner economy based on renewable energy.) used in the U. Similar to the discussion in Chapter 3. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs .

chemical companies are committed. The global chemical industry believes that the key to improving the performance of the industry is both its commitment to achieving environmentally sound Sustainable Development and improved performance and transparency. In view. there needs to be provided as large a measure of equal opportunities. the challenge for today's leaders is to pursue policies that will leave available an array of choices for future generations to meet their own needs. governments. It follows. To determine the limits of acceptability and scope for action requires a set of conventions which society at large accepts as valid. it helps to solve the problems of other sectors of industry. environmental industries and the waste disposal sector. Under the concept of "Responsible Care".” online: http://www. environmental and society-related . / 20 . Its products and services are instrumental in meeting the needs of mankind.economic. as well. businesses and organisations around the world. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Competitive chemical industry solves extinction ICCA. June 20.htm) The key finding of "Our Common Future". therefore. The main challenges facing the world include:* Optimizing the benefits obtained from depleting resources * Assuring against excessive strains placed on the eco-system * The dynamic growth of the world population * Remedying social and economic inequalities These are challenges on a global scale. as examples. Although today we cannot define the needs of future generations. Astead. In addition. its improved performance and in the improvements to the human condition made through its products. Seen from society's viewpoint. it is clear that the chemical industry with its unique capabilities is in a position to make a decisive contribution to Sustainable Development. of the population increase information technologies. Its "Responsible Care" initiative. Education-Industry Partnerships. a customer of a broad range of products and services from other industries. is that environmental. (the 1987 report of the United Nations' World Commission on Environment and Development). particularly. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY's LEADERSHIP IN INNOVATION The very notion of Sustainable Development will require new approaches in a number of areas. the chemical industry is an important supplier to a broad range of downstream industries and is. Sustainability in the environmental sense means not placing an intolerable load on the ecosphere and maintaining the natural basis for life. in aljl aspects of safety. it is a large-scale provider of jobs and makes a significant contribution to wealth creation and. transport . Mehta. reducing risks to health and the environment and making better products which. self-monitoring systems and other voluntary programmes such as Sustainable Technology (SUSTECH). employment in other industries. Innovation at all levels and in all fields of activity is the most effective instrument for ensuring that the economic.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. that the chemical industry plays a major role in providing/ supporting performance improvements. Thereby. and environmental Peace through superior firepower. therefore. It is present in all areas of life. to educate all staff and work with customers and communities regarding product use and overall operation. to the financing of both public works and the exercise of public responsibilities. Energy Efficiency Programmes are also part of this framework. Sustainability in economic terms means the efficient management of scarce resources as well as a prospering industry and economy. It follows. that the attainment of Sustainable Development will call for action on the part of the people.can be reconciled. Due to its size. companies are also confronted with new challenges and must act responsibly. last but not least. such as the energy sector. freedom. The chemical industry views Sustainable Development as a challenge put before all parts of society. hence. housing. The global chemical industry has realized this challenge. CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The chemical industry is a key industry. sustainability means that human beings are the centre of concern. Sustainable Development will only come about if three goals . In itself. 2 (International Council of Chemical Associations).cefic. economic and social concerns must be integrated if the world's peoples are to advance and develop without jeopardizing the natural environment on which all life depends. help individual and industry customers. to seek continuous improvement in performance. social justice and security as possible. other industries and other sectors of society can reach consensus on how to improve living standards and the environment. Since living standards are determined to a large degree by material considerations. They must take account of the consequences of their actions upon society and future generations. communications. health and protection of the environment. research and development progress and. Through these efforts the industry is improving its efficiency. the chemical industry sees cause for optimism and believes that Sustainable Development can be the intellectual framework around which the chemical industry. in turn.right through to leisure activities. from food and clothing. “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. Commitment by the world chemical industry to the concept of Sustainable Development requires words to be transposed into company-specific action programmes in order to provide a framework for all those working in the sector. In the advances made in its own operations.

but also to reprocessing. The challenge facing the chemical industry is to maximize innovation. no text omitted] goals. is. is becoming more and more apparent. technologies and solutions which offer the greatest promise for the future * development of new integrated environmental technologies * a close cooperation with the customers of the chemical industry * adaptation to the conditions of global competition * bringing the most promising products quickly on the market * strengthening the R&D effort which requires resources which can only be financed from profitable earnings * actively contributing ideas and suggestions to the policy debates taking place in society * improving process yield (efficiency). thus. to new technologies and environmental improvements. which can contribute to society meeting its goals for Sustainable Development. This is being manifested by:* an increase of imports and exports of goods as well as services * growing outward and inward flows of direct investment * an ever increasing exchange of technology transfers * globalization of monetary and financial schemes. by which investors may be guided in their long-term decision-making process. The chemical industry's contribution is to continue innovation of new products that meet customer needs and manufacturing processes that reduce risks to health and the environment. in order to play a constructive role in Sustainable Development. The inter-relation of economic systems is complex. with a variety of relationships among countries. freedom and fairness in international trade.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. via re-investment and R&D. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE [ICCA Continues. The chemical industry is firmly convinced that leadership in innovation represents the best way of attaining Sustainable Development. the long-term future of the industry must be rooted in a dynamic policy. first and foremost. Wealth creation and profits are fundamental to Sustainable Development. In order to maintain this position under the imperative of Sustainable Development. They sustain economies (not just the chemical industry). are being advanced. handling and use of chemical compounds. Astead. This contribution is based upon the knowledge and experience the industry has acquired from applying innovation not only to making. / 21 . Mehta. What they need. This includes bringing to a halt the growing intervention by governments in industry and their ever increasing demands to raise income by taxation. recycling and solving environmental problems. Peace through superior firepower. thus imposing a disproportionate load on the business community. A climate needs to be fostered within which such growth may take place on the basis of a clear set of rules with predictable consequences. The chemical industry is a major industrial sector and an essential contributor to welfare and employment on a global scale. Profits are needed to create flexible company structures oriented towards economic. as well as those of society. keeping up international competitiveness as a pre-requisite of sustainable job creation. For the individual company. in conjunction with a growing trend towards global competition. APPROACH TO THE ECONOMIC GOAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The internationalization of the economy at large. Multi-national chemical companies apply common standards in spreading investment capital and stimulating markets around the globe. this means:* a consistent orientation towards products. and contribute. environmental and society-related requirements. whereby continual innovation and re-engineering of companies result in an increase of productivity and. thus setting the scene for the world market. Trade as an engine of economic growth is essential for Sustainable Development.

leaving the U. companies as well—evidence that U.-dominated science and technology fields filed record numbers of patents. and math to maintain its position as the world superpower. more and more high-tech. engineering jobs that need to be filled and every year only 60. for example. and manufactured in foreign countries.000 engineers per year).S. Senior Policy Analyst in Education in the Domestic Policy Studies Department (James Jay. a competitive edge. But times are changing. such as China and India (each of which graduates 600. From computer chips to microwaves.heritage. In an alarming development. Multidisciplinary research is a prerequisite for any nation to maintain. Schools across the U.S. India. Even so. a new technology is brought to market by the STEM workforce. In America. and Jena Baker McNeill. stays on its current trajectory.S. Director of Domestic Policy Studies. Such technologies keep the economy thriving and protect the country in times of war. and Dan Lips. Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. low achievement in STEM fields at all levels of education and beyond is becoming not only culturally acceptable—it is becoming the norm.S. and homeland security. When a company fails to make progress in materials science.000 U. let alone gain. enabling people around the world to live longer. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Contention : Total Primacy STEM education in K-12 is key to competitiveness and a strong defenseindustrial base Carafano et al.S. But the STEM crisis extends far beyond economic prosperity. there are 200. from cell phones to antibiotics.S. and Jennifer A. designed. technology. better lives. Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. independent researcher. In today’s world.S.S. 22-year-olds do not have a high school diploma. place more emphasis on extracurricular activities than on STEM education. “Improving U.D. These centers are not only funded by Indian companies but by students who excel in sports are considered heroes while students who excel in science are considered geeks. Peace through superior firepower. access to technology and technological innovation is what separates the developed world from developing nations. http://www. vulnerable in times of war. Likewise. and Ethel Machi. 6/16 – Ph. / 22 .S. For years. continually sending U. technology begets technology.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. China has gained ground in electrical engineering and computing. is less focused on STEM than other countries. it means a competitor’s microchips will be smaller.pdf) //HM Every day. Detrimental to national competitiveness. If the U. and India has made enormous strides toward becoming the leader in accounting and financial services. K–12 education is compulsory. graduates are not meeting domestic business demands in quantity or in quality. Marshall.S. Sixty-eight percent believe that the U. While STEM engineering work can arguably be outsourced to other nations. 30 percent of 18. the U. engineers graduate—leaving more than two-thirds of these STEM positions vacant. In some parts of the world. Advances in robotics can improve manufacturing. neither can do it alone. The physicist must work with the structural engineer to create alternative energy sources.S. Every year. America is rapidly moving toward a future where its top defense technologies are invented. engineering. high-paying jobs will be sent overseas.S. In many schools. The ocean engineer must work with the nuclear engineer to create world-class submarines. which in turn empowered its military and fueled its economy. Ninety-five percent of Fortune 500 CEOs believe that there is a severe shortage of U. Falling behind in any technological field has a detrimental domino effect because every field is dependent on the others. depends on science. citizens working in STEM fields. has recently experienced a 600 percent increase in research and development (R&D) centers. Competitiveness with K-12 STEM Education and Training.S. national defense. a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies. there are multiple fundraising activities for sport teams but few for science fairs or math competitions. The U. the positive correlation between STEM expertise and economic prosperity has been recognized with increased investment. Astead.000 U. work to be performed in other countries is not a sustainable solution: Over time globalization will directly and negatively impact America’s industrial economy.

American officials and analysts hardly agree there is a China threat.D. President Putin’s intentions are clear. The American side prefers to believe that Marxism-Leninism is dead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.. Russian radio news broadcasters have been ordered to make 50 percent of their reporting on Russia “positive. America is the “main enemy” once again." The People's Daily has also stated: "U. And so America’s leaders were fooled.S. The received wisdom of our time holds that peace can be established through technology transfers and trade. we catch a glimpse of Beijing's evil intentions. He said that China's increased military spending doesn't threaten the United States." he explained. Mehta. I believe that the political process in Russia. Second.S. former U. against Tibet in 1950. This means that Russia can move tank and motorized infantry divisions to NATO’s doorstep. 7 – Analyst @ Financial Sense. It was a repeat of Lenin’s New Economic Policy of the 1920s. China wishes to live in peace with its neighbors and the U.html) Clenched Fist. Psychologically. frmr analyst @ Defense Intelligence Agency. They are not as easy to see as Moscow’s. the outrage expressed by Beijing inadvertently reveals the malevolence of China's leaders." A typical column published by The People's Daily rhetorically asks: "Why Does U. for many years. that China is evolving into a "normal" country.S. On June 13. Contrary to Chinese propaganda. ". Poli Sci Ph. like the Russians.. in which Russia pretended to liberalize and move toward capitalism. says that U. "is that China has no such [hostile] intention. If we examine Chinese propaganda with a psychological eye. Right-wing forces are determined to destroy a "fragile" Sino-U.financialsense. After all. drawing investment and technology from the West. It has been my contention. "In the opinion of the United States. – no chance of a peaceful rise Nyquist. The collapse of Communism was a staged event. through its official organ (The People's Daily). why would The People's Daily express outrage at U. Now Russia and China will emerge together as “one clenched fist. Each instance involved a sudden. The Chinese government.S.” Two recent items reveal Moscow’s intentions. was guided to this end. “One http://www. President Vladimir Putin has announced that he is suspending Russia’s commitment to follow the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE).” and that the United States is – from now on – to be described as Russia’s enemy.S.S.S. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base China and Russia are gearing up to topple the U.” and their intention is to smash America. from 1989 to the present. relationship. if we look at recent history we find that China has sent its armies against at least five neighboring countries since World War II: against Korea and the U.. have all along clung to the Cold War mentality and held fast to the principle of containment in their policy toward China. / 23 ." The People's Daily bitterly complains that the Americans oppose Chinese military expansion in Asia.N. they will blame the American side.. 2005. In 1989 America’s leaders could not see the Kremlin’s intentions because intentions are invisible to the naked eye. Wrap China in a blanket of dollars and Communist ideology will find itself smothered. Right-wing forces .S. The Cold War is to be renewed. In fact. forces in 1950. And like the Russians. opposition to Chinese military expansion? Only a would-be aggressor feels thwarted by the collective security arrangements of neighboring countries. but they are nonetheless real. have carefully crafted their excuse for enmity. "My analysis in the last four years. and against Vietnam in 1979.R. it is still the traditional countries [like Russia and China] that constitute strategic threats. The American side has supposedly manufactured an imaginary "China threat." says the Daily. Preach 'China Military Threat'?" According to Beijing's official organ. against India in 1962. The Chinese. the Americans are determined to misread China's intentions." Peace through superior firepower. Thailand. and observable. unprovoked strike against foreign forces outside China. that this was the KGB’s intention from the outset. Secretary of State Colin Powell gave the keynote address at the Asia Leadership Forum in Bangkok. against Russia in 1969. program @ UC Irvine (J.

US political leaders and defense industry analysts called for replacing a defense industry largely isolated from the commercial sectors of the US economy with a single. it would surely be premature to begin dismantling the US defense industry. ready for instant action. Chapter 1 traces the evolution of the US defense industrial base since World War II. put a man on the moon in less than a decade. the vital question about the defense industrial base is whether it will be as much a source of long-term advantage in the decades ahead as it has been since the 1950s. successfully orbited the first reconnaissance satellites. by the military-industrial complex. How prepared is the US defense industrial base to meet the needs of the US military Services in coming decades? The Cold War challenge of Soviet power has largely ebbed. It is probably not possible. but new challenges have emerged. Peace through superior firepower. the US defense industrial base has been a source of long-term strategic advantage for the United States. Nevertheless. Critics have long emphasized President Eisenhower’s warning in his farewell television address that the nation needed to “guard against the acquisition of undue influence.Takfiri and Khomeinist terrorist groups and their state sponsors. and reliable guided munitions cheap enough to be employed in large numbers. Mehta. what steps might be undertaken to begin bringing about the required changes? There do not appear to be easy answers to either question. Past. wide-area surveillance and targeting sensors. so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. equally important. nor would it be wise.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. There is the immediate threat of the violence stemming from Salafi.20081015. While the percentage of US gross domestic product going to national defense remains low compared to the 1950s and 1960s. in a few cases. The bulk of this report is contained in three chapters. and. and. particularly of nuclear weapons. http://www. Chapter 3 addresses two questions: first. not least. / 24 . tends to dominate contemporary discussions of the US defense industrial base. therefore. 8 – Senior Fellow @ The Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (Barry D. if the defense industry best suited to cope with the challenges of the early twenty-first century is substantially different from the one which exists today. weapon performance.” CBA. including the Department of Defense and Congress.csbaonline. In integrated industrial base that would serve multiple customers. the worsening problem of proliferation._The_US_De fense_In. Our arms must be mighty. whether sought or unsought. The main focus of this report is on a larger question. In the face of these more complex and varied challenges. In hindsight. especially in the foreseeable future? Second.pdf) Since the 1950s. what kind of defense industry is in the best interests of the United States. for the federal government to set about imposing a purportedly more efficient or effective structure on the US defense industrial base. those critical of the defense industry tend to concentrate on these acquisition shortcomings. there is a growing list of defense programs that have experienced problems with cost. From a competitive perspective. such advice seems to have overlooked the unique requirements and government-imposed constraints that pervade major weapons programs. the longer-term challenge of authoritarian capitalist regimes epitomized by the rise of China and a resurgent Russia.20081015. just as it was during World War II. “The US Defense Industrial Base. They also contributed to the development of modern digital computers. schedule.” Usually forgotten or ignored has been an earlier._The_US_Defense_In/R. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Defense-industrial deters war with China and Russia and solves terrorism and prolif Watts. While some defense companies tried to follow this advice. the federal government. Astead. Eisenhower’s warning about undue influence. is at least as much to blame for many of these programmatic difficulties as US defense firms. Present and Future. passage in Eisenhower’s January 1961 speech: A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. and defense-industry leaders were probably right not to go very far down the road in trying to heed it. including low-observable aircraft. most had little success. During the 1990s. Chapter 2 offers an assessment of the industry’s performance to date. and played a pivotal role in developing the worldwide web. rather than the need to maintain American military strength. that have consumed so much American blood and treasure in Iraq. American defense companies provided the bombers and missiles on which nuclear deterrence rested and armed the US military with world-class weapons.

com/existential/risks.latimes. 9. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Failure to check China’s rise causes nuclear war Farah. we serve only to ensure a costly battle against the expansionist power in the future. Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. either accidentally or deliberately.story) China is the Evil Empire of the future. More recently. its threats against Taiwan. / 25 . carriers in the Pacific. Chas Freeman. Philosophy @ Oxford and really smart dude (Nick.S.S. we shall see that nuclear Armageddon and comet or asteroid strikes are mere preludes to the existential risks that we will encounter in the 21 st century. 7 – founder.-China war?” LA Times Opinion.[4] Russia and the US retain large nuclear arsenals that could be used in a future confrontation. There is also a risk that other states may one day build up large nuclear arsenals. War with Russia is the highest magnitude impact Bostrom." Freeman quoted this official as saying. In ignoring China's military expansion. a major general in the People's Liberation Army.D. Peace through superior firepower.full. Astead. you care more about Los Angeles than you do about Taipei.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. It was just two years ago that a top Chinese military official said Beijing would use nuclear weapons against the U. Journal of Evolution and Technology.0.S. assistant secretary of Defense. since it would not destroy or thwart humankind’s potential permanently. You don't have to be a prophet to see http://www. Mehta." Zhu Chenghu.nickbostrom. You only need to be a student of history.S. Vol. Such a war might however be a local terminal risk for the cities most likely to be targeted. said in 1999 that a PLA official had told him China would respond with a nuclear strike on the U. editor and CEO of WorldNetDaily (Joseph. between India and Pakistan for instance. “A U. There was a real worry among those best acquainted with the information available at the time that a nuclear Armageddon would occur and that it might annihilate our species or permanently destroy human civilization. "In the end. An all-out nuclear war was a possibility with both a substantial probability and with consequences that might have been persistent enough to qualify as global and terminal.S.follow the policies of Richard Nixon. said at an official briefing.1215555. "If the Americans draw their missiles and position-guided ammunition on to the target zone on China's territory.html) A much greater existential risk emerged with the build-up of nuclear arsenals in the US and the USSR. Code-named "Pearl Harbor II" by the Pentagon. or those of Ronald Reagan. We are making our worst fear a virtual inevitability. in the event of a conflict with Taiwan. its threats even against the United States. the plan was designed to leave America's key allies in the Pacific Japan and Taiwan . Does this sound like the work of friends? We have a clear choice before us in dealing with the next great threat to America's future . a former U. Unfortunately. I think we will have to respond with nuclear weapons. we learned of China's plans for a cyberwar attack on the U. to be launched in conjunction with a conventional assault on U.S. is not an existential risk.virtually defenseless. Note however that a smaller nuclear exchange.Ph. if Americans defended Taiwan against an invasion from the mainland. http://www. 2 .

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1AC – Defense-Industrial Base
We promise we’re not crazy – history proves the probability of a peaceful rise is zero and attempts at integration will fail Kagan, 5 - senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
(Robert, “The Illusion of 'Managing' China,” Published in the Washington Post, May 15th, 2005, The history of rising powers, however, and their attempted "management" by established powers provides little reason for confidence or comfort. Rarely have rising powers risen without sparking a major war that reshaped the international system to reflect new realities of power. The most successful "management" of a rising power in the modern era was Britain's appeasement of the United States in the late 19th century, when the British effectively ceded the entire Western Hemisphere (except Canada) to the expansive Americans. The fact that both powers shared a common liberal, democratic ideology, and thus roughly consonant ideas of international order, greatly lessened the risk of accommodation from the British point of view. Other examples are less encouraging. Germany's rise after 1870, and Europe's reaction to it, eventually produced World War I. Even the masterly Bismarck, after a decade of successful German self-management, had a difficult time steering Europe away from collision. The British tried containment, appeasement and even offers of alliance, but never fully comprehended Kaiser Wilhelm's need to challenge the British supremacy he both admired and envied. Right up until the eve of war, highly regarded observers of the European scene believed commercial ties among the leading powers made war between them unlikely, if not impossible. Japan's rise after 1868 produced two rounds of warfare -- first with China and Russia at the turn of the century, and later with the United States and Britain in World War II. The initial Anglo-American response to Japan's growing power was actually quite accommodating. Meiji Japan had chosen the path of modernization and even Westernization, or so it seemed, and Americans welcomed its ascendancy over backward China and despotic Russia. Then, too, there was the paternalistic hope of assisting Japan's entry into the international system, which was to say the Western system. "The Japs have played our game," Theodore Roosevelt believed, and only occasionally did he wonder whether "the Japanese down at bottom did not lump Russians, English, Americans, Germans, all of us, simply as white devils inferior to themselves . . . and to be treated politely only so long as would enable the Japanese to take advantage of our national jealousies, and beat us in turn." Today we look back at those failures and ruminate on the mistakes made with the usual condescension that the present has for the past. But there is no reason to believe we are any smarter today than the policymakers who "mismanaged" the rise of Germany and Japan. The majority of today's policymakers and thinkers hold much the same general view of global affairs as their forebears: namely, that commercial ties between China and the other powers, especially with Japan and the United States, and also with Taiwan, will act as a buffer against aggressive impulses and ultimately ease China's "integration" into the international system without war. Once again we see an Asian power modernizing and believe this should be a force for peace. And we add to this the conviction, also common throughout history, that if we do nothing to provoke China, then it will be peaceful, without realizing that it may be the existing international system that the Chinese find provocative.

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1AC – Space
Contention : Space

STEM education key to maintaining the space industry – the alternative is loss of space dominance Pollack, 5 (Susan W., Ms. Pollack graduated as a member of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces
class of 2005. Some of her assignments prior to attending ICAF include contracts specialist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and deputy director of the acquisition support cadre at the Missile Defense Agency. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations from Saint Joseph’s University and has completed the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College., THE FUTURE OF OUR NATION’S SPACE INDUSTRY WORKFORCE, bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA449454&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf) “The harsh fact is that the US need for the highest quality human capital in science, mathematics, and engineering is not being met . . . .In a knowledge-based future, only an America that remains at the cutting edge of science and technology will sustain its current world leadership.”82 Introduction: There is a crisis looming in America’s science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce base that has serious implications for the future of America’s space industry, and our nation’s economic and national security. Today, trends indicate other nations are on the verge of passing the US in scientific excellence and technological innovation.83 This comes at a time when the US is more dependent on its military, civil, and commercial-supporting space assets than any other nation. To maintain American preeminence in space, our nation must reinvigorate and inspire a new generation of STEM talent, as well as increase investments in research and development (R&D) and infrastructures. Troubling Trends
of STEM Education and the R&D Connection: The Council on Competitiveness found that innovation is the single most important factor in determining America’s success through the 21st century.84 While the report recommends increased funding in R&D, the US government has reduced funding in national R&D over the past ten years, including cuts in the President’s FY 2006 R&D budget. Studies link a strong

correlation between reduced R&D funding to the decline in the number of graduates in the STEM subjects.85 Over the past decade, our nation has lost more than 600,000 scientific and technical aerospace jobs which have also adversely impacted the number of students earning degrees in STEM. Meanwhile, nearly 30 percent of the aerospace workforce will be eligible to retire in 2008. 86 The current US educational system will not provide enough students with the needed STEM skills to fill the critical positions being vacated by the retiring babyboomers.87 Concurrently, other nations are building up their science and technology (S&T) infrastructures and
capabilities. A disturbing trend is the low performance of American students in the math and science subjects. Math and science achievement scores of US students fall below international averages.88 The results of a recent international survey, conducted by the Program for International Student Assessment in the spring of 2003, indicate the learning gap between the US and its competitors in Europe and Asia is widening in basic math and science skills at the eighth through twelfth grade levels. This is alarming since technology and innovation in the space industry depends on high tech skills in the STEM subjects, yet this is precisely where the best US students are not excelling. Space science education gets taught within the Earth science curriculum in the grades K-9. This narrow focus on space science is dangerously small relative to our nation’s reliance on space. A Department of Defense (DoD) senior official recently stated that the need for US citizens in defense work is critical and that the downturn in America’s science and engineering workforce has become “an issue of national security.”89 Solutions

to Improve the National STEM Workforce: It is imperative our nation take action to ensure the scientific proficiency needed in our future workforce. There are numerous policy improvements and on-going initiatives the government should pursue to increase student interest in math and science in the formative years, and to widen the pipeline of scientists and engineers who drive innovation.
The US government and industry are taking some steps in the right direction to address the issues discussed in the first two points below. However, our nation should act now to implement the recommendations stated in recommendations three through six . First, the Federal

government should develop a clear policy of sustaining long term research to encourage young people to enter careers in science, mathematics or engineering. Developing a top-notch space industry workforce requires a top-down vision by the President that reaches out to the nation and across the government as the inspirational basis necessary to develop and sustain a knowledgeable and skilled workforce. The Administration is
addressing this need and has recently announced a five-year Mathematics and Science Initiative that will engage in a public campaign to highlight the importance of mathematics and science education, and to recruit, train and retain teachers with strong backgrounds in mathematics and science. Second, early outreach programs are vital to developing and sustaining a knowledgeable workforce.

The Council on Competitiveness notes that we lose our future scientists and engineers around the junior high school years.90 Successful outreach initiatives which expose children to the STEM subjects can help to reverse this trend. DoD implements a Starbase program which provides students in K-12 with a week of math and science based
simulations and experiments in space-related fields.91 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration educational outreach program, “Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers”, influences youths 13 to pursue science and engineering educational opportunities. The Boeing

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Company’s Summer Science Camp has successfully led students to pursue careers in science and engineering.92 Third, the Federal government should lift the visa restrictions for foreign students applying to enter the US. Post 9/11 immigration controls have resulted in a 32 percent drop in

Peace through superior firepower.



but do not have the capital to go from concept to delivery. America’s economic progress depends on a continuing supply of STEM talent engaged in and funded across the R&D spectrum. from kindergarten through graduate school. Conclusion: STEM talent is the center of gravity in a knowledge-based economy that has raised the bar on innovation. Mehta. to develop an integrated plan for education. no text omitted] the number of international student applications in 2004.96 As the government tries to reduce its budget deficits. Federallyfunded research has long been a significant factor in US patent productivity and economic strength.98 In summary. there is no central database for collaboration and sharing information at the national level.. there is an urgent need for all the stakeholders involved.97 There is a real disconnect between the Administration’s plans for the new space exploration initiative. President Bush’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology recently released a report which recommends improving our country’s K-12 education to ensure future innovation and improve the nation’s STEM capabilities. more should be accomplished. and educational and science and technology infrastructures are key to our nation’s vitality and future security. Peace through superior firepower. Astead. including the government.99 The nation’s space industry. / 29 . The children we are educating today are the STEM workforce that will successfully lead the US in the 21st century. and the failure to fund basic R&D programs. the nation desperately needs to create an educational system of S&T schools. we must now inspire the nation’s young people to create a new generation of innovators to protect our national interests in space across the military. At a minimum. We must take deliberate steps to nurture our nation’s children in math and science in the formative years and attract and retain enthusiastic educators who will hand off the pride and the passion to the next generation . Sixth. and workforce development. we should be offering and requiring advanced Earth and space science courses at the middle and high school levels while helping students integrate learning into future careers. Congress should resist R&D cuts proposed in the President’s FY 2006 budget. teachers. At present. academia.95 Fourth. These programs motivate STEM talent and lead to the innovation our space industry needs for competitive advantage. Although there is a lot of good coming from existing initiatives. and economic prosperity requires an urgent response from the government to accelerate and resource current initiatives while developing a national human capital strategy and vision to inspire the next generation workforce. knowledge base. and professional societies. civil and commercial sectors. and in an integrated approach. training. It is clear that a long term solution to developing a skilled space industry workforce begins with improved math and science education. sufficient training for teachers is critical since they are the ones who inspire and motivate our nation’s children to dream and learn. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space [Pollack Continues.93 Foreign students graduating from US universities with degrees in science and engineering have been an important asset in our industry workforce and have contributed to basic science and new innovations. Children.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. R&D programs in mathematics and engineering are being reduced. industry. One-third of today’s US workforce of scientists and engineers were born outside the US94 The challenge regarding foreign students is to find a balance between scientific exploration and security. Congress should also assist entrepreneurs who have plans to build space components. Fifth. Just as President Kennedy inspired our nation in the race to the Moon.

Some of her assignments prior to attending ICAF include contracts specialist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and deputy director of the acquisition support cadre at the Missile Defense Agency. 5 (Susan W. Regardless. is based on observations of actual events and interpretation of statements made by Chinese officials. concerns. launch capability. Chinese officials probably consider the development of anti-satellite technology inevitable.101 In updating the 2000 White Paper. The foundation of China’s stable communist government lies in nationalism and steady economic growth -.104 Is China’s stated opposition to space weaponization rhetoric or genuine policy they intend to pursue? The former is probably closer to the truth since it is likely that the Chinese will react in kind to whatever path the US pursues. The Chinese know where they want to go with their space program. and by all indications have the national will and state sponsorship to achieve their vision. On October 15. Astead. weapons. In private. China’s increasing interest in space (backed up by capital investments in its space program) mirrors its growing economy and emergence as a major power – both regionally and globally. Chinese officials added a space lab and an orbiting space station as part of their 3-step plan for manned spaceflight (having achieved step one with the launch of Shenzhou V). As noted in the FY03 Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China. Chinese space expansion will be hostile Pollack. therefore. a research associate in the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard 15 University's John F. the FY04 report noted China making progress in anti-satellite ground-based laser technology. the FY04 report noted a January 2001 Hong Kong newspaper article that said China had developed. it should be expected that regardless of China’s officially stated policy. however. This event fulfilled one of the key milestones set forth in China’s 2000 White Paper for Space Activities – a document which stressed the importance of and the future ambitions and milestone for the Chinese space program. The suspected capabilities the Chinese possess (in the unclassified arena) are probably based on assessments and estimates of how China’s known and potential technologies might be used to field offensive space capabilities to counter US systems. any move by the US to place offensive weapons in space will be met by similar attempts by the Chinese. In addition. Anti-satellite technology is the one area that seems to garner the most attention and debate. In trying to assess the status and makeup of China’s space industry. that adversaries such as China can and will pursue technology capable of denying us the use of our own space systems – especially if we pursue a similar strategy of weaponizing space. thus making China the newest member in a select group of countries with manned space programs (the US and Russia being the other two)..107 There is sufficient reason to believe. Kennedy School of Government. The White Paper is essentially the roadmap for China’s space activities. Overview of China’s Program. Pollack graduated as a member of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces class of 2005. and more accurate. the Chinese taikonaut Lieutenant Colonel Yang Liwei launched aboard the Shenzhou V. and issues faced during the Cold War space race with the Soviet Union. China’s official public stance on space weaponization is that they oppose the militarization of space. The interest the Chinese have shown in such technology makes it feasible they could develop (if they do not already possess) the capacity to disrupt or destroy US space-based system. Much of the unclassified literature deals with expected responses by the Chinese to US policy and developments in space. As noted by Hui Zhang.100 China’s slow but steady progress in achieving success in space reflects drive and determination.106 In follow-up to the FY03 Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Will China Weaponize Space?: One of the most hotly debated topics with regard to US national security is the issue of placing offensive weapons in space. the extent to which the military is involved in other aspects of China’s space program is largely unknown at the unclassified level. 2003. Peace through superior firepower. While it is known that the military is heavily involved in the commercial launch industry (all of China’s launch and tracking centers are run exclusively by the military). In light of China’s skepticism and mistrust for US policies. less bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA449454&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf) With a great deal of awe (and some apprehension). 102 It is important to note that much of China’s space program remains shrouded in secrecy – especially the degree to which the military is involved. groundtested.dtic. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space Specifically. http://www. many in China believe the goal of space control (vis-àvis the US) is to achieve space domination.103 Our understanding (at the unclassified level) of future Chinese ambitions in space. etc. THE FUTURE OF OUR NATION’S SPACE INDUSTRY WORKFORCE. a senior analyst within the Department of Defense admitted that much of what we know and try to draw conclusions from comes from open written media as well as on-line sources . 105 At the unclassified level. one word best describes the assessment of the military threat that China poses to the United States space program – speculative. In light of the preponderance of open-source information about US space systems. Mehta. and would soon space-test parasitic micro-satellite and nano-satellite technology that could be launched and detonated close to US satellites. China’s rise as a space power has raised many of the same questions.a successful space program helps contribute to both as it lends credibility and legitimacy to the government and provides yet another possible area to commercially challenge the United States. Lieutenant Colonel Liwei’s successful spaceflight embodies the vision set forth in the Paper – a vision that reflects the importance China places on the exploitation of space and the space program’s role in protecting national interests. / 30 .. we have all watched China’s rise over the last decade as a major world power. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations from Saint Joseph’s University and has completed the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College. the Chinese probably have enough knowledge to field systems that could jam US communications and navigation (GPS) satellite systems. Estimates in classified literature are almost certain to be more specific. Ms.

June 25. “China’s Military Space Strategy”. In his book The Korean War. The balance of power in the Middle East may be similarly upset by the likes of Iraq. The threat posed by this Chinese effort cannot be neutralised by arms-control agreements. US Strategic Command officials have publicly signalled that conventionally armed Trident submarine-launched ballistic missiles would be appropriate weapons for executing the prompt strikes that might become necessary in such a contingency. the growing Chinese capability for space warfare implies that a future conflict in the Taiwan Strait would entail serious deterrence and crisis instabilities. even if employing only conventional warheads. It would be difficult for all sides to limit the intensification of such a conflict. Already. With the US distracted. this means South Korea. East Asia will be set on fire. likely to persist whether or not the Taiwan conflict is resolved. ingenta) Finally. China’s space expansion will cause escalatory wars over Taiwan Tellis. And the conflagration may not end there as opportunistic powers elsewhere may try to overturn the existing world order. told a gathering at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington that although the government still abided by that principle. each armed with its own nuclear arsenal. A Chinese military officer disclosed recently that Beijing was considering a review of its "non first use" principle regarding nuclear weapons. even though all countries stand to profit from the absence of threats to their assets in space.96 The emergence of potent Chinese counterspace capabilities makes US military operations in Asia more risky than ever. Russia may seek to redefine Europe's political landscape. It is grounded in the objective conditions that define the relationship between the two countries: competing political goals. This strategic challenge has compelled Beijing to exploit every anti-access and battlespace-denial technology potentially available. the very prospect of such a ‘space Pearl Harbor’94 could. there were strong pressures from the military to drop it. The US estimates that China possesses about 20 nuclear warheads that can destroy major American cities. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space Absent U. president of the military-funded Institute for Strategic Studies. even without the added complications of accidents and further misperception. In the region. the US had at the time thought of using nuclear weapons against China to save the US from military defeat. and win. In south Asia. which could have led to the use of nuclear weapons. Pg. especially in the United States. Survival. Mehta. Extinction Strait Times. If China were to retaliate. But if this fundamental goal is threatened by Chinese counterspace activities aimed at American space assets. sensor nodes and command and control installations on the Chinese mainland could well be perceived as a precursor to an all-out war.S. Gen Ridgeway said that US was confronted with two choices in Korea -truce or a broadened war. He said military leaders considered the use of nuclear weapons mandatory if the country risked dismemberment as a result of foreign intervention. it is rooted entirely in China’s requirement that it be able to defeat the United States in a regional conflict despite its conventional inferiority. 2K. / 31 . to view China’s counterspace programmes in moralistic terms. If Washington were to conclude that splitting China would better serve its national interests. nor provoked by mendacity on the part of the United States or the Bush admin. Japan. Singapore. There is a temptation. Beijing also seems prepared to go for the nuclear option. there is little hope of winning a war against China. short of using nuclear weapons. dominance. to protect the ’use of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all humanity’. the United States has no choice but to run an offence–defence arms race. The threat has not arisen due to a lack of a space arms-control regime. 50 years later.95 Such attacks. Major-General Pan Zhangqiang. to a lesser extent. 7 – Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Ashley. Conflict on such a scale would embroil other countries far and near and -horror of horrors -raise the possibility of a nuclear war.istration. Astead. commander of the US Eighth Army which fought against the Chinese in the Korean War. provoke the United States to contemplate pre-emptive attacks or horizontal escalation on the Chinese mainland. then a full-scale war becomes unavoidable. in turn. This approach is undesirable and best avoided: Beijing’s desire to defeat the stronger by asymmetric means is not a reflection of its deviousness. l/n THE high-intensity scenario postulates a cross-strait war escalating into a full-scale war between the US and China. Will a full-scale Sino-US war lead to a nuclear war? According to General Matthew Ridgeway. Rather. Beijing has already told the US and Japan privately that it considers any country providing bases and logistics support to any US forces attacking China as belligerent parties open to its retaliation. Autumn. a personal account of the military and political aspects of the conflict and its implications on future US foreign policy. the Philippines and. the United States should seek.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. as the Bush administration’s own National Space Policy declares. Gen Ridgeway said that Peace through superior firepower. If the US had to resort to nuclear weaponry to defeat China long before the latter acquired a similar capability. In such circumstances. or because of the Bush administration’s disinclination to negotiate an accord that bans the weaponisation of space. Such outcomes would be particularly likely in a conflict in the next decade. could enter a new and dangerous phase. before Washington has the opportunity to invest fully in redundant space capabilities. If such a clash were to compel Beijing to attack US space systems at the beginning of a war. on space launch sites. hostilities between India and Pakistan.

we would see the destruction of civilization. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One should that come to pass. Mehta. / 32 . Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.

Mehta. The action would be a challenge to the status quo. the status quo. and control of foreign territory. The tens (likely hundreds) of billions of dollars needed to develop. But such an outcome is less threatening than any other state doing so. 2005. and law that operate within it) and intolerable to the US. It is an even more difficult dilemma for those who oppose weapons in general. The longer the US dithers on its responsibilities. and deploy a minimal space weapons system with the capacity to engage a few targets around the world could displace a half a dozen or more aircraft carrier battle groups. “US Military Transformation and Weapons in Space. / 33 . even to states working towards its demise. This is a tough sell for supporters of a strong military. Ramifications for the most critical current function of the army.eparl. Space advocates must sell their ideas to fellow pro-weapons groups by making the case that the advantages they provide outweigh the capabilities foregone. This rationality does not dispute the fact that US deployment of weapons in outer space would represent the addition of a potent new military %20Space. hundreds of billions of dollars. but the likelihood of a hemorrhaging arms race in space should the US deploy weapons there—at least for the next few years—is extremely remote. The tremendous effort in time and resources would be worse than wasted. save graciously decide to step aside. but at all weapons. entire aircraft procurement programs (such as the F-22). very expensive. But what if an enemy of democratic liberalism should suddenly acquire the means to place quickly and cheaply multiple weapons into orbit? The advantages gained from controlling the high ground of space would accrue to it as surely as to any liberal state. an attempt by any other state to dominate space would be part of an effort to break the land-sea-air dominance of the United States in preparation for a new international order. Placement of weapons in space by the United States would be perceived correctly as an attempt at continuing American hegemony. my concern is limited to the problem of letting technology take us where it will. A continuation of it is thus minimally acceptable. the more likely a potential opponent could seize low-earth orbit before America could respond.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. occupation. There is another. Immediately we see that the impact on the budget of significant increases in space weapons will be decreases in funding for combat aircraft. at minimum. and ground forces. This is a mighty task. But would another state? If America were to weaponize space today. depending on how aggressively America uses its new power. And so the question should not be directed at particular weapons. the US could do no less than engage in a perhaps ruinous space arms race. Most states. or housing. One of the more cacophonous refrains against weapons procurement of any kind is that the money needed to purchase them is better spent elsewhere. As leader of the current system. and space weapons in particular. It is a simple cliché but a powerful one. finance. there is also a sense that it is at least tolerable to the majority of states. With the downsizing of traditional weapons to Peace through superior firepower. The entry cost to provide the infrastructure necessary is too high. Although there is obvious opposition to the current international balance of power. and readily counter preliminary efforts to displace it. if not all. test. On the other hand. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space American space dominance makes war structurally impossible Dolman. This creates a dilemma for both pro and anti-space weaponization camps. it is concern for the unanticipated arrival of technology X that initially motivates my own preference for a policy advocating immediate deployment of space weapons.” September 14. Such an event would be disconcerting to nations that accept the current international order (including the venerable institutions of trade. navy. Are there not a thousand uses that are more beneficial for the money? But funding for weapons does not come directly from education. and the concomitant loss of military power from the denial of space to our alreadydependent military force could cause the immediate demise of the extant international system. And America would respond … finally. They might oppose US interests with asymmetric balancing. would opt not to counter US deployments in kind. it is unlikely that any other state or group of states would find it rational to counter in kind. http://www. The years of investment it would take to achieve a minimal counter-force capability—essentially from scratch—would provide more than ample time for the US to entrench itself in space. and marines are profound—pacification. This would clearly be threatening. not a perpetuation of it. and America must expect severe condemnation and increased competition in peripheral areas. So long as the US does not employ its power arbitrarily. So long as America is the state most likely to acquire a breakthrough technology in this area. or transportation budgets. It comes from military budgets. perhaps far more compelling reason that space weaponization will in time be less threatening to the international system than without it. 5 – Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the US Air Force’s School of Advanced Air and Space Studies (Everett C. the situation would be bearable initially and grudgingly accepted over time.pdf) Indeed. with the weaponizing state at the top. Astead. Space weapons in particular will be very. one that would assist in extending the current period of American hegemony well into the future. and several heavy armored divisions. the surface battle fleet.

need for precision to allay the low volume of fire. makes the possibility of large scale space war and or military space races less likely. the US must forego some of its ability to intervene directly in other states because its capacity to do so will have been diminished in the budgetary trade-offs required. As such. Seizing the initiative and securing low-Earth orbit now. / 34 . On the issue of space weaponization. The operational deployment of space weapons would increase that capacity by providing for nearly instantaneous force projection worldwide. and efficient. time sensitive targets. space weapons proponents must advocate reduction of these capabilities in favor of a system that will have no direct potential to do so. but is in a poor position to challenge its sovereignty. enforcing international norms of innocent passage and property rights . but perhaps only Americans are so concerned with the possibility that they themselves will be corrupted. the enhanced ability to deny any attempt by another nation to place military assets in space . and tremendous cost of space weapons will guarantee they are used only for high value. But they also offer no advantage in the mission of territorial occupation. America will maintain the capacity to influence decisions and events beyond its borders. there appears no one best option. At a time when many are calling for increased capability to pacify and police foreign lands. the likelihood of a future war in space is remote. Astead. unstoppable. and the worst choice is to do nothing. The US will maintain its position of hegemony as well as its security. Much in the manner that the British maintained control of the high seas. there are those who will benefit and those who will suffer. this self-angst that makes America the best choice to lead the world today and tomorrow. Peace through superior firepower. To be sure. in the process of choosing. the United States finds itself in the unenviable position that it must make decisions for the good of all. in effect expending a small amount of violence as needed to prevent a greater conflagration in the future. Moreover. but perhaps it is perfectible. would do much to stabilize the international system and prevent an arms race in space. No other state has such potential for selfrestraint. the tremendous expense of space weapons inhibits their indiscriminate use. They deter violence by the omnipresent threat of precise. They offer no advantage if the target set considered is not global. measured. the world of sovereign states will recognize that the US does not threaten self-determination internally. fear of a space dominant American military will subside. space weapons are offensive by their very nature. in light of the no-end-in-sight occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan. Without sovereignty at risk. Over time. No matter the choice selected. or to readily engage and destroy terrestrial ASAT capacity. Hence. Should the US use its advantage to police the heavens (assuming the entire cost on its own). And yet. From low-Earth orbit (LEO). and did so in a way that was perceived as tough. At the same time. This force would be precise. The tragedy of American power is that it must make a choice. As leader of the international community. if the US were willing to deploy and use a military space force that maintained effective control of space. the US could prepare outer space for a long-overdue burst of economic expansion. It is not perfect. non-arbitrary. Why would a state expend the effort to compete in space with a superpower that has the extraordinary advantage of holding securely the highest ground at the top of the gravity well? So long as the controlling state demonstrates a capacity and a will to use force to defend its position. The transgressor state is less likely to succumb to the security dilemma if it perceives its national survival is not at risk. the ability of the US to do all three will wane significantly. and allow unhindered peaceful use of space by any and all nations for economic and scientific development. Transformation of the American military assures that the intentions of current and future leaders will have but a minor role to play in international affairs. the argument that the unilateral deployment of space weapons will precipitate a disastrous arms race is misplaced. with military force if necessary. and has severely restricted its own capacity to do so. A state employing offensive deterrence through space-weapons can punish a transgressor state. and the world will not be threatened by the specter of a future American empire. not more. Moreover. it has a great advantage—the moral ambiguity of its people regarding the use of power. It is this introspection. no text omitted] accommodate heightened space expenditures. over time its control of LEO could be viewed as a global asset and a public good. they are far less threatening to the international environment than any combination of weapons employed in their stead. and deadly. Mehta. such an action would serve to discourage competing states from fielding opposing systems. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space [Dolman Continues. Whether or not the United States desires to be a good neighbor is not necessary to an opposing state’s calculation of survival. They fear what they could become. though it challenges any attempts to intervene militarily in the politics of others. The limited requirement for collateral damage.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. There is no question that corrupted power is a dangerous thing. while the US is unchallenged in space. and unstoppable retaliation.

but allows them to adopt their own definitions of “proficiency. 5 – Fellow @ the Center for American Progress. college and career awareness and preparation programs and other similar programs.” November 2005. the standards movement advanced with passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. align curriculum with academic standards.americanprogress. National cries for increased expectations and evidence of higher student achievement are more than 30 years old. are described as strategies to assess student needs. all states have developed both curriculum and student performance standards and hold their districts and schools accountable for meeting yearly student achievement goals that grow tougher each year. Section 1112). NCLB requires that states hold districts and schools accountable for getting all their students to “proficient” achievement levels. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D.pdf) In 2001. not raising expectations. integrating vocational and technical education programs.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. While NCLB’s impact and connection to secondary education is still limited. Evidence of this abounds. But what can be considered a step forward in many respects. 3 Peace through superior firepower. Only national curriculum standards and national definitions and measures of student performance at proficiency levels can prevent this behavior. Mehta. and Elena Rocha. There also are opportunities to enhance secondary schools. With more than 50 different sets of standards. providing professional development for school personnel. But the decentralized system of schooling continues mostly unchanged. School-wide improvement programs.” July 2002) During the reauthorization of ESEA. including the “integration of vocational technical programs” into school-wide improvement programs (Title I. is also an impediment—a false sense of student performance. Section 1111) and local plans (Title I. placing greater emphasis on accountability for student learning and specifying the authorization of federal dollars through fiscal year 2007.” With the pressure to increase student performance. NCLB built upon and made significant changes to the 1994 laws. and Fiscal Equity. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Solvency Contention : Solvency Putting CTE under No Child Left Behind for targeted assistance solves job training Phelps. Another area of coordination is for targeted assistance to schools (Section 1115. http://www. Federal standards are key to stop the race to the bottom created by states – the alternative is a failing education system Brown. where Perkins could be coordinated with state and local plans. there has been counter pressure for states to game the system by lowering both standards and proficiency definitions. as illustrated below. Jason. Today. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education. Such action can lead. Astead. to weakening curriculum and coordination and involvement of Perkins in ESEA to enhance the federal focus on secondary education (Perkins is currently the largest federal investment in secondary schools). perversely. Accountability. Students continue to move through the nation’s schools gaining widely varying levels—mostly low—of knowledge. Targeted Assistance Programs). NASDCTEc and the CTE community worked to increase the ties. skills and preparedness. / 35 . the new law does offer numerous opportunities for coordination with Perkins. there is no national measure/yardstick/standard/benchmark for academic achievement at each of the grade levels. In general. Fellow @ the Center for American Progress (Cindy. the areas that NCLB seeks to coordinate with Perkins are related to state plans (Title I. “The Case for National Standards. Section 1114) and coordinating these plans with provisions under the Perkins Act where applicable. according to NCLB.

Board of Education ruling in 1954 required the industry to focus on providing equity in &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc." Antonia Cortese. 5 (“Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew. and shifting US demographics represent a new strategic environment that increases the importance of education to national security. They provide the human and materiel resources needed to build a strong military force and enable government leaders and institutions to work effectively within the domestic and international environments. and technology build the foundation needed to compete in the Information Age. the education system satisfied America’s national security requirements—it fueled the world’s most powerful economic engine. And I don't think the average American understands the impact of this for our future. 4 (Mark. history. and that has devastating consequences for us. and enabled one of the most diverse populations of any country to thrive. produced a superior military capability. "I don't think this discussion has gotten to the place where people are ready to do it yet." said Robert L. "especially in subjects like math and science and related courses. “A free Nation can rise no higher than the standard of excellence set in its schools and colleges. From then until the turn of the century. the Supreme Court’s Brown vs. they're making rapid progress. In the words of President John F. With an eye toward this new environment. Shifting US demographics will soon create a majority of minorities. educated citizens are the economic backbone of the country. Math. she argues that national standards and curriculum frameworks "could also influence teacher preparation. science.” 12/7. the significance of these and other shortfalls within the US education industry is magnified by three factors. Rapidly advancing technologies yield untold capabilities and reward the extremely talented who develop and exploit them. Gamble Co. the Education Industry Study Seminar conducted an executive-level analysis of the US education industry to assess national security implications and offer policy recommendations." said former Gov.iii Second. Vietnam. / 36 . Astead." he added. Singapore. and political science cultivate democratic values and instill an understanding of America’s role in the world. James B. social studies. personally thinks it makes "a lot of sense" to have national standards. whereas we're making minuscule progress. India. First. lexis) "I've been watching very. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Solvency Specifically. Civics. Despite these successes. Globalization. who also has been speaking out this year on the need for national standards. While the 1.. very closely the educational progress in Asia--China. "and I'm telling you." Low-income education is critical to the success of overall education policies – globalization means the workforce must be fully optimized McGuire. Kennedy. because they're going to have the bulk of the intellectual and creative talent in the world. the executive vice president of the American Federation of Teachers. prompting the government in 1983 to publish A Nation at Risk that warned of a “rising tide of mediocrity” in education that threatened future national security. Wehling. Globalization’s radically expanding economic competition leaves no room for US industries to be less than fully optimized. Colonel in the US Army. and America’s well being will be defined largely by the success of those minorities. overall student performance began to decline. and that would be a good thing.” The US education industry took its present form following World War II. a Democrat. however.dtic. STEM standards are key at the national level – best for job training and global leadership Education Weekly. two negative trends emerged during this period.3 million-member union has not taken an official position on the issue. http://www. Hunt Jr. minority and low-income students were achieving at levels far below that of other socioeconomic groups.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff." Given that global situation. Peace through superior firepower.iv Although both trends have seen some improvement. and several others. "but I think the discussion among governors is at the point where they recognize they are facing very tough competition. Mehta.pdf) The US education industry produces the Nation’s most vital national security resource—sons and daughters educated in a variety of subjects. Collectively. a retired global-marketing officer for the Cincinnati-based Procter &amp. rapidly advancing technologies. a condition that perpetuated poverty and other social ills. the United States needs to define a common set of standards. of North Carolina. While the industry was expanding to serve the needs of veterans and the ensuing “baby boomer” generation.

will also want to see that the industries are held to account. http://www. you will suddenly see taxpayers and stakeholders and all those who contribute to support the government.” Protectionism is indeed widespread and real. because as a condition for support the governments are saying that we need not only to restore financial wellbeing but also to contribute to domestic job growth. “So what we see happening is potential for protectionism." United Press International.” An even bigger blow came two weeks later when U. in his first address to the Congress. President Barack Obama.” he said." Obama said.S. “The threat of protectionism for the Indian IT sector comes almost from everywhere. Nelsestuen. Although the final version was watered down from the original.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. “We will restore a sense of fairness and balance to our tax code by finally ending the tax breaks for corporations that ship our jobs overseas. In early February.” said Rodney A. Mehta. / 37 .-based IT consulting firm Tower Group. which had called for a blanket ban on H-1B Nevertheless. research director at the U. “Nations across the world are looking at supporting their industries and as a part of that. which termed the restriction as “irrational. it was still a big blow to the Indian IT sector.upiasia. limiting the hiring of foreigners with H-1B temporary-work visas. until now protectionist rhetoric remained just that – rhetoric. But what’s drawing worry lines across the Indian IT sector is the fact that protectionism is suddenly dominating the policies of almost every government. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Ext: No Jobs  Protectionism Protectionist policies are increasing due to outsourcing of American jobs UPI 3/10 ("Protectionism threatens India's IT sector. Senate voted to impose strict conditions on companies that receive federal bailout money. Peace through superior firepower. said that there would be no tax breaks in outsourcing. regardless what the government structure is. the U.S.

as the recession deepens and broadens. Welcome to you both.and in some cases. try to close their markets and create jobs at home at the expense of others. Fred Bergsten is Director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Countries Contemplate Protectionist Measures” PBS. JEFFREY BROWN: Fred Bergsten.S. but it could become a major friction point between a lot of countries. Interview Transcript. of course. Countries around the world are going to be tempted to try to export their problems to their neighbors. and Canada that trade is becoming a critical issue. To what extent do you see the trade issue becoming a source of friction as the global economy weakens? FRED BERGSTEN: I think the trade issue will become a major source of friction. Peterson Institute for International Economics: Good to be here.pbs. director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. this is going to be a very. http://www. 2. FRED BERGSTEN. / 38 . but the economic crisis has accelerated trade disputes – now is key to stop protectionist measures Bergsten and Brown. Most of those are minor to date. It just won't work. As the president says today in Ottawa. both among economic relations.html JEFFREY BROWN: It's not only between the U. is that it won't work. but it's clear that. let me start and Thea Lee. Are such moves appropriate? Or do they signal a shift toward protectionism? We talk about all this now with Fred Bergsten. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness Protectionism is a minor concern now. policy director and chief international economist at the AFL-CIO. Peace through superior firepower.19. Jeffrey Brown is an American journalist and a senior correspondent and news anchor for the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS since May 2005. Mehta.governments around the world are acting or threatening to act to prop up their own companies and workers. So any country that tries to export its problems. this is a global crisis. export its unemployment.09. Over 30 countries have put in new trade barriers just since the Group of 20 had its summit meeting here in Washington back in mid-November. “In Bad Economy. create jobs at the expense of others is going to face instant retaliation by others. very profound issue. The problem. in response to worker protests -. All countries are suffering downturns. In hard times -. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and the whole trade system will spiral downward. but between countries more broadly.

Buy American. Without pointing at the United States. He named renewable energy as one sector deserving more government support. the island nation's trade minister.including former Presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton . Lim said it might be difficult to pin down countries that took steps that bordered on protectionism at the World Trade Organization. "[U.401&show_article=1) "Some of these measures of course cause a lot of discomfort to many of us including Singapore. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – AT: Buy America  Protectionism Buy America was watered down.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. Astead. "We're going to try to beat this as far as we can. the latter of which threatened a lawsuit ." Lim told reporters. "We've got this important precedent that's been set. he said. That support would go above and beyond the 30% tax break the stimulus plan offered to manufacturers of things like wind turbines and solar cells." Agence France-Presse http://www. whether they are explicit or hidden in the form of government bureaucracies that favor their own firms.Tonelson sees little downside to more government support. driving the cost of goods up and the quality down. trading partners reacted strongly against the original buy American rule .S. "How much more harm could these provisions do?" Although the buy American clause was watered isn't seen as particularly restrictive. and hampering a global economic recovery. the tiny trade-dependent state understood the concerns of countries hit by the action. in its watered down form.that means perpetuating inefficient industries at home.htm) **Adam Tonelson is a research fellow with the US Business and Industry Council Although some U.especially Canada and Brazil." Tonelson said. / 39 . pointing out that some nations were exploiting "gray areas" in global trade rules.cnn." he said. Tonelson sees it as a springboard for further protections. manufacturers] are already shut out of many procurement contracts. Some businesses and officials complained the amendment is proving virtually meaningless in While Singapore was not directly affected by the restriction. "We are monitoring the situation very closely. confusion." said Lim Hng Kiang. To free traders . but it put us on the brink of more protectionism Hargreaves 3/6 – CNN money staffwriter (Steve. But there's a fear it could grow.dd912210b093ea987c89da799e3901ac. the global trade watchdog. "'Buy American' cuts bothways" http://money. Many of our trading partners. already have their own protectionist measures in place. Peace through superior firepower.breitbart.php?id=CNG." Supporters of the free market It's precisely that line of thinking that's got the free traders so worried. in Washington for meetings with trade officials and US lawmakers. Buy American was watered down in the stimulus AFP 6/6 ("'Buy American' plan leads to ire. he said. and might require direct cash payments from the government. But it was later watered down to show that such procurement could only take place in a manner consistent with Washington's international treaty obligations. The Buy American clause originally said that infrastructure projects designed to kick-start the US economy out of a languishing recession could only use US-made manufactured materials.

2/20 (Chen. security and economic growth – the very direction the White House now seems to prefer. This year China will continue to increase imports and send buying missions abroad for large-scale purchase of equipment. compared to the same period the prior year -. without neo-conservative or Central Intelligence Agency prompting. major trading countries have seen their export growth tumble or have suffered huge contractions. exports have plunged. unprecedented financial crisis and protectionist policies have inflicted a severe impact on China and other countries. which don’t’ want them and cant handle them. Adjunct. Then you can say hello to World War III. Asia style.on its own. / 40 . given to the WSJ. India might make a grab for Tibet.133 trillion worth of goods from countries around the world -an 18. and a 17. Healthy international trade can help revive the world economy. China still firmly believes that trade protectionism isn't a solution to the world's problems. Protectionist policies would make things even worse. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ Protectionist policies cause a significant contraction in the Chinese economy Deming.into nervous breakdowns. some in Japan might lick their lips at the prospect of World War II revisited and look to annex a slice of China. China's economic growth has slowed. Given the size and openness of our country. That’s why wise policy encourages Chinese stability. The financial crisis reflects a chronic illness resulting from global economic structural imbalance and financial risk accumulation.6% in November 2008. Astead. In the heat of the crisis. Germany's exports dropped 10. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.5% increase over the prior year. That would send Singapore and Malaysia. World War Three Tom Plate. That would knock Asia into chaos. In 2008. Yet even so. China imported $1. the U. when compared to the prior year. it's critical that all countries refrain from pointing fingers at each other or pursuing their own interests at the expense of others. A massive flood of refugees would head for Indonesia and other places with poor border controls. Minister of Commerce for PRC. and the consequences would be hard to even predict. the growth in China's domestic markets can be translated into greater market potential and investment opportunities for other countries. East Asia Expert. Thanks to shrinking external demand caused by the economic crisis. the Chinese government has put forward a series of measures aiming at stimulating domestic demand. Prof. Since the crisis broke out. and Pakistan for Kashmir . China also experienced negative export growth in November.once occupied by Japan. and there is no quick fix to this malady. Meanwhile. The fundamental interest of every country is to step up consultation and cooperation and keep international trade smoothly flowing. Communications @ UCLA. amid a contraction in global trade.the highest one-month drop since 1990. much less outright military invasion because the economy (against all predictions) suddenly collapses. and unemployment pressure has mounted.5% decline last month. During the Great Depression. Peace through superior firepower. l/n) But imagine a China disintegrating. These imports are boosting the economic development of China's trading partners. recovered from its economic woes because the Roosevelt administration implemented the New Deal and shunned protectionism. 6/28/’3 (Neo-cons a bigger risk to Bush than China. Strait Times. "Protectionism doesn’t pay) AHerndon Global trade is now in dire straits . products and technology.S.

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and bureaucrats friendly to the farm lobby are responsible for this situation. Protectionism makes life worse for most Japanese. 4 (Lucien. Very soon Japan will have the highest percentage of citizens over 65 of any developed country. http://spice. Because until very recently large Japanese companies would not lay off permanent employees. much further reform must occur before the Japanese economy returns to full health. the United States ignored Japanese policies that discouraged imports. Japan's relatively inflexible economic system still makes it difficult for Japanese companies to respond as quickly to competitive challenges as their foreign counterparts. Japan had few economic competitors in Europe and none in Asia. The most effective way to combat the enormous cost of these demographic changes is through impressive economic growth. because of an almost-twenty-year baby "bust. Although they do not need to "become like us. These reforms must continue to progress because demographic changes in Japan's population also threaten the nation's economic viability. Also. Stanford Program for International Research.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Government protection of highly inefficient industries such as construction and food processing wastes resources and causes Japanese individuals and firms to pay much more for products than would otherwise be the case.08 percent (estimate for 2004) and may soon start declining. who are still unable to pay them back. Japan's state-directed banking system made an enormous number of loans to nonproductive companies. Still. Japanese companies are now significantly changing employment practices in order to again become healthy. they are solid LDP supporters and have been protected from foreign competition as consumers suffer. the world will be better off if Japan again becomes an economic engine of growth. Although the U. Recently the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won impressive gains in national elections. For example. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2] Global protectionism will collapse the Japanese economy Ellington. the LDP often supports useless public works projects thus increasing Japan's already high-government deficit. Japan faces strong international competition. Companies now must make swift business decisions in order to remain competitive.S. Because of Japan's massive global impact. / 41 . the very nature of global economic competition has changed. While there has been moderate deregulation. Mehta. Although the nonperforming loan problem remains substantial. many Japanese industries still have high costs compared to companies in other developed nations. In the face of dramatic new economic challenges the Japanese system continues to change much too slowly." the Japanese should move more in the direction of freer and more unregulated capitalism and away from the still somewhat inflexible state-directed system that was created to solve a different set of economic problems than the ones that exist today. American students can learn much about an important country and about economics from Japan's successes and failures. Already. As of 2004 the large majority of economists and policy makers concur regarding what reforms Japan needs and there are definite signs of progress. the typical Tokyo family spends about one third more of its household income each year on food than that of a New York family in part because of informal and formal trade barriers that still keep much foreign produce out of Japan. During the 1980's Bubble. An increasing number of Japanese and foreign observers believe that the only long-term solution to Japan's structural economic problems will be the rise of a political party strong enough to wrest power from the LDP thus ending the excessive coddling of special interests groups at the expense of the nation's economic health." Japan's population is growing at a mere 0. In an effort to secure political support from the construction AHerndon During the miracle years. it periodically is critical of Japan's barriers to imports. Even though Japan's full-time farmers constitute a miniscule percentage of the nation's workforce. as a result of the communication and computer revolutions. Also. Astead. Peace through superior firepower. government is not as concerned about trade issues as prior to the War on Terror. However. Meanwhile. Japan has entered into agricultural free trade agreements recently with other nations thereby weakening the excessive power of farmers. Because Japan was a Cold War ally. Japan is increasingly open to foreign investment.stanford. The situation is now dramatically different. the total amount of bad debt has been reduced. which has created a credit crunch for potentially strong firms who need capital. even though the amount is very low by the standards of developed countries.

Fifth. This means that if gold quintupled since 2000. which are supposed to do more good than bad. More than half of the listed companies are below price to book of 1. There is too much emotion involved to result in any profound AHerndon We at Orpheus are unequivocal about our view that Japanese economy leads not only America. Despite all this negativity in the mood which is linked with economic depression. This is the power Japan can exercise on a global forum today. The bestselling book was The Complete Manual of Suicide written in 1993. Fourth. It took 15 years for Dow to cross its 1929 high. And there are people still paying mortgage for houses bought at the peak of 1980's. All economic axioms were junked in this time by Japan. Japan is the most energy efficient country in the world. And there can be many reasons it did not get the much deserved attention by macroeconomists around the world. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2] Japanese Economy key to Global economy Pal. Peace through superior firepower. maybe because markets are not sure whether it's over. Third. The Japanese slowdown of contemporary times is the largest slowdown we have ever seen. meaning that the companies are worth less than their strip value. but has historically outperformed gold by nearly 100 per cent. The regulatory body was formed a century ago in 1907. which coincidecidentally happened exactly on the centenarian year of the Federal Reserve in 2007. about 40 per cent. "Japan and the World Economy. Astead. and has technological capabilities which it's selling to neighboring China and world over. Depression happened in an era of falling interest rates. And more Japanese want to emigrate. or it's still ongoing." economy/329181/) http://www. / 42 . because Japanese are not too happy talking about it. while even after 25 years the Nikkei is still far away from historical highs seen in 1980's. humans understand things in retrospect and not in the present. The reticent two halves of have and have-not's were polarised. yen not only strengthened over this period. Second. If the country shares its stockpile of rice. First. But in size and proportions. with average 30. as salaries are still poor and corporates highly conservative. maybe because the slowdown happened in the most prosperous 20 years of the world economy. This is no simple hypothesis and can really change how Ben Bernanke handles the ongoing global credit crisis. Sixth. conventional economics failed in Japan. but the overall world economy. because we have few econohistorians today and fewer readers of international food crisis can really ease and prices can fall by half. And talking about failure is admitting to a mistake. Nikkei fell more than 80 per cent from 1990 till 2003. the Japanese depression of 13 years pales the three-year falls of the Great Depression. The excesses of the 1980s collapsed as prices in real estate fell 1/100 to 1/10. the Japanese market has the largest proportion of listed debt-free companies in the world. Mehta. Business Standard. after a banking crisis caused a run on the banks and bankruptcies.000 people taking their lives every year. 8 (Mukal.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Economists like Bernanke and many others swear by the Great Depression as the most important lesson of macroeconomics. Nobody likes asking or answering uncomfortable questions. which is Above all this. The depression in mood has not eased and a suicide happens every 15 minutes. holding the yen could have bettered that performance.

Consumers and producers spend more to purchase the same goods and services. In 1984. dirtier production methods and thus will use scarce resources less sustainably. they will continue to use older. Whereas the beneficiaries of liberalisation are widely dispersed. cleaner. This process exploded after the reforms of 1991 and millions of Indians have benefited from competition. companies from the US. 8 (Caroline. belched pollutants. the beneficiaries of trade restrictions are concentrated and tend to be very effective in lobbying national governments to protect their business from competition. Which is why they are grown in places such as Costa Rica and the Ivory Coast. resource-saving AHerndon In January. The competitive market process. big business and organised labour unite. is inherently more sustainable than the regulated economy advocated by eco-doom mongers. which translates into fewer resources available to invest in environmental conservation. environment programme at the International Policy Network. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2] Protectionism kills the environment. Until 1984. applying a carbon tax to imports from countries that do not cap their emissions. purchasing cars that are less expensive. As a result bananas are less expensive and resources are used more sustainably. various European trade unions have applauded calls for punitive trade measures against non-EU competitors. tariffs and quotas. to sell their goods in Europe. India and other countries should be forced to purchase emissions permits in the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme. including “green” subsidies." http://www. Astead. Protectionism. India demonstrates the follies of protectionism. Although the US trade representative criticised this proposal. Thus. these claims should not be heeded seriously. more technologically advanced and efficient . harms the vast majority of people as well as the environment – and is best avoided. Similarly. They favour the status quo by rewarding inefficient producers and thus delaying the adoption of cleaner. But in reality. They artificially increase costs. / 43 . Consider bananas. it is far more moral to support liberalisation. Director. The idea behind such protectionism is to create a “level playing field” – where European and American producers are not disadvantaged by their self-imposed restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions. The benefits of trade would be replaced by losses in consumer welfare and environmental degradation. Instead.more pollution and less investment in green conservation Boin. have fewer children and trade less with each other to address climate change. This effect would be exacerbated by reduced investment from multinational companies. Canada. who claim that such protections benefit the earth. Trade barriers of any kind. Based on their scaremongering and frankly embarrassing record of false predictions in recent decades. they are actually Although some claim that trade barriers would help the environment. China.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. European leaders suggested that. These could be grown in the cold climates of Finland.newvision. Mehta. "Protectionism hurts consumers and enviorment. legislation being considered in the US Senate – the LiebermanWarner bill – would have a similar effect. harm both consumers and producers. But instead of levelling the playing field. claiming that we all must consume less. especially when supported by moralists. Moreover. less trade means less wealth. India began to open its market to foreign car producers. and was unaffordable to all but the elite. Environmental ideologues continue to make dour prognostications about our planet’s future. underpinned by free trade between and within nations. The Lieberman-Warner bill is endorsed not only by major Green groups but also by electricity providers and their associated trade unions. so have less to invest in new technologies or to save for the future. this game would artificially make all players one-legged and one-armed. which produced just one car – the Ambassador – which was technologically inferior. such as environmentalists. Peace through superior firepower. Greens. leading to unnecessary waste of scarce natural and human resources. a London-based think tank. Such demands may suit the protectionist agenda but they have little merit in terms of their practical ability to enable humanity to use scarce natural and human resources in an ever-more sustainable manner. and Russia. India had one car manufacturer. But to do so would be far more costly than growing them in warm places. naked or cloaked in green. and then exporting them to consumers around the world.

cheetahs. / 44 . Some economists argue that as per capita income increases. It attempts to develop practical approaches to preventing extinction of species and destruction of ecosystems. There have been several natural mass extinctions in the history of earth followed by recovery. Global climate change may be so rapid that many species cannot adjust . If this pace continues nearly half all species could be extinct by 2050.Accidental or purposeful introduction of new species can cause extinction of endemic species. Recovery from these extinctions took millions of years. as can mass extinctions: they differ in scale. Fish stocks are being depleted by overfishing. an Asian fish that can tolerate polluted waters. Extinctions occur when environments change too fast. Mehta. Conservation biology is a discipline that brings together many fields to attempt to solve biodiversity problems. By as early as 2010 (less than 15 years!) all rain forests will be gone if present trends of exploitation and human population growth continue. Species are not equally likely to suffer extinction. very little undisturbed rain forest will exist outside of national parks. and having economic value: all make the human species susceptible to extinction. Tropical reefs are also under siege by water pollution. Most conservation biologists believe biological diversity is good and each species has a value all its own. Peace through superior firepower.D.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Nearly half the rain forests are gone already. low reproductive rates. species with limited habitats. Professor Estrella Mountain Community College. scope and the numbers of species involved.000 years ago with development of social and language skills to apply increasingly better stone tool technology to trap and kill the larger animals. Acid deposition is implicated in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations. has beome a major pest throughout the south. Astead. Human activities that reduce biodiversity began about 30. The habitat for a species may be totally destroyed through natural events or human activities. Biological magnification of pesticides has reduced predatory bird populations. Cockroaches hav e been around for 300 million years essentially unchanged and probably will be around for millions more. "The Biosphere and Mass exticiton. 7 (M. then decreases as people become affluent enough to begin to protect the environment. environmental degradation first increases. Development in tropical areas causes more extinctions due to the great diversity found in tropical rain forests (half all species on Earth). etc. and cacti for gardeners. Development in Tropical Regions Human-caused environmental changes and extinctions are accelerating in the tropics. high territory requirements.J. for furs. predators. as well as disrupting the local environment.000 to 30. Island species. Hunting contributes to the estimated extinction of 15. Habitats may be fragmented into small pieces that cannot support the population. A spectacular exception was the large meteorite strike sixty-six million years ago near the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico that either caused the extinction of dinosaurs and 75% of all marine species. By 2010. There have been five environmental changes (mostly cooling) of global proportions that resulted in the five mass extinctions in Earth history.000 species a year. leading to even more extinctions. is now more prevalent than our native fish. Enviormental Lexis) AHerndon Author. a plant native to Asia. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2] Environmental collapse causes extinction Farabee. or was the nail in the coffin of the dinosaurs. elephants for tusks for ivory. leopards. Water hyacinth escaped from captivity and has become a hazard to navigation. Commercial trade causes exploitation of tigers. Ph.. A major cause of extinction is the loss of habitat to support a species. rhinoceros for rhino horn powder. Kudzu. Local extinctions can occur. susceptibility to pollution. Sustainability is concept that it is possible to meet economic needs while protecting environment. Introduction of brown tree snake to Guam has resulted in extinction of nine of eleven native bird species. The carp. sharks for fins. jaguars.

a joint approach would mean less freedom of unilateral action. Though much of the trading partners' ire is aimed at Congress. Peace through superior firepower.S. Buy American supporters want to make sure that the billions of U. Issue 74. Mehta. EU and Canadian officials worry the practice is widening. That would make it more difficult for the United States to engage the Central Asian states in a larger regional effort to combat Islamic fundamentalism in Afghanistan and Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. but the benefits of cooperation outweigh the costs of any compromise.09. for the European Union. costing American jobs as other countries retaliate. But acting together-with the threat of U. unemployment rate is at its highest level in 25 years. Winter 03/04.8.S. As a candidate seeking support from working-class voters. Astead. 7. Some municipalities in Canada have begun organizing boycotts of U. military power reinforced by the EU's political. “Hegemonic Quicksand”.msn. "My concern is increasing because we are seeing protectionist measures being introduced under the guise of other measures. American preoccupation with the mess in Iraq.S. The Obama administration is looking for ways to reassure trading partners as it prepares to detail its trade policy in coming weeks.S. the current geopolitical earthquake in the Persian Gulf could jeopardize America's efforts to consolidate the independence of the Caspian Basin states.S.manufactured products.S. taxpayer dollars being spent to revive the economy create jobs at home.S. These risks could be lessened by closer U. trade agreements.-EU strategic collaboration with regard to Iraq and Iran. It is the largest and oldest news organization in the world. A resurgence of Muslim extremism of the Taliban variety could then even acquire a regional scope. given divergent American and European perspectives. John Bruton. We saw heated election rhetoric. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2] Protectionism crushes US-EU relations AP. products. which requires the use of U.The United States' largest trading partners are warning that protectionist moves by Congress could poison global trade relations. as Congress is considering adding similar measures to other spending bills. there also is uncertainty about Obama's commitment to free trade. and I suppose that that is now reflected in Congress. For the United States. Former National Security Advisor.S. 03 (Zbigniew." Bruton told The Associated Press. financial and (to some degree) military support-the Euro-Atlantic community could foster a genuinely stable and possibly even democratic post-Saddam regime. “US trading partners complain about protectionism” Associated Press / Accessed through MSN Money. Many U. radio. Proquest) While Russia has not stood in the way of any decisive U. The National Interest. exporters fear the provisions will backfire.S." US-EU relations are key to preventing Russian aggression in Central Asia Brzezinski. markets open. "I think it is something that arose from the presidential and congressional election. and EU and Canadian officials say they are reviewing their options. said he would like to see the White House take a harder line with Congress on the issue. / 45 . The EU Commission's ambassador to Washington. passed in February. political and military presence in Central Asia. The U.S. Obama had criticized some The Associated Press is the backbone of the world's information system serving thousands of daily newspaper.aspx? feed=AP&date=20090608&id=9987235) WASHINGTON (AP) .S. not to mention the cleavage between America and Europe as well as the increased American-Iranian tensions. military efforts to alter the strategic realities of the region. television and online customers with coverage in all media and news in all formats. it would mean less opportunity for self-serving inaction. That may not be easy to achieve. has already tempted Moscow to resume its earlier pressure on Georgia and Azerbaijan to abandon their aspirations for inclusion in the Euro-Atlantic community and to step up its efforts to undermine any enduring U. markets because of the "Buy American" provision in the massive stimulus bill. despite President Barack Obama's assurances that he wants to keep U.moneycentral. Businesses in the European Union and Canada complain they have been shut out of U. http://news.S.

is the fact that since the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 one after another former member as well as former states of the USSR have been coaxed and in many cases bribed with false promises by Washington into joining the counter organization. The question is whether George W. and a prolific author http://current. as it did in Iraq . “Russia Georgia War . Lithuania . Mikhail Saakashvili in order to force the next US President to back the NATO military agenda of the Bush Doctrine.htm The dramatic military attack by the military of the Republic of Georgia on South Ossetia in the last days has brought the world one major step closer to the ultimate horror of the Cold War era—a thermonuclear war between Russia and the United States—by miscalculation. Estonia . and Slovakia followed suit in March 2004. William Engdahl is a leading analyst of the New World Order. Georgien. In 1999. Mehta. Washington.8. Rather than initiate discussions after the 1991 dissolution of the Warsaw Pact about a systematic dissolution of NATO. The underlying issue. Bulgaria . that they vote in December to admit Georgia and Ukraine . Astead. F. William Engdahl. but this time with possible nuclear consequences.Washington risks nuclear war by miscalculation” Current. as I stressed in my July 11 piece in this space.08. This time Washington may have badly misjudged the possibilities. making Moscow appear the lone aggressor. linked by a network of military bases from Kosovo to Poland to Turkey to Iraq and Afghanistan . NATO. Poland and the Czech Republic joined NATO. / 46 . especially Germany and France . Peace through superior firepower. Moskau: Atomarer geopolitischer Machtpoker .com/items/89192617_russia-georgia-war-washington-risks-nuclear-war-by-miscalculation. former Warsaw Pact members Hungary . 8. What is playing out in the Caucasus is being reported in US media in an alarmingly misleading light. Washington has systematically converted NATO into what can only be called the military vehicle of an American global imperial rule. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2] The impact is Russia-US thermonuclear war F. Bush and Dick Cheney are encouraging the unstable Georgian President. Romania .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Now Washington is putting immense pressure on the EU members of NATO. Latvia .

S. manufacturing. and it reinforces the habits of liberty. countries that increased their barriers to trade managed only a 1. FTAs contain provisions that safeguard investors from discrimination and uncompensated expropriation of property. FTAs serve to promote U.S. This move is about far more than just trade. In short. of which free trade is a major component. and Anthony B.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and increase economic opportunity and prosperity. beliefs that fighting terrorism means promoting policies that create “opportunities for people to improve their lives and the lives of their families. Countries that opened their trade policies between 1995 and 2004 saw their per-capita GDP grow at an average compound rate of 2.” Last week. It allows people to lift their lives out of poverty. Daniella Markheim is Jay Van Andel Senior Analyst in Trade Policy. more open societies. bolstered by free trade. interests. protect labor rights. Protectionism would endanger U.heritage.” The opportunity to promote economic freedom in the UAE through free markets and free trade should not be sacrificed in the current debate on the port deal. “Free Trade with the UAE Supports America's National Security Interests” The Heritage Foundation. FTAs open markets. A strong is a pillar of national defense . combat corruptive practices. countries with freer trade policies experience higher per-capita GDP growth than countries that maintain trade barriers. the Administration authorized the negotiation of a free trade agreement with the UAE in 2004 as part of President Bush’s plan to create a Middle East Free Trade Area (MEFTA) by 2013. insure nondiscriminatory government procurement. agriculture.S. Astead. http://www. leads to faster economic growth and improved standards of living. As pointed out in the U.5 percent. spurs economic and legal reforms. These results support the 9/11 Commission’s recommendation that “a comprehensive U.S. not weaken them. This move enjoyed broad bipartisan support at the time of the Administration’s initial consultations with Congress.cfm Protectionism of this sort is no way to boost national security. protect investors. the USTR announced that it intends to resume free trade talks with the UAE in March.S. it would do the opposite. Peace through superior firepower. and the fight against corruption. U. protect and enforce intellectual property rights. in the Center for International Trade and Economics at The Heritage Foundation. Countries whose trade policies were unchanged experienced an average compound growth rate of 2. Economic freedom. A successful strategy for improving national security must include free trade and investment. services. Last month. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List Protectionism (causes terrorism) / (decks national security) / (kills global liberty) Markheim and Kim. and opportunities for people to improve the lives of their families and to enhance prospects for their children’s future. / 47 . and services exports. The USTR negotiates agreements that include transparent dispute resolution and arbitration mechanisms to guarantee that the agreements are upheld. Mehta.S. According to The Heritage Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom.S. and make it more difficult to use trade as a tool to spread American values and bolster U.8 percent average compound growth rate.4. Free Trade and Free Markets. along with the rights of U.S. interests. and strengthen environmental protection.1 percent in per capita GDP. Kim is Research Data Specialist. increase regulatory transparency and eliminate excessive red tape. Each element of an FTA strengthens the transparent and efficient flow of goods. firms and consumers. America’s free trade agreements (FTAs) go beyond winning lower tariffs on U. prosperity—the cornerstone of security—strain relationships with important allies in the war on terrorism. and investments between member countries.S. The Bush Administration’s 2002 National Security Strategy correctly identifies “free trade and free markets” as the keys to a secure America and necessary components of our national security strategy. Trade Representative (USTR) Rob Portman re-emphasized this point by warning that “canceling this port deal would be contrary” to U. 3. In fact. Finally. National Security Strategy: “Economic growth supported by free trade and free markets creates new jobs and higher incomes. strategy to counter terrorism should include economic policies that encourage development.” Consistent with the 9/11 Commission’s recommendations.

a self-destructive virus that strangled trade and was only wiped out by a world war. or its intent. http://www. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism devastates the global economy –making material recovery impossible Joseph Rosta. and the "buy-America" provisions in the stimulus bill were altered to the same effect. Its latest survey covered the September 2008 to March 2009 period. introduced reference prices for "around 1. The world has experienced the misfortune of protectionism before. and various buying and hiring restrictions.. But protectionist acts will only further stifle world trade. The nature of the debate changes. June 09. enacted in 1922 to protect the American farmer.americanbanker. High tariffs didn't create the Great Depression. is protectionist in nature. But when survival of key domestic industries is in doubt "it's natural to say we can't have all those cars coming into the U." Protectionism could "push a particular player to default. often with multiple effects." the WTO says. but it will harm their economies.. Bush increased 300 tariffs in the final days of his administration. and anti-dumping actions on the" Levy observes. An escalating imposition of retaliatory measures ensued amid already weakened economies. Smoot-Hawley was a craven concession to the perceived public will. be either a useless or a hurtful regulation. and is considered one of the basic non-tariff trade barriers. some appear to be skirting its spirit. But overproduction eroded prices." he warns.000 imported products considered sensitive. So newly elected President Herbert Hoover raised tariffs even more. Now the barricades are going up. Rosta is the Editor-in-Chief of Industrial Equipment News. Argentina. most WTO members appeared to have successfully kept these pressures under control. thus lengthening and deepening the recession. French President Nicolas Sarkozy threatened to repatriate auto manufacturing from Eastern Europe. chairman and director of the Levy Forecasting Center. downward spiral. and that's better than starting without that underlying belief." But it is clear that. other restrictions. In Book IV. for example. Mehta. But the public grows impatient as the pain of recession intensifies.must. Although most stimulus bills "clearly favor the restoration of trade growth globally. The allure of protectionism is growing. the WTO says. “Protectionism Is not Self-Defense” US Banker. making the downward spiral uncontrollable and unstoppable. the measures could limit imports. Fordney-McCumber greatly limited European agricultural imports." country by country.S." leading to a panicked. Indeed. / 48 . Some of the actions are no doubt acceptable under WTO rules — and the organization says its listing "implies no judgment by the WTO Secretariat on whether or not such measure. Congress successfully inserted "buy-America" provisions into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act." according to most recent report from the director-general to the organization's Trade Policy Review Body. "this will worsen the contraction of world trade and undermine confidence in an early and sustained recovery in global economic activity. and Sarkozy has not withdrawn his repatriation remarks.html?id=200905221SXXYW2W Former President George W. the "800-pound gorilla because the importer has more clout in this situation. In no time other industries sought and were granted similar "protection. Chapter 2 of "The Wealth of Nations". Adam Smith makes clear his distaste for what the modern world calls protectionism: "To give the monopoly of the home-market to the produce of domestic industry. a pure play for votes. The 300 tariff hikes signed by President Bush complied with WTO rules. depending on their situation — too ignore the temptation. and American farmers continued to suffer.S. This protectionist stance may win them votes. "At the start of this year." While G-20 nations and most other free-trading countries strive to meet the letter of international trade law." the WTO report states. Peace through superior firepower. But Brown still stands behind his "British jobs for British workers" cry. "It's difficult for politicians who want to stay in office — or alive. and pointed to more than 200 measures. The global economy is in a delicate state: "Rattle it and it can break." Desperate times often bring damaging measures.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff." several include trade-limiting government aid and subsidies." says David Levy." which was solidified by Smoot-Hawley in 1930." Levy calls the U. "Clearly there's enough understanding that extreme trade wars can be destructive. but they made it greater. the World Trade Organization regularly tracks "trade and trade-related measures. with higher tariffs. The G-20's defense of free trade is laudable. and UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown promised "British jobs for British workers. The law passed despite the failure of the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. And as anti-trade measures pile up. Statesponsored reference pricing allows domestic companies to sell their goods at just below market prices. in many cases. Astead. in almost all cases.

And competitive markets have spurred the innovation revolution that has made the US the economic powerhouse that it is. contains a provision. the truth is US government's intervention in 1930s in fact prolonged depression . and selling them our commodities on which we have comparative advantage over country A.html) AHerndon Not only the Bangladeshis. 2/12 (Mainul. and thus may be entitled to exceptions to the restrictions. "Protectionism protects nobody." He also added that the solution for the displaced worker is job retraining and adjustment assistance. foreign steel in federal projects would only be allowed if domestic products were either unavailable or drove up the cost of the projects by 25 per cent or more. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism collapses the economy – history flows aff Ahsan. it destroys it. and kept interest rate near zero. But the total benefits do exceed the costs. all countries agreed on "the critical importance of rejecting protectionism and not turning inward in times of financial uncertainty. But what are the US politicians doing? The House of Representatives' version of the economic stimulus bill. Financial Times Express. Astead. requires that all "manufactured goods" bought by taxpayers for the stimulus be produced domestically. Though more than 50 nations are covered by treaties with the United States. As a step towards retaliation. "No one person's benefit can compare with the loss felt by the displaced worker. The EU has already declared that it will not stand by idly if the US violates its trade agreements and its obligations to the World Trade Organization (WTO). if all the countries worked together and coordinated with each other. Now. and poor people in this world will experience most of the pain. in one his article on the Wall Street Journal says. United State's trading partners also retaliated." Surely most of the parties forgot their promise just like before . Protectionism will simply destroy jobs.2 per cent in 2008. He also said. Unfortunately.1 per cent this year after growing by 6. while accusing China of dumping them below cost. the US is planning retaliatory tariffs on Italian water and French cheese to punish the EU for restricting imports of U. and to improve the safety net available to displaced workers during the transition period. we will see that three of the Uncle Sam's attempt led the World to the Great Depression: (1) Tighter monetary policy during the depression which allowed to fall money supply at least one third. The Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke is also a student and researcher of the great depression." http://www. Protectionism in the name of "Buy American" will surely destabilize trade and capital flows. Peace through superior firepower. have issued protests about the proposed legislation.thefinancialexpress-bd. it's time to say that history really repeats itself. However. the WTO is as powerless as the United Nations (UN). for instance by resuming subsidies to dairy farmers' exports and effectively barring Chinese screws and bolts from their market. British Prime Minister and Labour Party head Gordon Brown said that protectionism will lead to "longer and deeper" recession . the US Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. India is proposing to increase tariffs on foreign steel at the request of its steel industry. least of all the poor. Since the US is the biggest exporter in the world. which essentially shut off imports into the US Consequently.S. chicken and beef. and the European Union (EU). Princeton Universities Economics Professor. Thus. he already flooded the market with liquidity. International trade analysts say the current rash of trade constraints could make it harder for global economic growth to recover from the current downturn. Switzerland. In October 2008. as the world-wide recession leading to depression deepens. global trade is expected to shrink by more than 2. Economic Proffessor Texas Tech U. retaliation could cost America more jobs than the proposed provision would create. many of those countries. but also the Americans do not learn from the history! If we go back to 1930s. (2) In 1930 when the world economy was sinking as it is today. and world trade plummeted. "Protectionism does not create jobs. all the nations would have been better off. protectionist sentiments get a boost to "save" jobs. yes. Burton Malkiel. So. / 49 . We know that world trade allows both parties to be better-off by importing inexpensive commodities from country A. when the US met at an emergency meeting in Washington with the world's 20 largest economies. and (3) President Herbert Hoover made the situation even worse by signing a "Buy America Act" requiring all federal government projects to use only American manufactured materials. Thus. and it also risks turning a global recession into a 1930s-style great depression." He is Mehta. But. "Buy American". not create them.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Policymakers neglected the fact that "Buy American" provision invites retaliation by other nations too. for instance. The EU nations have reversed direction and tightened their own trade rules. at the World Economic Summit in Davos. "Buy American" bill contains stronger anti-free-trade provisions. 2009. On January 30th. But. according to the WTO.

If you restrict economic freedom by increasing taxes or laying on more bureaucratic red tape. Today. There is plenty of disguised protectionism going around today in the form of misleading claims about America’s manufacturing output. though employment in manufacturing is dropping due to improvements in productivity.fundmasteryblog. there is a bill that would give U. Colombia’s goods can now come here largely without restriction. Perhaps worse. In fact. The Colombia free trade pact is a perfect example. There is certainly room for disagreement on how to achieve growth. Taken together. Author of three books on mutual fund investing. / 50 . labor unions.6 percent AHerndon Free trade has been one of the chief engines of global prosperity. you inevitably reduce prosperity. yet it should also be clear that people gain prosperity faster in areas with more economic freedom. But. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism restrict economic growth and causes economic decline Brouwer. exporters improved access to Colombian markets. Astead. Peace through superior firepower. yet Congress is holding it up due to opposition primarily from U. taking the top marginal rate to 63 percent from 25 percent. all by itself. The proposals start with lifting the cap on Social Security payroll taxes — an effective increase in the top marginal tax rate of 6. Mehta. No matter what happens with this presidential election. Our economy is resilient. Big mistake. that ultimately sucked cash from a capital-starved economy. Add in the promised repeal of the Bush tax cuts and you have an additional 4. 8 (Kurt. Democrats are planning tax increases that make Bill Clinton’s hike look mild.4 percent. it should be clear that we want to encourage — rather than squelch — economic growth.S. There are also proposed increases for dividends and capital gains. Co-founder large financial advisory firm that was founded in 1987. Hoover more than doubled income tax rates. more prosperity ensues. Roosevelt’s Treasury crafted taxes to punish business. That seems unambiguously good for us.2 percent. It would be a huge mistake to adopt protectionism as the Smoot-Hawley legislation did prior to the Great Depression. prosperous economy.S.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. economy sluggish and more like that of Europe… (…) If you improve and enhance economic freedom. these will make the U. including an undistributed profits tax and an excess profits tax. There is also plenty of obstructionism about trade agreements as well. The Washington Post continues with a second point on how we could squelch the recovery: Increasing taxes in a downturn. Effective top rates approach 50 percent. http://www. but let’s not lose sight of the goal — a strong. or for some 12. manufacturing output has never been higher. FDR hiked the top rate to 90 percent.

which made a bad situation much. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars Protectionism sparks global trade wars. But most are taking more creative steps that fall into the gray area of what is considered legal under international trade law. Mehta. "Trade Barriers threaten Global Economy. whether for trade. according to a World Bank report unveiled yesterday." said Sean Spicer. with countries from Russia to the United States to China enacting measures aimed at limiting the flow of imported goods. That has led to a new measure of caution when putting up trade barriers. a host of nations has imposed a total of 47 measures that restrict trade at the expense of other countries. "I think the one thing that people forget is that at the end of the day.html) AHerndon At least 17 of the 20 major nations that vowed at a November summit to avoid protectionist steps that could spark a global trade war have violated that promise. much worse. global treaties have made it more difficult to enact draconian barriers. It comes one day after Mexico vowed to slap new restrictions on 90 U. The report underscores a "worrying" trend toward protectionism as countries rush to shield their ailing domestic industries during the global economic crisis. "Leaders must not heed the siren-song of protectionist fixes. illustrating the tit-for-tat responses that experts fear could grow in coming months. has raised tariffs on more than 600 items. That could prevent the natural readjustment of the industry. which the World Bank said is facing its steepest decline in 80 years as global demand dries up. products.represent only about a third of all measures taken. The most obvious trade restrictions -. / 51 . China. the report concludes." The Bank said that. Trade Representative during the Bush administration.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.raising tariffs. Protectionist measures may also sharply worsen the collapse of global trade. allowing automakers to continue to produce more cars than consumers need. stimulus packages or bailouts. That action is being taken in retaliation against Washington for canceling a program that allowed Mexican truck drivers the right to transport goods across the United States. Ecuador. Britain. http://www. a official at the Office of the U. The report comes ahead of an April 2 summit in London in which the heads of state from those 20 industrialized and developing economies will seek to shape a coordinated response to the economic crisis. Germany. however. our failure to comply with NAFTA is going to result in the loss of more jobs here in America. Some measures. he added "economic isolationism can lead to a negative spiral of events such as those we saw in the 1930s. and they tend to build upon each other and provoke more responses. Some countries are taking a direct approach.S." said World Bank Group President Robert B. critics contend. make it tougher for nations to take the more sweeping measures that triggered the trade wars of the 1930s. Their inability to keep their November promises is another indication of how difficult it will be to implement any agreement reached next month on a global scale. France.S. Noting that protectionism is widely viewed as having deepened and prolonged the Great Depression. Argentina and Brazil. Zoellick. may distort global production for products like cars and trucks . now total some $48 billion globally. The era of globalization has made countries more interdependent than ever before.furthers economic disaster TWP. "There are consequences for this kind of with aid pouring out from governments including the United States. since last November. The report noted that current trade laws. Canada. is that actions like these could touch off countermeasures that could lead to broader trade wars. for instance. the World Bank said. 3/18 (The Washington Post. with supply chains for a single car made in China or a plane made in the United States now often relying on components manufactured in many other nations. Additionally. National bailouts and subsidies proposed worldwide for the auto industry. The fear. or taxes on imports -.washingtonpost. which many experts say is greatly overcapacity. Is that really the kind of path we want to go down?" Peace through superior firepower. Astead.

/ 52 . Peace through superior firepower. there are no university fees and students can stay in the upper secondary stage (loosely equivalent to sixth forms) for up to four years. Re-posted on his blog. "In Finland. citing its "culture of innovation".Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Finland has a higher unemployment rate . "Education can pioneer new areas for jobs. In a relatively short of space of time. a minister in a centre-left coalition government. And in particular. in research and in higher education. says that this economic imperative is best served by having a broad-based. associated more with mobile phone company Nokia than with timber-felling.egloos. Astead. whether it's from shop staff or people talking to overseas How can a small. 8 (Michael. she says the country's educational success can be attributed to the "unified" school system. BBC News Reporter. And the fast-forward button has been education. We always need new skills for the labour force . "We don't divide at an early stage between students who do well and those that don't manage so well in schools. as a matter of economic survival.currently about 8% . Re-skilling workers Compared to the UK. http://ziny96." Language learning is also a key to this effort to compete . which identified Finland as the world's most competitive economy. School meals are free to all it means that we have to keep investing. we believe we have to invest in education. Mehta. open-access education system. affluent country such as Finland maintain a high-wage. speaking at Finland's education ministry in Helskini. so that they can manage in the changing labour market.and an aim of the education policy is to improve adult education. such as ICT [information and communication technology]. which sees children staying at the same school between the ages of seven and 16. rather than having primary and secondary schools. so it must. Finland has transformed itself from an agricultural country to a high-tech economy.Education is the new age way of sustainable economic growth Egloo. "And we have a special programme for these people to give them chances to come back to vocational training. high-skill economy? It can't compete with the low-cost economies of Asia." This policy received an endorsement last month from an annual report from the World Economic Forum. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ Finland proves. "We have lots of people who do not have any education beyond basic education and they have been in the labour force for a long time. (…) The emphasis on investing in education has created a system where as much as possible is delivered to students without charge.and the success is apparent in the hugely impressive standards of English to be heard throughout Helsinki. Ms Haatainen. invest heavily in education and training." she says.

Economic decline causes nuclear war The Baltimore Examiner. that’s Paulus. In the 19th century France and Great Britain became wealthy through colonialism and the control of foreign resources. After the Great Depression ruined the economies of Europe in the 1930s. http://www. Hopefully the economy gets better before it gets worse and the terrifying possibility of World War III is averted. However sometimes history repeats itself. This forced other up-and-coming nations (such as Germany) to be more competitive in world trade which led to rivalries and ultimately. With most of North America and Western Europe currently experiencing a recession. fascist movements arose to seek economic and social control.” 2/26. / 53 . or South American cause another world war? Add in nuclear weapons and Islamic fundamentalism and things look even worse. to war. One of the causes of World War I was the economic rivalry that existed between the nations of Europe. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – 2AC War Add-on STEM education key to the economy – builds a robust workforce that increases GDP and offsets Could the current economic crisis affecting this country and the world lead to another world war? The answer may be found by looking back in history.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta.examiner. 9 (“Will this recession lead to World War II. From there fanatics like Hitler and Mussolini took over Germany and Italy and led them both into World War II. Astead. Asia. will competition for resources and economic rivalries with the Middle East. Peace through superior firepower.

**note: AYP = Adequate Yearly Progress. school-to-work. Circle.pdf) Another issue expressed by Diane Rentner.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. are in urban districts” (p. school districts. High Schools That Work. career academies.” July 2002) All students.lib. http://www. 2005). the testing requirements on schools created by No Child Left Behind Peace through superior firepower. “Urban districts are increasingly experiencing the greatest effects…about 90% of the schools in restructuring. Jason. 2002. and school-to-career programs. the last stage of NCLB’s sanctions.” http://scholar. NCLB decreases enrollment in CTE courses Daggett. but it will face substantial new challenges as a result of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. In a review of the literature. 2006. and schools come to grips with the new NCLB requirement of 100 percent of students – in each of nine subgroups – achieving proficiency in their academic 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. 2005. CTE will be increasingly squeezed off the plate in terms of student enrollment in courses unless CTE champions and leaders can clearly show that these programs • are contributing to the academic success of students as measured by the state academic tests • serve as a motivation for students to stay in school and help students perform better in their academic courses..vt. 2005. It also reinforces the unfortunate belief that students must choose to take either career technical or academic education—students can take both and succeed in both during their high school careers. many students need more than additional academic coursework to improve their academic achievement. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. Weland. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE NCLB trades off with CTE – curriculum trade-off Fletcher. some states already have increased the academic requirements for graduation. If CTE leaders are to meet these challenges. is that school districts with fewer funds are more likely to spend more time preparing students in math and reading. 2003. As states. Mehta. they must build upon the lessons learned and successes they have experienced with such initiatives as Tech Prep. The goal that all students will be able to perform at proficient levels by 2014 means that states and locals will be intensely focusing on academic achievement. Herman & Dietel. CTE programs will. In addition. While NASDCTEc supports all students receiving sufficient academic coursework to make successful post-high school transitions. thereby reducing the time available for students to take career technical education courses. Due to the increased emphasis on core academic programs. Neill. which in turn may cause those students to have a less rich curriculum (Mantel. Some have forecasted that this focus on academics will result in a reduction of secondary CTE programs. “The Future of Career and Technical Education. project coordinator at the Center on Education Policy. 2 – President of the International Center for Leadership in Education (Willard R. will be impacted by AYP. anecdotal evidence indicates that curricula may be getting “left behind” in relation to other areas. / 54 . Austin & Mahlman. This likely influences CTE curricula. among others. including CTE students. once again. AYP causes a trade-off Phelps. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education.leadered. 2006).pdf) Career and technical education (CTE) has weathered many storms in the recent past. be at risk. ix). 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. findings indicate that the increased pressure on assessment mandated by NCLB seems to have a negative impact on the quality of instruction and results in narrowing of the curricula (Abrams et al.” International Center for Leadership in Education. According to the Center on Education Policy (2006). applied academics.

Working to feed the world will minimize factors that contribute to global instability and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. my dad produced 2. every painting ever painted. and that poverty and famine have often bred fanaticism and As good land disappears. we will have to produce an annual average of 25 tonnes per hectare. the demand for affordable food will increase well beyond current international production levels. At stake is not only preventing starvation and saving the environment." Educational technology is the "overall methodology and set of techniques employed in the application of instructional principles" (Cleary. That’s a tall order. My farm in Marion County. But of course there is no guarantee that we can achieve those results again. http://scholar. but also world peace and security. Inevitably. Instructional technology is the media born of the communication revolution which can be used for instructional purposes. Indiana. And our success at increasing food production may play a decisive humanitarian role in the survival of billions of people and the health of our planet. 4 – U. 1970). Number 1. It includes television. 1988). p. For the United States. Peace through superior firepower.3 to 8. that means eating more meat. http://www.8 to 3 tonnes per hectare. it is easy to lose sight of the long-range challenges. One of the most daunting of them is meeting the world’s need for food and energy in this century. People in rapidly developing nations will have the means greatly to improve their standard of living and caloric intake. 1976.html) In a world confronted by global terrorism. Productivity revolution To meet the expected demand for food over the next 50 years . Advances in the use of fertilizer and water. The leading position of the United States in agriculture can be attributed in part to its infrastructure for developing and delivering new technologies. people destroy timber resources and even rainforests as they try to create more arable land to feed themselves.assistant professor of agriscience education @ North Carolina A&T University (Antoine. 3 . that will mean a major shift in the way we conduct and fund agricultural science. burgeoning nuclear threats and other crises. But we do so at our peril. Given the urgency of expanding food production to meet world demand. yields on average 8. For agricultural education to remain viable. turmoil in the Middle East. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on Technical education key to ag industry – continuous innovation is key Alston. Complicating a solution to this problem is a dynamic that must be better understood in the West: developing countries often use limited arable land to expand cities to house their growing populations. Can we possibly boost output that much? Well.html#FFA) United States agriculture is one of the most productive systems in the world. for example. and other media (Commission on Instructional Technology. it’s been done before. / 55 . The United States can take a leading position in a productivity revolution. videotapes. 1998). Senator (Richard.vt.lib. Collapse of ag causes extinction Lugar. data lines. improved machinery and better tilling techniques combined to generate a threefold increase in yields since 1935 – on our farm back then. we must invest much more in scientific research and target that money toward projects that promise to have significant national and global impact. The day is near when every child will be able to stretch a hand over a keyboard and reach every book ever written.” Journal of Career and Technical Education Volume 20. computers. Fundamental research will generate the innovations that will be necessary to feed the 1999). 1). new ways need to be generated to deliver instruction in the total secondary agricultural education program (National Research Council. and every symphony ever composed (Clinton. Astead.unep. With the world population expected to grow from 6 billion people today to 9 billion by mid-century. Fall 2003. To triple our production by 2050.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. “USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA. Instructional technology can help keep educational programs aligned with new developments in agriculture.S.6 tonnes of corn per hectare – typical for a farm in central Indiana. Agricultural education in secondary schools is part of the infrastructure of this remarkable system. History tells us that states may go to war over access to resources. Much US agriculture has seen similar increases. Instructional technology is a division of the body of knowledge known as "educational technology. The long-term environmental consequences could be disastrous for the entire globe. researchers have suggested that perhaps curriculum development initiatives and educational delivery approaches in local schools have not kept pace with the rate of technological change that the agricultural industry has experienced over the past decade (National FFA Organization. This will raise demand for feed grain at the same time that the growing world population will need vastly more basic food to eat. Mehta. we in the United States will have to grow roughly three times more food on the land we have. With this technological change.

recordings. photographs.S. In a little more than two years. Mehta.ed States has outpaced the number of outsourced jobs to emerging nations. That is the equivalent of 9 quintillion typed characters. The world is becoming a much more networked place. nine U. The number of newly declared computer science majors has actually declined by 32 percent over the last four years. Europe. There are a couple of reasons for this problem. maps and manuscripts.S. “Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a networked global economy. for every job outsourced from the United States. helping to prepare students for the workforce. businesses and other institutions that will use technology around the world. more pages are hidden behind corporate firewalls or in private databases. educators and industry leaders must advance the nation’s competitiveness by keeping the innovation pipeline fortified with fresh ideas and talent.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. This is true on a global scale for not only technology companies. At least 1. the voluntary attrition in the Unit. believed by parents. Bureau of Labor Statistics has identified computer-based jobs as one of the hottest areas of growth. the number of computing devices connected to the Internet had grown to 100 million. nearly 1 million of whom are in engineering. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2] Internet expansion falling off due to job vacancies Joyce. We are seeing now that everything physical will eventually be connected to everything else. this “dark Web” is 500 times the size of the Internet as we know it. who interact via instant messaging.S. enough for 4 trillion novels. Ever since the dotcom bust in the United States there’s been a steep drop-off in the number of students pursuing science and engineering degrees. math and engineering.” Techniques. especially in computer science. The digital equivalent of that same information is now created every 15 minutes—and this is just the beginning. business-education partnerships. and schoolto-career transition (Peter J. http://acte. cell phones and MySpace as they watch TV and YouTube on the Web. database administration and computer science—will be some of the fastest-growing occupations through 2012. Even more concerning. hospitals. Astead. Furthermore. connecting home and business networks and providing ubiquitous access.5 million additional IT field professionals will be needed by the end of this year.D. Those who question the future growth of this communication technology and its effectiveness need only to look at the amount of digital information being created today. Education and Social Policy from Harvard. but the mix is now shifting to other devices such as cell phones. college graduates each year earn engineering degrees. This is particularly evident with the growing Web traffic from young publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education. According to the Council on Competitiveness. The Squeeze Meeting the opportunities ahead will require a technically skilled workforce. This is nearly two times the number of letters you’d need to write down all the words ever spoken. and those involving specific skill sets—such as systems analysis. This is absolutely not the case. that computer science and engineering jobs are all being outsourced to China and India. worldwide Internet traffic will hit 9 exabytes per month.lions of books. China and India produce 6. The U.S. It took more than 200 years for the U. students and high school guidance counselors. Technological advancements depend on encouraging top students to be the next researchers. an entirely different level of instant and complex collaboration across the increasingly critical global human network. about 70. but also true for the schools. And that’s only the virtual Web. Ac.cording to a government study. Workforce Development Manager @ Cisco Systems Inc. jobs are created. A critical part of this mission is a stronger commitment from corporate leadership to work closely with schools at multiple levels. The technology industry is experiencing a squeeze for talent. with growth rates anywhere from 40 to 70 percent in the United States alone. Although Yahoo! has already indexed many billions of Web pages. Peace through superior firepower. developers and problem solvers.pdf) During the genesis of the Internet. and the next phase of business differentiation relies on the network for the real-time information and services that will foster rewarding customer interactions. that number will probably reach 14 billion. Library of Congress to build its collection of mil. U. A decade after the introduction of the World Wide Web. the Middle East and Asia foresee similar retirement rates. Canada.000 of the 1 million U. this will make the shortage of computer-skilled employees even more dramatic.4 million graduates a year. The global competition for skills and jobs is escalating. IBM estimates that by 2010. the amount of digital information is expected to double every 11 hours. Today we are seeing an Internet-driven revolution. 8 – Ph.S. By some estimates. is that many women and underrepresented minorities are not even considering science and engineering programs as a field of interest. Adding to the talent squeeze is the retirement of approximately 70 million baby boomers that will leave the workforce over the next 15 years. has authored numerous publications on workforce issues. By 2010. With only 40 million new workers coming in. computers were considered the sources of value and the network was viewed as a simple pipe between them. both for development and deployment. Just about all the early inhabitants of the Internet were computers. PDAs and set-top boxes. Wireless access will be everywhere—integrating personal communication and computing devices.hodgsonconsult. / 56 . One is a myth.

mentoring networks or other initiatives. http://acte. 8 – Ph. business-education partnerships.hodgsonconsult.pdf) The Internet is on the verge of yet another expansion. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2] Low-income education key to job growth that solves internet expansion Joyce. We must take advantage of the opportunity to build on our partnership successes to ensure that we are well positioned for the future. Attract Untapped Groups—Women and minorities continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering fields. Peace through superior firepower. whether it’s through classroom interaction. Workforce Development Manager @ Cisco Systems publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education.D. and schoolto-career transition (Peter J. Education and Social Policy from Harvard.” Techniques. “Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a networked global economy. Create More Interest—We must continue to foster interest in technology careers among young people.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 57 . Mehta. has authored numerous publications on workforce issues. It is important to get the word out by working with local employers and demonstrating to students and workers the connections between local educational pathways. Academic and business leaders must reach out to our successors and serve as role models. It is critical to attract and encourage a diverse pool of workers. Astead. Here are the challenges that the United States must undertake to meet our collective education and workforce goals.

European Parliament Hearing on Free Speech. Furthermore. Enshrining the right to freedom of expression The right to freedom of expression is formally protected in the major international treaties including the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. either through anonymity or access. “THE CONTRIBUTION OF ICT TO FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF A RCHIVAL DATA ON THE MIDDLE EAST. http://www. information and even the freedom to exercise religious beliefs.europarl. that in the absence of free speech and an independent media. Prof of anthropology @ Oxford. even for those countries which are not signatories to the above international treaties through the concept of customary law which essentially requires that all states respect the human rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Peace through superior firepower. as it were. Clift (2003) argues that e. Ferdinand (2000) argues that as a means of communication. Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Their efforts make this one of the most dynamic and important areas of e-democracy development.democracy is the use of information and communications technologies and strategies by “democratic sectors” within the political processes of local communities. and preventing the freeflow of information from abroad.” http://www.php/ejisdc/article/download/499/255] ICTs provide new tools for efficient public participation in the democratic process in the form of e-democracy. and will undoubtedly be discussed at this Hearing.democracy activities of government institutions whether local or international. For this reason alone the right to freedom of expression. At one end of the spectrum there are supposedly minor infringements of this fundamental right which occur daily in Western democracies and would include abuse of national security laws to prevent the publication of information which might be embarrassing to a given government: at the other end of the scale are the regimes of terror which employ the most brutal moves to suppress opposition. Astead. specifically protected in the major international human rights treaties. That must be protected at all costs—the alternative is war and genocide D’Souza. including the right to life. In addition. including many authoritarian regimes. take place. Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. amongst other human rights. the Internet and mobile cell phones on the promotion of freedom of expression in a region that is governed mostly by such such as individualism and freedom of speech. Clift (2003) uses the phrase “representative e-government” to describe the engaging in comparative case studies of the Internet across a variety of developing counties. Once governments are able to draw a cloak of secrecy over their actions and to remain unaccountable for their actions then massive human rights violations can. It has been argued. and nations. it is enshrined in many national constitutions throughout the world. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) Internet technology is key to freedom of speech Shirazi. (2003) found that some studies have addressed the question of media and democracy. egovernment. it is impossible to protect other rights. This has led to the prediction that it will completely revolutionize government and democracy. states. it is relatively easy for governments to capture. more specifically. This section addresses the impact of ICT development and. war and genocide.ejisdc. e-voting and the dissemination of opinions. Mehta. freedom of expression is. must be considered to be a primary right. Morrisett (2003) points out that ICTs can be used to enhance the democratic process in form of e-government in which citizens are able to effectively impact the decision-making process in a timely manner within and between institutionally. expressing “democratic intent”.htm] In the absence of freedom of expression which includes a free and independent media. 8 [Prof @ Institute for Research on Innovation and Technology Management @ Ted Rogers School of Management. Ryerson University. the Internet has the potential to revolutionize political activity far more profoundly than the telephone or television ever did. ideas.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. for the promotion of ethnic conflict. upheld. as authoritarian regimes will find it increasingly difficult to survive and as established democracies Brinkerhoff (2005) states that the Internet facilitates the expression of liberal values. the media and to fashion them into instruments of propaganda. to the extent that the outcome will be a new wave of democratization world-wide. 2. Government institutions are making significant investments in the use of ICTs in their work. Kalathil et al. and do. / 58 . It is significant that one of the first indications of a government’s intention to depart from democratic principles is the ever increasing control of information by means of gagging the media. although this does not always guarantee its protection. regions. politically or geographically distinct networked communities. thoughts. 96 [Frances D’Souza. as well as those on the global stage such as the United Nations. and/or rallying social action about things that concern citizens.

Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 3. Is free Peace through superior firepower. Kostrinsky Wave One virtue of the widespread or customary respect which has been built up in the post World War II years. / 59 . Astead.

Of the 126 developing countries listed in the 1993 Human Development Report. And the distance between such silencing and the use of violence to suppress a growing political philosophy which a government finds inconvenient is even shorter. It is reasonably safe to assume that the vast majority of people do not ever welcome war. In this sense democracy empowers people. generally assumed to be something to do with banning obscene books or magazines. especially when compared to such violations as torture and extra-judicial killings. the right to freedom of expression and development. Given that these permitted restrictions are necessarily broad. 5. in the regional courts such as the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. war and denial of free speech There are undoubted connections between access to information. They are normally Peace through superior firepower. and remains the cornerstone of democracy. Mehta. Of the total 63 countries in conflict. There seems to be no doubt that there is a clear association between poverty and war. limiting free speech or media freedom where it impinges on the individual’s right to privacy. There have been dramatic and terrible examples of the role that censorship has played in international politics in the last few years: to name but a few. Thus. or rather the lack of it. One can argue that democracy aims to increase participation in political and other decision-making at all levels. While this may seem a somewhat luxurious distinction preoccupying. violence. and thus not arbitrarily imposed: proportionate to the legitimate aims pursued. the international treaties are concerned that there should be a balance between competing rights: for example. if any. / 60 . and war. is no bad thing! It requires a recognition of some of the fundamental principles of democracy to understand why censorship is so immensely dangerous. torture and disappearances of journalists and others associated with the expression of independent views. not only sets in place laws and procedures which can and will be used by those in authority against those with less authority. war was ongoing in 30 countries and severe civil conflict in a further 33 countries. where free speech causes insult or injury to the rights and reputation of another. there are permitted restrictions encoded within the international treaties which in turn allow for a degree of interpretation of how free free speech should be. Censorship tends to have small beginnings and to grow rapidly. or where free speech would create a public disturbance. Who censors what? Despite the rather strict rules which apply to restrictions on free speech that governments may wish to impose. Astead. sexism. and demonstrably necessary in a democratic society in order to protect the individual and/or the state. but it also denies people the information which they must have in order to monitor their governments actions and to ensure accountability. religious intolerance and damage to the individual’s reputation or privacy. where speech is construed as incitement to violence or hatred. unlike the American First Amendment Rights which allow few. the poor are not able to have influence over their own lives. including what they wish to see. The 60ondition of democracy is that people are able to make choices about a wide variety of issues which affect their lives. It is also sometimes difficult to dissuade the general public that censorship. Examples of censorship To some the right to free speech may appear to be one of the fringe human rights. Allowing a government to have the power to deny people information. checks on free speech or on the independence of the media. including the need to protect public morals and public order and perfectly understandable attempts to prevent racism. perhaps. 55 are towards the bottom scale of the human development index which is an indicator of poverty. the limits of free speech are consistently tested in national law courts and. hear or discuss. are thus powerless and have no voice. it has been 60ondition60 by the European Court that any restriction must comply with a three-part test which requires that any such restriction should first of all be prescribed by law. The poor are denied access to information on decisions which deeply affect their lives. In particular. The mechanisms employed by governments to restrict the freeflow of information are almost endless and range from subtle economic pressures and devious methods of undermining political opponents and the independent media to the enactment of restrictive press laws and an insist-ence on licensing journalists and eventually to the illegal detention. These justifications include arguments in defence of national and/or state security.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Because of this essential powerlessness. 4. many justifications are nevertheless sought by governments to suppress information which is inimical to their policies or their interests. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) speech absolute? While it is generally accepted that freedom of expression is. 6. the public interst. the extent to which the media in the republics of former Yugoslavia were manipulated by government for purposes of propaganda. The link between poverty. as indeed there are between poverty. perhaps even more importantly. the violent role played by the government associated radio in Rwanda which incited citizens to kill each other in the name of ethnic purity and the continuing threat of murder issued by the Islamic Republic of Iran against a citizen of another country for having written a book which displeased them. wealthy Western democracies. let alone other aspect of society. In recent years several landmark cases have helped to define more closely what restrictions may be imposed by government and under what circumstances. read. it is a comparatively short distance between government censorship of an offensive book to the silencing of political dissidents. the poor are unable to influence the ruling elite in whose interests it may be to initiate conflict and wars in order to consolidate their own power and position. however trivial.

more often than not by propaganda. But voices are silenced. Astead. If the majority of people had a democratic voice they would undoubtedly object to war.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. extreme nationalist sentiments and war by their governments. as in former Yugoslavia. are necessary aspects of democracy which can. succeeded because there weren’t the means to challenge it. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) coerced. the freedom to express one’s views and to challenge government decisions and to insist upon political rather than violent solutions. avert war. / 61 . One has therefore to conclude that it is impossible for a particular government to wage war in the absence of a compliant media willing to indulge in government propaganda. into fear. Peace through superior firepower. and do. Government sponsored propaganda in Rwanda. Mehta. This is because the government needs civilians to fight wars for them and also because the media is needed to re-inforce government policies and intentions at every turn. Thus.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 62 . perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. soldiers in warfare. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. During the past decade. In the past two decades. entertainment. Any theory of violence. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. The government's efforts should be focused on expanding access to Internet and other technologies for as many Americans as possible while continuing to develop our national broadband capacity. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three major respects attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic inequities on a worldwide basis.S. as cause to effect. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. or lethal is moot.R. dangerous. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !) Internet expansion solves poverty Kamarck. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. suicides. executions. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps 575. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. and Peace through superior firepower. electronic database and Internet technologies have driven down the cost of government overhead while significantly elevating the productivity of the nation's anti-poverty programs.benton.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. for they are inextricably related to each other. on the average. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. in fact accelerating. they found that including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. such as . By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. Mehta. Outweighs nuclear war Gilligan. especially a psychological theory. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. Hearing about their lives. Internet innovation has transformed business. This is. Astead. Fraud has been reduced while the needs of the economically distressed are addressed in a more timely manner. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. the chances for him to make good on a broad social justice agenda will increase in spite of the other challenges he faces. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. and about their families and friends. and even government. standpoint.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. every fifteen years. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide).S. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. “Look to the Internet to fight poverty. Kohler and Alcock the deaths we attribute to homicide. These are not acts of God. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. in effect.S. In other words. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. capital punishment. even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. information technology has begun to transform anti-poverty efforts and bring to the poverty world some of the increases in productivity that have been common in the private sector. * Structural violence is normally invisible. or genocide. suicide. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. unending. throughout the world. wars. 1939-1945). If Presidentelect Obama can expand on this. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. and the U. 8 [Elaine Kamarck. compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden.” Dec 1 http://www. professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. which continues year after year. 1954-1973). thermonuclear war. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence.000) deaths). it can transform approaches to poverty at home and abroad. the equivalent of an ongoing. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. This has freed up money for other pressing anti-poverty needs. and so on. (232 million). and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate] In the past decade. or human. whereas murders. lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. In an Obama administration. rather than sporadically. 96 [James. When they 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. political parties.

hodgsonconsult. we hope they will want to move up the career ladder. Do it. Mehta. which still had 10 spots available in the winter classes. this is simply not the case. “We certainly think this is a very good idea.H. hoping to interest young people in careers in manufacturing. One of the things that I think is a long-held myth is that if you go into a technical career. manufacturing offers “a broad range of high-paying.T.” Wagner believes that providing students with better information about career opportunities. “Nothing could be more important than helping our young people understand the opportunities for careers as they think about who they are and what they want to be. scientists and engineers that will intensify as the baby boom generation retires. at which point they will have the opportunity to build upon those two-year degrees by going on to other institutions of higher learning.” If there is any doubt about the need the manufacturing industry has for skilled workers. Stacey Wagner. 7 – Contributing Editor of Techniques.S. NAM President John Engler noted. creative and high-paying jobs means students have to go on after high school and get some postsecondary education. Astead. says. “Certainly two-year colleges and technical colleges are a great stepping stone into a technical career. at some point. tuition-free manufacturing training program at Penn United Technology’s L.” Wagner notes that part of finding those interesting. Noting that the latest report from the National Center for Education and the Economy discusses providing all students with opportunities for technical education as well as academic education. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education (Susan.G.” According to Jerry Jasinowski. It helps people get both the technical education that they need to go on to technical jobs as well as an academic background. In fact. president of The Manufacturing Institute. an ad that appeared in the January 16 issue of Pennsylvania’s Butler Eagle newspaper provides compelling evidence of the situation.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. such as those in manufacturing. will help them make better decisions. interesting jobs with average annual compensation of nearly $65.” “Dream It.” campaign and Web site. you don’t necessarily need to be as academically savvy as young people going on to a four-year college. Wagner says. including “a serious shortage of skilled production for young people with the right skills and education. / 63 .” she says.” Engler also noted .” Techniques. there are many opportunities to get into jobs in manufacturing where they will have the chance to be innovative and creative and entrepreneurial and do the kind of things they really like to do. and we are supporting the development of industry-led certificates and two-year degrees. history and continues to support our economy. “Manufacturing Success. The Facts About Modern Manufacturing. and then to understand that can come not just from being a rock star or a movie star or a basketball star.” she says is. managing director of NAM’s Center for Workforce Success. “Manufacturing output in America is at the highest level in U. Of course. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2] Plan key to manufacturing Reese. The Manufacturing Institute. “an aspirational campaign to help young people think about their hopes.” Peace through superior firepower. http://acte. Dreams of Success NAM is taking actions to address the need for skilled workers in the industry and has even launched the “Dream it. however.I. A network of more than 100 manufacturers in southwestern Pennsylvania ran the ad offering job placement with their partner companies to individuals who complete the six-month. and might help change the fact that more than half of those who go straight into a four-year college after high school end up dropping out. So we are very supportive of helping young people think about their future and then providing them with a lot of options about how they would get there. and their dreams and their passions. Training Center. Then. Do It.pdf) When NAM and its research and education arm. so that people can graduate from high school and get a two-year degree or a certificate and then get into a good job in manufacturing. released the handbook. that the industry faces unprecedented challenges. in October 2006. “We are very supportive of two-year colleges to help them understand what the workplace competencies are for the 21st century workforce.

Americans believe manufacturing as the most important industry for economic prosperity. marketing. 4) global engagement. manufacturers believe to be critical to success and their progress in implementing those strategies. The majority of respondents (71 percent) also view manufacturing as a national priority and 59 percent believe that U. released this month. One-third of respondents who had annual revenues less than $10 million are neither at nor near "world-class" in any strategy. the American Small Manufacturers Coalition (ASMC) said in an announcement of its own new findings.S.S. It is perceived as the backbone of the economy and the one that contributes the most to the United States' economic success. considering the manufacturing sector employs 13 million Americans and drives job growth in industries such as logistics. which include: 1) customer-focused innovation.000 small and mid-sized firms comprise the backbone of the industry. The results are "a wake-up call. manufacturers to successfully compete in the global economy. However. Moreover. manufacturing competes effectively on a global scale. This should come as little surprise to most.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. transportation and business services. Small and mid-sized manufacturers are especially at risk. should further invest in manufacturing industries.thomasnet. manufactured goods represent two-thirds of U.” Thomas Net News http://news. competitiveness and the viability of these companies. 5) extended enterprise management and 6) having sustainable products and processes." according to the study. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. "In a country where 282. 9 (Jorina June 30 “U. 3) advanced talent management. 2) systemic continuous improvement.html?t=recent) Two new reports identify significant threats that could impede the ability of U. "The consequences of inaction could trigger more job losses in manufacturing and ultimately a lower standard of living for all Based on the study's findings. the public viewpoint survey found that 81 percent of respondents believe the manufacturing industry significantly impacts their standard of living and 74 percent say that the U.S. a serious gap exists between the strategies U. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2] Key to the economy – outweighs all other internals Fontelera. Astead.S. In Deloitte LLP and The Manufacturing Institute's new Public Viewpoint on Manufacturing survey. 82 percent of respondents agree that America's manufacturing base is key to the country's economic prosperity. The ASMC asked manufacturers where they stood within the "next-generation manufacturing" framework of competitiveness strategies. Of those with more than $100 million in revenue." Likewise." ASMC Board Chair Michael Klonsinski said. Manufacturers Face Critical Threats to Competitiveness. according to the research. merely 14 percent are under-performing. / 64 . exports and drive more net-wealth creation than any other industry. including the public perception of pursuing a career in manufacturing.S. the ASMC has found that more than a quarter of American manufacturers — about 90.000 firms — are at risk of not being able to compete on the global stage.S. this is a significant threat to U.

Mehta. chief scientist of Sun Microsystems (Bill. Nanotechnology is already here. where just about everything could be made cheaply.D.html) The many wonders of nanotechnology were first imagined by the Nobel-laureate physicist Richard Feynman in a speech he gave in 1959.” Healy added.” A consortium of 13 U. providing teaching tools and enhancing their enthusiasm for helping students pursue science and engineering The National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates that by the year 2015. undergraduate students – and the general public. The most important skill will be the ability to work with people in other disciplines – to be an interdisciplinary person. 2K – Cofounder. any product would be manufacturable by assemblers at a cost no greater than that of wood .asp?nid=2973) The U.” Today. which Drexler cowrote. and restoration of extinct species. college students. A subsequent book.” said Healy. teachers. subsequently published under the title "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. cures for cancer and the common cold by augmentation of the human immune system. “Programs Focus on Work Force for Nanotechnology. Astead. not just for technical people. technical professionals. imagines some of the changes that might take place in a world where we had molecular-level "assemblers. pharmacists. Unbounding the Future: The Nanotechnology Revolution. was Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation. Nano leads to utopia – solves all impacts Joy. Peace through superior firepower. but also for specialists such as patent attorneys. incredibly inexpensive pocket supercomputers ." Assemblers could make possible incredibly low-cost solar power. nanotechnology will directly employ more than two million workers worldwide. it will need people at all education and skill levels to meet needs that range from cutting-edge research to maintenance of manufacturing equipment. in which he described beautifully how manipulation of matter at the atomic level could create a utopian future of abundance. “But we don’t have much time because the technology is moving forward quickly. scientists and engineers. teachers and the general public. whose efforts are headquartered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. the NNIN supports a broad base of educational programs focused on K-12 students. “We still have a long road ahead in educating people. But as the industry grows.S. Goals of the effort include: Exposing young people to nanotechnology research to help encourage them toward careers in science and engineering. Yet 80 percent of the people recently surveyed by the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies admitted to knowing little or nothing about it.S. “There are many opportunities.nanotechwire.wired. “The field is wide open. and Focusing efforts on populations having disproportionately low employment and education in the sciences. Training teachers and guidance counselors about experimental sciences. 6 (Nanotech Wire. and almost any imaginable disease or physical problem could be solved using nanotechnology and artificial intelligences. in the mid-'80s.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff." The book that made a big impression on me. Creating and distributing educational materials for children. though some of the most important aspects of it are still 10 or 15 years away.04/joy. entrepreneurs and marketers.spaceflight more accessible than transoceanic travel fact. / 65 . Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on Plan’s workforce expansion key to nanotech development NTW. http://www. “Why the future doesn’t need us” Wired Magazine. government is investing a billion dollars a year in the technology of the very small. universities supported by the NSF. essentially complete cleanup of the environment. nanotechnology is mostly seen as the province of Ph.” 2/28.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2]
Science education key to science diplomacy Lord and Turekian, 7 (Kristin and Vaughan, respectively. Elliott School of International Affairs, The
George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.; Chief international officer, AAAS, Washington, DC 20005, USA. “Time for a New Era of Science Diplomacy.” It is time to adopt science diplomacy for a new era. Old-fashioned diplomacy between governments, while necessary, is no longer sufficient. In this age of the Internet, rapid and relatively low-cost travel, and 24-hour global news, the power of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private companies, and social networks is rising. To protect and advance U.S. interests, the U.S. government needs to accelerate its engagement with these new actors and to build positive relationships with foreign publics, as well as their diplomats. Science and technology (S&T) offer a promising entry point for engaging citizens and civil society organizations worldwide. An opinion piece on the op-ed page of the Washington Times called on the U.S. government to recognize the opportunities afforded by widespread respect for American S&T (4). We concur. But without the engagement and commitment of the U.S. scientific community, the government cannot succeed. Why Diplomacy Through Science? Nearly 4 years ago, the United States entered a complex and difficult war with Iraq. Since then, global public opinion regarding the United States has reached all-time lows. Polls in 33 countries indicate that only 40% of those surveyed view America's influence in the world as mainly positive. In contrast, 45% view China positively and 58% hold favorable views of Europe. Dislike of America extends to long-time friends and allies. Only 30% of Canadians, 21% of Germans, and 15% of Turks hold favorable opinions of the United States (5). Readers may ask why this matters if the U.S. government is charged with protecting U.S. interests, not winning popularity contests overseas. The answer is that, increasingly, our interests depend on the support (or at least acquiescence) of foreign populations. Negative images of the United States translate directly into constraints on American influence and ability to implement policy. Engaging foreign citizens is the goal of public diplomacy. As the 9/11 Commission report (6) underscored, engaging foreign public opinion is vital to winning the global struggle of ideas. President Bush clearly agrees, having appointed one of his closest advisers, Karen Hughes, to the position of Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs in 2005. Despite this high-level attention, however, promoting America's image overseas continues to be a daunting task, particularly in predominantly Muslim countries. In our view, public diplomacy is most effective when exercised through deeds rather than words. The U.S. government should focus on doing things that positively affect foreign societies and speak to what we stand for as a nation. We should foster tangible initiatives that promote education, economic growth, human well-being, and hope. If we understand public diplomacy in these terms, the role of S&T is pivotal. Scientific education creates citizens with the critical thinking skills necessary for successful participatory governance and competition in the global economy. S&T are linked strongly with economic development (7). Zogby public opinion polls in several Middle Eastern nations, where the United States is particularly unpopular, indicate that S&T are the single most respected elements of American society (8). Social science research indicates that collaboration to solve common problems is one of the best ways to foster positive relations between groups (9). Under Secretary Hughes increasingly appreciates the unifying power of science (10). She held major events on breast cancer awareness in the Middle East and has launched a project on fighting malaria (11). She has created new International Science Fulbright awards and supported activities, led by Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs, Paula Dobriansky, to cultivate networks of women scientists and engineers (12). Yet, in an era where international skepticism about U.S. foreign policy abounds, government can only do so much. Ultimately civil society--including scientists and engineers--will need to join in this diplomacy of deeds in order for the new science diplomacy to succeed. The fact that science is, and should remain, outside the realm of politics only makes scientists better suited for this task. How can the U.S. science community contribute to science diplomacy and remind the world that Americans are defined by more than specific U.S. government policies? Individual scientists can contribute by realizing that they are valuable ambassadors of goodwill. They can intensify their global activities and promote greater engagement with counterparts worldwide. They can increase their efforts to invite foreign peers to review scientific articles and papers. Senior U.S. researchers can use their own international networks, including former students and postdocs working outside of the United States, to reach out to junior scientists in other countries, to collaborate with peers, and to promote broader international cooperation. U.S. scientists should make a special effort to engage with scientists from countries where the United States is misunderstood or disliked--not to justify or promote any government policy, but to build bridges and trust. They can engage more with university students and the general

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [2/2]
[Lord and Turekian Continue, no text omitted] public overseas, not just other scientists, and let them know how scientists from all nations make a collective difference in their lives. In so doing, U.S. scientists will make the world a better place, and perhaps improve foreigners' views of America along the way. Scientists can also encourage their universities, research institutions, professional societies, and laboratories to adopt global engagement as a priority. Although a large sum of individual efforts is important, effective global engagement will be most influential if it engages whole organizations as well. Many of the major U.S. scientific and engineering societies already have specific offices or initiatives dedicated to international collaborations. To give just one example, in January AAAS joined the U.S. Department of State, the Kuwaiti government, and a Kuwaiti science NGO to convene a conference in Kuwait City to promote networks of women scientists and engineers in the broader Middle East (see figure above). AAAS has also recently started a pilot program that remotely links U.S. researchers with university-level science students in developing and emerging countries in order to share and discuss seminal papers across a range of scientific disciplines (13). Yet, despite current efforts, scientific organizations can do more. Of course, all this assumes that scientists and engineers are willing to be ambassadors and to participate in the new science diplomacy. Why would they? The answer is threefold. First, while science holds great benefits for diplomacy, diplomacy also benefits science. For instance, in large-scale programs such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (14), scientists from major powers such as China, India, Russia, Korea, Japan, the European Union, and the United States will work together in an unprecedented international agreement to develop fusion energy. Moreover, diplomacy can create opportunities to conduct research in parts of the world critical to scientific advancement. Scientific research ranging from astronomical observation in Australia to archaeological research in Libya depends on broader access, as well as diplomatic support. Second, the health of the U.S. scientific community depends on the continued willingness of foreign scientists and students to come to the United States for study, research, and work. Visa difficulties, combined with a perception that the United States does not welcome foreigners, reduced the number of foreign students coming to the United States after 9/11. This trend is beginning to reverse, but negative perceptions persist and it is important to remain vigilant. The U.S. economy benefits greatly from foreign scientists and science (15).We must ensure that the United States remains attractive and welcoming. Third, scientists are citizens. Like their counterparts outside of the scientific community, many scientists and engineers share concerns about negative perceptions of the United States.

Science Diplomacy key to innovation and the economy Dobriansky, 6 - Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs
[Dr. Paula J., "The Art of Science Diplomacy"] As President George W. Bush stated, “Science and technology have never been more essential to the defense of the nation and the health of our economy.” To remain at the forefront of scientific and technological achievement, America must cooperate globally. Historically, global leadership in science and technology is transitory, and leaders must expend considerable effort to maintain their position. As Secretary Rice stated, “Today, dynamic advancements in science and technology are transforming the world— making it possible for more and more people to compete equally across all fields of human endeavor. America must remain at the forefront of this new world.” Our economy benefits from collaborative efforts. Science and technology are major drivers of innovation in the United States and an important source of exports. Economists estimate that the increase in American productivity growth that began in the mid-1990s is entirely due to technology investments.

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Venture Capital Add-on
Sustainability efforts skyrocket venture capital investment BCNS, 9 (Bay City News Service, “'Green industry' offers hope for Silicon Valley,” February 18th, 2009, An emerging "green industry" could offer huge economic gains for Silicon Valley, according to an economicoutlook analysis released Tuesday. The outlook showed the region suffering recessionary economic woes in 2008, but analysts cautiously report the emerging green industry could offer huge economic gains for the area. In a special analysis companion to the "Silicon Valley Index 2009," published each year by community groups Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network and Silicon Valley Community Foundation, financial analysts detailed trends in the valley's portfolio that are both worrisome and favorable. "The national trends have finally overtaken the Silicon Valley and brought us down," said Russell Hancock, president and CEO of Joint Venture. This year's report, he said, indicates the area has the economic equivalent of a head cold that could threaten to escalate into pneumonia if left untreated. Employment numbers began to fall into negative percentages in November 2008, lagging behind nationwide negative
employment trends until year's end, analysts reported. The metropolitan statistical area encompassing San Jose, Sunnyvale and Santa Clara posted a 1.3 percent drop from December 2007 to December 2008.Home foreclosure sales are higher than the statewide average and the demand for commercial real estate has dropped, the report said. However, the region is better poised than most to reinvent itself, Hancock

said. "We don't have a single industry that has been our mainstay for generations," he said. "It's an idea-driven, knowledge-intensive economy." Hancock said clean technology, especially solar technology, is thriving, and could be the key to invigorating the Silicon Valley economy. While venture capital investment fell 7.7 percent from 2007 to 2008, capital investments in clean tech are up 94 percent, according to the report. Data shows this sum accounts for 31 percent
of all national clean industry investment over the same time period. This sector has reportedly supported job growth at 23 percent since 2005, the report said. "This is the world's epicenter for solar technology right now," Hancock said. "Maybe we won't be the Silicon Valley anymore; maybe we're the green valley." In California, 15 percent of new hybrid vehicles, 10 percent of electric cars and 5 percent of new natural gas vehicles are registered in the Silicon Valley, according to the report. As the region's focus shifts toward cleaner forms of technology, the report highlights

the need for additional education and training to help employees make this transition. "People are self-starters, but wouldn't it be nice if there were industry partnerships with our educational institutions," he said. Hancock was quick to add that local colleges are "oversubscribed and underfunded," and lack the resources to make such partnerships a reality.

Strong VC solves the economy Portland Business Journal, 2 (“Venture industry gears up for major transition” lexis)
So where is the venture capital industry heading? More importantly, what effect will this have on the U.S. economy as a whole? To date, much of the carnage in the venture industry has been masked by an illusion of investment
activity. Many venture funds have spent the last two years performing triage on their existing portfolios. The bulk of new venture dollars invested by these firms has been used to prolong the survival of struggling portfolio companies. Many of these companies will fail, resulting in poor returns for the limited partners who supply the venture firms with the capital they need to survive. As a result, the number of active venture firms will decrease dramatically over the next five years. Particularly vulnerable are first-time venture funds that were caught up in the internet bubble and now have little value or track record to show for their invested dollars. While I've heard some colleagues predict a decline in the number of firms of 15 percent to 20 percent, I expect we'll see a much sharper decline on the order of 40 percent to 50 percent. Why such a sharp decline? The institutions that back venture firms continually expanded the number of funds they invested in throughout the 1990s. By attempting to spread the risk of their venture fund portfolios through diversification, institutions failed to realize the venture industry has a scarce pool of experienced and talented venture capitalists. The result was a dilution of the overall quality of the venture capitalists they backed, which subsequently led to significant losses. A majority of institutions realize their mistake and will likely revert to their old strategy of concentrating their investment dollars in the hands of a more limited set of venture capitalists. In particular, venture funds that have provided institutions with consistent returns over a long period of time will receive the highest allocations. We will see a continually maturing venture industry during the next decade, resulting in fewer but larger venture firms. While some niche venture funds focused on a particular industry sector will continue to exist and thrive, the majority of investment dollars raised by venture funds in the future will be concentrated among the top 20 to 30 firms. Like many industries, the 80/20 rule applies to the venture industry as well. In aggregate, the venture capital industry will grow and become a more established asset class in the coming years. The influence and importance of venture capital as a vital engine for growth

has no equal in our economy or our country. According to an economic impact study released last year by the National Venture Capital Association, the $273.3 billion of venture capital invested during the 30 year period from 1970 to 2000 created 7.6 million U.S. jobs and more than $1.3 trillion in revenue as of the end of 2000. The study also shows that although venture capital represented less than 1 percent of U.S. investment activity during the 1970 to 2000 period, companies created with venture capital were responsible for 5.9 percent of the nation's jobs and 13.1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product in 2000.

Peace through superior firepower.



The 2003 spike associated with the invasion of Iraq is a good example. Thus.3%. 4 – Research Associate @ the Global Economic Programme University College. not all oil price spikes lead to a recession. Some (Goldman Sachs) are more pessimistic. Looking ahead. And. Global growth would also deaccelerate from its current very strong pace. Shocks collapse the global economy and magnify their impact Setser. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on Plan solves oil shocks by offsetting oil with renewables – that’s Barrett. confirming that high oil prices in the first half of 2004 put a dent on real consumer demand. Mehta. Astead. This means that the US economy.pdf) These effects are not trivial: oil shocks have caused and/or contributed to each one of the US and global recessions of the last thirty years. the reduction in the G7 growth rate may be closer to 1% of GDP.3% average rate could be expected to see a slowdown of its growth to a level between 4. Peace through superior firepower.3% to 1% of US and G7 GDP growth. Oxford (Brad.would reduce the US and the G7 growth rate by about 0. which was growing in Q4:2003 and Q1:2004 at about a 4. persistence of oil prices at recent high levels of $43-44 per barrel (or even higher prices) could further slow down the U.0% and 3. http://pages. economy below a 3% growth rate. / 69 .nyu. GDP growth was 3. Private sector estimates generally suggest that a persistent 10% increase in the price of oil – say an increase from $30 to an average of $35 over the course of 2004 -.S.0%. private estimates of the negative effects of an oil shock currently range between 0.stern.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Yet while recent recessions have all been linked to an increase in the price of oil. the first estimate for Q2:2004 U.3%0.S. and calculate that if oil prices were to increase further to levels closer to $45.4% within a year.

/ 70 . Green jobs exist.” March 13th. Similarly. energy efficiency retrofits. Most are “middle-skill” jobs.americanprogress.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. in the power sector. others are perfect entry level or transitional jobs for urban residents looking for a pathway out of poverty. In a 2005 survey by the National Association of Manufacturers. nearly onequarter of the current workforce will be eligible for retirement in the next five to seven years. This labor shortage is only likely to get more severe as baby-boomers skilled in current energy technologies retire. http://www. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: Ext. construction and installation. Clearly if America is to rise to the global energy challenge.Job Shortages Labor shortages kill green job growth Center for American Progress. for example. requiring more education than a high school diploma. 2008. Astead. in a range of industries and at every skill and wage level. the National Renewable Energy Lab has identified a shortage of skills and training as a leading barrier to renewable energy and energy efficiency growth. Some are a bridge to high-skill professional jobs or entrepreneurial opportunities. 8 (“Green-Collar Jobs in America's skilled production employees like machinists and technicians. 90 percent of respondents indicated a moderate to severe shortage of qualified. America’s growing green economy faces a looming labor shortage in sectors like manufacturing. construction. In short. and green building. operation and maintenance.html) Unfortunately. but less than a four-year degree. Many are in the skilled trades: manufacturing. green jobs are the kind of family-supporting jobs that once anchored the American middle class. solar panel installation. and are growing. Peace through superior firepower. and installation. and capture the economic opportunity it represents. we need to prepare the next generation of Americans for the important work that lies ahead. but in the industries of the future: industries like wind turbine manufacturing. Mehta.

Historically unprecedented population growth. air. clean energy. Chairperson. Today. and maintain industries that produce them as though we were ignorant of these changes. pg. 69) This reality needs to be communicated through education and training. and biology of living and nonliving systems.A Workshop Report. Mehta. yet we still design feedstocks and final products. Yet these same systems provide critical services on which society and the economy depend—clean water. it is still relatively segregated and marginalized in the study of ecology and other environmental sciences. ecology. the reach of humans has been extended dramatically in the last 100 years through technology and globalization. Not only does the knowledge base of scientists need augmenting but those working in industry. While having always influenced the physical environment.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. with accompanying exponentially expanded throughput of industrial materials. has led to unavoidable pollution and health challenges. Trainham III. the actions are segregated (and therefore marginalized) in Environment Health and Safety (EH&S) offices or in debates about ethics and social responsibility.Chemical Industry Impact Chemical industry solves extinction – job training key Trainham et al. As central topics in the science communities and related to the health and stability of societies today. The scale and accelerating rate of change results in activity and waste streams that disrupt and degrade natural systems worldwide (e. Anthropogenic impact fundamentally alters the chemistry. / 71 . and safe food. hydrologic. these issues are migrating to the core of corporate strategy. including throughout supply chains to final product users. and biogeochemical cycles). Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs . Peace through superior firepower.g. productive soil. but education has not kept up. healthy air. Moreover. need the systems orientation of green chemistry and sustainability science. Astead. growth demands and technological advances place ever growing requirements for natural and synthetic materials. COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY under the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. In management education. 5 (James A. This knowledge cannot remain marginal to the education of citizens. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: Ext.

This is not a matter merely of national pride or international image. since America’s strength has always been tied to the spirit and entrepreneurial energies of its people. even were they so inclined. Today. but the world is changing. nationals. Peace through superior firepower. do find these professions attractive and. As a result too few American students are qualified to take these slots. pose critical national security challenges for the United States. need for the highest quality human capital in science. Second only to a weapon of mass destruction detonating in an American city. and engineering is not being met. mathematics. This is an ironic predicament.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.pdf) The scale and nature of the ongoing revolution in science and technology. In such a future. / 72 . The internationalization of both scientific research and its commercial development is having a significant effect on the capacity of the U. depends on its reputation for excellence in these areas. as well as the defense industrial base. and therefore a significant aspect of its global influence. however. and business have served the nation well over the past five decades.unt. and with discipline they will outstrip us. thanks to science. and education for the common good over the next quarter private proprietary expenditure on technology development far outdistances public spending. and higher education. and from national prosperity provide the foundation for national cohesion. we can think of nothing more dangerous than a failure to manage properly science. The harsh fact is that the U. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB Education key to defense industrial base and national security The United States Commission on National Security. Complacency with our current achievement of national wealth and international power will put all of this at risk. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. Current institutional arrangements among government. they increasingly fill American university graduate studies seats and job slots in these areas. while salaries are often more lucrative in areas requiring less demanding training.library. only an America that remains at the cutting edge of science and technology will sustain its current world leadership. from health care to banking to retail business. math. In a knowledge-based future.S. and what this implies for the quality of human capital in the 21st century. performance is not keeping up with its reputation.S. Non-U. and technical preparation superior to that of many Americans. Astead.S.S. These changes are transforming most facets of the American economy. Mehta. America remains today the model of creativity and experimentation. One reason for this is clear: American students know that professional careers in basic science and mathematics require considerable preparation and effort. Other countries are striving hard. government to harness science in the service of national security and to attract qualified scientific and technical personnel. U. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. America’s international reputation. only a well-trained and educated population can thrive economically. It is an issue of fundamental importance to national security.” http://govinfo. technology. technology. higher education. and its success has inspired other nations to recognize the true sources of power and wealth in science. Another reason for the growing deficit in high-quality human capital is that the American kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) education system is not performing as well as it should.

Minnesota Republican — pitched their All Students Can Achieve Act to help close the performance gap between white and minority students. Sens. There's no need to cook such standards up from scratch. At least two NCLB revision bids are in play. / 73 . an essential next step is clear: Scrap the crazy-quilt pattern of wildly differing tests and proficiency thresholds that currently vary from state to state. the National Research Council. the NCLB approach is working. These disparities are dramatic and discouraging. Vernon Ehlers. rather than the percentage of students meeting different state proficiency levels. widely accepted guidelines set forth by Project 2061 at AAAS. female or in any other category. calling for voluntary. proposes changes to increase funding. and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. standards and learning goals vary from place to place. whose formal title is the Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in which sadly remains pending. U. male. Rep. A recent study confirmed better student test scores in most though not all regions since enactment in 2002. President Bush just signed the America Competes Act. engineering. Nationwide. Whether they're rich. It's no wonder. With the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act up for renewal.htm)///HM Washington Times. The importance of nationwide standards may become painfully clear during the upcoming school year. Mary Landrieu. Education. Moreover. which again points to the need for a coherent. the Center on Education Policy reported. Chris Dodd. poor. They could be based on well-tested.6 billion over the next three fiscal years for science. Connecticut Democrat. after all. American children deemed proficient in science and math in one state might miss the mark if their families move. Policy-makers clearly see scientific discovery and science education as keys to the nation's health. keeping America competitive will require tapping every potential talent pool and bringing them to the highest possible levels of achievement. Let's seize the positive momentum and move now toward voluntary nationwide science standards as well. Mehta. and Norm Coleman. 7 (Alan I. white. particularly as American students overall continue to score worse than students in other industrialized nations. but the problem persists in some regions. especially for consistent science standards. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. no longer merely a luxury for the gifted and wealthy. to be developed by the National Assessment Governing Board with public input. Hispanic. sixth-ninth and 10th12th). So. The American Association for the Advancement of Science applauded the bill. when NCLB will require science testing at least once in each of three grade spans (third-fifth.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. floated the Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for Kids Act. economic and security challenges: When the president signed the America COMPETES Act. Joe Lieberman. The core concepts of both bills are on the mark. CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and executive publisher of the Journal Science. and math education programs. 8/15/07.S. technology. whereas most other industrialized countries do have nationwide educational standards. But one critical piece is missing. it often remains unacceptably wide — up to 40 percentage points in some states. fairness and flexibility in measuring progress. and Rep. Louisiana Democrat. overwhelmingly approved by a bipartisan Congress pursuing a first-rate science and mathematics education for all children at a time when American youngsters lag behind many of their peers abroad. all children deserve our very best efforts to teach them science and mathematics. In Washington state. The trend is even worse when researchers look at average test scores. George Miller. the achievement gap actually has widened. Earlier. Astead. either. black. Standards Key to DIB Need National Standards – key to national security Leshner. the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. uniform set of national science standards. he authorized an additional $33. Michigan Republican. Connecticut independent. Sen.. http://www. Revise NCLB to set voluntary nationwide education standards. Even where the gap is shrinking. Peace through superior firepower. Science literacy is. Though sometimes criticized for its emphasis on students' math and reading scores. the performance gap between math and reading test scores for white versus minority youngsters has narrowed since 2002. and Science Act. Earlier this year. California Democrat. nationwide standards in science and math. but in fact a baseline requirement for any student hoping to compete for jobs in the 21st century. or SPEAK. Now we're holding out hope for elements of subsequent proposals.isbe.

and Britain for arms. its equipment is second rate. In Tibet.S. India is the only country on the Asian mainland that has the heft to counter China. Such a policy would only embolden jihadists and reward radical elements in Pakistan’s army and intelligence services who are the political enemies of the country’s new democratic government. is a vital source for technology to speed its economic development. Money. improvements in China’s strategic capabilities have implications beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Russia is not the super power it once was. Rather. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2] Defense-industrial base averts Sino-Indian war Hawkins. Beijing has built naval bases along Burma's coastline in the Bay of Bengal. Washington. The diplomacy behind the agreement will expand a relationship that was started by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 when he signed a memorandum of understanding on high-tech sales to India. Sweden and France are also in the hunt for one of the world’s richest export opportunities. Germany. and it is no longer an ally against China. is not the only reason Washington wants an American firm to win the Indian bid. a week after it was passed by both houses of Congress. where it is the main source of support for the military dictatorship in Myanmar (Burma). the U. Pakistan now wants to normalize relations with India. Germany. Lockheed Martin's F-16 Fighting Falcon and Boeing's F-18 Super Hornet have already emerged as the front-runners in the competition to sell 126 fighter jets to India worth $12 billion.” President-elect Obama needs to understand the value of what President Bush has left him. Indian naval officers now speak in the Pentagon’s language of “net centric warfare. but a common cause for the Islamic terrorist movement. major airfields and ballistic missile sites. which is very important for our global interests. the Indian frigate Tabar. Petersburg. The larger gains go beyond the nuclear pact itself. a country that poses no danger to Islamabad unless provoked. “China’s expanding and improving military capabilities are changing East Asian military Obama needs to keep focused on the larger strategic importance of closer ties with New Delhi. a senior Indian Navy planner recently told Defense News. New Delhi also needs to improve its general naval capabilities. in the wake of growing unrest by the Tibetan people against Chinese oppression. Russia under Vladimir Putin has aligned Russia with China to counter American “hegemony. perspective. and to improve its military capabilities. which has included important back-channel negotiations over Kashmir. and is now looking for increased access to the American defense industry. India has found this relationship less appealing. 19. The Senate vote was 86-13. has been India’s primary source for military equipment. Mehta. tilt towards Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute. “positive for United States national security interest because it will help us cement our strategic partnership with India. need to make clear to Islamabad that the legitimacy of its claim to sovereignty over its border areas depends on preventing its territory from being used for attacks against its neighbors. For example. During his presidential campaign. India is an emerging great power in Asia whose alignment with the United States is vital to the maintenance of a balance of power favorable to American security interests.S.S. and India itself. There is already an ongoing and productive peace process. Beijing’s rapid economic rise is giving the Communist regime the means to project its power across a wide arc. Afghanistan and Kashmir are not separate issues. Astead. Obama’s thinking seems to be that to win greater Pakistani cooperation against militants in its border provinces with Afghanistan. / 74 . the larger common threat is from China.-India Agreement for Cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. Under Secretary of State Nicholas Burns said when the nuclear deal was signed that it was. An arms deal will pull the military of the two countries together and foster interoperability. The implementing legislation was signed by President Bush on Oct.frontpagemag. Peace through superior firepower. in concert with NATO and India.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. whose terrorists were waging a campaign in the Indian province of Kashmir long before 9/11. not external. Zachariah Mathews. Israel. India will have to obtain the technology and weapons systems from foreign sources to do so. India needs to match the ability of Chinese nuclear submarines to remain submerged while launching nuclear missiles. Denmark. From the Indian perspective. Ukraine. a retired Indian Navy commodore. But since the collapse of the USSR. by both aircraft and missiles. Alienating India in order to give the militants a partial victory would be a strategic disaster for the United States.” India has turned to France. http://www.aspx?ARTID=33188) From Beijing’s perspective. While the United States and India have a common enemy in radical Islam.” In the air. It also incorporates components from several other countries including Britain. 8. The way for closer ties was opened with the ratification of the U. The immediate benefit is that it boosts America’s chances in competition with Russia and France when bidding on the eight nuclear reactors India plans to import by 2012. Obama raised fears in India regarding a potential U. however.S. 8 – consultant on international economics and national security issues (William R. aiding Pakistan keeps India focused to the west. allowing the Chinese more freedom of action in Southeast Asia. For example. Rather than interfere with these discussions. should help Islamabad advance its militant demands on India.” From the U. the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal — that India needs to dominate. Russia. China is increasing its ability to launch strikes deep into India. has identified three littoral regions — the Arabian Sea. The 2008 annual report to Congress from the Office of the Secretary of Defense on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China had as its key finding. Russia. is a Russian design built in St. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari understands that the threat to the survival of his democratic government is internal. Beijing has built all-weather military roads linking army bases. which sank a pirate ship off the African coast Nov. Instead. the U. particularly during the Soviet period. better designed to service Chinese warships than the non-existent Myanmarese fleet. with both Barack Obama and Joe Biden voting with the majority (along with John McCain and Hillary Clinton).S.

which would encourage an optimistic view. the region has no history of successful multilateral security cooperation or arms control. concern. But there are a number of negative tendencies that must be of serious There are deep-seated historical. including the resurgence of economic growth and the spread of democracy. Fraud. followed by the Middle East and parts of the former Soviet Union. The Asia-Pacific region spends more on defense (about $150 billion a year) than any other part of the world except the United States and Nato Europe. ideological. Mehta. territorial. Indonesia--which is the world's fourth-largest country--faces a highly uncertain future that could lead to its breakup. 181-182) Most likely scenario for global war Dibb. India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. Asia's security is at a crossroads: the region could go in the direction of peace and cooperation.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. in Southeast Asia. There are positive tendencies. Peace through superior firepower. Asia also has more nuclear powers than any other region of the world. The strategic situation in Asia is more uncertain and potentially threatening than anywhere in Europe. Also. http://findarticles. 2 – analyst at Merchant International Group and Alan Bailey (Stuart. and religious differences in Asia. Such multilateral institutions as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the ASEAN Regional Forum have shown themselves to be ineffective when confronted with major crises. Terrorism and Other Threats to Global Business p. or it could slide into confrontation and military conflict. 1 – Professor of Security Studies at the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies (Paul. China and Japan are amongst the top four or five global military spenders. / 75 . Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2] Escalates throughout Asia Poole-Robb. it is possible to envisage war in Asia involving the major powers: remnants of Cold War ideological confrontation still exist across the Taiwan Straits and on the Korean Peninsula. Astead. and these two countries are more confrontational than at any time since the early 1970s. Risky Business: Corruption. Unlike in The areas of maximum danger and instability in the world today are in Asia.

But it would be a mistake to assume that U. Japan would have to look after its own security and build up its military capabilities. Turmoil in Asia and Europe would force major economic readjustment in the United States. and the Persian Gulf would harm the economy of the United States even in the unlikely event that it was able to avoid involvement in major wars and conflicts. the United States would deliberately risk weakening the institutions and solidarity of the world's community of democratic powers and so establishing favorable conditions for the spread of disorder and a possible return to conditions similar to those of the first half of the twentieth century. it’s key to longterm innovation and technological dominance which is the base project power. gross domestic product. Given Japanese technological prowess. Multiple scenarios for nuclear war Zalmay Khalilzad. with the domination of Europe or East Asia. That danger would only increase if the United States withdrew from the world. the West European nations might compete with each other for domination of East-Central Europe and the Middle East. prosperity. the shock of a U. Astead. The higher level of turmoil in the world would also increase the likelihood of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and means for their delivery. in the long run. increasing the risk of war between the Arabs and the Israelis. Vol. both sought regional hegemony. The extension of the region. in the past. European concerns about Germany appear exaggerated. exports and imports and jeopardizing U. 2. German efforts are likely to be aimed at filling the vacuum. U. to say nothing of the plutonium stockpile Japan has acquired in the development of its nuclear power industry. threaten world peace. Germany might seek influence over the territories located between them. Indonesia. the cost of necessary adjustments might be high. European competition for regional dominance could lead to major wars in Europe or East Asia. and hostile hegemony in East unlikely prospect -. Given a U. stabilizing the region. the weak oilrich states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) would be unlikely to retain their independence.S. The Washington balance the growing Chinese forces and still-significant Russian forces. withdrawal from the world. defense effort. a neo-isolationist approach might well increase the danger of major conflict. Pg. Such a development would threaten U. Russia.S. ‘95 Spring. Mehta. In Western and Central Europe. No. their own nuclear weapons. / 76 . investments in these regions. including the possible acquisition by Japan of nuclear weapons. the United States was but one of several major powers. Besides. rather than cooperating with each other. however. Higher oil prices would reduce the U. This could result in arms races. China. Japan is likely to increase its military capability dramatically -.S. (Former Assist Prof of Poli Sci @ Columbia). What might happen to the world if the United States turned inward? Without the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Hegemony over the Persian Gulf by either Iran or Iraq would bring the rest of the Arab Middle East under its influence and domination because of the shift in the balance of power. withdrawal is likely to lead to an intensified struggle for regional domination.S. standard of living. Now that the United States is the world's preponderant power. It could also build long-range missiles and carrier task forces. protection. Without U. it could gain a significant capability to damage the U. and world economies. In the 1920s and 1930s. The same is also true of Japan. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on STEM education key to hegemony and competitiveness. Iran and Iraq have. If either Iraq or Iran controlled the region that dominates the world supply of oil.S. 18.S. China. Europe. protection. The result would be a much more dangerous world in Peace through superior firepower.S. such a power might seek global hegemony and the United States would face another global Cold War and the risk of a world war even more catastrophic than the last.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Any country that gained hegemony would have vast economic resources at its disposal that could be used to build military capability as well as gain leverage over the United States and other oilimporting nations.S. result in the renationalization of Germany's security policy. Given the strength of democracy in Germany and its preoccupation with absorbing the former East Germany.S. Germany -. and eventually undermine U. If the United States stayed out of such a war -. U. it could obviously become a nuclear weapon state relatively quickly. A power that achieved such dominance would seek to exclude the United States from the area and threaten its interests-economic and political -. In the Persian Gulf.S. if it should so decide.S. 84 Realistically and over the longer term. At that time.S. withdrawal could not. withdrawal could be even greater. Already several rogue states such as North Korea and Iran are seeking nuclear weapons and long-range missiles. Either in cooperation or competition with Russia. and potential new regional powers such as India. require a greater U.Europe or East Asia could become dominated by a hostile power. and a united Korea could come significant risks of preventive or proeruptive war. perhaps reducing U. Korea. isolationism had disastrous consequences for world peace. perhaps by purchase. To preclude this development. Israeli security problems would multiply and the peace process would be fundamentally undermined. Similarly. With the shifting balance of power among Japan. interests. Given that total imports and exports are equal to a quarter of U.S. and the nations of Southeast Asia already fear Japanese hegemony. conflict.S. By withdrawing from Europe and Asia.especially since unification -. that’s Carafano.S. and precluding its domination by rival powers. Britain and France fear such a development. Without U.would be the natural leading power. the Saudis might seek to acquire.

Kostrinsky Wave One likelihood of their actual use would increase accordingly. Astead. including the United States. If this happened. which many states possessed WMD capabilities. the Peace through superior firepower. / 77 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. would be harmed. Mehta. the security of every nation in the world.

America also faces other challenges to its physical security and economic prosperity. In this case. The United States needs a national strategy focused upon developing new technologies and creating new industries. second.” Orbis. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg Competitiveness outweighs all other internal links Martino. There is. most obviously from Germany and Japan in the first half of the twentieth century and from the Soviet Union in the second half. Issue 2) Much of the foreign policy discussion in the United States today is focused upon the dilemma posed by the Iraq War and the threat posed by Islamist terrorism. the threat posed by our declining competitiveness in the global economy. the United States has been unique among great powers in its ability to keep on creating and recreating new technologies and new industries.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and people. government.3 Peace through superior firepower. the solution is new industries which build upon the contemporary revolution in information technology. a threat most obviously represented by such rising economic powers as China and India. generation after generation. “A Strategy for Success: Innovation Will Renew American Leadership. Crucial to America's ability to prevail over these past challenges was our technological and industrial leadership. There is therefore an urgent need for America to resume its historic emphasis on innovation.1 There is. They are almost certainly what America will have to pursue in order to prevail over the contemporary challenges involving economic competitiveness and energy dependence. Every successful strategy must define an objective or mission.2 The United States of course faced great challenges to its security and economy in the past. both immediate and important. These problems are. and the means of execution will have to include a partnership of industry. determine a solution. Mehta. these two threats are increasingly connected. However. 7 – Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute (Rocco. Perpetual innovation and technological leadership might even be said to be the American way of maintaining primacy in world affairs. the threat posed by our increasing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East. Moreover. of course. and assemble the means of execution. / 78 . the objective is economic superiority. Indeed. Volume 51. first. as China and India themselves are greatly increasing their demand for Middle East oil. and these are more long-term and probably more profound. and especially our ability to continuously recreate it.

Peace through superior firepower.8 has extensively documented the critical situation in U. economy becomes even more reliant on workers with greater knowledge and technological expertise. The United States is at such a critical point in our own history. growing competition from other countries for the same foreign talent and the technological capacity for foreign talent to work in their home countries — have underscored the need for greater scientific and technological self-sufficiency in our country. If we wait for a dramatic event — a 21st-century version of Sputnik — it will be too late. research and education. engineering and mathematics. The United States has always welcomed the best and brightest from other countries to study and work here. and by their own desire to escape totalitarian regimes and live in a free society. to soaring numbers of students in Asia majoring in these fields. Rather.1 million high school seniors in the United States who took a college entrance exam in 2002. since 1970.S.” http://www.046 percent) as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP). Virtually every major respected organization representing business. We cannot and should not.11 Student achievement: In a recent international assessment of 15-year-olds' math problem-solving skills. economic growth by as much as a half percentage point a year.pdf) Almost 50 years ago. American industry has become increasingly dependent — some would say overly dependent — on foreign nationals to fill the demand for talent in a variety of fields that require strong backgrounds in science.093 percent to 0.9 but it also offers lucrative tax breaks to attract companies to conduct research and development (R&D) in the Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. engineering and mathematics. A number of developments — including heightened security after September 11. such as patents and scientific articles. rely so heavily on foreign talent to fill critical positions in teaching. funding for basic research in the physical sciences has declined by half (from 0. There may be no attack. “Tapping America’s Potential. The indicators range from measurable declines in U. Mehta.13 Investment in basic research: In the United States.7 Today.S. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness STEM education key to the economy and competitiveness Archey et al.10 Interest in engineering: Out of the 1.tap2015. a gradual decline. President Eisenhower signed into law the National Defense Education Act. as the U. just under 6 percent indicated plans to pursue a degree in engineering — nearly a 33 percent decrease in interest from the previous decade. as well as government science and statistics agencies and commissions.S. Foreign competition: China not only graduates four times as many engineers as the United States. Employers are increasingly interested in hiring people who not only can execute well but also can create the next wave of innovation. the American education system provided a substantial part of the talent and proficiency needed to sustain and improve our way of life. research and industry. Astead. selfdetermined choices.S. technology.14 For most of the 20th century. Today. 5 – Former President and CEO. if less visible. History is replete with examples of world economies that once were dominant but declined because of myopic. Less than a year later. The U. students' lagging interest and measured performance in math and science. One of the pillars of American economic prosperity — our scientific and technological superiority — is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own human capital. the first Earth orbit satellite. many foreign scientists were attracted to pursue research in the United States by the American scientific enterprise's top-notch facilities and financial support. there will be a slow withering. response was immediate and dramatic.S.12 This is not surprising when nearly 70 percent of middle school students are assigned to teachers who lack a major and certification in mathematics. the United States had the smallest percentage of top performers and the largest percentage of low performers compared to the other participating developed countries. our nation faces a more serious. a widening gap between a complacent America and countries with the drive. the Soviet Union shocked Americans by launching Sputnik.S. In addition. math and engineering. science. the domestic supply of qualified workers is not keeping up with the skill demands. and we should continue to do so. / 79 . to U. a business and technology advocacy group (William T. however. AeA. challenge. no catastrophe that will suddenly demonstrate the threat. innovation. however. commitment and vision to take our place. In the face of the declining interest and proficiency of Americans in science. no moment of epiphany. One economist estimates that “trailing other developed countries on education measures may reduce U. technology.”15 All projections suggest that the discrepancy between supply and demand of domestic talent will grow more pronounced. a major part of the effort to restore America's scientific pre-eminence.

and co-chairman of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.S. we must build on the success of such schools and commit to an ambitious national agenda for education. http://www. Our schools can do better. and our primary and secondary schools were long considered the world's best. we must foster an environment that enables a new generation to dream up innovations. / 80 .washingtonpost. project-centered curriculum. The writer is chairman of Microsoft This combination is working: 100 percent of High Tech High graduates are accepted into college. Mehta. U. The most important factor is our workforce. If the United States is to remain a global economic leader. companies. Scientists and engineers trained in U. universities -. Education has always been the gateway to a better life in this country. Companies must advocate for strong education policies and work with schools to foster interest in science and mathematics and to provide an education that is relevant to the needs of business.S. we must demand strong schools so that young Americans enter the workforce with the math. creating industries and generating millions of highpaying jobs. the world benefits as more people acquire the skills needed to foster innovation. I visited High Tech High in San Diego. Other governments are waking up to the vital role innovation plays in competitiveness. Last year. On the contrary. Talent in this country is not the problem -.S. His wife is a director of The Washington Post Co. To remain competitive in the global economy. regardless of where they were born. it's an amazing school where educators have augmented traditional teaching methods with a rigorous.S. high school students ranked 24th out of 29 industrialized nations surveyed.the issue is political will. We must also make it easier for foreign-born scientists and engineers to work for U. Innovation is the source of U.S. This is not to say that the growing economic importance of countries such as China and India is bad. Peace through superior firepower. Two steps are critical. But our status as the world's center for new ideas cannot be taken for granted. U. Contrast that with the national average of 17 percent. First. Government and businesses can both play a role. strong intellectual property laws and efficient capital markets are among the reasons that America has for decades been best at transforming new ideas into successful businesses. (…) During the past 30 years. economic leadership and the foundation for our competitiveness in the global economy. 7 (Bill. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness Education key to competitiveness – outweighs other internals Gates. Today we know that these elements are outweighed by a single critical factor: innovation. science and problem-solving skills they need to succeed in the knowledge economy. Government investment in research. and 29 percent major in math or science. Students there know they're expected to go on to college. innovation has been the catalyst for the digital information revolution. Government must work with educators to reform schools and improve educational excellence.the world's best -have pioneered key technologies such as the microprocessor. we need a workforce that consists of the world's brightest minds. But if we are to remain competitive.html) For centuries people assumed that economic growth resulted from the interplay between capital and labor. But on an international math test in 2003.

com/pdf/CTE%20white%20paper.pdf) While the workplace has brought increasingly rigorous academic and technology-related skill requirements as criteria for career success. these success stories are more random local acts of excellence than systemic initiatives across the national CTE landscape. / 81 . The salient points. however. or student-to-teacher ratio reduction. and widely replicable. Therefore. 2 – President of the International Center for Leadership in Education (Willard R. some wonderful success stories have emerged out of CTE’s extensive reform efforts over the last several years. all with the goal of raising students’ academic achievement.400 pages. are fairly straightforward. etc. Part H of NCLB and is designed to support activities that prevent school dropouts and support former students’ reentry into schools. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education. This proficiency will be measured in large part by satisfactory performance – including demonstrable improvement – on state tests in reading. and for implementation of strategies for school dropout prevention and reentry. but also to the academic proficiencies of served student populations on state academic tests — if CTE is to remain a viable program in our secondary schools. writing. low socioeconomic status. Unfortunately. mathematics. The NCLB legislation totals more than 1. Jason.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.leadered. and mathematics and soon thereafter in science • beginning in 2002-03. and NCLB recognizes this concept. such strategies may include “approaches such as breaking larger schools down into smaller learning communities and other comprehensive reform approaches. Peace through superior firepower. counseling atrisk students. Among other things. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves Integrating CTE into No Child Left Behind expands job training Daggett. Integration of the two works – dropouts clause proves Phelps. these strategies must be scientifically based.” International Center for Leadership in Education. creating alternative school programs. and developing clear linkages to career skills and employment. Solution: No CTE Program Left Behind Fortunately. “The Future of Career and Technical Education.” As with other parts of NCLB. and science • any school that does not achieve AYP for all students two years in a row will face serious consequences from both state and federal authorities. ethnic minorities. all students must reach a specified proficiency level in reading. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. LEP. it is more essential than ever for career and technical education to be able to prove that it contributes not just to the applied workplace competency demands of business. sustainable. They are: • by 2004-05. writing. by gender. Resources can be used to collect data on the effectiveness of programs in preventing dropouts. for professional development.” July 2002) Career technical education has long claimed that its programs can be used as a strategy in preventing school dropouts. Mehta.) where all students are today and then demonstrate adequate yearly progress (AYP) for each subgroup for each of the next 12 years until they all achieve 100 percent proficiency. Astead. No Child Left Behind will bring enormous pressures from within the test-driven education system to raise the proficiency standards for all students. remedial education. schools must identify for nine subgroups (students with disabilities. http://www. The Dropout Prevention Act can be found in Title I. this will raise the anxiety level of all administrators dramatically.

for states with data available. Accountability. and Elena Rocha. the differences in scores. Peace through superior firepower. Some states reporting gains from 2003 to 2005 on their own tests had declining rates of proficiency on NAEP. and 50 definitions of proficiency.” November 2005. Creating a single set of standards would ensure that all students were given the same opportunity to learn to a high standard no matter where they reside and allow for meaningful comparisons of student academic achievement across states.nspe. and benchmarks for academic achievement in math and science across states—more than 50 different sets of academic standards. Mehta. While some states have high expectations of their students and therefore high standards for their performance. “Almost twenty states have reported gains from 2003 to 2005 in the percentage of eighth-graders rated “proficient” (or the equivalent) in reading on their own state tests. overall progress on NAEP is. state and national levels. Consequently. 50 state assessments. math. But the establishment and implementation of national standards and the testing and reporting of student achievement in two or three core subjects like reading. standards. 5 – Fellow @ the Center for American Progress. however.html) Align. “The Case for National Standards. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good National standard resolves education shortfalls Brown. Among those states. when comparing 2005 state and NAEP data). A state with high content standards may have student performance scores that appear low (or even high if student proficiency cut scores are set low). state testing results really tell the public little about how schools are performing and progressing. The No Child Left Behind Act allows for great variability in the measures. / 82 . STEM Support Grows" # The Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for Kids (SPEAK) Act would create. Creating a single set of standards is the only way to improve academic achievement PE Magazine. others choose not to aim as high. July 09 .” (See Chart 5 which highlights the largest differences in proficiency results. Today. (See Chart 6. This progress is just not verified by NAEP. reporting of state assessment results are misleading. Astead. adopt. As the Thomas B. and implement a set of core education content standards in math and science in grades K–12 and give states incentives to voluntarily adopt them. the more troubling story is the contrasting progress reported by most states. and Fiscal Equity. relate to how high states set their standards. http://www.) As noted above.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. only three show any progress at even the “basic” level on the latest National Assessment of Educational Progress….pdf) As disappointing as the minimal. in fact. Fellow @ the Center for American Progress (Cindy.americanprogress. Fordham Foundation has pointed out. and science would provide the public with a much more accurate picture of how United States’ students are progressing nationally and state-by. More whereas a state with lower standards can report higher levels of academic achievement among their students.state. None of these states made any progress in eighth grade reading at NAEP's “proficient” level. which can be drastic.National Society of Professional Engineers ("NSPE TODAY: POLICY PERSPECTIVES As Stars http://www. they provide the public with a false sense of the condition of education at the local.

” 4/18. and those gaps have grown to unprecedented levels since the federal No Child Left Behind Act became law in 2002. Kentucky. Astead. they are finding inventive ways of showing higher test scores. lexis) Far greater shares of students are proficient on state reading and mathematics tests than on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. a congressionally mandated program that tests a representative sample of students in every state. 7 (“Gaps in Proficiency Levels on State Tests And NAEP Found to Grow. according to the researchers. New Jersey. Mehta. "So. Critics have suggested that. grew or remained the same from 2002 to 2006. a nonprofit research group based at the University of California. "State leaders are under enormous pressure to show that students are making progress. / 83 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The researchers compiled state and federal testing results for the period 1992 to 2006 from 12 states: Arkansas. Nebraska. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good National standards key to check achievement gaps Education Week." said Bruce Fuller. California. states must give reading and math tests annually in grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. the law is encouraging states to lower the bar for passing state tests or otherwise adjust their definition of "proficiency" downward in order to avoid identifying too many schools as missing their targets." Under the federal law. Those findings call into question whether the state-reported gains are real or illusory. Texas. was released here April 10 during the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. rather than raising academic standards. Massachusetts. a professor of education and public policy at Berkeley who led the study. a study released last week concludes. A similar widening occurred between state and federal gauges of math performance in eight of 12 states. with the target rising to 100 percent proficiency in 201314. Oklahoma. The study by Policy Analysis for California Education. and Washington. In all but two states--Arkansas and Massachusetts--the disparity between the share of students proficient on state reading tests and on NAEP. Illinois. North Carolina. Berkeley. Iowa. Schools and districts that do not meet annual targets for the percentage of students who score proficient on those exams face an escalating series of federal sanctions. Peace through superior firepower.

The expenditure base at each school incorporates a minimum 2 percent hold-back as a contingency if state funds are LAKE WALES .560 per student The student count for all six schools increased . Lake Wales High School is expected to see a decrease of 27 students and Babson Park Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 14 students. are estimated to decrease 14 percent. Employer retirement rates for the Florida retirement system will not change from last year for eligible employees.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Hillcrest Elementary is expected to see a decrease of only three students while Janie Howard Wilson Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 48 students. 6/16 (Shelly. "That's what helped us this year. ROTC and Title 1 funds (given to schools with high numbers of low-income students). there will not be any salary increases for Lake Wales Charter Schools employees next year. http://www. Polk Avenue Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 35 students. / 84 . Florida Newspaper. Bok Academy will see about 145 more students next year as the school expands. Astead. News Chief. Health insurance is budgeted for a 7 percent increase. Peace through superior firepower. Mehta." The expenditure base and special revenue funds program revenue.With a decrease in student funding. The schools held back 2 percent from the current budget year as well. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Title I Key Title I funding is key – low levels are killing school effectiveness and leading to teacher lay-offs Goodrin. "It's consistent with what the county is seeing across the board.newschief. but employees will be able to choose from dual plan options for medical and dental insurance.5 percent from last year's count." Ullman said. which includes funds from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).810 to $3. State reductions from the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) will decrease from $3. "We had that 2 percent hold-back and we come to the end of the year and didn't need it." said Lake Wales Charter Schools Board Chairman David Ullman. though all but one school is seeing a decrease in

powerful teacher unions. 4 (Mark.dtic. it is not surprising that parts of the education industry have not fully embraced this initiative. and the emerging demographic shifts in the US. The need to overcome them. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key Need to address low-income education – key to overall workforce McGuire. these groups are playing a growing role within America’s economy and national security. however. Educators and government officials who champion the need to improve minority student achievement often do so by pointing to the need for equity among the entire population and by recognizing that poor education is largely responsible for social ills such as poverty and crime. and report the performance of virtually every student. is greater than ever because of globalization’s explosive economic competition. Colonel in the US Army. whereas these challenges have merely represented obstacles or socioeconomic nuances in the past. however. Poor achievement among minority students is the most publicized and among the most important challenges. The most important challenges are poor achievement among minority students. assess. shortages of graduates with advanced science and math skills. With an undertaking of this size. This law pushes states to monitor. that makes this challenge even more worth confronting: the percentage of Hispanics and African Americans making up the US population is increasing. An essay on page 18 further describes the importance of learning standards. whether it is through their economic participation in the US workforce or through their direct service in the US Armed Services. the rapid race to stay at the forefront of advancing technologies. and school-choice issues.xxxiii The challenge is to stay focused on the end goal. and identify further actions that will raise the level of traditionally low-performing students. while others are relatively new. There is another reason. The need for these groups to improve cannot be overstated. Some have existed for many years. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. make reasonable adjustments to the law when necessary. and to take action to raise the achievement of those students who fall short of the learning standards. Astead.pdf) The education industry faces several challenges. low teacher retention.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 85 .mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. Moreover. The US government is currently addressing this challenge through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. to hold the schools and their leaders accountable. they now have clear national security implications. http://www.xxxii As a result.

/ 86 . incarceration rates among young black males have soared — so much so that a staggering 60 percent of black male dropouts now have served time in prison by the time they are in their midthirties. 11) Yet for all the progress of the last century. in Poli Sci @ Amherst (David.” 1 Peace through superior firepower.S. Sweating the Small Stuff: Inner-City Schools and the New Paternalism.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. 8 – covered social policy for U. In few areas of American life are the country’s professed ideals so at odds with reality. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation Moral obligation for low-income education Whitman. B.A. his landmark study of race relations. News & World Report for nearly two decades. Astead. former researcher/teacher @ the John F. when college is often a prerequisite for obtaining a decent job in the global economy. the central problem facing American high schools in 2008 is still the problem of the color line — and the premier civil rights issue of the day is arguably the achievement gap. In the modern era. A school record that was good enough to land a well-paid factory job a quarter century ago is no longer good enough. As Gunnar Myrdal observed as far back as 1944 in An American Dilemma. Today. “Education has always been the great hope for both individual and society. education is more critical than ever to ensuring equal opportunity for disadvantaged black and Hispanic students. This ongoing failure to deliver equal educational opportunities to poor black and Hispanic youth is not just an economic and personal tragedy but a moral problem as well. And even as urban crime rates have plunged during the last 15 years. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. nearly three out of four young black men who have dropped out of high school are jobless. In the American Creed it has been the main ground upon which ‘equality of opportunity’ and ‘free outlet for ability’ could be based. pg.

suicides. gain control over their lives. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. 1954-1973). concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. executions. compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. for they are inextricably related to each other. / 87 . thermonuclear and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. standpoint. in effect. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. or lethal is moot. of course. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. especially a psychological theory. and Peace through superior firepower. whereas murders.S. such as . 1939-1945). and about their families and friends. Astead. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths.S. suicide. which continues year after year. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. and human. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. These are not acts of God.000) deaths). During the past decade. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. rather than sporadically. even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. 96 [James. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). unending. Hearing about their lives. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. Any theory of violence. capital punishment. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. Poverty outweighs nuclear war Gilligan. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. every fifteen years. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place.S. Study. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps 575. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. and to broaden the range of available options (UNESCO 1997). Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on Education is the instrumental tool in alleviating poverty Khan and Williams. (232 million). because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously.u21global. This is. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. a key ingredient for the maintenance of economic Despite the inherent difficulties in quantifying the real contribution of education to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or other national income aggregates. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. in fact accelerating. and so on. and the U. they found that including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. 6 (Habibullah and Jeremy. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. or genocide. Mehta. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. political parties. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. Education is recognized as a basic human right and it is closely linked to virtually all dimensions of development economic. It is also a key factor in improving the quality of governance that has a significant impact on national income. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. When they 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. the equivalent of an ongoing. http://www. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. The relationship between education and poverty is quite clear. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. dangerous. which means they are less likely to be marginalized within society at large. on the average. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. Education empowers a person and it helps them to become more proactive. or human. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. In other words.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. * Structural violence is normally invisible. soldiers in warfare. professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. as cause to effect. throughout the world. *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. educated people have higher earning potential and are better able to improve the quality of their lives. wars. social. it has always been considered a powerful instrument for reducing poverty and inequality through productivity enhancement which is. Kohler and Alcock the deaths we attribute to homicide. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three major respects attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic inequities on a worldwide basis. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. U21 Global Poverty Center.

Mehta.quickanded. and that all Black people should reject segregation absolutely and nonviolently. "When America faced a crisis in race relations and civil rights in 1957. Solutions must do one of two things. 62 percent of whites attend a school where the student body is more than 75 percent white. about a third of black and Hispanic children attend a high-poverty school. such as providing incentives for effective teachers to work in them. And over the past 50th years.php?viewStory=215) "This is a critical time for America. Astead. “The Condition of Education: Economic and Racial Segregation. 8 (The Louisiana Weekly. The latter would suggest focusing more resources and attention on these schools. Segregation is racist and an independent D-rule TLW. The Supreme Court has ruled that even non-binding race windows are unconstitutional in school assignment plans. while only four percent of white children and 13 percent of Asian/ Pacific Islanders do. Since 1990. Either they must attempt to address large-scale housing and location decisions that are the basis for school segregation in the first place. or they must ignore the problem entirely and address the symptoms. that segregation must end. head on. who attend a high-poverty school. highminority schools. It is a critical time for Black America. bachelor's degree from the University of Iowa and a master's of public policy degree from the College of William and Mary (Chad.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. by" said Steele. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on Status quo education policies are equivalent to segregation Adleman. the percentage of students attending a school with a minority population comprising at least 75 percent of the student body has risen from 16 to 24. The one at left looks at the percentage of students. Efforts to integrate by economic factors face their own complications. schools will be powerless to counter prevailing societal living patterns. 5/28 – Policy Analyst @ Education Sector. defined as a school where 75 percent of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch.” http://www. only four percent of black and six percent of Hispanic children attend low-poverty schools. Without such efforts. Nationwide. not least of which is the flight of effective teachers out of low-income. The former would require localities to emphasize mixed-use neighborhoods and other zoning tools to address de facto segregation. These numbers are in part a reflection of growing segregation in our nation's schools. Peace through superior firepower. defined as schools with ten percent or less of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. By contrast.louisianaweekly. some of the nation's most distinguished Black religious leaders came together to lead our country through difficult times and to encourage our people to fight for equality and justice. / 88 . These conditions will not likely be addressed through school assignment Over the next few days I'll highlight some of the charts and tables I found most interesting. A third of all black and Hispanic students attend such schools. we've gained strength to have an even greater impact. SCLC today fulfills that same role. rather than the problem itself. http://www." Those leaders issued a document declaring that civil rights are essential to .

/ 89 . Peace through superior firepower. 8 – covered social policy for U. A disheartening 30 percent of African-American males in their mid-thirties who did not attend college now have prison records. Nearly half of black students nationwide and about 40 percent of Hispanic students attend those 2. of the costly toll of the achievement gap. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. About 2. Sweating the Small Stuff: Inner-City Schools and the New Paternalism. In fact. where many black male dropouts eventually turn to crime. But a stunning 60 percent of all black male high school dropouts in their mid-thirties have prison records — a grim measure. News & World Report for nearly two decades. Mehta. former researcher/teacher @ the John F. During much of the last century. black educational attainment rose dramatically.” and they remain the locus of the nation’s dropout problem. the black high school dropout rate stopped plummeting. where 60 to 80 percent of students typically fail to get a diploma in four years. pgs.000 failing high schools. These dropout rates are even worse in urban schools in high-poverty neighborhoods. while nearly eight out of ten white students graduate with a high school diploma in four years. only 58 percent of Hispanics and 53 percent of blacks graduate on time.000 of the more than 20.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.A. in Poli Sci @ Amherst (David. Education Week’s June 2007 “Diplomas Count” report shows that.000 high schools in the United States produce almost half of the nation’s dropouts.S. High school dropouts have a particularly devastating impact in poor black communities. if ever there was one. 14-15) The second factor feeding current disparities in achievement — this time at the end of the educational pipeline — is the high dropout rates of black and Latino students. B. by some measures black and Latino students are less likely to graduate from high school in a timely fashion today than in 1990. These inner-city schools have been likened to “dropout factories. But in the last 15 years. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on Low-income schools have high drop-out rates Whitman.

Thus. “The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind?” http://www cpr. rather than raising academic standards.syr. The researchers compiled state and federal testing results for the period 1992 to 2006 from 12 states: Arkansas. 7 (“Gaps in Proficiency Levels on State Tests And NAEP Found to Grow. In Critics have suggested that. they are finding inventive ways of showing higher test scores. Kentucky. California. Figure 1 compares the intermediate targets and actual performance levels for Kansas and Missouri. States are provided a fair amount of discretion in defining the level of performance that is “proficient.maxwell. "State leaders are under enormous pressure to show that students are making progress. Peace through superior firepower. lexis) Far greater shares of students are proficient on state reading and mathematics tests than on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. and William Duncombe. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom State policies under NCLB cause achievement gaps Education Week. with the target rising to 100 percent proficiency in 201314. To highlight differences in the stringency of accountability standards. states must give reading and math tests annually in grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. Schools and districts that do not meet annual targets for the percentage of students who score proficient on those exams face an escalating series of federal sanctions. Ryan 2003). Berkeley.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. A similar widening occurred between state and federal gauges of math performance in eight of 12 states. / 90 .3 While for both states the average student was well above these targets through 2004. Vagueness of “proficiency” causes a race to the bottom Yinger. Those findings call into question whether the state-reported gains are real or illusory. and Washington. Iowa. a study released last week concludes. In all but two states--Arkansas and Massachusetts--the disparity between the share of students proficient on state reading tests and on NAEP. Astead. 6 – Professor of Public Administration and Economics @ Syracuse. Nebraska. Texas. the average proficiency rate in Missouri was less than 40 percent of the rate in Kansas. a congressionally mandated program that tests a representative sample of students in every state. "So. Illinois. Professor of Public Administration @ Syracuse. North Carolina." Under the federal law." said Bruce Fuller. a nonprofit research group based at the University of California. Kansas set the proficiency level for its students at about 50 percent compared to 13 percent in Missouri. the law is encouraging states to lower the bar for passing state tests or otherwise adjust their definition of "proficiency" downward in order to avoid identifying too many schools as missing their targets. New Jersey. a professor of education and public policy at Berkeley who led the study. according to the researchers. The study by Policy Analysis for California Education.” 4/18. Associate Professor of Public Administration @ UNLV (John.” and in setting intervening performance targets for the years leading up to 2013-14. Massachusetts. states have an incentive to set low proficiency levels and to backload the required proficiency improvements over the 12-year period (Kim and Sunderman 2004. and Anna Lukemeyer.pdf) NCLB sets as its target that all students reach proficiency on these measures by 2013-14. was released here April 10 during the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. grew or remained the same from 2002 to 2006. and those gaps have grown to unprecedented levels since the federal No Child Left Behind Act became law in 2002. Oklahoma. Mehta.

064 per pupil. and Anna Lukemeyer. 6 – Professor of Public Administration and Economics @ Syracuse. and William Duncombe. Depending on assumptions about inefficiency. Astead.pdf) Another important issue for evaluating either a state accountability system or NCLB is that districts with a high concentration of disadvantaged students cannot be expected to achieve the same level of student performance as other districts unless they receive additional resources. In a study on costs of implementing NCLB in Texas. “The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind?” http://www cpr. / 91 . Peace through superior firepower.4 billion of additional spending.syr. which can potentially lead to a number of perverse incentives (Ryan 2003). Associate Professor of Public Administration @ UNLV (John.maxwell. Professor of Public Administration @ Syracuse. the potential cost increases to state governments to provide adequate resources to high-need districts could be large enough to dominate other types of costs. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools Low-income schools get harsher sanctions under NCLB – hurts education Yinger. Imazeki and Reschovsky (2006) estimate that meeting AYP associated with a passing rate of 70 percent would require $4. Driscoll and Fleeter (2003) estimate that “intervention costs” represent over 95 percent of additional costs from NCLB and average $760 per student. or $1. In a recent analysis for Ohio. schools with many disadvantaged students generally face harsher sanctions than other schools (Kim and Sunderman 2004).Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Under NCLB.

Mehta. 2004). the end results often create a difficult circumstance.” http://scholar. Sunderman. Astead.lib. 2003). These high-stakes assessments are used for making important decisions about students. an increase in stress and decrease in morale were also factors noted by teachers and students. Plake. Vogler.. & Madaus. The study also indicates that teachers sacrifice good teaching practices by focusing on test-taking strategies and studying the content mirrored on state tests. including decisions about promotion to the next grade level. Neill. frequent low performance on high-stakes testing may result in dropping out of high school (Harvey & Koch. assessments may have high-stakes for schools because of their inability to demonstrate progress and may result in state intervention or full state control over school administrators. in-grade retention. In a review of the literature on teacher perceptions of the increase in testing. Tracey. In a review of the literature. For students. Peace through superior firepower. 28 states will enact a requirement for their students to pass a state-mandated assessment to meet their graduation requirements (Vogler. 2003. 2002). the overwhelming perceptions among teachers are negative (Abrams. 2006). therefore making the assessment high-stakes. 2004). assessment experts tend to disagree with using one assessment to make multiple decisions such as indicating the performance of students. Pedulla. assessments are considered high-stakes depending on the level of consequences. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – High-Stakes State policies under NCLB are high-stakes – decreases teaching quality and causes drop-outs Fletcher. 2004).Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.pdf) Another issue regarding raising standards by testing is that some high schools set a cutoff score for their students and require that they meet or exceed it to warrant a diploma. making decisions regarding the future of schools and students. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. and assisting in revamping instructional methods (Goertz & Duffy. A nationwide survey disseminated by the National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy found that the increase in testing students contradicts teachers’ perspectives of administering proper educational practices (Abrams et al. In 2008. This appears to be the consensus among current research (Herman & Dietel. / 92 . Austin and Mahlman (2002) point out two dilemmas that involve high-stakes assessment: (a) the current educational policies (such as NCLB) and public expectations of the assessments often outweigh the capabilities of the assessments. In addition. 2003). 2004. & Orfield. Neill. According to Goertz and Duffy (2003). 2004). The intended purpose of using high-stakes testing is to ensure accountability among all students and schools. and (b) the fairness of the assessment and the long-lasting affects of categorizing students based on their performance is debatable and problematic. 2005. 2003. 2006. 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. Kim. resulting in utilizing the assessments for invalid uses. in seven states will place student scores on transcripts or diplomas (Goertz & Duffy. and graduating from high school (Harvey & Koch. yet.vt.

including the loss of their students to other schools. not advanced students. an education research center. The timing couldn't be worse for school districts.0. I asked them: "So how was it?"They rolled their eyes. I once was a soccer coach of a very bright group of third-grade girls. Now the state and federal measuring sticks are being combined. than an A student into an A+ student. "Borrring!"How much time had these smart kids spent prepping for a test that basically is designed to measure minimum standards? Is it relevant for them? Could that time be better spent on other pursuits? Fordham shed more light on its study with a teacher survey. In it. / 93 .column) No Child Left Behind is leaving a most unlikely group of kids behind — the smart ones. Astead. Faced with massive budget cuts. Orlando Sentinel (Mike. Those schools that continually fail to do so could be taken over by the state. This means more pressure on schools to elevate struggling students. they are being put in the position of rationing education. The lowest 10 percent did a lot better. http://www. There also is a growing emphasis on dropout prevention. are their top priority. But this came with a consequence.orlandosentinel. who tend to be low-income minority kids." the report states. with their administrative staffs and teachers thrown out. a strong majority of teachers agreed that "struggling students. And that should worry you if you have a smart kid in school because Florida is adopting the federal law. the highest 10 percent made "minimal gains.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Schools that fail to educate them face sanctions. examined standardized test scores between 2000 and 2007. Even before the financial crisis. The report revealed that schools did increase math and reading scores for low-performers. Peace through superior firepower. This is separate from Florida's accountability system. meaning more resources thrown at those students who often are least interested in taking advantage of them. which grades schools based on FCAT scores.6352426. No Child Left Behind closely tracks progress made by low-performing students. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone NCLB spills over – decreases overall education quality Thomas." The struggling students receive much more oneon-one time in the classroom. Last year. Mehta. It's not hard to figure where they will direct limited resources when they get more credit for turning an F student into a D student. this dynamic was taking thomas-smart-kids-0070509jul05. No Child Left Behind was passed in 2002. "While the nation's lowest-achieving youngsters made rapid gains from 2000 to 2007. 7/5 – Columnist. the pattern was evident in states using standardized testing and accountability."The report noted that even before No Child Left Behind was passed. The evening after they took the FCAT for the first time. the performance of top students was languid.I've had my own doubts about this. the Fordham Institute.

M. and from claims of insufficient resources and funding to lack of parental involvement. Across the country.philly. need more than just reformation .” http://www.html) JOHN Chubb's recent op-ed "21st-century School Reform" failed to mention that while city schools have improved overall in standardized test scores. 6/29 (A. victims of an education system that has become not only broken but immobile. Mehta. “Real education reform: Start with a teardown. As the pendulum of blame for this failure swings back and forth from lawmakers and administrators to teachers. as in just about every other big city.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. politicians. Despite their best efforts. Peace through superior firepower. public schools. Astead. These numbers hardly constitute the success Chubb claims for the Philadelphia school district or its private management companies. teachers. / 94 . 51 percent of 11th-graders still tested below basic proficiency in math and 41 percent were below in reading (2008 PSSA results).com/dailynews/opinion/20090629_Real_education_reform__Start_with_a_teardown.they need a revolution. from teachers to tests. slipping further and further behind. The public schools in Philadelphia. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good NCLB fails – can’t even increase ELA and math scores Eastman. as well as for the educators charged with enforcing the NCLB policies. major school reforms have failed to yield astounding results. The guarantees of greater accountability for student learning and for the improvement of sub-par public schools promised by the Bush administration's No Child Left Behind legislation have created what has proved to be an insurmountable challenge for federal and state governments. the children in our urban schools continue to languish. administrators and even private management companies are still continuing to fail urban students and their families.

NAEP's independent governing board has identified performance standards that it calls "achievement levels" ( 9 (Nonresident Senior Fellow. Mehta. There is no doubt that NAEP's curriculum frameworks represent national content and performance standards that are credible with educators and the public. / 95 .aspx) At the same time that we have low national standards in common use. federally funded examination of a national sample of students in the fourth. below basic). “50 States. basic. An education historian and former assistant secretary of education for research. and twelfth grades—are based on rigorous. we have high national standards at hand for specific. Diane Ravitch specializes in education policy issues such as standards and testing. eighth. which is closely aligned with the core issues in the national history standards. high national standards are already available. While the nation was in an uproar about the proposed national history standards. and the governance of education. Astead. 50 Standards: The Continuing Need for National Voluntary Standards in Education” http://www. challenging content standards in every subject area. Peace through superior firepower. NAEP assessed a broad cross-section of American students using its own carefully developed curriculum framework. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse NAEP is much more accurate Ravitch. Government Studies. even as we fret about our inability to figure out how to develop good ones. Questions on the National Assessment of Educational Progress—the congressionally mandated. proficient. July 9th. Even as we debate whether we should have any national standards.brookings.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. important purposes.

tnr. Astead. The standards could meet their demise It's been a very public demonstration that some states are asking more or less of kids. they're going to have a lot more kids failing and looking bad.aspx) Several education experts I've spoken to this week say Duncan's support is needed. . there's much to be excited about with regard to the project and Duncan's approach to it. Peace through superior firepower." Petrilli says. the committee is working behind closed doors and disconcerting some with its lack of transparency: The names of the experts haven't been released. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests. if the committee doesn't have a good mechanism for reviewing and incorporating recommendations. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards." says Andrew Rotherham of Education Sector (who has an interesting post about the standards push here). vice president for national programs and policy at the Thomas B. in http://blogs." Needs federal money Darby. Fordham Institute. For one thing. the states have to agree to adopt the standards.tnr. Not by a long shot. who knows if it will be enough money. Jennings notes that Duncan should view the 1990s as a cautionary tale: Both George H. Mehta. because of very public.. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. He's removed a major obstacle. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards.. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward. There's an extra sense of urgency that we're slipping economically and that could be in part because we're slipping academically. It's clear to governors and business leaders that other countries are doing better than the United States. particularly because they are in dire straits [because of the economic crisis]. But the question remains: Will it actually work? Several people I spoke with aren't swooning just yet." Jennings says. "The politics are going to be in states with low standards that know if they sign on to high standards. and. Among other problems. "It's the mush that is ineffective. Once the draft standards are released. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. president and CEO of the Center for Education Policy." He suggests--as many education experts do--that Congress reevaluate and revise NCLB to make it a better law that doesn't support what Duncan calls "the race to the bottom. Bush and Bill Clinton kicked off efforts to define standards at the national level and were cut off by Congress. Then.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. "There are too many incentives to keep the bar low. states are encouraged. And that's where politics will really come in: Under NCLB." Petrilli explains. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog. "He certainly shouldn't dictate the content of standards." But these factors don't mean the standards project will be a success. it seems. embarrassing evidence that current education standards don't work. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA) NGA proposal is a joke Darby." Still. says Mike Petrilli. the committee will need to be clear about how a final proposal will be formulated--who exactly will make the decision of what to send to the states. some of the biggest names in education are also skeptical." What's more. http://blogs." Jennings says. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. "We've had seven years of experience under No Child Left Behind with widely varying state standards. to keep their achievement standards weak because they don't want their students and schools labeled as failing. and there hasn't been a concerted effort to get input from education interest groups. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog. in many ways. but he can help the states with finding the money to develop the tests. "you're going to be hearing from every corner of society. "You'll get standards that are impossible to teach.W. / 96 ." says Jack Jennings. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward. which favored maintaining the autonomy of the states over education policy. States have agreed to participate in the NGA-CCSSO project. or if it tries to split the difference by including what all or most parties want in the proposal-making it too expansive.aspx) Indeed. "The other thing that's different is the economic crisis. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards.

students stack up against those of other countries. the Council of Chief State School Officers and not-for-profits ACT (American College Test Program). Advocates see common standards as key to bolstering school curricula and ensuring that education systems are capable of producing a competitive workforce that must increasingly face off against workers in other countries. Mehta. executive director of the Institute for a Competitive Workforce.S. / 97 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. giving educators a clear view of how U. What has come with the global economy is global competition. The college and career-ready standards will be based in part on input from major employers and workforce development boards. the College Board and Achieve.html) The Education Department is committing $350 million of the $4. Peace through superior firepower.kiplinger. The effort to establish common standards for math and English is led by the National Governors Association. We are not just competing with the person next door or in the next state but with those in other countries.S. “It is much more important for Americans to understand where we fall against other countries. There’s also a push to benchmark the standards to international ones.” says Lydia Logan. Chamber of Commerce.” http://www. a nonprofit affiliate of the U. “Education Reform: Obama Ups the Ante.35 billion to help create common standards. 7/7 – Researcher for the Kiplinger Letters (Jonathan Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants) It’s the same thing as the NGA proposal and only for math and English Crawford. Astead.

move the “incompetent” teachers to these healthy. Arianna Huffington. And in North Carolina. So do South Dakota. Maher piously maintained that these teachers were unqualified to run a classroom. school administrators fire.former labor union rep (David. Minnesota.32%. families are in crisis. or real estate agent. having completed their homework. Connecticut. Although every teacher in the LAUSD (Los Angeles Unified School District). they contradict it. but has the potential to side-track any realistic hopes of education reform. he was utterly mistaken. he’d have realized that this figure represents the national average—with or without unions. comedian and uber-liberal Bill Maher joined the attack on his HBO show.” he declared). Fact: Oregon has a good public school system. and they’ll tell you the same thing: As a general rule. remarkable. on time. overmatched and underprivileged kids. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Teachers Unions Bad Evil teacher unions are a myth which sidetracks education reform and gives false perceptions of good teachers Macaray. good teachers. Wisconsin. More significantly. In South Carolina. An experiment: Try moving those “good” teachers from decent school districts—where the kids show up each day. and the closest she’s ever come to an inner-city school was the day she accidentally drove by one.counterpunch. say. on average. child psychologist. 29th in science. where 100% of the teachers are non-union. has been echoing such claims for years. neighborhoods are ravaged. Which raises the question: Has anything else changed in California (and the rest of the country. given that she lives in Brentwood. because the teachers’ unions are so domineering and evil—because their leaders will do anything to maintain union hegemony. Maine and Washington. has a college degree and a teaching credential and managed to survive the scrutiny of a lengthy probationary period. and not a “social scientist” dispensing wisdom. because of the union’s protective shield. Astead. The same teachers who were winning those awards for excellence belonged to the “powerful” teachers’ union. for that matter) in the last 40 years to lead one to believe there might be causes other than labor unions to explain the drop in graduation rates? Have there been any significant changes in. He noted with dismay that the U. Not only is the promise of good schools one reason why people with kids buy homes in good neighborhoods. Maher is a professional comic trolling for laughs. In one of his signature tirades. Simple as that. less than 1% of California’s tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired.38%. and bad schools are found in bad neighborhoods. see if the graduation rates in these depressed communities rise significantly. For Huffington to be riffing on the state of public education is.S. self-sustaining districts and see if the students in these schools don’t continue to score significantly higher. Moreover. ranked 35th in the world in math. by virtue of their innate “classroom abilities. had he taken five minutes to research the subject. See if these “good” teachers. a miniscule .—to one of those South Central LA shit-holes. An even more startling comparison: In California. Granted. her daughters attend prestigious private schools. as part of that same experiment. how about the disintegration of the American family and the decline in parental supervision/involvement? Being a good student requires discipline. Still. it’s 0. despite Maher’s display of civic pride and self-righteous indignation (“We need to bust this union. The statistics not only don’t support his argument. sociologist. It’s the assertion that “powerful” teachers’ unions are responsible for the decline of public education in the United States in general. 9 (March) . where 97. In Georgia. including not allowing demonstrably inferior teachers to be fired—school administrators are powerless to act. and 40% of the students live in foster care. people know this “formula” to be true. and society itself. and that barely 50% of California’s public school pupils manage to graduate from high school. causing her to hastily lock the doors and windows of her Prius and speed away.91% of its probationary teachers. that figure is only 1.5% of the teachers are non-union. In non-union North Carolina. cultural attitudes or demographics? For openers.html) There’s a myth circulating out there that not only threatens to ruin the reputation of America’s school teachers. Moreover. it was demoralizing to hear someone this hip say something so stupid and simplistic. "The Myth of the "Powerful" Teachers' Union" http://www. Have we witnessed any “breakdowns” in these areas over the last 40 years? Or how about the rise in urban poverty? Or the hollowing-out of the middle-class (the average worker hasn’t received a pay increase. the teachers in those classrooms were union members. Vermont. application and. etc. So. where crime is rampant. 6. accusing it of contributing to the crisis in public education by not allowing the school district to remove incompetent teachers.7% are non-union. where 92. Mehta. California is actually tougher on prospective candidates.03% of tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired—the exact same percentage as California. even with the “bad” teachers now running the show. And. California’s public school system was routinely ranked among the nation’s finest.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Maher made a huge deal of the fact that. in itself. See if these “good” teachers can do what a generation of parents themselves. Maher came armed with statistics. prepared. Let that sink in a moment: Good schools. / 98 . with its “powerful” teachers’ union. only 0. Although this ratio clearly outraged him (he appeared visibly upset by it). On Friday. Propagators of this myth claim that the reason test scores of American children have sunk so low in recent years is because our public school teachers are too incompetent and lazy to provide adequate instruction. March 13. and California in particular. Fact: During the 1950s and 1960s. He blamed the teachers for this. among others. You can look it up. Maher. You hear these charges everywhere. it’s not uncommon for parents in California to lie about their home addresses in order to get their children assigned to better schools. the late-to-the-party liberal and celebrity blogger. railed against the “powerful” California teachers’ union. a California resident. considering his liberal creds (from the environment to civil liberties to corporate mischief to drug law reform). Is Peace through superior firepower. having eaten a nutritious breakfast. a certain level of respect for authority. bright-eyed and attentive. so we shouldn’t be looking to this man for enlightenment. good schools are found in good neighborhoods. can’t seem to do.5% of tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired. in real dollars.” are able to improve the test scores of these stunted. since 1973)? Or the assimilation of non-English-speaking immigrants? Or the decrease in per capita funding on California public education? Or the chaos created by school boards arbitrarily mandating wholesale changes in “educational ideology” every two years (LAUSD has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on consultants)? Ask any teacher. big union.

In the U. the teachers in these aforementioned good schools are overwhelmingly unionized. you must attend school until at least age 16 (some states have even higher age requirements). it was the first to make it compulsory. Oregon and Washington teachers are 100% unionized. and don’t face a fraction of the challenges facing California? For the record. any teacher in the LAUSD can be fired for any reason. great emphasis is placed on education. Wisconsin is 98%. Could any arrangement be more favorable to management? Peace through superior firepower. In India (where I once lived and worked). Oregon or Connecticut—has the authority to insist that management keep unqualified teachers? Since when does a labor union dictate to management? Since when does the hired help tell the bosses what to do? The accusation is absurd on its face. Two full years. they fire you. Astead. Indeed. The United States was not only the first nation in the world to offer free public education. India has 400 million people who are illiterate. That means our national average is going to incorporate test scores of every kid from every background in every neighborhood in the country. One wonders what their national test scores would be if those many millions who can’t read or write were factored in. accordingly. India has a decent school system. Fact: Teachers can be fired. Who honestly believes a teachers’ union—whether in California.. etc. Connecticut is 98%. relatively homogeneous. / 99 . one that scores well.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. with no recourse to union representation and no access to the grievance procedure. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Teachers Unions Bad that because the folks living in these states are exceptionally bright? Is it because their teachers are extraordinarily talented? Or is it because these school districts are stable. But school attendance is not mandatory. No grievance. Fact: During the first two years of employment.S. by law. Also. Nothing. No union. comparing the scores of American students in foreign countries is a bit misleading. If the district doesn’t like you for any reason.

/ 100 . Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States Uniform state standards fail – they’ll try to keep the bar low and create impossible requirements Darby." Jennings says. it seems. "There are too many incentives to keep the bar low." But these factors don't mean the standards project will be a success. and there hasn't been a concerted effort to get input from education interest groups. "It's the mush that is ineffective. in part. Once the draft standards are released." He suggests--as many education experts do--that Congress reevaluate and revise NCLB to make it a better law that doesn't support what Duncan calls "the race to the bottom. For one thing. "We've had seven years of experience under No Child Left Behind with widely varying state standards. "you're going to be hearing from every corner of society. they're going to have a lot more kids failing and looking bad." Peace through superior firepower. if the committee doesn't have a good mechanism for reviewing and incorporating recommendations. there's much to be excited about with regard to the project and Duncan's approach to it. says Mike Petrilli. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards.tnr. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. embarrassing evidence that current education standards don't work. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests.. "The politics are going to be in states with low standards that know if they sign on to high standards. Among other problems. in many ways." Jennings says. It's clear to governors and business leaders that other countries are doing better than the United States." What's more. the committee will need to be clear about how a final proposal will be formulated--who exactly will make the decision of what to send to the states. the committee is working behind closed doors and disconcerting some with its lack of transparency: The names of the experts haven't been released. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward." Petrilli explains. who knows if it will be enough money. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. and.. States have agreed to participate in the NGA-CCSSO project. But the question remains: Will it actually work? Several people I spoke with aren't swooning just yet. because of very public. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards. Mehta. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. Then. There's an extra sense of urgency that we're slipping economically and that could be in part because we're slipping academically. Not by a long They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. . It's been a very public demonstration that some states are asking more or less of kids. the states have to agree to adopt the standards. vice president for national programs and policy at the Thomas B. Fordham Institute. some of the biggest names in education are also skeptical. "The other thing that's different is the economic crisis. "You'll get standards that are impossible to teach." says Andrew Rotherham of Education Sector (who has an interesting post about the standards push here)." Petrilli says.aspx) Indeed. http://blogs. And that's where politics will really come in: Under NCLB. states are encouraged. to keep their achievement standards weak because they don't want their students and schools labeled as failing. or if it tries to split the difference by including what all or most parties want in the proposal-making it too expansive. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff." Still. The standards could meet their demise then.

states that have made the right choice instead of Peace through superior firepower. "It's very political. Don’t ask if proficiency in New Mexico is related at all to proficiency in New Hampshire.” Don’t ask how they decide or who exactly gets to figure it out. Standard 4. I would in all honesty have to answer—“Not very much." she cautioned. They’d find it severely difficult to measure the success of their children’s education. Don’t get close to those numbers. richer. "What we've done politically is that every time something is important to anybody. If parents asked me how much confidence they can take home from their sons’ and daughters’ test scores. tomorrow every state would adopt Massachusetts' standards. "Will we be able to call out if this effort doesn't mean anything more than it has to date?" Rhee agreed that "we shouldn't be naive" about the NGA effort. I hope you parents in the audience will do me one favor in return. there was one topic about which Weingarten. I’d have to tell them about students in another state who passed the state-designed test at a rate of 85 percent—and then turned around and failed the NAEP test at a rate almost as high. it becomes part of the standards . when you come across those numbers by which it is so tempting to paint a picture of excellence—don’t inquire too closely.2. American Federation of Teachers month=06&year=2009&base_name=weingarten_rhee_and_klein_we_d -. schools Superintendent (Dana. Rhee. in which 46 states and the testing industry will work together to create high school reading and math standards.senate. 7 – Connecticut Senator ("Senator Dodd's Prepared Remarks at the Launch of the SPEAK Act" http://dodd. Five years ago. The consensus among these urban educators was that state legislators have less than a stellar track record in implementing education reform with teeth.Tapped is the group blog of The American Prospect) Despite the awkwardness. Because if you did. Of course. Differences in standards means CP doesn’t solve Dodd. Mehta. it passed with bipartisan acclaim. when President Bush brought No Child Left Behind before Congress." he said. local politicians may not want to undo the years of work they've put into developing statespecific standards and assessments. don’t touch them.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. . in large part.” http://www. there are notable exceptions.. AND KLEIN: WE DON'T TRUST STATE-LED STANDARDS PUSH. and clearer" national standards. So there you have it: Three of the most influential education leaders in the country. "If a state can't control its standards or assessments. and Klein agreed: All are skeptical of the Common Core Initiative announced last week by the National Governors' Association. / 101 . they would find the same kind of doubt and uncertainty in nearly every state. It settled on an approach of “50 states. And they would find that the problem starts. 50 tests. don’t even sneeze at them! Don’t ask what 50 different states mean by “proficient. when political and educational leaders all too often found that the quickest way to raise scores wasn’t better teaching—but easier tests or lower pass scores. 6/10 – associate editor at The American Prospect. you’d find out you were being mislead—that that picture of excellence was an And now that I’ve brightened your day a little. standardswriting often leads to more complexity and confusion for teachers. Astead. as they were required to do by No Child Left Behind.prospect. citing Randi Weingarten. and Michelle Rhee.3. And most of all.” And it left each of those 50 tests dangerously open to meddling. And Klein warned that low-performing states still have every incentive to maintain their own standards and assessments. And if parents held all 50 sets of standards up to that kind of scrutiny. It was a huge step forward. but all raising their eyebrows at the current state and testing-industry-led effort to get there. New York City schools Chancellor.” I’d have to tell them about a state where 90 percent of students passed the local math test—but where six out of ten failed the “gold standard” test from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). We do need "fewer. but at the state level. Weingarten said. But it was also a first step.. which she regards as fairly toothless. Joel Klein. It demanded proficiency but didn’t tell us what proficiency meant." which are considered by many education experts to be the strongest in the country. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States Most qualified sources agree – even attempts at uniformity would devolve into disparate standards Goldstein. Indeed. “RANDI. It mandated testing in every state and brought greater accountability for all students to schools across the nation. because we have so many standards to begin with. so they can obscure how far behind their students actually are. RHEE. deeper. then it can't control its outcomes. If America wanted to do something very smart.C. Please—no questions. 50 standards. D. all supporters of national standards.

states that have maintained or are working towards rigorous systems. it starts with No Child Left Behind and its Peace through superior firepower. Kostrinsky Wave One the easy one.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 102 . But if you want an explanation for those misleading figures I spoke of earlier. Mehta. Astead.

“[Asian countries] are making rapid progress.” The truth is that we no longer live in the economy of old. from kindergarten through high school. Mehta. because they’re going to have the bulk of the intellectual and creative talent in the world. our students are losing ground to students overseas. Children here in Washington are no longer just entering the job market with children in Dallas and Chicago. we’re going to wonder why we didn’t do anything about it while we still had time. we rank 20th out of 25 nations. Across the board. Astead. That’s the work we’ve come here to complete—to standardize our standards. Lower scores and lower expectations are going to translate to an America that is less competitive on the world stage. “If we don’t work toward unified standards. maybe two. But at some point. when public education doesn’t work. you’ve got to think your way to success—and so. And if it happens. Peace through superior firepower. In a study of fourth graders. Today. whereas we’re making miniscule progress. That may be fine for a while—a decade. and that has devastating consequences for us. America is going to reach a tipping point. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States [Dodd Continues. In one international assessment of the reading and math skills of 15 year olds. the United States ranks 24th among 29 industrial and developing nations. I wish I could say. And I don’t think the average American understands the impact of this for our future. everybody else already has.” said one global marketing expert. They’re entering with children in Shanghai and Mumbai and Taipei who are receiving the kind of education today that you could once only get in America. when we fail to compete as one nation. if we do nothing to address this decline. And I am sorry to report to my fellow parents that.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. our entire country will get left behind. “I’m telling you. no text omitted] unfinished work. somebody else will”—but unfortunately for us. / 103 . It’s getting harder and harder to lift or dig or assemble your way to success the way you once could. countries with national standards are outpacing us.

Yet the percentage of Arizona eighth graders scoring at NAEP’s “proficient” level actually fell two points during the same biennium. too" http://www. and international students could have increased America's gross domestic product by $1. He is also president and trustee of the Thomas B. and Rep. That's bad for the U. are the next logical step. his education secretary and bipartisan leaders in Congress are showing leadership.) But here’s the catch: The states define “proficiency” however they like. and other consequences. exiting students. (If schools are not progressing. Voluntary. (The percentage of Arizona’s students reaching NAEP’s lower “basic” level also dropped by a point. the firm reported. students might have added another half-trillion dollars. Closing the racial gap in science scores among U. Chester E. economy: McKinsey & Co. Adequate funding will also be essential. 5 (Chester E. you have a strong incentive to relax your definition of “proficiency” in reading and math and make your own state tests easier. has laudably rejected “whole language” reading instruction and other faddish ideas that have partially infected the national test. Preparing a math. Finn Jr.) Consider Arizona. too.3 trillion to $2. (Eighth-grade NAEP reading results were disappointing almost everywhere.S. Mehta.S. science students are still among the world's elite. consulting firm say that closing the science gap between U. and make science “cool” again.S. http://www. education secretary for research and improvement from 1985 to 1988. Fordham Foundation. just re-introduced their SPEAK Act (“Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for All Kids”). America further must improve teacher pay and classroom support. whereas its percentage of students reaching “basic” and “proficient” on NAEP dropped a point each. A clear roadmap for improving science-learning standards has already been set forth. Last week’s good news is shadowed by early evidence that some states may be doing just that. Moynihan.-students-need-shared-science-standards--too) Top-performing U.. Uniform standards and federal funding are key to top-level US scientists which is key to the economy Leshner and Roseman 6-22-09 . No Child Left Behind seeks to help all students reach “proficiency” by 2014 and requires states to develop tough accountability systems to ensure that their schools are making progress toward that end. Perhaps this is why the Golden State posted gains of nine points in its proportion of eighth graders reaching proficiency on reading. R-Michigan. promising dividends for tomorrow's workforce and for our economy. and the national average fell by a point. This bill would provide incentives for states to adopt robust. But surely that’s not the case for all states. He served as assistant U. but they need encouragement and support to persist.3 trillion in 2008. Chris Dodd.S. students need shared science standards. founding partner with the Edison Project and legislative director for Senator Daniel P. Sen. The larger trend line is clear: The news is much rosier if you believe state reports than if you believe the national States may say that such discrepancies merely reflect the different subject matter they test versus the content assessed by the feds. provide consistently high-quality textbooks. only at the “basic” level. for example. they face a cascade of interventions. But only three of these states show any gains on NAEP and. senior fellow of the Hudson Institute. and Jo Ellen.and science-literate workforce will of course require more than uniform standards. along with reading and math. The result? Nineteen states (of the 29 with available and comparable data) reported their eighth-grade students made progress on state reading exams. / 104 .html)//HM But there are perverse incentives at play here. Previously. We analyzed data from state tests as well as the national assessment and looked at states’ progress on both over the past two years. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Standards Key National is better – state results are corrupted he was professor of education and public policy at Vanderbilt University. Astead. Vernon Ehlers.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. So if you’re a governor or education commissioner. nationwide education standards in science. even then. Its own test results show the number of eighth graders proficient in reading rose 8 points (from 55 percent to 63 percent) between 2003 and 2005. California.S.hoover.S.chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and executive publisher of the journal AND Director of Project 2061 (the AAAS science-literacy initiative) (Alan I. President Barack Obama. "Alan Leshner and Jo Ellen Roseman: U. Peace through superior firepower. is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and chairman of the Koret Task Force on K–12 Education. But many other young people are lagging. South Carolina should get on board. and you want your state’s schools to look good. well-tested national science standards developed by the National Assessment Governing Board. D-Connecticut.greenvilleonline.

said this month that he expected 25 to 35 states to join. Illinois joins effort toward national standards. Mehta. But the new initiative would change that. / 105 . experts say. and when. education system. even with uniformity Chicago Tribune. under a system of local oversight that is at the core of the U. Gene Wilhoit. the council’s executive director. acknowledge that it’s unlikely all 50 states will get onboard with the new approach because of long-standing support for state control of education. "To better compare students.” lexis) States have long determined what schoolchildren should learn. Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Uniformity Fails No incentive for lasting participation. the Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association. 5/19 (Tara Malone.S. The organizers of the project. Astead.

Astead. state leaders still confront structural challenges. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE States can’t implement CTE – no linkages to industry and structural barriers Wakelyn. several challenges remain. state education and economic systems have few linkages. CTE curricula typically fit poorly with state standards and assessments.nga.PDF) Although CTE programs are shifting away from an old voc-ed mentality to embrace the demands of the innovation economy. Deeply held ideological differences about student capabilities and expectations further delay needed reforms. / 106 . Even when reforms occur. Too often. As a result. These skills are largely absent from state education standards as well.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Peace through superior firepower. 7 – Education Division @ NGA Center for Best Practices (David. “Retooling Career Technical Education. making the educational response to emerging growth industries slow or” http://www. Mehta. State assessment systems rarely measure the workplace and industry-specific skills that employers demand.

" Jennings says. / 107 . another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards." Peace through superior firepower. Among other problems. They wouldn't be forced to administer common http://blogs. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. 9 (Seward. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Spending DA Costs tons of $$$ Darby. Astead. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards.aspx)///HM Still.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. who knows if it will be enough money. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. Mehta.tnr. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?”.

These effects were greater in higher-income counties. reacted to the increased state revenue-raising and spending by cutting back on their own revenue-raising and their spending on both education and other programs. Thus. and public fire protection.pdf?new_window=1) We find that states did change their spending patterns in a way that partially offset the mandated increase in their education spending (although not in a way that diminished their progressivity). "THE EFFECT OF MANDATED STATE EDUCATION SPENDING ON TOTAL LOCAL RESOURCES" http://www. and Nora. 4 . while mandated increases in state education aid did increase total spending on education. they did so at the expense of drawing resources away from spending on other programs. Localities. public health. Astead. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. and welfare. in turn. / 108 . Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Trade-off DA State funded education trades off Baicker and Gordon. The greatest impacts were on hospitals.Department of Economics at Dartmouth. Each dollar of increased education funding a locality received from the state resulted in an average decline in funds from the state for other purposes of about 20 cents. highways. and Department of Economics UCSan Diego (Katherine.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. but there were also significant declines in spending on police.nber.

Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Cali Econ DA Repealing No Child Left Behind would skyrocket California’s budget deficit Boyarsky. The controversy reached into the Los Angeles High School faculty. "Banking Collapse Lands on America’s Schools" http://www. / 109 .truthdig. The testing is the most controversial feature of No Child Left Behind. Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Although the Bush administration and Congress took a hands-off attitude toward Wall Street—until the collapse— Washington enthusiastically reached into the classrooms of every public school in the country with the No Child Left Behind Act. Mehta.4 billion last year under the No Child Left Behind Act. requires the states to assess students before they receive high school diplomas. Astead. passed early in the Bush administration with bipartisan support. Without such testing—in California it is called the California High School Exit Examination—schools could lose federal funding. which amounted to $24. This legislation. 8 – lecturer in journalism at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and is vice president of the Los Angeles City Ethics Commission (Bill.

and Nora. At the same time. These revenues have plunged as the economy has gone into freefall. consistently constructed over time to contain the largest sources of revenues and expenditures. 4 – Department of Economics at Dartmouth. County-areas received just over 40 percent of their revenues as intergovernmental grants from the state. or 10% of US GDP. Mean real per capita direct expenditures (excluding intergovernmental expenditures) grew from $1345 in 1982 to $1919 in 1997. / 110 . Our totals are.12 The totals presented here are therefore smaller than actual totals reported in the Census of Governments data and education spending as a share of our total spending measure is a larger ratio than education spending as a share of the reported Census of Governments total. Real county-area revenues per capita in our sample grew from $1565 on average in 1982 to $2272 in 1997. elementary and secondary education expenditures comprised over 60 percent of our measure of total direct spending by local governments. they have faced higher bills to pay for the casualties of the recession. with three-quarters of those earmarked for education – so changes to this funding stream are likely to have a substantial impact on other aspects of state and local budgets.stm] The 50 US states play a much more important role in the US system than local authorities do in a European context.they have nearly all passed laws in the past 20 years requiring them to have a balanced budget. Peace through superior firepower. States rely on sales taxes and property taxes at the local level to fund much of their spending.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. police. Mehta. Most localities. Other major categories of expenditures include hospitals. and forbidding them to borrow money to pay for current spending. Most spending on schools. and for consistency we construct total revenue and direct expenditure by aggregating up spending and revenues from these categories. BBC News [Steve. and welfare.nber. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending Most states passed laws prohibiting deficit spending—counterplan would get rolled back Schifferes 7/2 – Economics reporter. "US states face budget meltdowns" http://news. and Department of Economics UCSan Diego (Katherine. have limited ability to run deficits so it is not surprising that revenues exceed expenditures on average. States have a limited ability to do deficit spending—means that funding to other areas are largely impacted Baicker and Gordon. roads and welfare support is made at the state level. Together they make up about one-third of all public spending. In And the states also have an important constraint that the Federal government does not . highways.pdf?new_window=1) We analyze primarily major revenue and expenditure categories. unlike the federal government. This has hit them very hard as the US recession starts to bite. "THE EFFECT OF MANDATED STATE EDUCATION SPENDING ON TOTAL LOCAL RESOURCES" http://www.

com/news157728177. in fact. And if one doubts this.S. "Having students 'analyze and evaluate all sides of scientific evidence' is code that gives creationists a green light to attack biology textbooks. "This is a setback for science education in Texas. / 111 . and replace it with a meaningless shell of supernatural speculation and deceit. Thus exposed. urging the board to reject language that misrepresents or undermines the teaching of evolution. administrative and judicial. Creationists aim to not only destroy science in an effort to protect their creationist fairy tales.html) The board majority amended the Earth and Space Science. Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education (NCSE). which the board likewise ignored. "Will publishers cave in to pressure from the Texas board to include junk science in their textbooks? It has happened before. The creationist attack on the teaching of evolution devalues science. History is unequivocal in teaching this lesson. eviscerate the Make no mistake. the Institute for Creation Research and the Discovery Institute. Mehta. Although the "strengths and weaknesses" wording that has been part of the standards for over a decade was finally excised--wording that has been used to pressure science textbook publishers to include creationist arguments--a number of amendments put the creationist-inspired wording back in. the need to fight it on all fronts. There is no higher imperative if we mean to preserve America’s intellectual Peace through superior firepower. There's a reason creationists are claiming victory. The changes will not immediately affect curricula in Texas high schools. They mean to supplant all of these things with a form of oligarchy wrapped in the shrouds of a dumbed down science and legalistic religion. a project director for NCSE. their mission is to redefine the United States of America. and Biology standards (TEKS) with loopholes and language that make it even easier for creationists to attack science textbooks. philosophical. Creationists are quite explicit in their stated goals." says Rosenau. ultimately hurting their professional opportunities. and there is little room for doubt their true intentions." For example. Publishers will have to choose between junk science and real science." says Scott. the revised biology standard (7B) reflects two discredited creationist ideas--that "sudden appearance" and "stasis" in the fossil record somehow disprove evolution. "But textbooks that please the Texas board will be rejected in other states. Religion has ever been a sanctuary of those who seek to secure their eminence at the expense of others. The revised wording opens the door to creationism in the classroom and in the textbooks. 8 – Evangelical minister for 14 years (Lee. http://dissidentvoice. Thanks to such laws as No Child Left Behind. such concepts are well-documented and accepted by the scientific community. "The board majority chose to satisfy creationist constituents and ignore the expertise of highly qualified Texas scientists and scientists across the country. Eugenie Scott. not a victory. you might ask? The answer is not hard to fathom. but "the standards will affect standardized tests and textbooks." "Let's be clear about this.physorg. "What we now have is Son of Strengths and Weaknesses." says Josh Rosenau. The true mission of creationism is theocracy. not to mention diminishing America’s leadership in science and technology. Teachers teach to the test." says Dr. ubiquitous standardized tests are central to measuring student progress and proficiency." Other new standards include language such as "is thought to". scientific. "The Creationist Buffoonery and Its Dangerous Implications". and yet as blind as we are we seem to have failed to learn it. notes Rosenau. Astead. and effectively dismantle American democracy by instituting religious indoctrination in the schools and halls of public policy making. is made even more clear. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2] Texas’ science standards would cause a national shift to creationism teaching – their textbooks spill over AIP 3/31 – American Institute of Physics ("Science setback for Texas schools" http://www.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. one need only consult the web sites and publications of such notable creationist organizations as the the Creation Museum. The decisions will not only affect Texas students for the next ten years. theological. And why. but could result in watered-down science textbooks across the U. or "proposed transitional fossils" to make evolutionary concepts seem tentative when. not a draw." NCSE presented the board with a petition from 54 scientific and educational societies. The new standard directs students to "analyze and evaluate the sufficiency of scientific explanations concerning any data of sudden appearance. "The final vote was a triumph of ideology and politics over science." Teaching creationism dooms American democracy and means they can’t solve the case Salisbury." cautioned Dr. stasis and the sequential nature of groups in the fossil records. cheapens theology as well as condemning America’s students to an inferior education. Scott. and textbooks have to reflect this. creationism intends to redefine science.

/ 112 . Kostrinsky Wave One Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff freedom. Astead. Markoff. Mehta.

/ 113 . appears increasingly endangered. Mehta. popular sovereignty. http://wwics. lecturer.htm) This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well-being in the coming years and decades. Peace through superior firepower. issues and imperatives : a report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict”. The very source of life on Earth. chemical. Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Most of these new and unconventional threats to security are associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of democracy. Astead. foreign aid. December 1995. In the former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread. and democracy (Larry. democratic ones. The flow of illegal drugs intensifies through increasingly powerful international crime syndicates that have made common cause with authoritarian regimes and have utterly corrupted the institutions of tenuous. the global ecosystem. and author on foreign policy. accountability. with its provisions for legality. and openness. and biological weapons continue to proliferate. 95 – professor. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990s: Actors and instruments. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2] Democracy prevents extinction Diamond.

nestanet. Kostrinsky Wave One Ext: Texas Spills Over Texas spills over and kills solvency Newton. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. The Texas State Board of Education finalized its new science standards during a meeting in late March 2009. the standards Texas uses to select textbooks have a major influence on national textbook content. Astead. 9 (Summer Issue) . Although the new Earth and Space Science standards crafted by an expert writing team mandated robust earth science instruction in Texas high schools. Because of Texas’ purchasing power. a series of amendments weakened these standards and opened the door for creationist teachers to bring nonscientific ideas into the science classroom. / 114 .pdf) for Earth and Space Science" The State of Texas is one of the nation’s largest buyers of K-12 Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. National Center for Science Education (Steven. "Creationism in the New Texas Standards http://www.Public Information Project Director.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. school districts that had surpassed mediocre but were within states with high standards could end up being labeled as failures. http://www. This obvious problem is receiving attention from President Barack Obama’s A new study has confirmed what many critics of the No Child Left Behind federal education law have said all along. that many school districts judged as failures would be judged as successes if only they were located in a different state.lasvegassun. So states were allowed to continue setting their own standards. / 115 . which is leaning toward encouraging states to cooperate on a plan to establish national academic standards for core subjects. Just as unfairly. This is because the Bush administration did not want to broach the divisive issue of national academic standards. meaning that mediocre school districts could continue to be mediocre if the state set low achievement standards — yet be rated as successes under the federal law. 9 (Educational patchwork: States should cooperate on ending the glaring inconsistencies among academic standards. Peace through superior firepower. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Links to Politics Obama will take the blame – he is championing state cooperation Las Vegas Sun. Astead. Mehta.

better efforts to improve teaching and. although gaps did not change significantly from 2004 to 2008. According to the new long-term trend report on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). There is a need for even more rigor in school curriculums. students at ages 9 and 13 did significantly better on 2008 tests than their counterparts of the early 1970s. it doesn't help much if a child does well in fourth grade but graduates ill prepared for college or the workplace. Peace through superior firepower. for instance. Consider.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. After all. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Repeal NCLB CP No Child Left Behind is improving education—data proves—BUT a new national standard is key Washington Post 5/10 ("What Test Results Suggest. the scores of 17-year-olds stayed alarmingly flat over 35 years. Improved performance of younger students. the adoption of common." not the "whys" behind the scores. we hope. as the latest results from federal tests show.helped students to do well in other subjects such as science and history. Minority students who were long overlooked by the education system still trail their white counterparts. NCLB is now up for reauthorization. evidence that the emphasis on reading and math has -. NAEP officials report only the "what. national standards. Astead. When the longterm trend results are viewed in the context of other national assessments. / 116 . and particularly minorities.contrary to the hypothesis of some critics -. but it's significant that black and Hispanic students of all age groups made greater gains in math than white students since 1973 and that black. There have been welcome gains in shrinking achievement gaps between white and minority students since 1971. This is no time for retreat on No Child Left Behind" lexis) THE GOOD news that America's elementary and middle school students have made impressive improvements in reading and math is unfortunately tempered by the dismal performance of high school students. white and Hispanic 9-year-olds all posted higher scores than in previous years. an even stronger picture of NCLB's benefits emerge. can be traced to the standards-based reforms embodied in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law and the state efforts that predated it. and. Unfortunately. Educational reforms that seem to be helping younger students must be strengthened and applied to the later grades. and the NAEP report is a clear prompt not to retreat from its principles. there's not a minute to waste.

and magnet) and private (parochial and non-parochial) schools. This result is the problem of the “leaky pipeline. and is compulsory up to age 16. charter. 6/16 – Senior Policy Analyst in Education in the Domestic Policy Studies Department (Dan. Colonel in the US Army.S. In many cases. Charter schools represent 3. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Higher Education CP K-12 key to labor force and defense McGuire. the majority of math and science teachers do not have math or science degrees. Private schools operate outside of government control because government funding is not normally provided.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Plan is a prerequisite – lack of K-12 STEM education kills potential for higher-level STEM Lips et al. Many STEM students migrate to liberal arts. An unfortunate consequence is that many students mirror their teachers’ preferences and acquire a lifelong disinterest in STEM by the time they reach middle school. / 117 . "Improving U. Elementary school teachers in particular are often not as passionate or trained in STEM subjects as they are in the Further. Jennifer A. Marshall is Director of Domestic Policy Studies. Nearly 90 percent of K-12 students attend public schools. an independent researcher. has the biggest challenges. is Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. not enough students are making it to the advanced levels of STEM studies. 4 (Mark. an in-depth assessment of all sectors is beyond the scope of this report. Ph.. private schools receive public funds in at least five states and the District of Columbia. Instead. often cater to a narrow student body. High school students are not being trained at a high enough level to compete with international students once they reach college. but very few liberal arts majors migrate to STEM. However. this is due to the poor-quality education at early levels that leaves students ill equipped to pursue higher levels of STEM &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. http://www.dtic. Too few freshmen who declare a STEM major graduate with a degree in STEM. a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies. this paper focuses on K-12 because it is most important to national security.pdf) In today’s schools. but only with state and local government approval. Competitiveness with K–12 STEM Education and Training"Ethel Machi.” In the education pipeline from elementary to graduate education. it is the largest sector within the industry. and operate with more autonomy than traditional public schools. Brief assessments of the other key sectors are provided in an essay on page 21. Astead. The K-12 system includes public (traditional. offering a balanced curriculum to a broad student body.pdf)) Given the education industry’s size. xi Magnet schools are more rare and offer concentrated curriculums for students with specific interests and advanced talents.D. Mehta. Jena Baker McNeill is Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. at The Heritage Foundation http://www. and James Jay Carafano.2 percent of the public schools and address specific community needs. K-12 sets the foundation for all subsequent education and training and prepares citizens for entry into the labor force.x Traditional public schools are most common. Peace through superior firepower.

It was basic science and engineering excellence that brought about the information revolution in the first place and. / 118 . nanotechnology. The United States will need sharply growing numbers of competent knowledge workers. This is critical not just for the U. mathematics. over the next quarter century. an area in which there are already significant shortages. national security. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Liberal Arts CP Only STEM education solves the aff – our evidence is comparative The United States Commission on National Security. which must simultaneously develop and defend against these same technologies.S. and engineering has special relevance for the future of U. economy in general. economy. The technology-driven economy will add twenty million jobs in the next decade.S. But education in science.library.unt. will depend not only on professionals that can produce and direct innovation in a few key areas. Astead.S. clearly. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. but also on a populace that can effectively assimilate a wide range of new tools and Quality education in the humanities and social sciences is essential in a world made increasingly “smaller” by advances in communication and in global commerce.pdf) Education is the foundation of America’s future. many of them requiring significant technical expertise. Peace through superior firepower. the interplay of bioscience.” http://govinfo. Mehta. many of them in information sciences. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. for America’s ability to lead depends particularly on the depth and breadth of its scientific and technical communities.34 But it is misleading to equate “information science” with “science” itself. The health of the U. is the strength of the American economy. therefore. At the base of American national security. and information science will combine to reshape most existing technologies.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. but specifically for the defense industry. High-quality preparation of Americans for the working world is more important than ever.

Nearly all states have agreed to develop common academic standards for math and English.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 7/7 – Researcher for the Kiplinger Letters (Jonathan N.35-billion pot of federal money. rather than choosing to go it alone. / 119 . The White House wants states to use the funds for programs and methods that will better prepare K-12 students for college and the workforce. An open competition will determine grant winners. The Department of Education will issue grants to states that demonstrate innovative ideas for improving performance and a track record of successful implementation.” http://www. “Education Reform: Obama Ups the Ante. A chunk of the federal education money will help states establish rigorous testing programs to gauge whether students are ready for work or college. The Obama administration is zeroing in on improving the nation’s schools by providing states with an unprecedented $4. Peace through superior firepower.kiplinger. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Disads Disads non-unique – math and English funding Crawford. Mehta. Some of the money will also go to charter schools and teacher pay-for-performance programs.

Retired Major General William Burns.all former commanders of Pennsylvania's 28th Infantry Division of the Army National Guard -. We cannot begin just with basic training: we have to start early." said Harrington. The retired generals said that investments in early childhood education will increase the number of young Americans who graduate and qualify to serve. members of his company and of himself after being stranded by an IED attack. Reuters Reporter. have a criminal background.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. responsible and top-notch. Astead. Pennsylvania leads the nation in our forward thinking. "We know from the research that investing in early education will help us build a stronger military and a stronger country. and Unable to Retired military leaders from across Pennsylvania held a news conference at the State Capitol today.we must do everything possible to invest in the most important component of any military -. or are physically unfit. Researchers tracked the progress of at-risk children who participated in the program together with similar children who did not participate. "Our national security 20 years from now is dependent on the investment our country makes in young people today.A successful education system is the key to maintain national security and military readiness Doster. By age 27. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA Retired US Generals agree. a groundbreaking early education program. with five or more arrests. With that knowledge. so we would like our legislators to be at the forefront of a program so critical to national security and the success of our children and youth: early childhood education. Harrington served in Ramadi. "Make no mistake about it -. as well as major generals Wesley Craig. the at-risk children who did not benefit from the early learning were five times more likely to be chronic offenders." Craig said. He was awarded the Silver Star when he successfully coordinated a rescue of his wounded sergeant. 6/3 (Steven." Burns said. Mehta." Peace through superior firepower. calling for increased investment in early childhood education to improve school success and preserve military readiness for the future.its fighting men and women. The generals cited a 40-year study of Michigan's Perry Preschool. PA. (…) Joining the Pennsylvania generals for the event was Lancaster County resident and Silver Star recipient Specialist Jason Harrington. Iraq with the Pennsylvania National Guard's 28th Infantry from June 2005 to June 2006. it's our duty to make these early opportunities available to more kids who need them. But we need to make sure our recruits in the future are educated. Retired Military Brass Say Early Education Key to National Security. and Joe Perugino -. "It is disturbing for me to learn that so many young Americans are ineligible to serve in the military.released a new report called "Ready. / 120 ." Perugino said. former Deputy Commandant of the US Army War College in Carlisle. Willing." which cites new statistics from the Pentagon showing that 75 percent of young people ages 17 to 24 are unable to enlist because they lack a high school diploma. They found that the at-risk children who attended were 44 percent more likely to complete high school than the children who did not attend. This is a threat to national security. among other reasons. "Given all the threats that this nation faces around the world -. http://www.America's men and women in uniform stand ready to keep the country safe. Dan O'Neill. The group highlighted research showing that quality early education programs significantly increase graduation rates and reduce later crime among at-risk children who participate.reuters.

27 million. spent more on politics than any other defense firm in the 2008 elections. which don’t want competition from private schools. Abundant evidence suggests that common. After Minnesota adopted rigorous math standards. the voucher program is in Congress’s crosshairs because of the lobbying efforts and campaign contributions of the teachers’ unions. Take defense contractors. But the image of the hard-working self-sacrificing teacher is not the proper symbol for the teachers unions in this country. voucher program. A good place to start would be revisiting the issue of national standards. the teachers unions look an awful lot like those corporate special interests Democrats supposedly oppose. school voucher program after next school year.C. which includes at least six lobbyists. While there are legitimate doubts about the educational results of the D. in addition to their in-house lobbying arm. Theirs is a noble undertaking. The top five lobbying firms. and their K Street hires reveals that lobbying to kill DC vouchers was a priority. These contributions give the unions clout. Over the past two years. They still spent less than the American Federation of Teachers.7 million on lobbying. defense contractors.washingtonexaminer. the NEA spent $10. Peace through superior firepower. Public school teachers. There are many areas in education around which we need to build consensus. combined. which provides $7. influential industries—most of them pale in their influence efforts compared to the teachers unions. Beltway bandits. I can ride a few stops on the Metro and be in Maryland. according to data from the Center for Responsive Politics. Mehta. $5. on closer inspection. are on the verge of demolishing the chief threat to their monopoly—school vouchers for low-income families in the District of Columbia. Again. with core curriculum. and federal lobbying records show they use this clout. "Teachers unions say 'jump. which shelled out $2. and in places like D. the top recipient of military contracts most years. The top two teachers unions— AFT and the National Education Association—spent more combined.just as every state in the union has its own standards. which has been recognized for setting high standards. Academic standards for students in the rest of the country. Both of the teachers unions gave more than any oil assessments and time for professional development for teachers based on those standards. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. If they win in the end and kill this program. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Teachers Unions Teachers Unions support national standards Weingarten 2/16 – president of the American Federation of Teachers (Randi. I can see beyond the Capitol to Virginia. / 121 .washingtonpost.' Congress says 'how high?'" http://www. and the NEA and AFT combined gave more than the top four oil companies combined. for the most part. than the top two defense contractors. The countries that consistently outperform the United States on international assessments all have national standards. Reviewing the filings of the NEA.C. didn’t equal the AFT and the NEA in federal contributions in the 2008 cycle. the AFT. Lockheed Martin.html) Teachers unions. rigorous standards lead to more students reaching higher levels of achievement. scored on a par with the highestperforming countries in both math and science on a recent international assessment.8 million in the last cycle—with nearly every AFT dime going to Democrats.C. The NEA employs four different lobbying firms in Washington. Here in the United States. students there ranked fifth in the world on the mathematics portion of that assessment. it will be another triumph for a near-monopoly that has lined the coffers of nearly every member of Congress and deployed an army of lobbyists throughout Washington. The result is 51 benchmarks of varying content and quality.. unfortunately. are not well paid. The American Federation of Teachers is the most powerful lobby in congress—they control the agenda at all times Carney 2/26 – senior reporter for the Evans-Novak Political Report and Washington Examiner columnist (Timothy P. through their allies in the Democrat-controlled From my office in Washington. "The Case for National dyn/content/story/2009/02/15/ST2009021502025.html) Standards" http://www. These three jurisdictions are so close in miles yet have very different standards for what their students should know and be able to do -. are a mixed bag. They are more like huge corporations with high-powered lobbying arms and cozy connections with important politicians.500 in federal taxpayer money to some low-income district parents to use on private or religious schools. they do dangerous and difficult work with inadequate support. students in Massachusetts. When the House passed the $410 billion omnibus appropriations bill this week—funding the normal operations of government for the next seven months—it included a provision that effectively would end the D.

Yes. including five here in Buffalo. This deeply held belief in reform is why NYSUT was an early advocate for smaller classes. we have been speaking of the same things. / 122 . Rather than considering those subjects taboo. quality early childhood education programs and the professional development necessary to provide every child with the most qualified teachers possible. Iannuzzi: Teachers unions embracing reform" http://www. the American Federation of Teachers has launched a $1 million innovation fund to implement sustainable reform efforts developed by union members.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the state’s largest union representing over 600. strict discipline. The record clearly demonstrates the commitment of teachers unions to improving public education. Obama recently pushed for even more reform — rewarding teacher excellence. Under the leadership of Randi Weingarten.funded program to develop “learning communities” that focus on ending the achievement gap. such as charter schools. Dozens of teachers unions in New York have negotiated innovative compensation models — from stipends for those who earn national certification to New York City’s bold experiment in school-based performance pay. "Richard C. We also believe charters must be accountable for the tax money they receive and transparent in how they spend And local unions in Dunkirk and Fredonia have begun taking part in a National Education Association.html) Reform is a challenge teachers unions embrace.000 professionals in education and healthcare. Peace through superior firepower. Charter schools can provide opportunities for innovation and experimentation. holding teachers more accountable and promoting innovation. especially in our cities where the achievement gap and all its ramifications threaten the vibrancy of local economies. higher academic standards. that’s right. Astead.buffalonews. NYSUT is affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association (Richard C. NYSUT proudly represents teachers in more than a dozen charter schools. Mehta. and urge caution so that a proliferation of charters does not undermine full support for traditional public schools.. Union leaders understand we have a responsibility to make schools work. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan Education reform popular among teacher unions Iannuzzi 4/2 – president of New York State United Teachers.

for example. a blog of The National Review. say.nationalreview. Conservatives rarely even show up for most legislative battles over education.” The Corner. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda Plan popular – liberal education lobbies overwhelm conservative opposition and build pol cap Kurtz. The Bush administration’s attitude was that Bill Bennett/Lynn Cheney-type culture war issues sap political capital that could more profitably be put toward the war effort or social security reform. Linking the Democrats with their crazy leftist pals in the academy is the best way to beat them. “Conservatives Dropped the Ball. and even Republicans legislators have little reason to oppose them and plenty of reason to fear them.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. one for K-12 and one for higher education. Democrats are completely in the pocket of these liberal lobby groups. such education battles as the Bush administration has chosen to fight intentionally avoid precisely the "culture war" issues that might make a real difference. modeled on. When it comes to the left-leaning craziness of the education system. The problem is that we haven’t developed any institutional way of harnessing public antipathy to educational bias. The public is with us on this. Mehta. and when they do. broad-based lobby group. the public is with us. they are vastly outspent and outgunned. was a disaster for the academy in the public eye. for The NEA and the higher education lobby are massive. Fighting the education culture war would have accumulated political capital. / 123 . there are simply no conservative lobbying organizations to counter them. able to rally folks who want to do something about our education system — or perhaps separate organizations. The Lawrence Summers dispute. Peace through superior firepower. This was a huge mistake. People for the American Way. Yet when it comes to higher education. Without an large. we can’t effectively counter-balance the massive teacher-professor-based education lobbies. What we need is a mass-membership organization. 8 – adjunct fellow of the Hudson Institute and a Senior Fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center (Stanley. And again. http://corner. Astead. and far more influential on the Hill than most people realize. 2/5/2008.

"As legislators.americanchronicle. Iceland." The letter was initiated by Senators Evan Bayh (D-IN). "By 2016. and Blanche Lincoln (D-AR). 6/25 (American Chronicle. the senators noted that "had the United States closed the gap in education achievement with better-performing nations like Finland. and Poland. Based on this report." the moderate Democrats commended President Obama for his focus on teacher quality and noted a recent report by McKinsey and Company that highlights the achievement gaps that persist among various economic. regional and racial backgrounds in the United States and the gaps between American students and their peers in other industrialized nations." they wrote to President Obama. and signed by seven of their moderate colleagues. Michael Bennet (D-CO). Joseph Lieberman (ID-CT). http://www. four out of every 10 new American jobs will require at least some advanced education or training. Other signatories on the letter include Senators Mary Landrieu (D-LA). Claire McCaskill (D-MO). Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats Moderate Dems love the plan – letter to Obama proves AC.3 trillion higher last year.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. schools. They also endorsed the Obama administration´s desire to extend student learning time to stay globally competitive and called for investments in state-of-the-art data systems so school systems can track student performance across grades. Astead. Mark Warner (D-VA) and Herb Kohl (D-WI). Mehta. To retain our global economic leadership. towns and teachers. we believe we must embrace promising new approaches to education policy if we are to prepare our children to fill the jobs of the future. / 124 . our GDP could have been up to $2." Saying that "now is the time to explore new paths and reject stale thinking." The senators expressed support for new pay-for-performance teacher incentives and expansions of effective public charter Washington—Ten moderate Senate Democrats today sent a letter to President Barack Obama voicing support for his key education goals and pledging to "lend our voices to the debate as proponents of education reform. we share your sense of urgency in moving an education reform agenda through Congress. Peace through superior firepower. Bill Nelson (D-FL). leaders of the Senate Moderate Dems Working Group. Tom Carper (D-DE).

Obama will say. autos. which will go away.html) So we come to the point where the financial markets. hires its own staff. and jump through bureaucratic hoops that'll eventually dissuade many from being their child's teacher as well as their parent. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns No opposition to nationalized education standards Cary 6/11 – frequent contributor to American Thinker (Lee. plus relocation opportunities without compensation penalties. "Nationalizing Public Education Comes After Health Care" http://www. Mehta. Obama will claim that taxpayers will pay less for nationalized education since the increase in their federal taxes will be less than what they're now paying in local school taxes. / 125 . the auto industry and eventually the health care industry will function under the aegis of the federal government. And. Why not centralize all those processes and save too dependent on the varying affluence levels among the states. making a case for nationalizing public education will attract broader support than the three previous venues (banking. and health care). So the argument will go. rationalizing the nationalizing of public education K-12 will be a snap. Compared to the complexity of redesigning the American health care system. that is. President Obama will proclaim public education K-12 as too crucial to the future of the nation to be left in the hands of volunteer citizen committees. Large metropolitan school districts that are almost all dismal failures will gladly turn over their responsibility to the federal government. And. the distribution of school financing is. Astead. Peace through superior firepower. What groups will oppose this? Besides home schoolers. and within their divergent communities. It's clear from his campaign rhetoric what will come next -America's public education system. also known as School Boards and Independent School Districts. Anything less is unfair. All of America's youth are entitled to an equal opportunity to receive a world class education. public equals central.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. After all. central equals public. Works for Wal-Mart.that'll sell. Most citizens will see no inherent danger in bringing central planning to public education.americanthinker. and manages its own curriculum to its own state's standards. Equal opportunity demands equal funding. Most teachers and administrators will welcome the opportunity to become GS workers and enjoy the benefits of greater and more equitable pay. Lower taxes . The pragmatic case for uniform public education will cite economy-of-scale advantages whereby the federal government will eliminate multiple duplications of effort in a currently over-staffed management equation where every school district constructs its own buildings. Many will welcome the end of the politico-educational fiefdoms called school districts. It doesn't take a crystal ball to see this coming. effort and money? will be the argument. Candidate Obama's language about reforming public education was more emphatic and detailed than his discussion of health care. buys its own materials. They'll be required to meet the same certification standards as national teachers.

"is that it's difficult to separate any of the substantive issues around national standards and testing from the politics of education at the federal level." agreed Ms." Proponents also argue that during the 1990s. politicians can take a second look at this and.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. "It's just a different context now. Brown. who as an Education Department official helped lead the Clinton administration's work on voluntary national tests. the president of the Washington-based Achieve Inc. Ravitch. but today there's far greater public knowledge and understanding than there was in 1992." said Michael Cohen. says Ms. therefore. with a deeper understanding among the public of what's at stake. the public was not engaged. far less attention was focused on the question of performance standards--or how good is good enough--because the content standards themselves were still under development. / 126 . 5 (“Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew. I think. Astead.” 12/7. Ravitch said. "And. she says. consider it more deeply in a bipartisan fashion. When the debate came up during the 1990s. the director of education policy at the Center for American Progress. regardless of which party is in office." But Mr." Ms. Thanks to the NCLB law. Cohen and others argue that the context is different now . "I think a lot of conversation. lexis) "I think the lesson from the last 10 to 15 years. Peace through superior firepower. 50 states are now involved in the effort to decide what standards are most important and how to measure them. a situation that was not the case 15 years ago. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples Last decade irrelevant – future will be bipartisan Education Weekly. Mehta. All states also now participate in NAEP reading and math tests in grades 4 and 8. a lot of public discussion needs to take place..

Jennings.heritage. "The tendency of policy is toward inertia.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Jennings' organization has convened a group of researchers to evaluate federal efforts to improve schools and recommend whether the federal law should be just tinkered with or totally overhauled. One staunch supporter of the NCLB law said major changes are unlikely. In K-12 education. But Congress and the new president—Democrat or Republican— would be unlikely to be interested in making the dramatic changes recommended in the forum's report. "Darling-Hammond report calls for moving away from K-12 tests and sanctions" http://ed. according to Mr. for example. 8 . you would have no politics. a Washington group that has tracked implementation of the NCLB law.stanford. But truth--always a rare commodity--is growing rarer still as the nation approaches November. but it is unlikely to rewrite the law or add major new provisions. Congress has changed direction only twice in the past 50 Will Rogers once said. during the administration of President Lyndon B. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Unpopular Reforms are unpopular – Congress prefers inertia on NCLB Hoff. and discussion about this complex and bipartisan law is deteriorating into a partisan mud fight. Peace through superior firepower. Congress put more teeth into the law by requiring states to hold schools accountable for meeting goals for student performance in reading and mathematics." This is especially true when it comes to education and the federal law known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). to maintain the same policy or add on to it incrementally. Johnson. the director of the Education Trust. Mehta. Jennings said. / 127 . http://www. Astead. "If you ever injected truth into politics." said Jack Jennings. a Washington nonprofit that lobbies for improving the educational opportunities of disadvantaged children NCLB debates create partisan fights Kafer. one experienced policy hand said. The first was when it passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in Federal policymakers almost certainly will be ready to do a thorough review of the NCLB law and other K-12 legislation. In passing the latest version of the ESEA. 4 – Senior Education Policy Analyst @ Heritage (Krista. Mr. according to Washington observers. said Kati Haycock. Mr.Education Week (David J.. The ESEA created the Title I program for disadvantaged students—the largest federal K-12 program. The next time was when Congress required states to adopt standards for student performance in the 1994 version of the ESEA. Congress may be ready to amend the accountability rules and add efforts to improve states’ curricula. the president of the Center on Education Policy. the No Child Left Behind law—championed by President Bush—in 2001. “No Child Left Behind: Where Do We Go From Here?” Heritage Foundation Report 7/6/04. who worked as an aide to House Democrats on education issues from 1967 through 1994.

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Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Plan Unpopular – Political Capital
Drains political capital – election proves Lemann, 8 (Nicholas, “What No Child Left Behind Left Behind,” Writer @ The Washington Monthly, Both presidential candidates have left themselves some room to maneuver on No Child Left Behind, partly just by not talking about it very much. John McCain could conceivably have come all out for vouchers, and abandoned No Child Left Behind as an unwarranted exercise of federal power. He didn’t. Barack Obama could have called for eliminating No Child Left Behind, as Hillary Clinton did (although she voted for it in 2001), for liberal reasons: too much testing and teaching to the test; too little funding and teacher autonomy. He didn’t. It’s safe to assume that no matter who wins the election, No Child Left Behind will not be going away. But to fix it—really fix it—will require dramatic changes and considerable investment of political capital. Neither candidate has indicated that he has that in mind. There isn’t any good way to ensure that students have basic skills, which they desperately need in order not to be left behind in the twenty-first-century economy, without testing. But to start with tests is to go at the problem backward. What schools need is, first, a national standard of what proficiency in reading and math means; second, a curriculum that gets students to that level; and finally, tests tailored specifically to that curriculum. That way teaching the class and "teaching to the test" are the same thing. And the schools with students farthest from proficiency are going to need a lot of extra resources to get them there.

Obama has tons of pol cap, but the plan drains it Stickings, 9 – Assistant Editor, The Moderate Voice
(Michael, “Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Here We Are Back in Culture War Hell,” The Moderate Voice, 1/16/09, lexis) First, how is it œstartling. The œpronouncement was blunt, to be sure, but, as Fox admits, Obama has long been opposed to the policy. Second, its not like the policy is extremely popular, whereas Obama is. He’ll need to spend much of his political capital on the stimulus package, of course, and then on health care, energy, and education reform, among other initiatives, but the good thing is, he has a lot of capital to spend. There would certainly be opposition both from within the military and from without, and it could become a minor distraction, but Obama would no doubt be able to handle it while making a strong case for doing away with the policy. Third, it is the right that wants to, and intends to, reopen the culture wars, as Palin and others tried to do during the presidential campaign, and it will go there regardless. Yes, this would give them an opening, but standing up for the rights of gays and lesbians to serve their country against bigots who want them to keep quiet about who they are or, better, to get the hell out of the military altogether is a fight Obama and the opponents of the policy should be willing to have. (more¦) Newstex ID: MODV-0001-31100840

Peace through superior firepower.



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Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns
Plan can’t be popular – no constituency for reform Saba, 8 - president of the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence
(Dave, “Student Success Strategy,” American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence blog, December 3 rd, It has been incredibly difficult to gain momentum for the systemic change necessary for success in all of America’s schools. True change requires a comprehensive strategy that focuses on the many variables that affect student performance. While many individual programs are working toward this goal, those organizations working alone will not produce the education our students deserve and require in order to be competitive in the world market. The politics of education overshadows the merits of education change in America. The two camps have become so entrenched that many politicians determine which side they need to be on by who supports or fights against any given program. While conservatives usually focus on working toward education reform, that reform is perceived as principally revolving around school choice. As Andy Rotherham opined in a recent blog, conservatives are seen as “reflexively hostile to public schools.” On the other side, there are powerful groups that want to maintain the status quo. They have been very effective in positioning themselves as the student advocate through a comprehensive strategy to push for smaller class sizes, universal pre-k, more spending on education in general, higher salaries for teachers and reduced testing for students. These have the appearance of advocating for students when they really benefit the adults. A state group will work at the state level toward these goals, often with the advice and additional resources of a national group. Meanwhile, education reform groups operate in a single silo with national leadership and maybe a state group that is advocating for a single item in the reform agenda. Each state represents a win or lose scenario for each group. But each silo really only impacts a small number of students so it is too easy to marginalize that group when compared to the entire system. Reaching a small number of students has not, and will not, induce systemic change to provide better opportunities for all students. The position from the defenders of the status quo is that each education reform does not address the larger need of all students so we should continue to stay with the current and implement their strategy.

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]
1. Education is a social-service – job-training Baillie, 72 [Susan PhD, MS in Education from Indiana University and PhD in Social Services from Syracuse
University, Adjunct Associate Professor, and Director of Graduate Medical Education at the David Geffen School of Medicine, “The Potential Role of the School as a Site for Integrating Social Services. A Report.”, Educational Policy Research Center and Office of Education (DHEW), Washington DC, EBSCO]//VIJAY Finally, it would appear that education could play a vital and central role in an integrated social service program. First, there are educational facilities in virtually every community: they are reasonably accessible. Second, these facilities are primarily utilized during the daytime hours of nine—to—three. And most of these school buildings currently are used only sparingly during other hours. Third, educational services are an integral element of social services. That is, they address a very important felt need of a large number of individuals. Aside from the core educational program of kindergarten through twelfth grade, there are a number of other educational needs which are intimately related to other social services: day care——early childhood education centers, vocational education, prenatal and nutritional education, job training and re—training, and so forth. The integration of social services with education offers an obvious potential for improving the quality and nature of the services which are provided. At the same time, it also appears to present some possibilities for reducing costs. The problem with all of this, of course, is that the claims made on behalf of social service integration are largely a priori in nature. That is, they make a considerable amount of rational sense, but leave unanswered the question: Will it work? The notions in our heads of how things “ought to” work so often collide with what actually happens.

2. Counter-interpretation – social services include education in vocational training USDVA, 7 [“Social Services, Except Child Care,” March 23]
Careers in social services appeal to persons with a strong desire to make lives better and easier for others . Workers in this industry usually are good communicators and enjoy interacting with people. Social services workers assist the homeless, housebound, and infirm to cope with circumstances of daily living; counsel troubled and emotionally disturbed individuals; train or retrain the unemployed or underemployed; care for the elderly, and physically and mentally disabled; help the needy obtain financial assistance; and solicit contributions for various social services organizations. About 102,000 establishments in the private sector provided social services in 1998. Thousands of other establishments, mainly in State and local government, provided many additional social services. For information about government social services, see the Career Guide statements on Federal Government, and State and local government, excluding education and hospitals. Social services contain four segments—individual and family services, residential care, job training and vocational rehabilitation services, and miscellaneous social services. (The child-care services industry, including day care and preschool care centers, is covered in a separate Career Guide statement.) Individual and family social services establishments provide counseling and welfare services including refugee, disaster, and temporary relief services. Government offices distribute welfare aid, rent supplements, and food stamps. Some agencies provide adult day care, home-delivered meals, and home health and personal care services. Other services concentrate on children, such as big brother and sister organizations, youth centers, and adoption services. Workers in crisis centers may focus on individual, marriage, child, or family counseling.

Residential care facilities provide around-the-clock social and personal care to children, the elderly, and others who have limited ability to care for themselves. Workers care for residents of alcohol and drug rehabilitation centers, group homes, and
halfway houses. Nursing and medical care, however, is not the main focus of establishments providing residential care, as it is in nursing or personal care facilities (see the statement on health services, elsewhere in the Career Guide).

Job training and related services establishments train the unemployed, underemployed, disabled, and others with job market disadvantages. Vocational specialists and counselors work with clients to overcome deficient education, job skills, or experience. Often industrial psychologists or career counselors will assess the job skills of a client and, working with both the employer and the client, decide whether the client would be better served by taking additional job training, by being placed in a different job with his or her current skills, or by restructuring the job to accommodate any skill deficiency. Miscellaneous social services include many different kinds of establishments, such as advocacy
groups, antipoverty boards, community development groups, and health and welfare councils. Many miscellaneous social services organizations are concerned with community improvement and social change. They may solicit contributions, administer appropriations, and allocate funds among other agencies engaged in social welfare services.

Peace through superior firepower.



Astead. in and of itself. parenting. 9 ( Tom. Helen F. Peace through superior firepower. there is no evidence that school improvement strategies by themselves can close these gaps in a substantial. While recognizing that the relations between cause and effect in education are often ambiguous. Education policy in this nation has typically been crafted around the expectation that schools alone can offset the full impact of low socioeconomic status on learning. creativity. and accountability can. and non-academic skills. poverty. has documented a powerful association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement. Weakening that association is the fundamental challenge facing America’s education policy makers. however. Mehta. Bureacracy Disad A. however. cultural. from birth through the end of formal schooling. and by the incentives that NCLB generates for schools to focus instruction on students who are just below the passing point. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5] 3. Ph. at the expense of both lower-performing and higher-performing students. by its acceptance of the popular assumptions that bad schools are the major reason for low achievement. and the cognitive. Ladd (Duke University. D from Harvard. Schools can—and have—ameliorated some of the impact of social and economic disadvantage on achievement. Education. bolder approach pays attention not only to basic academic skills and cognitive growth narrowly defined. teacher training. A Broader. on underachieving disadvantaged children. and programs that develop parents’ capacity to support their children’s education. Improving our schools. prof of econ and public policy). policy makers to rethink their assumptions and adopt a broader.//LAURA June 25 “A Broader. No Child Left Behind and the public discussion it has supported have cast a bright light on the achievement gap. but to development of the whole person. It seeks to build working relationships between schools and surrounding community institutions. Pedro Noguera (PhD.boldapproach. both here and abroad. the new approach incorporates policies and practices whose effectiveness is reinforced by the preponderance of evidence presently available from serious research. This broader. the broader. professor of practice at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. and Human Development at New York University)). is a professor in the Steinhardt School of Culture. that achievement gaps based on socioeconomic status are present before children even begin formal schooling. The persistent failure of policy makers to act on that evidence—in tandem with a school-improvement agenda—is a major reason why the association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement remains so strong. Second. including physical health. / 131 . The new approach recognizes the centrality of formal schooling. but it also recognizes the importance of high-quality early childhood and pre-school programs. after-school and summer programs.html The Challenge More than a half century of research. the approach is informed by a large and powerful body of literature from researchers over the years who have examined the powerful impact on student achievement of numerous contextual and environmental factors such as early learning. there is solid evidence that policies aimed directly at education-related social and economic disadvantages can improve school performance and student achievement. health. It assigns value to the new knowledge and skills that young people need to become effective participants in a global environment. and the ability to respect and work with persons from different backgrounds. Evidence demonstrates. character. Bolder Approach To Education” http://www. consistent. and that an academic program revolving around standards. ex. either here or abroad. No Child Left Behind is victim to bureaucratic constraints Payzant et al. The potential effectiveness of NCLB has been seriously undermined. conventional education policy making focuses on learning that occurs in formal school settings during the years from kindergarten through high school. including citizenship. The effectiveness of NCLB has also been weakened by its unintended side effects. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Framework Cannot by Itself Meet the Challenge Through its disaggregated reporting requirements. NCLB also requires a rate of achievement growth that exceeds the results of even the most effective school improvement measures. alone or in combination.S. such as a narrowing of the curriculum. offset the full impact of low socioeconomic status on achievement. Bolder Approach for Education Given the limitations of conventional policy. First. and character development that occurs outside schools. bolder approach we support is also informed by research. In particular. testing. bolder approach for education—one that is powerful enough to produce a large reduction in the current association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement. we believe that the time has come for U. continues to be a vitally important strategy for promoting upward mobility and for working toward equal opportunity and overall educational excellence. Despite the impressive academic gains registered by some schools serving disadvantaged students. and sustainable manner.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.assistant secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education with the United States Department of Education. and on persistently underachieving schools. bolder approach breaks with the past by embracing an expanded concept of education in two respects. The broader. therefore. social development. including NCLB.

professions and classes in order to balance descriptions of the institutional framework through which the welfare state is administered with analysis of the social production and maintenance of inequality. The task of social policy analysis is to evaluate the distributional impact of existing policies and proposals and the rationales underlying them. This is not only confusing for students and others but more importantly this division may be exploited by those whose interests would be harmed by alternative analyses of social policy. the impact of inflation and income policies on stratification are rarely considered by social administrators.5 million ESRC Growing Older Programme. and far from being incorporated into a theory of social policy. These aims would Peace through superior firepower.3 However. However. like their famous predecessors. and the UK National Collaboration on Ageing Research. Some of the limitations of this approach have been exposed by the perpetuation and growth of inequality in welfare state societies. Unless social policy teaching and research adapts its tools and methods to take account of these social factors it is likely to become increasingly detached from the real world of social welfare. education. and have succeeded in sowing the seeds of alternative and more sociological approaches. EPSRC. overemphasized the importance of government in the distribution of resources and fostered a false image of the benevolent state as the embodiment of welfare principles. with a split emerging between what some social policy analysts do and what is traditionally defined as being the concern of social administration. 2001-2004. have also failed to provide the necessary framework within which to study social development. Alternative definitions of social policy are needed to ensure that the analysis of welfare is more comprehensive than that carried out so far within the framework of social administration. firmly established. if its scope is questioned from time to time. arc not receiving critical attention from social administrators because they fall outside of the compass of the subject as it has developed since the Second World War. social administration has continued to concentrate its attention on government action through the five social services: health. despite the pioneering work of Titmuss in outlining the three divisions of welfare and Townsend in formulating the basis of a sociological approach to social policy. there are signs hat important social developments which affect welfare fundamentally. He is currently Director of the £20 million ESRC. for the most part. at best describing them and at worst ignoring them. Existing conceptions of social policy do not provide an adequate framework for the study of the social production and exploitation of inequality. Furthermore. is a relatively young and developing subject and it is not surprising. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5] B. Social policies may be made implicitly or explicitly. surely. It is argued that the essential aspect of social policies are their distributional implications or outcomes.2 The evolution of this realization has been accompanied by periodic expressions of dissatisfaction about the limitations of the definition of ‘social policy’. Social administration. ’ This. the fact that thirty years of institutionalized social service provision has not produced a major change in the unequal structure of British society is now. traditional conceptions oldie subject have proved to be remarkably resilient. He directed the £3. and the need for a reassessment of the scope of social policy teaching and research has not been openly and consistently recognized. For example. such as health insurance and employers fringe benefits. therefore. There are signs that. the boundaries of the subject are becoming increasingly blurred.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. ebsco) Abstract Teaching and research in social administration have been dominated by the study of the public social services. both as an activity or practice and as an academic subject. of course. He was appointed Professor of Social Policy in 1985 and was Head of Department from 1988 to 1996. It is not intended to lay claim to large sections of disciplines such as economics and politics. these critiques have usually remained implicit. as a result. In such analyses attention will be focused less on the problems of individuals or clients. housing and personal social services. has increased in recent years. BBSRC. / 132 . social security. nor to attempt to define precisely the boundaries of social policy. MRC and AHRC New Dynamics of Ageing Programme and is also Director of the European Research Area in Ageing and is spending most of his time on research. social administration has not yet succeeded in providing a systematic framework for the analysis of the perpetuation and growth inequalities in ‘welfare state’ societies. Crushes policy debate Walker. Nonetheless he still supervises a large number of postgraduate students and was until recently the Research Director for the Social Sciences Division in the University. Astead. “Social Policy. than on the behavior of organizations. 1999-2004. Mehta. social administration.4 Whilst the coverage of welfare provisions in the private sector. As a result. as the amalgam of disciplines within which social policy is studied is anachronistically called. Social Administration and the Social Construction of Welfare”. The tendency to equate social policy with the institutionalized welfare state has reinforced the insular tendencies in British social administration. exposed some short-comings in the current conceptions of social policy. choosing instead. Whether or not the welfare state is in or on the brink of a crisis. 81 (Dr Alan Walker joined the Department in 1977 and has been a Lecturer. Senior Lecturer and Reader in Social Policy. including the state. partly reflects the fact that economists and sociologists. by and large. Recent analyses of the political economy of welfare have. they are too often seen as being the province of economists alone. by a wide range of social institutions and groups. to remain passive.

and we arc not interested in methodology for its own sake. Although a definition of social policy is proposed. it must at some stage re-examine its definition and scope. the study of social administration has focused its attention almost exclusively on the public welfare activities of government. I think. One important reason for this is the successful social construction of ‘welfare’ as ‘the welfare state’ or government intervention in welfare. that it is possible and desirable to arrive at a single definition of social policy or social administration. no text omitted] be presumptuous and. When this lack of agreement. but as a tentative suggestion. The fact that social administration is a field rather than a discipline’ should not be allowed to inhibit attempts at the clearer definition of the scope and meaning of social policy. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5] [Walker Continues. Social administration has. which Slack has dismissed as neither profitable nor interesting. Despite some well-known exceptions.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. then some discussion of the nature of the subject is clearly called for. as an absence of clear agreement amongst analysts on the meaning of concepts that arc generally held to be central to the subject. this is not posited as a final answer. as the result of the distributional outcomes of various institutionalized social policies.8 However. As Donnison has argued: ‘The distinctive feature of our subject is neither its body of knowledge (for most of this could be incorporated into other disciplines) nor its theoretical structure (for it has very little). Astead. the problem is not so much a lack of alternative and untainted terms. if this will facilitate the study of welfare as a whole. fruitless tasks for a subject that. is by definition. But while they continue to concentrate on government and its legislation. / 133 . This need is further emphasized by the implications for the study of social policy of the failure of the welfare state significantly to affect either the prevailing distribution of resources and power in society.’ Neither is it my intention to attempt to re-open the discussion on the shopping-list of ‘social’ as opposed to other policies. this paper attempts to tackle some of the issues surrounding the continuing difficulty of studying social welfare within the framework of existing definitions of social policy as social administration. including other sectors of the state as well as financial and business concerns.7 Rather. This process of re-examination assumes. is translated into a reluctance to investigate some integral pans of the institutionalized policy process. or the social differentiation of welfare . inter-disciplinary. Peace through superior firepower. which it is hoped might play some part in an ongoing and fruitful discussion. If social administration is to encompass adequately the analysis of welfare or dis-welfare. reinforced this stereotype through research and teaching. Titmuss referred to this as the ‘unsoluble problem’. in turn. Existing consensus appears to be confined to the study of certain parts of the policy system. of course. social administrators are in danger of ignoring the distributional outcomes of decisions made by other powerful social institutions and groups. therefore. Mehta.

and (9) services related to the provision of assistance for housing under Federal law. For many it also suggests making social services more accessible to potential clients. including: (1) child care services. Astead. A Report. revitalizing low-income communities. however. and so forth. participation. and services related to soup kitchens or food banks. social services is defined as services directed at helping people in need. Adjunct Associate Professor. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5] 4. For instance. Integrated social services – education is key to comprehensive social services – critical to effectiveness of all social services Baillie. we are talking about increased “efficiency” or “effectiveness. (4) information.senate. First. With this organization of social services no attention is ‘paid to the unique set of needs. job training. that we are also dealing with something other than the “logical—semantic” sorts of considerations just described. 5 [A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to repeal the excise tax on telephone and other communications. it might lead to some manner of improved social services. of the individual. Nor is there any assurance that he will be made aware of or receive all the services to which he is legally entitled. or emotional disabilities). http://finance. adoption services. “integrated social services” is often a code— word for a fairly well articulated approach to the provision or delivery of social services. it is intimately related——though it need not be——to various notions of community involvement. Peace through superior firepower. and empowering low-income families and lowincome individuals to become self-sufficient. welfare. “The Potential Role of the School as a Site for Integrating Social Services. (2) transportation services.pdf] For this purpose. MS in Education from Indiana University and PhD in Social Services from Syracuse University. services for the prevention of crime and the provision of assistance to the victims and the families of criminal offenders. recreation.”. It is based on the undeniable fact that different people have differing requirements for social services. services related to the management and maintenance of the home. In either case. reducing poverty. protective services for children and adults. and Director of Graduate Medical Education at the David Geffen School of Medicine. Washington DC. it might be a way for providing social services at a lower cost. and services to meet the special needs of children. Mehta. 5. Finally. older individuals. and counseling services. (8) services for the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. EBSCO] There wou1d appear to be two rationales for examining the feasibility of integrating social services with schools. / 134 . or control. It should be made clear at the outset. day care services for adults. Second. improving outcomes of low-income children. The term “integrated social services” (with or without education) has acquired particular meanings and connotations. No limits explosion – we’re the only educational policy that’s topical – even exclusive defs include job training S. (7) literacy and mentoring programs. mental. and employment services.” broadly defined.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. with each addressing a particular aspect of an individual’s needs——physical health. Job-training – they limit all affs that train people for jobs they don’t already have – means the unemployed couldn’t get jobs because they didn’t have one before – bad for the topic because it eliminates most poverty job-training affs B. Educational Policy Research Center and Office of Education (DHEW).1321. mental health. (6) health support services. services for children and adults in foster care. (5) the preparation and delivery of meals. and services related to the intervention in. (3) job training and related services. Limits Disad A. domestic and prevention of. referral. 72 [Susan PhD. and individuals with disabilities (including physical. The current practice is to have an independent set of services.

library. and education for the common good over the next quarter century.pdf) The scale and nature of the ongoing revolution in science and technology. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. Peace through superior firepower.” http://govinfo.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Second only to a weapon of mass destruction detonating in an American city. / 135 . Kostrinsky Wave One Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education Nuclear war outweighs education The United States Commission on National Security. we can think of nothing more dangerous than a failure to manage properly science.unt. technology. Astead. pose critical national security challenges for the United States. and what this implies for the quality of human capital in the 21st century.

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