Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Education/Jobs Affirmative
Education/Jobs Affirmative............................................................................................................................................1 1AC – Plan Text..............................................................................................................................................................4 1AC – Inherency.............................................................................................................................................................5 1AC – Inherency ............................................................................................................................................................6 1AC – Economy..............................................................................................................................................................7 1AC – Economy..............................................................................................................................................................9 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................10 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................11 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................12 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................13 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................14 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................15 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................16 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................17 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................18 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................19 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................20 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................21 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................22 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................23 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................24 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................25 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................26 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................27 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................29 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................30 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................31 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................33 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................34 1AC – Solvency............................................................................................................................................................35 1AC – Solvency............................................................................................................................................................36 Economy – Ext: No Jobs  Protectionism..................................................................................................................37 Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness.........................................................................................................................38 Economy – AT: Buy America  Protectionism..........................................................................................................39 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ ........................................................................................................40 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2]...............................................................................................41 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2]...............................................................................................42 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2].................................................................................................43 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2].................................................................................................44 Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2].................................................................................................45 Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2].................................................................................................46 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List..........................................................................................................47 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................48 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................49 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................50 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars.......................................................................................................................51 Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ.......................................................................................................................52 Economy – 2AC War Add-on.......................................................................................................................................53 CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE.......................................................................................................................................54 CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on...................................................................................................................................55 CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2]................................................................................................................................56 CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2]................................................................................................................................57 CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................58

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Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................60 CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................61 CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !)...............................................................................................................................62 CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2].....................................................................................................................63 CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2].....................................................................................................................64 CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on......................................................................................................................................65 CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2].............................................................................................................66 CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [2/2].............................................................................................................67 CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Venture Capital Add-on........................................................................................................68 CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on................................................................................................................69 CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Job Shortages.........................................................................................................................70 CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Chemical Industry Impact......................................................................................................71 Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB.................................................................................................72 Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. Standards Key to DIB.........................................................................................73 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2]...................................................................................74 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2]...................................................................................75 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on............................................................................................76 Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg..............................................................................................78 Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness.....................................................................................79 Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness.....................................................................................80 Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves.............................................................................................................81 Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good....................................................................................................................82 Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good....................................................................................................................83 Solvency – Title I Key..................................................................................................................................................84 Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key........................................................................................................................................85 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation.........................................................................................................86 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on...........................................................................................................87 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on.....................................................................................................88 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on.........................................................................................................89 NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom..................................................................................................................................90 NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools..............................................................................................................................91 NCLB Bad – High-Stakes.............................................................................................................................................92 NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone....................................................................................................................93 NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good......................................................................................................................94 NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse...................................................................................................................................95 AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA)......................................................................................................................................96 AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants)..........................................................................................................................97 AT: Teachers Unions Bad.............................................................................................................................................98 AT: Teachers Unions Bad.............................................................................................................................................99 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................100 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................101 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................103 AT: States – Standards Key........................................................................................................................................104 AT: States – Uniformity Fails.....................................................................................................................................105 AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE...................................................................................................................................106 AT: States – Spending DA..........................................................................................................................................107 AT: States – Trade-off DA..........................................................................................................................................108 AT: States – Cali Econ DA.........................................................................................................................................109 AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending.............................................................................................................................110 AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2]................................................................................................................................111 AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2]................................................................................................................................113 Ext: Texas Spills Over................................................................................................................................................114 AT: States – Links to Politics.....................................................................................................................................115 AT: Repeal NCLB CP.................................................................................................................................................116 AT: Higher Education CP...........................................................................................................................................117 AT: Liberal Arts CP....................................................................................................................................................118

Peace through superior firepower.

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Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

AT: Disads..................................................................................................................................................................119 AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA..................................................................................................................................120 Plan Popular – Teachers Unions.................................................................................................................................121 Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan.........................................................................................................122 Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda................................................................................................123 Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats..........................................................................................................................124 Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns...................................................................................................................................125 Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples....................................................................................................................126 Plan Unpopular...........................................................................................................................................................127 Plan Unpopular – Political Capital..............................................................................................................................128 Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns..............................................................................................................................129 2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]..........................................................................................................................................130 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5]..........................................................................................................................................131 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5]..........................................................................................................................................132 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5]..........................................................................................................................................133 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5]..........................................................................................................................................134 Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education.......................................................................................................135

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and mathematics through career and technical education programs. Peace through superior firepower. engineering.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 4 . Mehta. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Plan Text Plan: The United States federal government should increase need-based allocations under Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 to include uniform proficiency standards for science. technology.

To the untrained eye. 7. only two of them.8 percent and New York ranks 14th with 18. Even though Utah and Wyoming have similar percentages of students living in poverty. New America Foundation.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. This is unexpected given that Wyoming ranks fairly low in terms of percent of students living in poverty .002 in Title I funds per poor student.Arizona. six of them are in the top 25 states in terms of student poverty .9 percent. and Tennessee. We hope that the final stimulus bill enables those funds to do just that. their Title I stimulus allocations differ dramatically. (. the state with the smallest number of students living in poverty . rank in the top 25 states in terms of student poverty.. and state expenditure factors. Alabama. Admittedly. In fact. Title I stimulus distribution is expected to be the same in 2009 and 2010. the Targeted Grant formula uses poverty weights to provide more money to districts with larger impoverished populations.) Although Louisiana ranked 29 th in per poor student funding in the stimulus allocation with $593. Instead.net/blog/ed-money-watch/2009/closer-look-title-i-stimulus-spending-9747) Yesterday we took a look at total stimulus funding per student as estimated by the House Education and Labor Committee's stimulus allocation data. hold harmless amounts. Funds should flow to states and districts with the neediest populations. is expected to receive $1. it is only expected to receive $503 dollars in Title I funding per poor student via the stimulus.8 percent. The Targeted formula allocates dollars based on either the actual number of poor students or the proportion of poor students. DC and New York.493. distribution of stimulus Title I funds will be channeled through two Title I funding formulas: 50 percent through Targeted Grants and 50 percent through Education Finance Incentive Grants (EFIGs). These outcomes for the Title I stimulus allocations are unexpected. Oklahoma. Nevada would move from 33rd ($564 per poor student) to 46th ($505 per poor student) in per poor student funding. Title I stimulus funding appears to be allocated randomly. Furthermore. Mississippi has the most students living in poverty (27. Today. Astead. we will take a closer look at the estimated 2009 Title I funding distributions per poor student in each state and the District of Columbia (Puerto Rico is not included in Census estimates). $13 billion in Title I funds is a small part of the total pot of stimulus funding (as much as $140 billion) aimed for education. depending on which results in a higher weighting. Writer. These findings show that current allocations do not effectively target states with the largest impoverished populations. However. The lack of continuity between projected Title I stimulus funding per poor student and percent of students living in poverty can in some part be attributed to the complicated formulas used to calculate the Title I distributions. New Hampshire. Peace through superior firepower. According to the House stimulus bill.2 percent of students in poverty and ranks 47 th out of 51 on that indicator. The District of Columbia ranks third in terms of student population living in poverty at 24. Conversely. http://www. Mehta. Ed Money Watch. of the 10 states expected to receive the most Title I stimulus funding per poor student.3 percent. Grant allocations are skewed by small state minimums. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Inherency Contention : Inherency Stimulus increased Title I education funding – but it’s not targeted towards low-income schools Cohen 1/29 (Jennifer. Both of these formulas target funds based on the number of poor students in a state or district as measured by the census. As a result. Arkansas. of the ten states expected to receive the least Title I stimulus funding per student. with little connection to student poverty levels. Utah appears slated to receive the least Title I stimulus funding per poor student at $428.2 percent) of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Utah has 10. but its sole purpose is to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for poor students. it favors states with many small districts that educate a large proportion of poor students or states with large districts but relatively small proportions of poor students. We used 2007 census data for our analysis. / 5 . allocations are the result of complicated Title I funding formulas that don't appear to do a great job of providing the maximum benefit to states with large impoverished populations. Mississippi. it would rank 41st with $531 per poor student using 100% EFIG.newamerica. Our analysis suggests that Wyoming is expected to receive the most stimulus funding per poor student at $1. As might be expected.43rd out of 51 at 10.

"A high school diploma needs to mean something. president of the nonprofit Fordham Foundation. Mehta.” http://www. Fordham Institute. 9 – Staff Writer." Peace through superior firepower. No Child Left Behind is misleading. It was issued Thursday by the Thomas B. such as Arizona and Wisconsin." Education Secretary Arne Duncan said recently. U. But they met yearly progress goals in states with lower standards. said Chester E. It found the schools failed to meet yearly progress goals in states with more rigorous standards. The study underscores wide variation in academic standards from state to state. The Fordham study measured test scores of 36 elementary and middle schools against accountability rules in 28 states. such as Massachusetts. study finds. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Inherency No Child Left Behind creates a patchwork of state standards for proficiency causing overall education to stagnate Quaid.washingtontimes." he said.. the study found. he said.S.and career-ready and are benchmarked against international standards. needs standards that make children college. states have a patchwork of rules that vary from state to state." he said.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Under No Child Left Behind. “Academic standards vary by state. The study comes as the Obama administration indicates it will encourage states to adopt common standards. "And it's produced results I would call unfair from one state to the next. 2/20. "But the notion that we have 50 different goal posts doesn't make sense. "It misleads people into thinking that we have a semblance of a national accountability system for public schools. which conducted the study with the Kingsbury Center at the Northwest Evaluation Association. "I know that talking about standards can make people nervous. Finn Jr. a national study found. Washington Times (Libby. no matter where it's from. an often controversial issue on which previous presidents have trod lightly." Every state.com/news/2009/feb/20/academic-standards-vary-by-state-us-study-finds/) Some schools deemed to be failing in one state would get passing grades in another under the No Child Left Behind law. and we actually don't. / 6 .

on average. high school seniors scored last among 16 countries tested. U. Eight out of ten districts that reported increasing time for ELA did so by at least 75 minutes per week . students in science and engineering majors have been flat or declining-even as the demand for these skills increases. but for the Peace through superior firepower. science. Most high school graduates are not adequately prepared for college-level science courses. and the same percentage (53%) cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science. The U. “STEM Education. http://www. For example. earth. or lunch. This trend has disturbing implications. You don't have to be a scientist to recognize that the status quo is a recipe for big trouble. http://www. now ranks below 13 other countries in the percentage of 24-year olds with a college degree in these subjects. physical education. mathematics. Astead. U. atmospheric and ocean sciences. / 7 . students reach their senior year of high school. It is reported that just 26% of the 2003 high school graduates scored high enough on the ACT science test to have a good chance of completing a first-year college science course. biological sciences. engineering.showDocumentByID&nodeID=1&DocumentID=234) As part of an ongoing study of the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Technology. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Contention : The Economy No Child Left Behind is destroying focus on STEM education – overvalues ELA McMurrer. If you are an educator in science like me. tech.html? elr=KArksLckD8EQDUoaEyqyP4O:DW3ckUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aUdcOy9cP3DieyckcUsI) STEM is the acronym for Science. In physics. on average. physical sciences. Engineering and Mathematics. China and South Korea.startribune. Districts that increased instructional time for ELA and/or math did so by 43%. America is no longer a world contender. agricultural sciences.Head Research Associate @ Center on Education Policy (Jennifer. Among the disciplines that the National Science Foundation includes under STEM are engineering. That's one reason why enrollments of U. down from third place 25 years ago. 8 . A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects.S. economics and other natural and social/behavioral sciences. more than half (53%) of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies. and math education are key to job growth and the economy Paulus. the largest international study of scientific achievement ever conducted. and more than half (54%) did so by 150 minutes or more per week.” The Star Tribune. 63% added at least 75 minutes per week. according to the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. and 19% added 150 minutes or more per week. Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32%. recess.cfm?fuseaction=document.cep-dc. not just for the future of American technological leadership. Most districts that increased time for ELA or math also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods. “Instructional Time in Elementary Schools. Mehta.S. In fact. the Center on Education Policy (CEP) conducted a deeper analysis of 2006-07 survey data first reported in July 2007 on the amount of instructional time devoted to specific subjects.S. By the time U. These approaches will fail – science. including social studies. they rank below their counterparts in 17 other countries in math and science literacy. students have fallen far behind their competitors in much of Western Europe and in advanced Asian nations like Japan. computer science.org/index.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.” February.com/yourvoices/42109707. Here is what we learned about the magnitude of changes in instructional time in elementary schools from districts that reported increases or decreases in time for certain subjects since NCLB took effect in 2002: The shifts in instructional time toward English language arts (ELA) and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of increases and decreases. Among districts that reported adding time for math. brace yourself for what you will find if you look for data on science education in America collected during the past few years. art and music.S. Eugenia. 9 – Professor @ North Hennepin Community College (Dr. Among the districts that reported both increasing time for ELA or math and reducing time in other subjects. 72% indicated that they reduced time by a total of at least 75 minutes per week for one or more of these other subjects. India.S. psychology. The depressing reality is that when it comes to educating the next generation in these subjects.

/ 8 . Astead. Mehta. Already. placing the Peace through superior firepower. there is a shortage of highly-skilled workers and a surplus of lesser-skilled workers.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One broader economy. This is creating an imbalance between the supply of such workers and the burgeoning demand for them.

A recent Pew Research Center poll found that 48 percent of Americans see free trade agreements as a bad thing for the country. appears threatening to Americans already skeptical about the overall benefits of globalization. and to maintain or improve their global leadership position they have to hire the best talent. In 2000. "Looking Past Today: Staying Competitive in a Changing Global Economy" http://www. That may not sound like much. but it is also the result of a broad-based transformation underway across regions and within all sectors of our economy.S.S. Many countries are now considering further restrictions on foreign investment in certain sectors of their economies. And their U. Consider what would happen if the U. But Hanushek figures that the 4% annual increase alone would be enough to offset the entire cost of America's public K-12 school system for the same year. Astead. schools is vital to maintaining America's global leadership. the recent market developments have contributed to a climate of increased distrust and anxiety among Americans that is fueling support for protectionist policies. / 9 .S.S. gross domestic product would then be 4% higher than otherwise by 2025 and 10% higher in 30 years. wherever that talent may be. And it is not just in the United States. International competition from free trade. Previously served as Deputy National Security Advisor to the President for International Economic Affairs (David H. a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution in Stanford University.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.S. as do the frequent headlines about investment by sovereign wealth funds. Peace through superior firepower. employees benefit as these companies maintain their competitive edge and grow. the United States may not be able to rely on the international market to meet its needs. Many Americans are also fearful about the implications of foreign investment.S. effective school reform could easily stimulate the economy more than conventional strategies. whether explicit or implicit. In the wake of September 11th.. science and engineering workforce in peril. Mehta. bright young Indian or Chinese scientists may well have better opportunities at home than in the U. jobs requiring a PhD in science and technology were filled by people who were born abroad.htm) Unfortunately. could raise the performance of its high school students in math and science to the levels of Western Europe within a decade. as an example. Market downturns combined with job losses to foreigners is creating momentum towards protectionism McCormick. we also see Americans increasingly concerned about competing for jobs against people from around the world.gov/press/releases/hp1004. U. where there is reluctance to pass the Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. The consequences of this could be enormous. Similarly. America has compensated for its failure to adequately educate the next generation by importing brainpower. no text omitted] future of the U. some countries seem resolved that the only sure protection is the rejection of foreign capital. also pose serious economic risks. such as Bush tax cuts. This is partially due to concerns created by the economic downturn. In an increasingly globalized world. concerns about national security have led Congress and the public to take a careful look at investment from outside our borders. a stunning 38% of U. Hanushek. Talent is the most important commodity in the global marketplace and ever more fungible as advanced technology makes borders less relevant. and only 30 percent seeing them as a good thing. as the global competition for science and engineering talent is intensifying. As globalization accelerates. According to the Eric A. Improving the teaching and learning of mathematics and science in U. Because the quality of a nation's workforce has such a huge influence on productivity. U. companies are global leaders in a variety of industries. despite its clear benefits to the United States and Colombia. While some investments may pose genuine national security concerns. broader restrictions on foreign direct investment. 8 – former Under Secretary for International Affairs within the United States Department of the Treasury. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy [Paulus Continues.ustreas. However. But this is a difficult reality for many Americans to accept. Finally. We also see protectionist rhetoric particularly pronounced in this political year where the benefits of trade are being openly questioned by individuals from across the political spectrum. Until recently.S. and are also considering limits to sovereign wealth fund investment. up from 24% in 1990. doctoral positions and graduate programs in science at the nation's leading universities are often filled with foreign students. The Dubai Ports World case epitomizes this concern. This message has reached Capitol Hill.S.

wsj.S. The situation is the same with respect to world trade. Obama will find a very hostile reception during his first international trip to Canada later this month. If the provision is not diluted.S. The U. and to improve the safety net available to displaced workers during the transition period. And competitive markets have spurred the innovation revolution that has made the U. The European Union has said that it will not stand by idly if the U. Most economic historians now conclude that the tariff contributed importantly to the severity of the world-wide Great Depression. Buy American provisions and other forms of protectionism will destroy jobs. is the biggest exporter in the world. and that is why free trade is often a tough sell. Both we and the Chinese are better off if we can import inexpensive clothing from China and sell them large-scale computers and data storage equipment. wine and vegetables from California. Astead.and imparts the flexible skills that make our citizens ready for the future jobs that we cannot even imagine. and America's closest allies are furious.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. least of all the poor. the provision could delay some shovel-ready infrastructure projects. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Protectionist momentum in the context of jobs collapses the economy and causes trade wars Malkiel. and the spread of "beggar thy neighbor" policies throughout the world. They are an irresponsible and self-defeating response to a downturn in world economic activity. Foreign steel would only be allowed if domestic products were either unavailable or drove up the cost of the project by 25% or more. We also need to revamp our educational system so that it prepares workers for the jobs that are available today -. This Buy American momentum is bad economics. does not manufacture enough steel to meet domestic demand. and by threatening to destabilize trade and capital flows. Suppose that we did not allow free trade between the 50 American states. Moreover. The pain tends to be localized while the benefits are spread broadly. (That act is still on the books although it was weakened during the 1980s. it risks turning a global recession into a 1930s-style depression. such trade does not make everyone better off. / 10 . Later. Brown put it at Davos. not create them. and world trade plummeted. It could also destabilize the global capital flows on which the U. President Herbert Hoover made the situation even worse by signing a "Buy America Act" requiring all federal government projects to use American materials. I feel the pain far more acutely than consumers feel the benefits of cheap clothing. The risks of retaliation and a trade war are very real. depends to fund its deficits.. retaliation could cost America more jobs than the provision would create. violates its trade agreements and its obligations to the World Trade Organization." He said on ABC News that he doesn't want anything in the stimulus bill that is "going to trigger a trade war. especially during times of hardship.S. Our trading partners retaliated. The specialization that trade makes possible allows all of us to live better. In 1930. Wrapped in the cloak of "Buy American" patriotism. Beggar-thy-neighbor policies create more beggars and hostile neighbors. No one person's benefit can compare with the loss felt by the textile worker. But the total benefits do exceed the costs. Asked about Buy American on Tuesday." He's right. Since the U.com/article/SB123380102867150621.S. To be sure.S. "Buy American" would effectively ban Canadian steel products and other raw materials from infrastructure projects receiving stimulus funds." Peace through superior firepower. wheat from Kansas. Hostility has been no less evident in Europe and China. The House of Representatives' version of the economic stimulus bill contains a provision that only American-made steel and other products be used for the infrastructure projects. Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. Citizens like me in New Jersey would be far worse off if we could not buy pineapples from Hawaii. Let's hope that President Obama presses his Democratic colleagues in Congress to listen to him. As Mr. Mehta. This House provision caused a palpable anxiety during the recent World Economic Forum at Davos. just as the world economy was sinking as it is today. Mr. since sufficient American-made materials may not be immediately available. Buy American provisions invite retaliation by other nations.S. The solution for the displaced worker is job retraining and adjustment assistance. 2/5 – professor of economics at Princeton University (Burton G.html) As the world-wide recession deepens. the economic powerhouse that it is. as one of his last acts. the Senate version of the bill contains even stronger anti-free-trade provisions. If I am a textile worker whose job is lost because Chinese imports have caused my factory to close. and oil from Texas and Louisiana while we sell pharmaceuticals to the rest of the country.) We must avoid repeating the disastrous mistakes of the past. protectionist sentiments are rising.S. the U. and to British Prime Minister and Labour Party head Gordon Brown. President Barack Obama told Fox News that "we can't send a protectionist message. "Protectionism protects nobody. which essentially shut off imports into the U. "Congress Wants a Trade War" http://online.

how will economically embattled and inward-looking governments be able to deal with the critical issues that need global resolution such as control of nuclear weapons. Addressing these workers’ problems would be far better for the economy.is great. embodies exactly the wrong spirit and runs in precisely the wrong direction from the global system that will be necessary to create the future we all want.org/index. a global advisory firm (Jeffrey E.hudson. or a treaty to manage climate change. for example -. 9 – professor at the Yale School of Management and chairman of Garten Rothkopf. Such changes.truthabouttrade. America needs to take a fundamental look at its education system. As happened in the 1930s. The point is. As an economically enfeebled South Korea withdraws foreign aid from North Korea. would mitigate the negative impacts of free trade on the small pool of affected workers. We need to reduce our high-school dropout rates—by incorporating vocational training. than sliding toward protectionism. or help to the hundreds of millions of people who are now falling back into poverty? Incorporating vocational training into high schools stops the slide toward protectionism Furchtgott-Roth.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=5285&pubType=Trd) In addition to workforce training. economic nationalism. Astead. The Dangers of Turning Inward. She is the former chief economist at the U. is a civil war with Cold War overtones between Europe and Russia be in the cards? And beyond all that. and enables them to change jobs more easily. 7 – senior fellow and director of Hudson Institute's Center for Employment Policy. rather than just one. if necessary—and encourage young people to get as much education as possible. their tenure can be threatened by popular resentment. and for most other American workers. Peace through superior firepower.en/) About Trade & Technology. / 11 . could we see an even more irrational activity from Pyongyang? As the Pakistani economy goes into the tank. many of which have repeatedly been proposed by President Bush and rejected by Congress.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The temptation for governments to whip up enthusiasm for something that distracts citizens from their economic woes -. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Protectionism escalates and causes nuclear exchange Garten. will the government be more likely to compromise with terrorists to alleviate at least one source of pressure? As Ukraine strains under the weight of an IMF bailout. Governments under economic pressure have far fewer resources to take care of their citizens and to deal with rising anger and social tensions. economic nationalism is also sure to poison geopolitics. This prepares them for a succession of careers. That's not all. Department of Labor (Diana.S. Truth http://www. with its implicit autarchic and save-yourself character.org/content/view/13454/54/lang. 3-3-09. "Adjusting to Free Trade" http://www. Whether or not they are democracies. Mehta.a war or a jihad against unpopular minorities.

Since the pioneering work of Martin Lipset 50 years ago. but in the poorest places. The United States had adopted the Smoot-Hawley Tariff. Reductions in trade had a devastating impact on Argentina in the 1930s. The Recovery Act's "Buy American" clause forbids spending on public works "unless all of the iron. safer. thuggish dictators snuffed out nascent republics and Europe descended into the madness of war. If the current downturn causes democracies to become dictatorships. are unable to deliver economic success. 9 – professor of economics at Harvard University. / 12 . Peace through superior firepower. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Free trade contains all other impacts by increasing democratic independence – protectionism results in backsliding and war Glaeser. then the probability of conflict between those places and our own democracy will increase. a 20 percent drop in the ratio of trade to GDP is associated with per capita incomes growing by 1 percent less per year. Trade is crucial for the prosperity of the world's poorer countries . My father was born in Berlin in 1930. Democracy is bolstered by prosperity and damaged by downturns. In today's fearful economic climate. at the start of an earlier global downturn. Free trade brings prosperity to the world's poorer countries. My own research finds little connection between trade and economic growth among rich or middle-income countries. like the Weimar Republic. where democracies are least stable. but because prosperity supports democracy. it is worth remembering that worse terrors than double-digit unemployment have stalked human history. The appeal of democracy's enemies increases when democracies. and us.” The Boston Globe. America may be faced with the awful choice of military intervention or standing by and watching the deaths mount. when democracy still held sway over most of Central and Western Europe. To avoid the terrible path of the 1930s that led to prolonged depression and global conflict. social scientists have tried to understand why democracies and wealth go together. strengthening their transitions to democracy and making their citizens. lexis) FREE TRADE is a child of economic confidence. In the dark years that followed. for many of our trading partners have only a tenuous link to peaceful democracy. ending decades of democracy and ushering in a long period of dictatorship and political turmoil." and embraced interventions that support domestic producers at the expense of our trading partners. Since dictators are far more likely to slaughter their own people. Today as we contemplate an international recession. Mehta. Between 1929 and 1934. policy-makers have again cried "buy American. setting off a global tariff war. protectionism is pessimism's progeny. But the United States is now contemplating policies that threaten our ability to argue that an economically connected world is stronger and safer.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Few findings in social science are more robust than the fact that democracies almost never fight one another. world trade declined by two-thirds. “Building walls with US trading partners. the United States must maintain its commitment to globalization. especially during a downturn." That clause sends a terrible message to our trading partners. director of the Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston (Edward L. steel. Astead. My colleague Robert Barro found that this link exists not because democracies increase prosperity. and manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the United States. Protectionism is bad economics and worse foreign policy.

acteonline. the Apollo Alliance predicts that the nation could generate three to five million more green jobs over the next 10 years.000 hybrid automobiles in 2007. SunMicrosystems. 8 – Assoc Director of Public Policy @ Association for Career and Technical Education (Alisha. nearly a half-million new jobs could be created in the wind industry. manufacturing and construction technology. They exist in sectors as diverse as landscaping and automotive manufacturing.S.9 Twenty-eight states have mandates generally requiring that up to 25 percent of their energy be obtained through renewable sources in the next two decades. in manufacturing.10 This should serve to further increase the demand for new products and processes focused on generating and conserving energy. along with local business and industries.11 As federal. the need for human capital is proving to be a barrier to the continued growth and expansion in energy efficiency and sustainability. and aim to invest in and expand these programs and opportunities so that even Peace through superior firepower. roofers. has estimated that by 2030. but with skilled-worker shortages in areas like engineering.6 and Subaru Isuzu Automotive7 have launched green initiatives. the new jobs often lack qualified applicants. http://www. executive director of the American Wind Energy Association. construction managers and electricians. To some capacity. homes already have some type of solar energy system. Community and political leaders. For example. there must be a greater focus by policymakers and business and industry leaders on providing the training and retraining necessary to help shape this new workforce and ensure the continued pipeline of skilled workers. the demand to make buildings more energy efficient increases the need for insulation workers. and the “greening” of all other jobs. / 13 . and another 2.8 and rental car companies are increasing their fleets of hybrids as well. In many instances. and mainstream public interest has only recently peaked.500 homeowners have installed their own wind turbine. Hewlett-Packard. Growing Workforce Needs The demand for sustainability has created two parallel workforce phenomena— the development of new careers in the green industry. should look to CTE programs as the answer to this workforce challenge. Astead. Unfortunately. high wage and in high demand. Americans purchased more than 330. state and local governments mandate or incentivize more energy from alternative sources. there is a tremendous shortage of individuals with the necessary skills in sustainability practices. A report commissioned by the American Solar Energy Society attributed 8. the industry lacks the skilled workforce necessary to implement and use these technologies. From construction to business management. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Contention : Job Training Green initiatives growing and demand for green jobs is inevitable – but worker shortages kill effectiveness.pdf) High-tech companies like Siemens.12 For example.org/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_E-Media/files/files-techniques2009/Theme_2%281%29. carpenters. technical education is key Hyslop.5 million jobs in 2006 to renewable energy or energy efficient industries. such as solar panel installers and wind turbine technicians. Despite the fact that the term “sustainability” has only been around for two decades. sustainability issues are growing very important in a number of career pathways.15 The sustainability industry has the power to dramatically revive employment in many areas around the country as green-collar careers can replace the jobs of workers in areas with stagnant job growth or layoffs. About 250. and employers seeking more “green-collar” workers often face bleak prospects. and needs more workers with experience in green building Many jobs in green industries use the same technical skills as existing industries.13 These jobs are high skill. Mehta. creating products and processes that conserve energy and resources. while the technologies to support the sustainability industry have been or are being created.” California already lacks enough solar panel installers. “California’s new green tech economy won’t get very far if the state doesn’t develop the workforce that eco-friendly businesses need. construction and operation. high-quality CTE programs already exist around the country to help prepare students for sustainable careers. building inspectors. However. Apple. Randall Swisher. CTE Provides Solutions Career and technical education (CTE) programs are poised and ready to ease the workforce bottleneck that could limit job growth in sustainability and meet the need for green-collar job training across career areas.000 U.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. As the San Francisco Chronicle reported after a summit on green-collar jobs.

A number of high schools have started to offer this type of exploration and integration of sustainability concepts. leaders of California’s State Building and Construction Trades Council think the state needs more CTE in high schools. said. Food.22 Aiken University High School in Cincinnati has instituted a special environmental sciences program where coursework in all subjects is linked to environmental issues. Astead. A CTE Tech Prep articulation agreement that provides college credit will allow students to follow a clear career path to Cincinnati State University in a variety of environmental fields. legislative and political director. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE [Hyslop Continues. and Natural Resources” and “Manufacturing. Jay Hansen. no text omitted] more students can participate. Often organized around 16 career clusters.” with more specific programs of study that link secondary and postsecondary coursework.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. For example. such as “Agriculture. For example. If we wait until they’re out of high school to start training them. “We’re not going to be able to build anything and do any green retrofits until we have a workforce to do that. CTE has often been turned to as the answer as policymakers around the country examine ways to reform high schools and help more students earn high school diplomas and transition to postsecondary education.place affect the environment.23 Peace through superior firepower. California’s Lake Tahoe Unified School District has plans for a green academy at South Tahoe High School that would expose students to careers in green construction. CTE offers unique opportunities for students to explore career options at the same time they are receiving the strong academic foundation necessary to succeed in the 21st century economy. It is also the answer to ensuring that students gain the sustainability knowledge they need to be successful in whatever career they may choose. placing CTE offers early exposure to students regarding sustainable energy career options through curriculum integration.”21 Hansen’s comments point to the need to expose students to careers in green areas early in their educational experience. CTE programs are flexible and responsive to economic and workforce needs. an “ECOnomics” course will combine 11th-grade economics standards with a look at how the forces of the market. and sets an example through state-of-the-art green buildings that become part of the curriculum. Exposing Students to Green Curriculum Today’s CTE is becoming more rigorous in response to the growing skill needs in the current economy. Mehta. we’re going to lose a lot of people. provides the “cutting edge” training necessary to ensure future employees meet workforce pipeline needs. auto mechanics and technology. / 14 . and at the same time remains extremely relevant to students and their lives. and that students are exposed to careers in sustainability early enough to consider them as future options.

Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE NCLB kills focus on science and engineering career education Fletcher.edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher. suggested that “NCLB was ‘squeezing career and technical education’ out of the curriculum”. from career exploration to specific job training. math.8 decline in the percentage of students who are occupational concentrators. these aspects include CTE teacher qualifications. anecdotal evidence suggests otherwise. the National Assessment of Vocational Education ([NAVE]. 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. CTE school reform initiatives. 2004) found a national . The remainder of this manuscript will explain the various aspects in which the NCLB policy may affect CTE programs. “In many states CTE students are now in the same ‘high-stakes kettle’ as students in other tracks…One hypothesis is that CTE is an area to which students with low scores or special needs are steered” (p.vt. However.” 4/1/09.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. “Career and technical education (CTE) is not immune from the provisions of NCLB” (p. and CTE legislation objectives. Peace through superior firepower.html) At all levels of education. / 15 . Tom Applegate. Finally. green sustainability movements will collapse Hyslop.efficient and sustainable technology will be for naught. this manuscript will point out various implications for CTE programs. and science. “CTE's Role in Energy and Environmental Sustainability. In fact. CTE has an essential role to play in energy and environmental sustainability. along with local businesses and industries. http://www. Austin and Mahlman (2002) add. Despite the limited research on how NCLB affects CTE programs. ). president of the ACTE. Around the country. Mehta. Phelps (2002) points out that. 5). all of the investments in new energy.” http://scholar. Without critical CTE activities providing a skilled and ready workforce. Absent effective CTE. Community and political leaders. the adequate yearly progress (AYP) provision.pdf) It is possible that many assume the NCLB policy does not affect CTE programs because the objectives of NCLB appear to be directed towards the core academic courses such as English.lib.2 decline in the amount of vocational credits earned and a 2. These programs should be recognized for their leadership and expanded so that even more students can participate. CTE programs focused on a wide variety of green ideas and practices are now in place to ensure the continued pipeline of skilled workers with a strong knowledge foundation. should look to CTE programs as the answer to the sustainability workforce challenge. 9 – Assoc Director of Public Policy @ Association for Career and Technical Education (Alisha. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. 1).allbusiness. he further stated that if that is the result “then we really shot ourselves in the foot in terms of some of our other missions in education” (¶ 7). in an article by Lewis (2004).com/labor-employment/laborsector-performance-labor-force/12275431-1.

most notably carbon dioxide. Mehta.. and continued economic growth.S.S. industries and households alike. Center for a Sustainable Economy. Astead.1. including carbon dioxide. the policy set examined here focuses on improvements in energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy resources. with potentially catastrophic worldwide consequences. and a number of serious environmental problems . 2 . we expand the diversity of energy sources so that choice is increased and markets become more difficult to manipulate. Combustion of fossil fuels is the principal source of air pollution and a number of other environmental problems.S.e. However. Ongoing events such as the recent string of years with record-breaking average temperatures and the thinning of glacial and polar ice make clear that this is a problem that will become increasingly urgent over time. J. Tellus Institute (James P. it encourages the substitution of fuels with lower emissions of greenhouse gasses and other pollutants. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Efficiency and renewable projects solve climate change and oil dependence Barrett. http://www. Coal is the nation's primary source of electricity.org/publications/entry/studies_cleanenergyandjobs/) The consumption of coal. Reducing consumption of oil.have been virtually eliminated. we improve energy efficiency in all sectors in order to reduce the vulnerability of the economy by cutting the share of energy purchases in total industry costs and household budgets. and natural gas has introduced a number of unintended side effects throughout the world. which have contributed to two major U. but is also the principal source of sulfur dioxide that causes acid rain. and the policy package addresses this issue in two ways.Economic Policy Institute. Proposals to expand oil drilling may endanger sensitive natural habitats such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. for example.are trapping extra solar heat. First. a necessary by-product of fossil fuel combustion . Steve Bernow and Bill Dougherty. 1. Andrew Hoerner.2 Improving enbergy security It is impossible to run a modern society without substantial amounts of energy. in recent decades energy prices have been extremely volatile.5 The vast majority of the world's leading scientists now agree that human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases . such as coal. recessions. atmospheric lead . more efficient use of electricity could help protect industry from the economic impacts of electricity price spikes such as those recently seen in California.g. Many of these problems have been reduced through end-of-pipe controls and other measures over recent decades. Overall air and water quality have improved by some measures. In a similar vein. To achieve this. petroleum. atmospheric mercury. However. the goal is to assemble a feasible. One central example of such a problem is global warming. and puts aggregate emissions of major pollutants. / 16 . In addition. is to significantly curtail greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. for those with higher emissions. cost-effective package that achieves substantial energy savings and related environmental benefits. can lead to increased environmental impacts even when emissions (or other damages) per unit of output are declining. threatening the economic health of U. One goal of this project was to improve national energy security. other problems have proven more intractable. would help to avoid the periodic economic instability that arises from fluctuations in world oil prices. such as natural gas.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Peace through superior firepower. while good in itself. A substantial reduction in fossil fuel consumption will be necessary if the U. on a downward path for every major sector of the economy. Second. This report did not set any particular target or goal for emissions reduction. Instead. and other pollutants.epi.

Bob Watson [PhD in Chemistry. the more sunshine is absorbed by the sea. and much of the world's most productive farmland. At first sight this looks like wise counsel from the climate science adviser to Defra.uk/commentisfree/2008/aug/11/climatechange) [Quals Added] We need to get prepared for four degrees of global warming. Peace through superior firepower. To see how far this process could go. cities.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.000 gigatonnes of carbon into the atmosphere.guardian. The collapse of the polar ice caps would become inevitable. / 17 . 8 – Environmental Researcher (Oliver. Astead. complete with ports. Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from the American Association for the Advacement of Science] told the Guardian last week. floods and hurricanes. Many scientists warn that this historical event may be analogous to the present: the warming caused by human emissions could propel us towards a similar hothouse Earth. who warned that "if we get to a four-degree rise it is quite possible that we would begin to see a runaway increase". both as CO2 and as methane from bogs and seabed sediments. when a global temperature increase of 6C coincided with the release of about 5. Mehta. Or perhaps the beginning of our extinction. notably the summer melting of the Arctic sea ice. in the immortal words that Chief Seattle probably never spoke. But the idea that we could adapt to a 4C rise is absurd and dangerous. And as the Arctic warms. Lush subtropical forests grew in polar regions. Weather would become extreme and unpredictable. This is a remarkable understatement. look 55. 8/11. the North Sea and Cardigan Bay out of dry land. The climate system is already experiencing significant feedbacks. All the world's coastal plains would be lost. when sea levels rose by about 120 metres to create the Channel. The Earth's carrying capacity would be hugely reduced. the release of billions of tonnes of methane – a greenhouse gas 70 times stronger than carbon dioxide over 20 years – captured under melting permafrost is already under way. It appears that an initial warming pulse triggered other warming processes. The more the ice melts. and sea levels rose to 100m higher than today. Global warming on this scale would be a catastrophe that would mean. "the end of living and the beginning of survival" for humankind.5m years to the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Warming causes extinction Tickell. with more frequent and severe droughts. transport and industrial infrastructure. Billions would undoubtedly die. Watson's call was supported by the government's former chief scientific adviser. Sir David King [Director of the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at the University of Oxford]. The world's geography would be transformed much as it was at the end of the last ice age.co. bringing long-term sea level rises of 70-80 metres. and the more the Arctic warms. http://www.

which can create new food shortages in new regions. / 18 . the United Nations formed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (lPCC) and charged its scientists with synthesizing the peer-reviewed science and developing broad-based conclusions. whether humans were the cause. and their cascading geopolitical implications are identified in this essay. It melts a little every summer.1. That debate is long since over. The Washington Quarterly 31.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. even though the IPCC projects that temperature increases at higher latitudes will be approximately twice the global average. said this shouldn't have happened until sometime late in the 21st century. where they are situated. found it is "very likely" (defined as more than 90 percent certain. in November 2007. The computer models. you could circumnavigate the Arctic on open water. Its last report synthesized data from the early part of the decade. but this time was different . which can drive human migration. and in recent years even the science advisors of President George W. The Security Implications of Climate Change. water scarcity. Timeframe is irrelevant – must stop irreversible chain reactions Podesta and Ogden. they re not. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE The warming debate is over – it’s real and caused by humans McKibben. Indeed. The panel's most recent report. The most threatening first dominos. By the end of the summer season in 2008. It is therefore critical that policymakers do all they can to prevent the domino of the first major climate change consequence. which are just a few years old. many scientists now think that the IPCC has been too conservative . destructive weather events. not the latest scary results. and whether it would be a significant problem. there's no serious question about the general shape of what's to come." If anything. In the early years of the global warming debate. this chain reaction becomes increasingly difficult to stop. 170. Bush have agreed that we are heating the planet. Once underway. so much ice had melted that both the Northwest and Northeast passages were open. of course. Winter 2007) Consequently. In other words. Jan/Feb) "Scientists Are Divided" No. whether it be food scarcity or the outbreak of disease. 32. Foreign Policy. Peace through superior firepower. even a relatively small climatic shift can trigger or exacerbate food shortages. The reports have found since 1995 that warming is dangerous and caused by humans. and natural resource competition. Astead. 7 – *President of the Center for American Progress and ** Senior National Security Analyst at the Center for American Progress (John and Peter. there is a more thorough scientific process here than on almost any other issue: Two decades ago. 9 – Environmental Studies @ Middlebury (Bill. In the developing world. the spread of disease. such as what we're now seeing in the Arctic. ice in the Arctic Ocean melted. or about as certain as science gets) that heattrapping emissions from human activities have caused "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century. And it wasn't a one-time accident. Although the details of future forecasts remain unclear. as well as sub-Saharan African countries. Every national academy of science. In the summer of 2007.both because member countries must sign off on the conclusions and because there's a time lag. there was 25 percent less ice than ever measured before. there was great controversy over whether the planet was warming. human migration. which can lead to conflict over remaining resources. These crises are all the more dangerous because they are interwoven and self-perpetuating: water shortages can lead to food shortages. Iss. p. long lists of Nobel laureates. Mehta.by late September. it will be the developing nations in the earth's low latitudinal bands. that will be most adversely affected by climate change. Even skeptics can't dispute such alarming events. from toppling.

with the mean value staying substantially above the price over the last 20 years. Population.7 percent of all the energy resources used in the United States. The great social struggles of capitalism. Chairperson. In short. agriculture being heavily dependent on petroleum for synthetic nutrients and water supply. and recreation. “The extinction of Hydrocarbon Man?” Times Higher http://www. chemical process industry (CPI) consumes nearly 25 percent of this. Global events in the last three decades. 54-55) The high standard of living accorded by the availability of food.) Competition with other industries (transportation.A Workshop Report. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The readily available and relatively inexpensive sources of fossil fuels that the chemical industry has enjoyed for the last century are in part responsible for the present situation. have brought the realization that fundamental changes in energy use are necessary for continued sustainability of the chemical and allied industries. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs . The price of natural gas is at an all time high in the United States. etc. And.asp?storyCode=160650&sectioncode=34) Education Magazine The oil age is 150 years old and now just about half over. the chemical products resulting from these advances require considerable energy input or intensity. etc. reduced emissions. COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY under the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology.co. Yet there is much that we could do to ameliorate the transition to a leaner economy based on renewable energy. the price of a barrel of oil reached more than $60. 99 – partner with Petroplan.S. socialism and communism that sought an equitable reward from this abundant energy have run their course. 88 percent of which is derived from fossil fuels (petroleum. / 19 . Astead. 5 (James A. etc) for fossil fuel resources. The fourfold increase in oil prices since the mid-1990s has driven the CPI to discover energy efficient technologies that have contributed to more useful products. which is the highest price in the world.2 Industrial activity accounts for 33 percent of all the energy (fossil fuels. and improved productivity.6 Peace through superior firepower. Indeed. water.timeshighereducation. chemical industry at an economic competitive disadvantage. a consultancy that specialises in petroleum forecasts and depletion analysis (C. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Oil economy causes extinction Campbell. transportation. leaving a global economy seemingly bent on concentrating wealth.uk/story. This places the U. etc.1 The U.S. shelter. Impacts on global climate change from emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2. Uncertainties in the reliability of supply. Trainham III. too. and in the 21st century we will have to deal with the downside. However. coal. sustainability is key to maintaining a competitive chemical industry Trainham et al.S. We are now on the cusp. as oil production peaks. discovery and implementation of innovative and more energy efficient technology are. pg. there are numerous examples of real gains made by the chemical industry in addressing the high energy intensity. and is likely to continue to fluctuate. These two books in their different ways will help us understand our predicament. ongoing pursuits.S. However the exploration. The U. however. The implications for sustainability of the high energy use in the CPI are well documented. We have consumed about 820 billion barrels of the 1. and natural gas combined). energy use constitutes about 24 percent of the global consumption of energy.800 billion readily available to us. energy use in the CPI is significant. Similar to the discussion in Chapter 3. It may turn out to be virtual wealth as the fuel that drives it becomes first expensive and then in short supply. It is logical for environmentalists to predict apocalypse. One company has publicly reported5 achievements of more than 20 percent improvement in energy efficiency in a ten year period from 1994 to 2004. are the result of great advances in chemical and biological sciences and technology. domestic.) as well as ones causing acid rain and ground-level ozone pollution (NOx. What goes up must come down.J. electricity. and must remain. Recently.4 or about 7. clothing.3. these include business risks associated with the: Increasingly higher cost of energy which is reflected in the increasing production cost of chemical products. may peak not long after oil for not wholly unrelated reasons.) used in the U.

other industries and other sectors of society can reach consensus on how to improve living standards and the environment. They must take account of the consequences of their actions upon society and future generations. Sustainable Development will only come about if three goals . hence. the challenge for today's leaders is to pursue policies that will leave available an array of choices for future generations to meet their own needs. Seen from society's viewpoint. It is present in all areas of life. a customer of a broad range of products and services from other industries. 2 (International Council of Chemical Associations). self-monitoring systems and other voluntary programmes such as Sustainable Technology (SUSTECH). reducing risks to health and the environment and making better products which. The main challenges facing the world include:* Optimizing the benefits obtained from depleting resources * Assuring against excessive strains placed on the eco-system * The dynamic growth of the world population * Remedying social and economic inequalities These are challenges on a global scale. of the population increase worldwide. In addition. Due to its size. sustainability means that human beings are the centre of concern. it is clear that the chemical industry with its unique capabilities is in a position to make a decisive contribution to Sustainable Development. Since living standards are determined to a large degree by material considerations. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY's LEADERSHIP IN INNOVATION The very notion of Sustainable Development will require new approaches in a number of areas. economic and social concerns must be integrated if the world's peoples are to advance and develop without jeopardizing the natural environment on which all life depends.be/position/icca/pp_ic010. the chemical industry is an important supplier to a broad range of downstream industries and is. governments. environmental and society-related . companies are also confronted with new challenges and must act responsibly. chemical companies are committed.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. that the attainment of Sustainable Development will call for action on the part of the people. research and development progress and. such as the energy sector. The global chemical industry believes that the key to improving the performance of the industry is both its commitment to achieving environmentally sound Sustainable Development and improved performance and transparency. (the 1987 report of the United Nations' World Commission on Environment and Development). In view. The global chemical industry has realized this challenge. Sustainability in the environmental sense means not placing an intolerable load on the ecosphere and maintaining the natural basis for life. housing. therefore. to the financing of both public works and the exercise of public responsibilities. Energy Efficiency Programmes are also part of this framework. is that environmental. in turn. to seek continuous improvement in performance. it helps to solve the problems of other sectors of industry. Sustainability in economic terms means the efficient management of scarce resources as well as a prospering industry and economy. Although today we cannot define the needs of future generations.right through to leisure activities.can be reconciled. help individual and industry customers. to educate all staff and work with customers and communities regarding product use and overall operation.economic. Its "Responsible Care" initiative. as well. as examples. The chemical industry views Sustainable Development as a challenge put before all parts of society.htm) The key finding of "Our Common Future". environmental industries and the waste disposal sector. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Competitive chemical industry solves extinction ICCA. the chemical industry sees cause for optimism and believes that Sustainable Development can be the intellectual framework around which the chemical industry. Innovation at all levels and in all fields of activity is the most effective instrument for ensuring that the economic. therefore. To determine the limits of acceptability and scope for action requires a set of conventions which society at large accepts as valid. It follows. Thereby. communications. employment in other industries. in aljl aspects of safety. / 20 . Commitment by the world chemical industry to the concept of Sustainable Development requires words to be transposed into company-specific action programmes in order to provide a framework for all those working in the sector. particularly. CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The chemical industry is a key industry. and environmental Peace through superior firepower. It follows. Education-Industry Partnerships. last but not least. “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. Its products and services are instrumental in meeting the needs of mankind. health and protection of the environment. Astead. June 20. its improved performance and in the improvements to the human condition made through its products. Through these efforts the industry is improving its efficiency. it is a large-scale provider of jobs and makes a significant contribution to wealth creation and. transport . information technologies. In the advances made in its own operations. Mehta.cefic. In itself. freedom. there needs to be provided as large a measure of equal opportunities. that the chemical industry plays a major role in providing/ supporting performance improvements. from food and clothing.” online: http://www. Under the concept of "Responsible Care". social justice and security as possible. businesses and organisations around the world.

Mehta. to new technologies and environmental improvements. The chemical industry's contribution is to continue innovation of new products that meet customer needs and manufacturing processes that reduce risks to health and the environment. thus setting the scene for the world market. Multi-national chemical companies apply common standards in spreading investment capital and stimulating markets around the globe. Trade as an engine of economic growth is essential for Sustainable Development. What they need. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE [ICCA Continues. They sustain economies (not just the chemical industry). which can contribute to society meeting its goals for Sustainable Development. via re-investment and R&D. and contribute. The challenge facing the chemical industry is to maximize innovation. keeping up international competitiveness as a pre-requisite of sustainable job creation. is becoming more and more apparent. but also to reprocessing. technologies and solutions which offer the greatest promise for the future * development of new integrated environmental technologies * a close cooperation with the customers of the chemical industry * adaptation to the conditions of global competition * bringing the most promising products quickly on the market * strengthening the R&D effort which requires resources which can only be financed from profitable earnings * actively contributing ideas and suggestions to the policy debates taking place in society * improving process yield (efficiency). by which investors may be guided in their long-term decision-making process. Astead. environmental and society-related requirements. The chemical industry is firmly convinced that leadership in innovation represents the best way of attaining Sustainable Development. / 21 . Profits are needed to create flexible company structures oriented towards economic. no text omitted] goals. is. recycling and solving environmental problems. This includes bringing to a halt the growing intervention by governments in industry and their ever increasing demands to raise income by taxation. freedom and fairness in international trade. The inter-relation of economic systems is complex. This is being manifested by:* an increase of imports and exports of goods as well as services * growing outward and inward flows of direct investment * an ever increasing exchange of technology transfers * globalization of monetary and financial schemes. as well as those of society.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. in conjunction with a growing trend towards global competition. first and foremost. handling and use of chemical compounds. the long-term future of the industry must be rooted in a dynamic policy. in order to play a constructive role in Sustainable Development. The chemical industry is a major industrial sector and an essential contributor to welfare and employment on a global scale. Wealth creation and profits are fundamental to Sustainable Development. A climate needs to be fostered within which such growth may take place on the basis of a clear set of rules with predictable consequences. thus imposing a disproportionate load on the business community. In order to maintain this position under the imperative of Sustainable Development. whereby continual innovation and re-engineering of companies result in an increase of productivity and. This contribution is based upon the knowledge and experience the industry has acquired from applying innovation not only to making. For the individual company. are being advanced. with a variety of relationships among countries. thus. APPROACH TO THE ECONOMIC GOAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The internationalization of the economy at large. this means:* a consistent orientation towards products. Peace through superior firepower.

continually sending U. independent researcher. and homeland security.S. Senior Policy Analyst in Education in the Domestic Policy Studies Department (James Jay. from cell phones to antibiotics. In some parts of the world. The physicist must work with the structural engineer to create alternative energy sources. Falling behind in any technological field has a detrimental domino effect because every field is dependent on the others. China has gained ground in electrical engineering and computing. leaving the U. In many schools. a new technology is brought to market by the STEM workforce. Peace through superior firepower. When a company fails to make progress in materials science. Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. Competitiveness with K-12 STEM Education and Training. Every year. place more emphasis on extracurricular activities than on STEM education. depends on science. and math to maintain its position as the world superpower. a competitive edge. From computer chips to microwaves. and Jennifer A.S. technology. / 22 .S. But times are changing. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Contention : Total Primacy STEM education in K-12 is key to competitiveness and a strong defenseindustrial base Carafano et al. access to technology and technological innovation is what separates the developed world from developing nations.S. Marshall. and India has made enormous strides toward becoming the leader in accounting and financial services. and Ethel Machi. engineering. enabling people around the world to live longer. Advances in robotics can improve manufacturing.pdf) //HM Every day. engineering jobs that need to be filled and every year only 60.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 30 percent of 18.D. which in turn empowered its military and fueled its economy. has recently experienced a 600 percent increase in research and development (R&D) centers. citizens working in STEM fields. a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies. These centers are not only funded by Indian companies but by U.000 U. let alone gain. it means a competitor’s microchips will be smaller.000 engineers per year). If the U. low achievement in STEM fields at all levels of education and beyond is becoming not only culturally acceptable—it is becoming the norm.S.S. neither can do it alone. For years. “Improving U. The ocean engineer must work with the nuclear engineer to create world-class submarines.-dominated science and technology fields filed record numbers of patents. companies as well—evidence that U. and Jena Baker McNeill. K–12 education is compulsory.S. there are multiple fundraising activities for sport teams but few for science fairs or math competitions.S. high-paying jobs will be sent overseas. the positive correlation between STEM expertise and economic prosperity has been recognized with increased investment. Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. America is rapidly moving toward a future where its top defense technologies are invented. India.to 22-year-olds do not have a high school diploma. Likewise. graduates are not meeting domestic business demands in quantity or in quality.S.000 U. Director of Domestic Policy Studies.org/Research/Education/upload/SR_57. Schools across the U. technology begets technology. http://www. Detrimental to national competitiveness. In an alarming development. work to be performed in other countries is not a sustainable solution: Over time globalization will directly and negatively impact America’s industrial economy. Multidisciplinary research is a prerequisite for any nation to maintain. Such technologies keep the economy thriving and protect the country in times of war. such as China and India (each of which graduates 600. and manufactured in foreign countries. Even so. While STEM engineering work can arguably be outsourced to other nations. engineers graduate—leaving more than two-thirds of these STEM positions vacant. But the STEM crisis extends far beyond economic prosperity. Ninety-five percent of Fortune 500 CEOs believe that there is a severe shortage of U.S. Astead. is less focused on STEM than other countries.S. and Dan Lips.S. designed. In today’s world. Sixty-eight percent believe that the U.heritage. the U. better lives. students who excel in sports are considered heroes while students who excel in science are considered geeks. vulnerable in times of war. stays on its current trajectory. there are 200. for example. In America. Mehta.S. more and more high-tech. 6/16 – Ph. The U. national defense.

program @ UC Irvine (J. like the Russians. against Russia in 1969. And like the Russians. forces in 1950. says that U." The People's Daily bitterly complains that the Americans oppose Chinese military expansion in Asia.. have carefully crafted their excuse for enmity.” and their intention is to smash America. it is still the traditional countries [like Russia and China] that constitute strategic threats." he explained. the Americans are determined to misread China's intentions.S." Peace through superior firepower. Secretary of State Colin Powell gave the keynote address at the Asia Leadership Forum in Bangkok. It has been my contention. President Vladimir Putin has announced that he is suspending Russia’s commitment to follow the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE). President Putin’s intentions are clear. for many years. It was a repeat of Lenin’s New Economic Policy of the 1920s." says the Daily.financialsense. The American side has supposedly manufactured an imaginary "China threat. Psychologically. If we examine Chinese propaganda with a psychological eye. have all along clung to the Cold War mentality and held fast to the principle of containment in their policy toward China. The received wisdom of our time holds that peace can be established through technology transfers and trade. The American side prefers to believe that Marxism-Leninism is dead. "My analysis in the last four years.. was guided to this end. if we look at recent history we find that China has sent its armies against at least five neighboring countries since World War II: against Korea and the U.” Two recent items reveal Moscow’s intentions. 2005.S. Each instance involved a sudden. and observable. They are not as easy to see as Moscow’s. Second. The Chinese government. that this was the KGB’s intention from the outset. Poli Sci Ph. and against Vietnam in 1979. that China is evolving into a "normal" country.. China wishes to live in peace with its neighbors and the U. America is the “main enemy” once again. Contrary to Chinese propaganda. On June 13.S. – no chance of a peaceful rise Nyquist. relationship. why would The People's Daily express outrage at U. The Chinese. Wrap China in a blanket of dollars and Communist ideology will find itself smothered. Thailand. And so America’s leaders were fooled. Right-wing forces . "In the opinion of the United States.S. we catch a glimpse of Beijing's evil intentions. Preach 'China Military Threat'?" According to Beijing's official organ. 7 – Analyst @ Financial Sense. American officials and analysts hardly agree there is a China threat.. from 1989 to the present. In fact. Mehta. The Cold War is to be renewed.S. First. in which Russia pretended to liberalize and move toward capitalism.S. against India in 1962. against Tibet in 1950. “One http://www. Russian radio news broadcasters have been ordered to make 50 percent of their reporting on Russia “positive. / 23 ." The People's Daily has also stated: "U.S. opposition to Chinese military expansion? Only a would-be aggressor feels thwarted by the collective security arrangements of neighboring countries. "is that China has no such [hostile] intention. Right-wing forces are determined to destroy a "fragile" Sino-U. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The collapse of Communism was a staged event. I believe that the political process in Russia. former U. drawing investment and technology from the West.com/stormwatch/geo/pastanalysis/2007/0427.S.R. unprovoked strike against foreign forces outside China. He said that China's increased military spending doesn't threaten the United States. ".” and that the United States is – from now on – to be described as Russia’s enemy. but they are nonetheless real. After all.D. Now Russia and China will emerge together as “one clenched fist. the outrage expressed by Beijing inadvertently reveals the malevolence of China's leaders. In 1989 America’s leaders could not see the Kremlin’s intentions because intentions are invisible to the naked eye. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base China and Russia are gearing up to topple the U. This means that Russia can move tank and motorized infantry divisions to NATO’s doorstep." A typical column published by The People's Daily rhetorically asks: "Why Does U. frmr analyst @ Defense Intelligence Agency. they will blame the American side.html) Clenched Fist. through its official organ (The People's Daily).N.

but new challenges have emerged. US political leaders and defense industry analysts called for replacing a defense industry largely isolated from the commercial sectors of the US economy with a single. and reliable guided munitions cheap enough to be employed in large numbers. In fairness. therefore. The bulk of this report is contained in three chapters. The main focus of this report is on a larger question. what steps might be undertaken to begin bringing about the required changes? There do not appear to be easy answers to either question. Past. rather than the need to maintain American military strength. Mehta.20081015. Our arms must be mighty. successfully orbited the first reconnaissance satellites._The_US_Defense_In/R.pdf) Since the 1950s. including low-observable aircraft. During the 1990s. While some defense companies tried to follow this advice. Chapter 1 traces the evolution of the US defense industrial base since World War II. so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. particularly of nuclear weapons. what kind of defense industry is in the best interests of the United States. While the percentage of US gross domestic product going to national defense remains low compared to the 1950s and 1960s. that have consumed so much American blood and treasure in Iraq. Peace through superior firepower. Chapter 2 offers an assessment of the industry’s performance to date.” Usually forgotten or ignored has been an earlier. the federal government. there is a growing list of defense programs that have experienced problems with cost.csbaonline. How prepared is the US defense industrial base to meet the needs of the US military Services in coming decades? The Cold War challenge of Soviet power has largely ebbed.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead._The_US_De fense_In. It is probably not possible.Takfiri and Khomeinist terrorist groups and their state sponsors. Nevertheless. including the Department of Defense and Congress. From a competitive perspective. those critical of the defense industry tend to concentrate on these acquisition shortcomings. it would surely be premature to begin dismantling the US defense industry. American defense companies provided the bombers and missiles on which nuclear deterrence rested and armed the US military with world-class weapons. and played a pivotal role in developing the worldwide web. whether sought or unsought. especially in the foreseeable future? Second. tends to dominate contemporary discussions of the US defense industrial base. and. and. In the face of these more complex and varied challenges. / 24 . Present and Future. “The US Defense Industrial Base. 8 – Senior Fellow @ The Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (Barry D. in a few cases. the longer-term challenge of authoritarian capitalist regimes epitomized by the rise of China and a resurgent Russia. the US defense industrial base has been a source of long-term strategic advantage for the United States. if the defense industry best suited to cope with the challenges of the early twenty-first century is substantially different from the one which exists today. by the military-industrial complex. There is the immediate threat of the violence stemming from Salafi. put a man on the moon in less than a decade. for the federal government to set about imposing a purportedly more efficient or effective structure on the US defense industrial base. Critics have long emphasized President Eisenhower’s warning in his farewell television address that the nation needed to “guard against the acquisition of undue influence. http://www. ready for instant action. In hindsight. Chapter 3 addresses two questions: first.20081015. wide-area surveillance and targeting sensors. such advice seems to have overlooked the unique requirements and government-imposed constraints that pervade major weapons programs. weapon performance. most had little success. equally important.” CBA. the vital question about the defense industrial base is whether it will be as much a source of long-term advantage in the decades ahead as it has been since the 1950s. the worsening problem of proliferation. just as it was during World War II.org/4Publications/PubLibrary/R. passage in Eisenhower’s January 1961 speech: A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Defense-industrial deters war with China and Russia and solves terrorism and prolif Watts. integrated industrial base that would serve multiple customers. is at least as much to blame for many of these programmatic difficulties as US defense firms. and defense-industry leaders were probably right not to go very far down the road in trying to heed it. not least. Eisenhower’s warning about undue influence. They also contributed to the development of modern digital computers. schedule. nor would it be wise.

War with Russia is the highest magnitude impact Bostrom. I think we will have to respond with nuclear weapons.html) A much greater existential risk emerged with the build-up of nuclear arsenals in the US and the USSR. There is also a risk that other states may one day build up large nuclear arsenals. 7 – founder.S. Does this sound like the work of friends? We have a clear choice before us in dealing with the next great threat to America's future . its threats against Taiwan. / 25 .S. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Failure to check China’s rise causes nuclear war Farah. we shall see that nuclear Armageddon and comet or asteroid strikes are mere preludes to the existential risks that we will encounter in the 21 st century. There was a real worry among those best acquainted with the information available at the time that a nuclear Armageddon would occur and that it might annihilate our species or permanently destroy human civilization. 2 . Note however that a smaller nuclear exchange. An all-out nuclear war was a possibility with both a substantial probability and with consequences that might have been persistent enough to qualify as global and terminal. Philosophy @ Oxford and really smart dude (Nick.S. or those of Ronald Reagan. either accidentally or deliberately.-China war?” LA Times Opinion.com/existential/risks. to be launched in conjunction with a conventional assault on U. Such a war might however be a local terminal risk for the cities most likely to be targeted. Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. Chas Freeman. “A U. It was just two years ago that a top Chinese military official said Beijing would use nuclear weapons against the U. said at an official briefing.latimes. said in 1999 that a PLA official had told him China would respond with a nuclear strike on the U.com/news/opinion/la-op-dustup10oct10.0. In ignoring China's military expansion. More recently. Unfortunately. the plan was designed to leave America's key allies in the Pacific Japan and Taiwan .[4] Russia and the US retain large nuclear arsenals that could be used in a future confrontation. http://www. you care more about Los Angeles than you do about Taipei." Freeman quoted this official as saying. its threats even against the United States." Zhu Chenghu. Peace through superior firepower. "If the Americans draw their missiles and position-guided ammunition on to the target zone on China's territory. Mehta. in the event of a conflict with Taiwan. since it would not destroy or thwart humankind’s potential permanently. http://www. carriers in the Pacific.S. we serve only to ensure a costly battle against the expansionist power in the future.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. we learned of China's plans for a cyberwar attack on the U. editor and CEO of WorldNetDaily (Joseph. is not an existential risk. a major general in the People's Liberation Army. 9.D.S.Ph. Astead. "In the end. assistant secretary of Defense. Journal of Evolution and Technology. You only need to be a student of history. if Americans defended Taiwan against an invasion from the mainland. Vol.story) China is the Evil Empire of the future.full.virtually defenseless. between India and Pakistan for instance. You don't have to be a prophet to see it.nickbostrom.S.follow the policies of Richard Nixon.1215555. a former U. Code-named "Pearl Harbor II" by the Pentagon. We are making our worst fear a virtual inevitability.

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1AC – Defense-Industrial Base
We promise we’re not crazy – history proves the probability of a peaceful rise is zero and attempts at integration will fail Kagan, 5 - senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
(Robert, “The Illusion of 'Managing' China,” Published in the Washington Post, May 15th, 2005, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=16939) The history of rising powers, however, and their attempted "management" by established powers provides little reason for confidence or comfort. Rarely have rising powers risen without sparking a major war that reshaped the international system to reflect new realities of power. The most successful "management" of a rising power in the modern era was Britain's appeasement of the United States in the late 19th century, when the British effectively ceded the entire Western Hemisphere (except Canada) to the expansive Americans. The fact that both powers shared a common liberal, democratic ideology, and thus roughly consonant ideas of international order, greatly lessened the risk of accommodation from the British point of view. Other examples are less encouraging. Germany's rise after 1870, and Europe's reaction to it, eventually produced World War I. Even the masterly Bismarck, after a decade of successful German self-management, had a difficult time steering Europe away from collision. The British tried containment, appeasement and even offers of alliance, but never fully comprehended Kaiser Wilhelm's need to challenge the British supremacy he both admired and envied. Right up until the eve of war, highly regarded observers of the European scene believed commercial ties among the leading powers made war between them unlikely, if not impossible. Japan's rise after 1868 produced two rounds of warfare -- first with China and Russia at the turn of the century, and later with the United States and Britain in World War II. The initial Anglo-American response to Japan's growing power was actually quite accommodating. Meiji Japan had chosen the path of modernization and even Westernization, or so it seemed, and Americans welcomed its ascendancy over backward China and despotic Russia. Then, too, there was the paternalistic hope of assisting Japan's entry into the international system, which was to say the Western system. "The Japs have played our game," Theodore Roosevelt believed, and only occasionally did he wonder whether "the Japanese down at bottom did not lump Russians, English, Americans, Germans, all of us, simply as white devils inferior to themselves . . . and to be treated politely only so long as would enable the Japanese to take advantage of our national jealousies, and beat us in turn." Today we look back at those failures and ruminate on the mistakes made with the usual condescension that the present has for the past. But there is no reason to believe we are any smarter today than the policymakers who "mismanaged" the rise of Germany and Japan. The majority of today's policymakers and thinkers hold much the same general view of global affairs as their forebears: namely, that commercial ties between China and the other powers, especially with Japan and the United States, and also with Taiwan, will act as a buffer against aggressive impulses and ultimately ease China's "integration" into the international system without war. Once again we see an Asian power modernizing and believe this should be a force for peace. And we add to this the conviction, also common throughout history, that if we do nothing to provoke China, then it will be peaceful, without realizing that it may be the existing international system that the Chinese find provocative.

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1AC – Space
Contention : Space

STEM education key to maintaining the space industry – the alternative is loss of space dominance Pollack, 5 (Susan W., Ms. Pollack graduated as a member of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces
class of 2005. Some of her assignments prior to attending ICAF include contracts specialist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and deputy director of the acquisition support cadre at the Missile Defense Agency. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations from Saint Joseph’s University and has completed the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College., THE FUTURE OF OUR NATION’S SPACE INDUSTRY WORKFORCE, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA449454&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf) “The harsh fact is that the US need for the highest quality human capital in science, mathematics, and engineering is not being met . . . .In a knowledge-based future, only an America that remains at the cutting edge of science and technology will sustain its current world leadership.”82 Introduction: There is a crisis looming in America’s science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce base that has serious implications for the future of America’s space industry, and our nation’s economic and national security. Today, trends indicate other nations are on the verge of passing the US in scientific excellence and technological innovation.83 This comes at a time when the US is more dependent on its military, civil, and commercial-supporting space assets than any other nation. To maintain American preeminence in space, our nation must reinvigorate and inspire a new generation of STEM talent, as well as increase investments in research and development (R&D) and infrastructures. Troubling Trends
of STEM Education and the R&D Connection: The Council on Competitiveness found that innovation is the single most important factor in determining America’s success through the 21st century.84 While the report recommends increased funding in R&D, the US government has reduced funding in national R&D over the past ten years, including cuts in the President’s FY 2006 R&D budget. Studies link a strong

correlation between reduced R&D funding to the decline in the number of graduates in the STEM subjects.85 Over the past decade, our nation has lost more than 600,000 scientific and technical aerospace jobs which have also adversely impacted the number of students earning degrees in STEM. Meanwhile, nearly 30 percent of the aerospace workforce will be eligible to retire in 2008. 86 The current US educational system will not provide enough students with the needed STEM skills to fill the critical positions being vacated by the retiring babyboomers.87 Concurrently, other nations are building up their science and technology (S&T) infrastructures and
capabilities. A disturbing trend is the low performance of American students in the math and science subjects. Math and science achievement scores of US students fall below international averages.88 The results of a recent international survey, conducted by the Program for International Student Assessment in the spring of 2003, indicate the learning gap between the US and its competitors in Europe and Asia is widening in basic math and science skills at the eighth through twelfth grade levels. This is alarming since technology and innovation in the space industry depends on high tech skills in the STEM subjects, yet this is precisely where the best US students are not excelling. Space science education gets taught within the Earth science curriculum in the grades K-9. This narrow focus on space science is dangerously small relative to our nation’s reliance on space. A Department of Defense (DoD) senior official recently stated that the need for US citizens in defense work is critical and that the downturn in America’s science and engineering workforce has become “an issue of national security.”89 Solutions

to Improve the National STEM Workforce: It is imperative our nation take action to ensure the scientific proficiency needed in our future workforce. There are numerous policy improvements and on-going initiatives the government should pursue to increase student interest in math and science in the formative years, and to widen the pipeline of scientists and engineers who drive innovation.
The US government and industry are taking some steps in the right direction to address the issues discussed in the first two points below. However, our nation should act now to implement the recommendations stated in recommendations three through six . First, the Federal

government should develop a clear policy of sustaining long term research to encourage young people to enter careers in science, mathematics or engineering. Developing a top-notch space industry workforce requires a top-down vision by the President that reaches out to the nation and across the government as the inspirational basis necessary to develop and sustain a knowledgeable and skilled workforce. The Administration is
addressing this need and has recently announced a five-year Mathematics and Science Initiative that will engage in a public campaign to highlight the importance of mathematics and science education, and to recruit, train and retain teachers with strong backgrounds in mathematics and science. Second, early outreach programs are vital to developing and sustaining a knowledgeable workforce.

The Council on Competitiveness notes that we lose our future scientists and engineers around the junior high school years.90 Successful outreach initiatives which expose children to the STEM subjects can help to reverse this trend. DoD implements a Starbase program which provides students in K-12 with a week of math and science based
simulations and experiments in space-related fields.91 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration educational outreach program, “Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers”, influences youths 13 to pursue science and engineering educational opportunities. The Boeing

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Company’s Summer Science Camp has successfully led students to pursue careers in science and engineering.92 Third, the Federal government should lift the visa restrictions for foreign students applying to enter the US. Post 9/11 immigration controls have resulted in a 32 percent drop in

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we should be offering and requiring advanced Earth and space science courses at the middle and high school levels while helping students integrate learning into future careers. Sixth. including the government. Congress should resist R&D cuts proposed in the President’s FY 2006 budget. America’s economic progress depends on a continuing supply of STEM talent engaged in and funded across the R&D spectrum. industry. and in an integrated approach. and economic prosperity requires an urgent response from the government to accelerate and resource current initiatives while developing a national human capital strategy and vision to inspire the next generation workforce.93 Foreign students graduating from US universities with degrees in science and engineering have been an important asset in our industry workforce and have contributed to basic science and new innovations. We must take deliberate steps to nurture our nation’s children in math and science in the formative years and attract and retain enthusiastic educators who will hand off the pride and the passion to the next generation . the nation desperately needs to create an educational system of S&T schools. there is no central database for collaboration and sharing information at the national level. Fifth. and the failure to fund basic R&D programs.95 Fourth. and workforce development. sufficient training for teachers is critical since they are the ones who inspire and motivate our nation’s children to dream and learn.. Congress should also assist entrepreneurs who have plans to build space components. Peace through superior firepower. At present. training. knowledge base. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space [Pollack Continues. President Bush’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology recently released a report which recommends improving our country’s K-12 education to ensure future innovation and improve the nation’s STEM capabilities.96 As the government tries to reduce its budget deficits. from kindergarten through graduate school. At a minimum. It is clear that a long term solution to developing a skilled space industry workforce begins with improved math and science education. no text omitted] the number of international student applications in 2004. Children. to develop an integrated plan for education. R&D programs in mathematics and engineering are being reduced. and professional societies. we must now inspire the nation’s young people to create a new generation of innovators to protect our national interests in space across the military. Astead. Federallyfunded research has long been a significant factor in US patent productivity and economic strength. academia. One-third of today’s US workforce of scientists and engineers were born outside the US94 The challenge regarding foreign students is to find a balance between scientific exploration and security. more should be accomplished. Although there is a lot of good coming from existing initiatives. and educational and science and technology infrastructures are key to our nation’s vitality and future security. Mehta. but do not have the capital to go from concept to delivery. These programs motivate STEM talent and lead to the innovation our space industry needs for competitive advantage. Just as President Kennedy inspired our nation in the race to the Moon.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. civil and commercial sectors. teachers.99 The nation’s space industry.98 In summary. there is an urgent need for all the stakeholders involved. Conclusion: STEM talent is the center of gravity in a knowledge-based economy that has raised the bar on innovation. The children we are educating today are the STEM workforce that will successfully lead the US in the 21st century. / 29 .97 There is a real disconnect between the Administration’s plans for the new space exploration initiative.

The suspected capabilities the Chinese possess (in the unclassified arena) are probably based on assessments and estimates of how China’s known and potential technologies might be used to field offensive space capabilities to counter US systems.104 Is China’s stated opposition to space weaponization rhetoric or genuine policy they intend to pursue? The former is probably closer to the truth since it is likely that the Chinese will react in kind to whatever path the US pursues. and by all indications have the national will and state sponsorship to achieve their vision. Astead. thus making China the newest member in a select group of countries with manned space programs (the US and Russia being the other two). Regardless. Overview of China’s Program. therefore. less speculative. http://www. many in China believe the goal of space control (vis-àvis the US) is to achieve space domination.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In addition. Chinese officials added a space lab and an orbiting space station as part of their 3-step plan for manned spaceflight (having achieved step one with the launch of Shenzhou V). 2003. China’s increasing interest in space (backed up by capital investments in its space program) mirrors its growing economy and emergence as a major power – both regionally and globally. Will China Weaponize Space?: One of the most hotly debated topics with regard to US national security is the issue of placing offensive weapons in space. THE FUTURE OF OUR NATION’S SPACE INDUSTRY WORKFORCE. the Chinese probably have enough knowledge to field systems that could jam US communications and navigation (GPS) satellite systems. As noted by Hui Zhang. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space Specifically. 105 At the unclassified level. it should be expected that regardless of China’s officially stated policy. weapons.107 There is sufficient reason to believe. In trying to assess the status and makeup of China’s space industry. the FY04 report noted a January 2001 Hong Kong newspaper article that said China had developed. Mehta. The foundation of China’s stable communist government lies in nationalism and steady economic growth -. however.106 In follow-up to the FY03 Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China. On October 15. 5 (Susan W.101 In updating the 2000 White Paper. Estimates in classified literature are almost certain to be more specific. Anti-satellite technology is the one area that seems to garner the most attention and debate. In private. Some of her assignments prior to attending ICAF include contracts specialist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and deputy director of the acquisition support cadre at the Missile Defense Agency. we have all watched China’s rise over the last decade as a major world power. etc. Much of the unclassified literature deals with expected responses by the Chinese to US policy and developments in space. launch capability. Pollack graduated as a member of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces class of 2005.pdf) With a great deal of awe (and some apprehension). any move by the US to place offensive weapons in space will be met by similar attempts by the Chinese. a research associate in the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard 15 University's John F. the FY04 report noted China making progress in anti-satellite ground-based laser technology.dtic. that adversaries such as China can and will pursue technology capable of denying us the use of our own space systems – especially if we pursue a similar strategy of weaponizing space. This event fulfilled one of the key milestones set forth in China’s 2000 White Paper for Space Activities – a document which stressed the importance of and the future ambitions and milestone for the Chinese space program.100 China’s slow but steady progress in achieving success in space reflects drive and determination. the extent to which the military is involved in other aspects of China’s space program is largely unknown at the unclassified level. is based on observations of actual events and interpretation of statements made by Chinese officials. Chinese officials probably consider the development of anti-satellite technology inevitable. Peace through superior firepower. the Chinese taikonaut Lieutenant Colonel Yang Liwei launched aboard the Shenzhou V. Kennedy School of Government.a successful space program helps contribute to both as it lends credibility and legitimacy to the government and provides yet another possible area to commercially challenge the United States. In light of China’s skepticism and mistrust for US policies. China’s official public stance on space weaponization is that they oppose the militarization of space.103 Our understanding (at the unclassified level) of future Chinese ambitions in space. and would soon space-test parasitic micro-satellite and nano-satellite technology that could be launched and detonated close to US satellites. a senior analyst within the Department of Defense admitted that much of what we know and try to draw conclusions from comes from open written media as well as on-line sources . and issues faced during the Cold War space race with the Soviet Union. 102 It is important to note that much of China’s space program remains shrouded in secrecy – especially the degree to which the military is involved. / 30 . As noted in the FY03 Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China.mil/cgi bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA449454&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.. The interest the Chinese have shown in such technology makes it feasible they could develop (if they do not already possess) the capacity to disrupt or destroy US space-based system. concerns. Lieutenant Colonel Liwei’s successful spaceflight embodies the vision set forth in the Paper – a vision that reflects the importance China places on the exploitation of space and the space program’s role in protecting national interests. and more accurate. one word best describes the assessment of the military threat that China poses to the United States space program – speculative. groundtested. Chinese space expansion will be hostile Pollack. In light of the preponderance of open-source information about US space systems. While it is known that the military is heavily involved in the commercial launch industry (all of China’s launch and tracking centers are run exclusively by the military). The Chinese know where they want to go with their space program. China’s rise as a space power has raised many of the same questions. The White Paper is essentially the roadmap for China’s space activities. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations from Saint Joseph’s University and has completed the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College.. Ms.

even if employing only conventional warheads. A Chinese military officer disclosed recently that Beijing was considering a review of its "non first use" principle regarding nuclear weapons. / 31 . president of the military-funded Institute for Strategic Studies. If the US had to resort to nuclear weaponry to defeat China long before the latter acquired a similar capability.S. the US had at the time thought of using nuclear weapons against China to save the US from military defeat. Gen Ridgeway said that US was confronted with two choices in Korea -truce or a broadened war. The threat posed by this Chinese effort cannot be neutralised by arms-control agreements. 2K. Beijing also seems prepared to go for the nuclear option. Gen Ridgeway said that Peace through superior firepower. In his book The Korean War. He said military leaders considered the use of nuclear weapons mandatory if the country risked dismemberment as a result of foreign intervention. likely to persist whether or not the Taiwan conflict is resolved. on space launch sites. and win. Beijing has already told the US and Japan privately that it considers any country providing bases and logistics support to any US forces attacking China as belligerent parties open to its retaliation. If such a clash were to compel Beijing to attack US space systems at the beginning of a war. China’s space expansion will cause escalatory wars over Taiwan Tellis. there is little hope of winning a war against China. to view China’s counterspace programmes in moralistic terms. Autumn. It would be difficult for all sides to limit the intensification of such a conflict. Major-General Pan Zhangqiang. And the conflagration may not end there as opportunistic powers elsewhere may try to overturn the existing world order. In the region. June 25.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. hostilities between India and Pakistan. there were strong pressures from the military to drop it. If Washington were to conclude that splitting China would better serve its national interests. Russia may seek to redefine Europe's political landscape. l/n THE high-intensity scenario postulates a cross-strait war escalating into a full-scale war between the US and China. a personal account of the military and political aspects of the conflict and its implications on future US foreign policy. even without the added complications of accidents and further misperception. the very prospect of such a ‘space Pearl Harbor’94 could. could enter a new and dangerous phase. Will a full-scale Sino-US war lead to a nuclear war? According to General Matthew Ridgeway. 50 years later. told a gathering at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington that although the government still abided by that principle. short of using nuclear weapons. It is grounded in the objective conditions that define the relationship between the two countries: competing political goals. In such circumstances. Extinction Strait Times. Singapore. to a lesser extent. Survival. Mehta. which could have led to the use of nuclear weapons. the Philippines and. the United States should seek. This approach is undesirable and best avoided: Beijing’s desire to defeat the stronger by asymmetric means is not a reflection of its deviousness. dominance. Conflict on such a scale would embroil other countries far and near and -horror of horrors -raise the possibility of a nuclear war. the growing Chinese capability for space warfare implies that a future conflict in the Taiwan Strait would entail serious deterrence and crisis instabilities. even though all countries stand to profit from the absence of threats to their assets in space. There is a temptation. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space Absent U. But if this fundamental goal is threatened by Chinese counterspace activities aimed at American space assets. Already. With the US distracted. each armed with its own nuclear arsenal. This strategic challenge has compelled Beijing to exploit every anti-access and battlespace-denial technology potentially available. If China were to retaliate. ingenta) Finally. Astead. US Strategic Command officials have publicly signalled that conventionally armed Trident submarine-launched ballistic missiles would be appropriate weapons for executing the prompt strikes that might become necessary in such a contingency. commander of the US Eighth Army which fought against the Chinese in the Korean War. in turn.96 The emergence of potent Chinese counterspace capabilities makes US military operations in Asia more risky than ever. this means South Korea. The US estimates that China possesses about 20 nuclear warheads that can destroy major American cities. In south Asia. Rather. nor provoked by mendacity on the part of the United States or the Bush admin. Japan. especially in the United States. before Washington has the opportunity to invest fully in redundant space capabilities. it is rooted entirely in China’s requirement that it be able to defeat the United States in a regional conflict despite its conventional inferiority. to protect the ’use of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all humanity’. 7 – Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Ashley. provoke the United States to contemplate pre-emptive attacks or horizontal escalation on the Chinese mainland. “China’s Military Space Strategy”. sensor nodes and command and control installations on the Chinese mainland could well be perceived as a precursor to an all-out war. The threat has not arisen due to a lack of a space arms-control regime.istration. or because of the Bush administration’s disinclination to negotiate an accord that bans the weaponisation of space. the United States has no choice but to run an offence–defence arms race. then a full-scale war becomes unavoidable. as the Bush administration’s own National Space Policy declares. The balance of power in the Middle East may be similarly upset by the likes of Iraq.95 Such attacks. Such outcomes would be particularly likely in a conflict in the next decade. Pg. East Asia will be set on fire.

Astead. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One should that come to pass. Peace through superior firepower. / 32 . we would see the destruction of civilization.

perhaps far more compelling reason that space weaponization will in time be less threatening to the international system than without it. The longer the US dithers on its responsibilities. This rationality does not dispute the fact that US deployment of weapons in outer space would represent the addition of a potent new military capacity.eparl. On the other hand. Astead. This is a mighty task. But would another state? If America were to weaponize space today. One of the more cacophonous refrains against weapons procurement of any kind is that the money needed to purchase them is better spent elsewhere. Placement of weapons in space by the United States would be perceived correctly as an attempt at continuing American hegemony. hundreds of billions of dollars. it is unlikely that any other state or group of states would find it rational to counter in kind. It is an even more difficult dilemma for those who oppose weapons in general. http://www. Such an event would be disconcerting to nations that accept the current international order (including the venerable institutions of trade. / 33 . Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space American space dominance makes war structurally impossible Dolman. “US Military Transformation and Weapons in Space. not a perpetuation of it. there is also a sense that it is at least tolerable to the majority of states. or housing. my concern is limited to the problem of letting technology take us where it will. It comes from military budgets. This creates a dilemma for both pro and anti-space weaponization camps. and ground forces. with the weaponizing state at the top. Are there not a thousand uses that are more beneficial for the money? But funding for weapons does not come directly from education. Space weapons in particular will be very. But what if an enemy of democratic liberalism should suddenly acquire the means to place quickly and cheaply multiple weapons into orbit? The advantages gained from controlling the high ground of space would accrue to it as surely as to any liberal state. and space weapons in particular. the status quo. depending on how aggressively America uses its new power. They might oppose US interests with asymmetric balancing. Although there is obvious opposition to the current international balance of power. And so the question should not be directed at particular weapons. but at all weapons. Most states. 2005. With the downsizing of traditional weapons to Peace through superior firepower. save graciously decide to step aside. This would clearly be threatening. Space advocates must sell their ideas to fellow pro-weapons groups by making the case that the advantages they provide outweigh the capabilities foregone. and marines are profound—pacification. test. if not all. and readily counter preliminary efforts to displace it. So long as America is the state most likely to acquire a breakthrough technology in this area. finance. The tens (likely hundreds) of billions of dollars needed to develop. Mehta. would opt not to counter US deployments in kind. It is a simple cliché but a powerful one. and deploy a minimal space weapons system with the capacity to engage a few targets around the world could displace a half a dozen or more aircraft carrier battle groups. at minimum. an attempt by any other state to dominate space would be part of an effort to break the land-sea-air dominance of the United States in preparation for a new international order. The action would be a challenge to the status quo. But such an outcome is less threatening than any other state doing so. The tremendous effort in time and resources would be worse than wasted. And America would respond … finally. The entry cost to provide the infrastructure necessary is too high. As leader of the current system. 5 – Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the US Air Force’s School of Advanced Air and Space Studies (Everett C. and law that operate within it) and intolerable to the US. and several heavy armored divisions. A continuation of it is thus minimally acceptable. but the likelihood of a hemorrhaging arms race in space should the US deploy weapons there—at least for the next few years—is extremely remote. and America must expect severe condemnation and increased competition in peripheral areas.pdf) Indeed. very expensive. or transportation budgets. and the concomitant loss of military power from the denial of space to our alreadydependent military force could cause the immediate demise of the extant international system. There is another. the surface battle fleet. navy. one that would assist in extending the current period of American hegemony well into the future. So long as the US does not employ its power arbitrarily.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the US could do no less than engage in a perhaps ruinous space arms race. entire aircraft procurement programs (such as the F-22). and control of foreign territory. Ramifications for the most critical current function of the army. the situation would be bearable initially and grudgingly accepted over time. it is concern for the unanticipated arrival of technology X that initially motivates my own preference for a policy advocating immediate deployment of space weapons. the more likely a potential opponent could seize low-earth orbit before America could respond. Immediately we see that the impact on the budget of significant increases in space weapons will be decreases in funding for combat aircraft. This is a tough sell for supporters of a strong military. even to states working towards its demise.net/pages/space_hearing_images/ConfPaper%20Dolman%20US%20Military%20Transform%20& %20Space.” September 14. occupation. The years of investment it would take to achieve a minimal counter-force capability—essentially from scratch—would provide more than ample time for the US to entrench itself in space.

space weapons are offensive by their very nature. No other state has such potential for selfrestraint. The operational deployment of space weapons would increase that capacity by providing for nearly instantaneous force projection worldwide. though it challenges any attempts to intervene militarily in the politics of others. The US will maintain its position of hegemony as well as its security.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. There is no question that corrupted power is a dangerous thing. America will maintain the capacity to influence decisions and events beyond its borders. They offer no advantage if the target set considered is not global. would do much to stabilize the international system and prevent an arms race in space. A state employing offensive deterrence through space-weapons can punish a transgressor state. and has severely restricted its own capacity to do so. On the issue of space weaponization. And yet. But they also offer no advantage in the mission of territorial occupation. Whether or not the United States desires to be a good neighbor is not necessary to an opposing state’s calculation of survival. and the world will not be threatened by the specter of a future American empire. the tremendous expense of space weapons inhibits their indiscriminate use. time sensitive targets. but is in a poor position to challenge its sovereignty. enforcing international norms of innocent passage and property rights . The tragedy of American power is that it must make a choice. Should the US use its advantage to police the heavens (assuming the entire cost on its own). not more. the US could prepare outer space for a long-overdue burst of economic expansion. the enhanced ability to deny any attempt by another nation to place military assets in space . Moreover. No matter the choice selected. At the same time. with military force if necessary. non-arbitrary. From low-Earth orbit (LEO). It is this introspection. in light of the no-end-in-sight occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan. At a time when many are calling for increased capability to pacify and police foreign lands. and the worst choice is to do nothing. They deter violence by the omnipresent threat of precise. or to readily engage and destroy terrestrial ASAT capacity. fear of a space dominant American military will subside. the ability of the US to do all three will wane significantly. measured. but perhaps it is perfectible. this self-angst that makes America the best choice to lead the world today and tomorrow. As such. space weapons proponents must advocate reduction of these capabilities in favor of a system that will have no direct potential to do so. It is not perfect. They fear what they could become. in effect expending a small amount of violence as needed to prevent a greater conflagration in the future. the argument that the unilateral deployment of space weapons will precipitate a disastrous arms race is misplaced. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space [Dolman Continues. The limited requirement for collateral damage. Much in the manner that the British maintained control of the high seas. Hence. it has a great advantage—the moral ambiguity of its people regarding the use of power. Without sovereignty at risk. This force would be precise. no text omitted] accommodate heightened space expenditures. and unstoppable retaliation. Mehta. and allow unhindered peaceful use of space by any and all nations for economic and scientific development. need for precision to allay the low volume of fire. and did so in a way that was perceived as tough. unstoppable. there are those who will benefit and those who will suffer. Why would a state expend the effort to compete in space with a superpower that has the extraordinary advantage of holding securely the highest ground at the top of the gravity well? So long as the controlling state demonstrates a capacity and a will to use force to defend its position. and tremendous cost of space weapons will guarantee they are used only for high value. if the US were willing to deploy and use a military space force that maintained effective control of space. the US must forego some of its ability to intervene directly in other states because its capacity to do so will have been diminished in the budgetary trade-offs required. Peace through superior firepower. Transformation of the American military assures that the intentions of current and future leaders will have but a minor role to play in international affairs. To be sure. but perhaps only Americans are so concerned with the possibility that they themselves will be corrupted. Moreover. the likelihood of a future war in space is remote. makes the possibility of large scale space war and or military space races less likely. over time its control of LEO could be viewed as a global asset and a public good. the world of sovereign states will recognize that the US does not threaten self-determination internally. As leader of the international community. there appears no one best option. the United States finds itself in the unenviable position that it must make decisions for the good of all. Over time. they are far less threatening to the international environment than any combination of weapons employed in their stead. / 34 . while the US is unchallenged in space. The transgressor state is less likely to succumb to the security dilemma if it perceives its national survival is not at risk. Seizing the initiative and securing low-Earth orbit now. and efficient. in the process of choosing. and deadly. such an action would serve to discourage competing states from fielding opposing systems. Astead.

Astead. there has been counter pressure for states to game the system by lowering both standards and proficiency definitions. the new law does offer numerous opportunities for coordination with Perkins.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. there is no national measure/yardstick/standard/benchmark for academic achievement at each of the grade levels. Students continue to move through the nation’s schools gaining widely varying levels—mostly low—of knowledge. skills and preparedness. are described as strategies to assess student needs. But what can be considered a step forward in many respects.pdf) In 2001. Targeted Assistance Programs). integrating vocational and technical education programs. There also are opportunities to enhance secondary schools.” With the pressure to increase student performance. Section 1112). Mehta.org/kf/standards-based_framework.” November 2005. / 35 . placing greater emphasis on accountability for student learning and specifying the authorization of federal dollars through fiscal year 2007. NCLB requires that states hold districts and schools accountable for getting all their students to “proficient” achievement levels. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. the areas that NCLB seeks to coordinate with Perkins are related to state plans (Title I. http://www. where Perkins could be coordinated with state and local plans. Fellow @ the Center for American Progress (Cindy. Accountability. Today. NASDCTEc and the CTE community worked to increase the ties. Only national curriculum standards and national definitions and measures of student performance at proficiency levels can prevent this behavior. 5 – Fellow @ the Center for American Progress. perversely. not raising expectations.” July 2002) During the reauthorization of ESEA. “The Case for National Standards. In general. Federal standards are key to stop the race to the bottom created by states – the alternative is a failing education system Brown. National cries for increased expectations and evidence of higher student achievement are more than 30 years old. including the “integration of vocational technical programs” into school-wide improvement programs (Title I. Evidence of this abounds. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education. 3 Peace through superior firepower. While NCLB’s impact and connection to secondary education is still limited. all states have developed both curriculum and student performance standards and hold their districts and schools accountable for meeting yearly student achievement goals that grow tougher each year. But the decentralized system of schooling continues mostly unchanged. Jason. and Fiscal Equity. With more than 50 different sets of standards.americanprogress. college and career awareness and preparation programs and other similar programs. Another area of coordination is for targeted assistance to schools (Section 1115. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Solvency Contention : Solvency Putting CTE under No Child Left Behind for targeted assistance solves job training Phelps. to weakening curriculum and lowering. align curriculum with academic standards. NCLB built upon and made significant changes to the 1994 laws. Section 1111) and local plans (Title I. Such action can lead. the standards movement advanced with passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. as illustrated below. providing professional development for school personnel. Section 1114) and coordinating these plans with provisions under the Perkins Act where applicable. School-wide improvement programs. is also an impediment—a false sense of student performance. but allows them to adopt their own definitions of “proficiency. coordination and involvement of Perkins in ESEA to enhance the federal focus on secondary education (Perkins is currently the largest federal investment in secondary schools). and Elena Rocha. according to NCLB.

the education system satisfied America’s national security requirements—it fueled the world’s most powerful economic engine. Civics. whereas we're making minuscule progress. "but I think the discussion among governors is at the point where they recognize they are facing very tough competition. because they're going to have the bulk of the intellectual and creative talent in the world. and technology build the foundation needed to compete in the Information Age. a retired global-marketing officer for the Cincinnati-based Procter &amp. “A free Nation can rise no higher than the standard of excellence set in its schools and colleges. two negative trends emerged during this period." he added. With an eye toward this new environment. science. "I don't think this discussion has gotten to the place where people are ready to do it yet. Wehling. the Supreme Court’s Brown vs." said Robert L. / 36 . They provide the human and materiel resources needed to build a strong military force and enable government leaders and institutions to work effectively within the domestic and international environments. Shifting US demographics will soon create a majority of minorities. Globalization. the United States needs to define a common set of standards. STEM standards are key at the national level – best for job training and global leadership Education Weekly. and America’s well being will be defined largely by the success of those minorities. "and I'm telling you. In the words of President John F. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Solvency Specifically. of North Carolina. lexis) "I've been watching very. educated citizens are the economic backbone of the country. who also has been speaking out this year on the need for national standards. however. prompting the government in 1983 to publish A Nation at Risk that warned of a “rising tide of mediocrity” in education that threatened future national security.. and political science cultivate democratic values and instill an understanding of America’s role in the world. And I don't think the average American understands the impact of this for our future. a condition that perpetuated poverty and other social ills. the significance of these and other shortfalls within the US education industry is magnified by three factors. personally thinks it makes "a lot of sense" to have national standards. they're making rapid progress. James B. Hunt Jr. minority and low-income students were achieving at levels far below that of other socioeconomic groups. From then until the turn of the century. Astead. Globalization’s radically expanding economic competition leaves no room for US industries to be less than fully optimized. India. and that would be a good thing. overall student performance began to decline." Low-income education is critical to the success of overall education policies – globalization means the workforce must be fully optimized McGuire.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 4 (Mark.iii Second. and enabled one of the most diverse populations of any country to thrive. Colonel in the US Army. social studies. Gamble Co. Peace through superior firepower.” 12/7. While the 1. Collectively.pdf) The US education industry produces the Nation’s most vital national security resource—sons and daughters educated in a variety of subjects. the executive vice president of the American Federation of Teachers. Despite these successes. 5 (“Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew.3 million-member union has not taken an official position on the issue. and that has devastating consequences for us.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. rapidly advancing technologies. Rapidly advancing technologies yield untold capabilities and reward the extremely talented who develop and exploit them. and shifting US demographics represent a new strategic environment that increases the importance of education to national security. First.iv Although both trends have seen some improvement. Kennedy. the Education Industry Study Seminar conducted an executive-level analysis of the US education industry to assess national security implications and offer policy recommendations. produced a superior military capability. very closely the educational progress in Asia--China. Mehta. she argues that national standards and curriculum frameworks "could also influence teacher preparation.” The US education industry took its present form following World War II. "especially in subjects like math and science and related courses." said former Gov. history. Vietnam. While the industry was expanding to serve the needs of veterans and the ensuing “baby boomer” generation.dtic. Singapore. a Democrat. Math. and several others. http://www. Board of Education ruling in 1954 required the industry to focus on providing equity in education." Given that global situation." Antonia Cortese.

“The threat of protectionism for the Indian IT sector comes almost from everywhere.upiasia.S. “We will restore a sense of fairness and balance to our tax code by finally ending the tax breaks for corporations that ship our jobs overseas." Obama said. / 37 . Although the final version was watered down from the original. you will suddenly see taxpayers and stakeholders and all those who contribute to support the government.” An even bigger blow came two weeks later when U. limiting the hiring of foreigners with H-1B temporary-work visas. it was still a big blow to the Indian IT sector.” said Rodney A. regardless what the government structure is. Mehta. http://www. “Nations across the world are looking at supporting their industries and as a part of that. until now protectionist rhetoric remained just that – rhetoric. But what’s drawing worry lines across the Indian IT sector is the fact that protectionism is suddenly dominating the policies of almost every government. “So what we see happening is potential for protectionism.com/Economics/2009/03/10/protectionism_threatens_indias_it_sector/5138/) Nevertheless. In early February.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead.S. Peace through superior firepower. because as a condition for support the governments are saying that we need not only to restore financial wellbeing but also to contribute to domestic job growth. research director at the U.S. will also want to see that the industries are held to account. said that there would be no tax breaks in outsourcing.” Protectionism is indeed widespread and real. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Ext: No Jobs  Protectionism Protectionist policies are increasing due to outsourcing of American jobs UPI 3/10 ("Protectionism threatens India's IT sector. Senate voted to impose strict conditions on companies that receive federal bailout money. President Barack Obama. which termed the restriction as “irrational. the U.-based IT consulting firm Tower Group. which had called for a blanket ban on H-1B visas. Nelsestuen.” he said. in his first address to the Congress." United Press International.

but it could become a major friction point between a lot of countries. export its unemployment. The problem. In hard times -. this is going to be a very. http://www.html JEFFREY BROWN: It's not only between the U. Most of those are minor to date. and Canada that trade is becoming a critical issue.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. let me start first.19.S. “In Bad Economy. Countries Contemplate Protectionist Measures” PBS. Interview Transcript.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june09/trade_02-19. Countries around the world are going to be tempted to try to export their problems to their neighbors. Fred Bergsten is Director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics.pbs. both among economic relations. As the president says today in Ottawa. as the recession deepens and broadens. this is a global crisis. but it's clear that.governments around the world are acting or threatening to act to prop up their own companies and workers. Peace through superior firepower. is that it won't work. in response to worker protests -. Are such moves appropriate? Or do they signal a shift toward protectionism? We talk about all this now with Fred Bergsten. but between countries more broadly. of course. All countries are suffering downturns. JEFFREY BROWN: Fred Bergsten. FRED BERGSTEN. and the whole trade system will spiral downward. Astead. Mehta.09. create jobs at the expense of others is going to face instant retaliation by others. / 38 . director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. policy director and chief international economist at the AFL-CIO. It just won't work. Welcome to you both. 2. Peterson Institute for International Economics: Good to be here.and in some cases. but the economic crisis has accelerated trade disputes – now is key to stop protectionist measures Bergsten and Brown. So any country that tries to export its problems. Over 30 countries have put in new trade barriers just since the Group of 20 had its summit meeting here in Washington back in mid-November. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness Protectionism is a minor concern now. To what extent do you see the trade issue becoming a source of friction as the global economy weakens? FRED BERGSTEN: I think the trade issue will become a major source of friction. try to close their markets and create jobs at home at the expense of others. and Thea Lee. very profound issue. Jeffrey Brown is an American journalist and a senior correspondent and news anchor for the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS since May 2005.

While Singapore was not directly affected by the restriction.breitbart. He named renewable energy as one sector deserving more government support. Lim said it might be difficult to pin down countries that took steps that bordered on protectionism at the World Trade Organization. Tonelson sees it as a springboard for further protections." Lim told reporters. "We are monitoring the situation very closely.cnn. That support would go above and beyond the 30% tax break the stimulus plan offered to manufacturers of things like wind turbines and solar cells. But there's a fear it could grow. Many of our trading partners.S. Buy American was watered down in the stimulus AFP 6/6 ("'Buy American' plan leads to ire." Tonelson said. he said.dd912210b093ea987c89da799e3901ac.including former Presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton . the tiny trade-dependent state understood the concerns of countries hit by the action. / 39 . The Buy American clause originally said that infrastructure projects designed to kick-start the US economy out of a languishing recession could only use US-made manufactured materials. in Washington for meetings with trade officials and US lawmakers. trading partners reacted strongly against the original buy American rule . confusion. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – AT: Buy America  Protectionism Buy America was watered down. already have their own protectionist measures in place." said Lim Hng Kiang.especially Canada and Brazil. manufacturers] are already shut out of many procurement contracts. but it put us on the brink of more protectionism Hargreaves 3/6 – CNN money staffwriter (Steve.Tonelson sees little downside to more government support.S. Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. the latter of which threatened a lawsuit . the island nation's trade minister. and hampering a global economic recovery. in its watered down form. To free traders . "[U. "'Buy American' cuts bothways" http://money. Some businesses and officials complained the amendment is proving virtually meaningless in practice. driving the cost of goods up and the quality down. "We've got this important precedent that's been set.php?id=CNG. Without pointing at the United States. the global trade watchdog.401&show_article=1) "Some of these measures of course cause a lot of discomfort to many of us including Singapore. pointing out that some nations were exploiting "gray areas" in global trade rules. "How much more harm could these provisions do?" Although the buy American clause was watered down." he said. he said." Supporters of the free market It's precisely that line of thinking that's got the free traders so worried.htm) **Adam Tonelson is a research fellow with the US Business and Industry Council Although some U. Astead. But it was later watered down to show that such procurement could only take place in a manner consistent with Washington's international treaty obligations. Buy American.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.that means perpetuating inefficient industries at home.com/article. "We're going to try to beat this as far as we can. and might require direct cash payments from the government. whether they are explicit or hidden in the form of government bureaucracies that favor their own firms.com/2009/03/06/news/economy/stimulus_protection/index. isn't seen as particularly restrictive." Agence France-Presse http://www.

Yet even so. it's critical that all countries refrain from pointing fingers at each other or pursuing their own interests at the expense of others. exports have plunged. l/n) But imagine a China disintegrating. Communications @ UCLA. amid a contraction in global trade. which don’t’ want them and cant handle them. These imports are boosting the economic development of China's trading partners. / 40 . The fundamental interest of every country is to step up consultation and cooperation and keep international trade smoothly flowing. Mehta. Adjunct. That would send Singapore and Malaysia. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ Protectionist policies cause a significant contraction in the Chinese economy Deming.133 trillion worth of goods from countries around the world -an 18. and the consequences would be hard to even predict. Asia style.S. India might make a grab for Tibet. 6/28/’3 (Neo-cons a bigger risk to Bush than China. major trading countries have seen their export growth tumble or have suffered huge contractions.5% decline last month. World War Three Tom Plate. Meanwhile. Protectionist policies would make things even worse. products and technology. Given the size and openness of our country. China still firmly believes that trade protectionism isn't a solution to the world's problems. Prof. without neo-conservative or Central Intelligence Agency prompting. "Protectionism doesn’t pay) AHerndon Global trade is now in dire straits . East Asia Expert. the U. and Pakistan for Kashmir . security and economic growth – the very direction the White House now seems to prefer. Germany's exports dropped 10.5% increase over the prior year. Healthy international trade can help revive the world economy. and there is no quick fix to this malady. Thanks to shrinking external demand caused by the economic crisis. Minister of Commerce for PRC. This year China will continue to increase imports and send buying missions abroad for large-scale purchase of equipment. much less outright military invasion because the economy (against all predictions) suddenly collapses. and unemployment pressure has mounted.into nervous breakdowns. In the heat of the crisis. That’s why wise policy encourages Chinese stability. Peace through superior firepower. China also experienced negative export growth in November.the highest one-month drop since 1990.on its own. China's economic growth has slowed. recovered from its economic woes because the Roosevelt administration implemented the New Deal and shunned protectionism. A massive flood of refugees would head for Indonesia and other places with poor border controls. China imported $1. During the Great Depression. Astead. compared to the same period the prior year -. given to the WSJ. Then you can say hello to World War III. and a 17. some in Japan might lick their lips at the prospect of World War II revisited and look to annex a slice of China.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Strait Times.once occupied by Japan. when compared to the prior year. The financial crisis reflects a chronic illness resulting from global economic structural imbalance and financial risk accumulation. the Chinese government has put forward a series of measures aiming at stimulating domestic demand. That would knock Asia into chaos. In 2008.6% in November 2008. Since the crisis broke out. unprecedented financial crisis and protectionist policies have inflicted a severe impact on China and other countries. 2/20 (Chen. the growth in China's domestic markets can be translated into greater market potential and investment opportunities for other countries.

Japan is increasingly open to foreign investment. Peace through superior firepower. Meanwhile. The most effective way to combat the enormous cost of these demographic changes is through impressive economic growth. government is not as concerned about trade issues as prior to the War on Terror. As of 2004 the large majority of economists and policy makers concur regarding what reforms Japan needs and there are definite signs of progress." Japan's population is growing at a mere 0.edu/docs/122) AHerndon During the miracle years. which has created a credit crunch for potentially strong firms who need capital. many Japanese industries still have high costs compared to companies in other developed nations. the LDP often supports useless public works projects thus increasing Japan's already high-government deficit. The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and bureaucrats friendly to the farm lobby are responsible for this situation. Because Japan was a Cold War ally. it periodically is critical of Japan's barriers to imports. Even though Japan's full-time farmers constitute a miniscule percentage of the nation's workforce. Japan has entered into agricultural free trade agreements recently with other nations thereby weakening the excessive power of farmers. the world will be better off if Japan again becomes an economic engine of growth. Government protection of highly inefficient industries such as construction and food processing wastes resources and causes Japanese individuals and firms to pay much more for products than would otherwise be the case. Although the U. Japan faces strong international competition. Japanese companies are now significantly changing employment practices in order to again become healthy. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2] Global protectionism will collapse the Japanese economy Ellington. For example. Also. the very nature of global economic competition has changed. Because of Japan's massive global impact. In the face of dramatic new economic challenges the Japanese system continues to change much too slowly. The situation is now dramatically different. Astead. In an effort to secure political support from the construction industry. because of an almost-twenty-year baby "bust. Already. Japan had few economic competitors in Europe and none in Asia. Japan's relatively inflexible economic system still makes it difficult for Japanese companies to respond as quickly to competitive challenges as their foreign counterparts. / 41 . the United States ignored Japanese policies that discouraged imports. American students can learn much about an important country and about economics from Japan's successes and failures. who are still unable to pay them back.08 percent (estimate for 2004) and may soon start declining. However. An increasing number of Japanese and foreign observers believe that the only long-term solution to Japan's structural economic problems will be the rise of a political party strong enough to wrest power from the LDP thus ending the excessive coddling of special interests groups at the expense of the nation's economic health.stanford.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Also. the total amount of bad debt has been reduced. Japan's state-directed banking system made an enormous number of loans to nonproductive companies. Although the nonperforming loan problem remains substantial. Still. Companies now must make swift business decisions in order to remain competitive. Stanford Program for International Research. Recently the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won impressive gains in national elections. much further reform must occur before the Japanese economy returns to full health. http://spice. During the 1980's Bubble. While there has been moderate deregulation. as a result of the communication and computer revolutions." the Japanese should move more in the direction of freer and more unregulated capitalism and away from the still somewhat inflexible state-directed system that was created to solve a different set of economic problems than the ones that exist today. These reforms must continue to progress because demographic changes in Japan's population also threaten the nation's economic viability. Very soon Japan will have the highest percentage of citizens over 65 of any developed country.S. even though the amount is very low by the standards of developed countries. Because until very recently large Japanese companies would not lay off permanent employees. Protectionism makes life worse for most Japanese. the typical Tokyo family spends about one third more of its household income each year on food than that of a New York family in part because of informal and formal trade barriers that still keep much foreign produce out of Japan. they are solid LDP supporters and have been protected from foreign competition as consumers suffer. Although they do not need to "become like us. 4 (Lucien.

The depression in mood has not eased and a suicide happens every 15 minutes. which is hard. There is too much emotion involved to result in any profound learning. Nikkei fell more than 80 per cent from 1990 till 2003. Nobody likes asking or answering uncomfortable questions.com. The regulatory body was formed a century ago in 1907. "Japan and the World Economy. This is no simple hypothesis and can really change how Ben Bernanke handles the ongoing global credit crisis. about 40 per cent. This is the power Japan can exercise on a global forum today. while even after 25 years the Nikkei is still far away from historical highs seen in 1980's. If the country shares its stockpile of rice. First." economy/329181/) http://www. humans understand things in retrospect and not in the present. 8 (Mukal. The reticent two halves of have and have-not's were polarised. This means that if gold quintupled since 2000. Third. conventional economics failed in Japan. Depression happened in an era of falling interest rates. Fourth. The Japanese slowdown of contemporary times is the largest slowdown we have ever seen. Mehta. Business Standard. because we have few econohistorians today and fewer readers of econohistory. Japan is the most energy efficient country in the world. And talking about failure is admitting to a mistake.com/india/news/japanthe-world- AHerndon We at Orpheus are unequivocal about our view that Japanese economy leads not only America. Second. and has technological capabilities which it's selling to neighboring China and world over. Sixth. because Japanese are not too happy talking about it. Despite all this negativity in the mood which is linked with economic depression. maybe because the slowdown happened in the most prosperous 20 years of the world economy.business-standard. The bestselling book was The Complete Manual of Suicide written in 1993.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. as salaries are still poor and corporates highly conservative. maybe because markets are not sure whether it's over. after a banking crisis caused a run on the banks and bankruptcies. Above all this. meaning that the companies are worth less than their strip value. And more Japanese want to emigrate. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2] Japanese Economy key to Global economy Pal. Economists like Bernanke and many others swear by the Great Depression as the most important lesson of macroeconomics. but has historically outperformed gold by nearly 100 per cent. holding the yen could have bettered that performance. the Japanese market has the largest proportion of listed debt-free companies in the world. More than half of the listed companies are below price to book of 1. which coincidecidentally happened exactly on the centenarian year of the Federal Reserve in 2007. with average 30. international food crisis can really ease and prices can fall by half. yen not only strengthened over this period. Astead. the Japanese depression of 13 years pales the three-year falls of the Great Depression.000 people taking their lives every year. It took 15 years for Dow to cross its 1929 high. Peace through superior firepower. but the overall world economy. The excesses of the 1980s collapsed as prices in real estate fell 1/100 to 1/10. All economic axioms were junked in this time by Japan. / 42 . which are supposed to do more good than bad. Fifth. or it's still ongoing. But in size and proportions. And there are people still paying mortgage for houses bought at the peak of 1980's. And there can be many reasons it did not get the much deserved attention by macroeconomists around the world.

applying a carbon tax to imports from countries that do not cap their emissions. claiming that we all must consume less. purchasing cars that are less expensive. they are actually counterproductive. this game would artificially make all players one-legged and one-armed. As a result bananas are less expensive and resources are used more sustainably. Peace through superior firepower. cleaner. This effect would be exacerbated by reduced investment from multinational companies. China. European leaders suggested that. This process exploded after the reforms of 1991 and millions of Indians have benefited from competition. These could be grown in the cold climates of Finland. The competitive market process. companies from the US. less trade means less wealth. India demonstrates the follies of protectionism. Environmental ideologues continue to make dour prognostications about our planet’s future. But in reality. more technologically advanced and efficient . these claims should not be heeded seriously. India began to open its market to foreign car producers. Although the US trade representative criticised this proposal. Moreover. Canada. Consider bananas. The idea behind such protectionism is to create a “level playing field” – where European and American producers are not disadvantaged by their self-imposed restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly. Director. dirtier production methods and thus will use scarce resources less sustainably.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and was unaffordable to all but the elite. legislation being considered in the US Senate – the LiebermanWarner bill – would have a similar effect. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2] Protectionism kills the environment.ug/D/8/20/610203) AHerndon In January. Based on their scaremongering and frankly embarrassing record of false predictions in recent decades. But instead of levelling the playing field. leading to unnecessary waste of scarce natural and human resources. big business and organised labour unite. / 43 .newvision. Consumers and producers spend more to purchase the same goods and services. resource-saving technologies. 8 (Caroline. Which is why they are grown in places such as Costa Rica and the Ivory Coast. so have less to invest in new technologies or to save for the future. Whereas the beneficiaries of liberalisation are widely dispersed. India had one car manufacturer.more pollution and less investment in green conservation Boin. who claim that such protections benefit the earth. India and other countries should be forced to purchase emissions permits in the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme. Protectionism. which produced just one car – the Ambassador – which was technologically inferior. They artificially increase costs. a London-based think tank. is inherently more sustainable than the regulated economy advocated by eco-doom mongers. "Protectionism hurts consumers and enviorment. Astead." http://www. Thus. which translates into fewer resources available to invest in environmental conservation. various European trade unions have applauded calls for punitive trade measures against non-EU competitors. and then exporting them to consumers around the world. Mehta. harms the vast majority of people as well as the environment – and is best avoided. Until 1984. especially when supported by moralists. But to do so would be far more costly than growing them in warm places. the beneficiaries of trade restrictions are concentrated and tend to be very effective in lobbying national governments to protect their business from competition. naked or cloaked in green. and Russia. Greens. environment programme at the International Policy Network. They favour the status quo by rewarding inefficient producers and thus delaying the adoption of cleaner. Such demands may suit the protectionist agenda but they have little merit in terms of their practical ability to enable humanity to use scarce natural and human resources in an ever-more sustainable manner. they will continue to use older. Although some claim that trade barriers would help the environment.co. belched pollutants. In 1984. The benefits of trade would be replaced by losses in consumer welfare and environmental degradation. underpinned by free trade between and within nations. Trade barriers of any kind. tariffs and quotas. to sell their goods in Europe. it is far more moral to support liberalisation. including “green” subsidies. Instead. The Lieberman-Warner bill is endorsed not only by major Green groups but also by electricity providers and their associated trade unions. such as environmentalists. have fewer children and trade less with each other to address climate change. harm both consumers and producers.

Conservation biology is a discipline that brings together many fields to attempt to solve biodiversity problems. There have been several natural mass extinctions in the history of earth followed by recovery. and having economic value: all make the human species susceptible to extinction. Global climate change may be so rapid that many species cannot adjust . "The Biosphere and Mass exticiton.Accidental or purposeful introduction of new species can cause extinction of endemic species. It attempts to develop practical approaches to preventing extinction of species and destruction of ecosystems. as well as disrupting the local environment. A spectacular exception was the large meteorite strike sixty-six million years ago near the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico that either caused the extinction of dinosaurs and 75% of all marine species. Nearly half the rain forests are gone already. low reproductive rates. leopards. environmental degradation first increases. and cacti for gardeners. Recovery from these extinctions took millions of years. scope and the numbers of species involved. Fish stocks are being depleted by overfishing. or was the nail in the coffin of the dinosaurs. Introduction of brown tree snake to Guam has resulted in extinction of nine of eleven native bird species. Development in tropical areas causes more extinctions due to the great diversity found in tropical rain forests (half all species on Earth). rhinoceros for rhino horn powder. an Asian fish that can tolerate polluted waters.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The carp. Habitats may be fragmented into small pieces that cannot support the population. Kudzu.000 species a year. Ph. By 2010. Sustainability is concept that it is possible to meet economic needs while protecting environment. 7 (M. A major cause of extinction is the loss of habitat to support a species. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2] Environmental collapse causes extinction Farabee. Tropical reefs are also under siege by water pollution. Enviormental Lexis) AHerndon Author. then decreases as people become affluent enough to begin to protect the environment. Species are not equally likely to suffer extinction. Mehta. Cockroaches hav e been around for 300 million years essentially unchanged and probably will be around for millions more. Biological magnification of pesticides has reduced predatory bird populations. Some economists argue that as per capita income increases. There have been five environmental changes (mostly cooling) of global proportions that resulted in the five mass extinctions in Earth history.000 years ago with development of social and language skills to apply increasingly better stone tool technology to trap and kill the larger animals. for furs. Extinctions occur when environments change too fast. Water hyacinth escaped from captivity and has become a hazard to navigation.000 to 30. susceptibility to pollution. Hunting contributes to the estimated extinction of 15. cheetahs. sharks for fins. Island species. etc. is now more prevalent than our native fish. species with limited habitats. Human activities that reduce biodiversity began about 30.D. has beome a major pest throughout the south. high territory requirements. very little undisturbed rain forest will exist outside of national parks. The habitat for a species may be totally destroyed through natural events or human activities. Commercial trade causes exploitation of tigers. predators. Professor Estrella Mountain Community College. Local extinctions can occur. If this pace continues nearly half all species could be extinct by 2050.. a plant native to Asia. leading to even more extinctions. By as early as 2010 (less than 15 years!) all rain forests will be gone if present trends of exploitation and human population growth continue. as can mass extinctions: they differ in scale. Astead. Most conservation biologists believe biological diversity is good and each species has a value all its own.J. Peace through superior firepower. / 44 . Development in Tropical Regions Human-caused environmental changes and extinctions are accelerating in the tropics. Acid deposition is implicated in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations. elephants for tusks for ivory. jaguars.

7.S.com/provider/providerarticle.manufactured products. Mehta. products.8. The Obama administration is looking for ways to reassure trading partners as it prepares to detail its trade policy in coming weeks.com. "My concern is increasing because we are seeing protectionist measures being introduced under the guise of other measures.S. given divergent American and European perspectives. Issue 74. Astead.S. For the United States. Some municipalities in Canada have begun organizing boycotts of U. a joint approach would mean less freedom of unilateral action.msn. not to mention the cleavage between America and Europe as well as the increased American-Iranian tensions. Though much of the trading partners' ire is aimed at Congress. Winter 03/04. “US trading partners complain about protectionism” Associated Press / Accessed through MSN Money.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The National Interest. Proquest) While Russia has not stood in the way of any decisive U. which requires the use of U. radio. Former National Security Advisor. said he would like to see the White House take a harder line with Congress on the issue.moneycentral.aspx? feed=AP&date=20090608&id=9987235) WASHINGTON (AP) . and I suppose that that is now reflected in Congress.-EU strategic collaboration with regard to Iraq and Iran. The Associated Press is the backbone of the world's information system serving thousands of daily newspaper. has already tempted Moscow to resume its earlier pressure on Georgia and Azerbaijan to abandon their aspirations for inclusion in the Euro-Atlantic community and to step up its efforts to undermine any enduring U. despite President Barack Obama's assurances that he wants to keep U." Bruton told The Associated Press. television and online customers with coverage in all media and news in all formats. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2] Protectionism crushes US-EU relations AP. Obama had criticized some U. But acting together-with the threat of U. Many U. for the European Union. passed in February. / 45 ." US-EU relations are key to preventing Russian aggression in Central Asia Brzezinski.S.09.S.S. "I think it is something that arose from the presidential and congressional election. the current geopolitical earthquake in the Persian Gulf could jeopardize America's efforts to consolidate the independence of the Caspian Basin states. as Congress is considering adding similar measures to other spending bills. costing American jobs as other countries retaliate. military power reinforced by the EU's political. but the benefits of cooperation outweigh the costs of any compromise. These risks could be lessened by closer U. http://news. “Hegemonic Quicksand”. It is the largest and oldest news organization in the world.S. it would mean less opportunity for self-serving inaction. political and military presence in Central Asia. markets because of the "Buy American" provision in the massive stimulus bill. taxpayer dollars being spent to revive the economy create jobs at home. John Bruton. That would make it more difficult for the United States to engage the Central Asian states in a larger regional effort to combat Islamic fundamentalism in Afghanistan and Pakistan.S. 03 (Zbigniew.S. A resurgence of Muslim extremism of the Taliban variety could then even acquire a regional scope. unemployment rate is at its highest level in 25 years. EU and Canadian officials worry the practice is widening.S. financial and (to some degree) military support-the Euro-Atlantic community could foster a genuinely stable and possibly even democratic post-Saddam regime. Peace through superior firepower. Businesses in the European Union and Canada complain they have been shut out of U. there also is uncertainty about Obama's commitment to free trade. markets open.The United States' largest trading partners are warning that protectionist moves by Congress could poison global trade relations. Buy American supporters want to make sure that the billions of U. We saw heated election rhetoric. American preoccupation with the mess in Iraq. As a candidate seeking support from working-class voters. trade agreements. military efforts to alter the strategic realities of the region. That may not be easy to achieve. and EU and Canadian officials say they are reviewing their options. exporters fear the provisions will backfire. The EU Commission's ambassador to Washington.S. The U.S.

Peace through superior firepower. Romania . The underlying issue. Washington has systematically converted NATO into what can only be called the military vehicle of an American global imperial rule. Mikhail Saakashvili in order to force the next US President to back the NATO military agenda of the Bush Doctrine. Now Washington is putting immense pressure on the EU members of NATO. This time Washington may have badly misjudged the possibilities. Poland and the Czech Republic joined NATO. Mehta. The question is whether George W. / 46 . Moskau: Atomarer geopolitischer Machtpoker .8. In 1999. Georgien. Bush and Dick Cheney are encouraging the unstable Georgian President. that they vote in December to admit Georgia and Ukraine . especially Germany and France . Bulgaria . Washington. former Warsaw Pact members Hungary . Rather than initiate discussions after the 1991 dissolution of the Warsaw Pact about a systematic dissolution of NATO. William Engdahl. making Moscow appear the lone aggressor. and a prolific author http://current.Washington risks nuclear war by miscalculation” Current. linked by a network of military bases from Kosovo to Poland to Turkey to Iraq and Afghanistan . Latvia .htm The dramatic military attack by the military of the Republic of Georgia on South Ossetia in the last days has brought the world one major step closer to the ultimate horror of the Cold War era—a thermonuclear war between Russia and the United States—by miscalculation. is the fact that since the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 one after another former member as well as former states of the USSR have been coaxed and in many cases bribed with false promises by Washington into joining the counter organization.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. What is playing out in the Caucasus is being reported in US media in an alarmingly misleading light.com/items/89192617_russia-georgia-war-washington-risks-nuclear-war-by-miscalculation. NATO. F.08. and Slovakia followed suit in March 2004. Lithuania . Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2] The impact is Russia-US thermonuclear war F. as I stressed in my July 11 piece in this space. 8. but this time with possible nuclear consequences. Astead. Estonia . as it did in Iraq . William Engdahl is a leading analyst of the New World Order. “Russia Georgia War .

beliefs that fighting terrorism means promoting policies that create “opportunities for people to improve their lives and the lives of their families. A successful strategy for improving national security must include free trade and investment.4. combat corruptive practices.S. Finally. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List Protectionism (causes terrorism) / (decks national security) / (kills global liberty) Markheim and Kim. protect labor rights. the USTR announced that it intends to resume free trade talks with the UAE in March.S.S. interests.S. countries that increased their barriers to trade managed only a 1. In short. In fact.cfm Protectionism of this sort is no way to boost national security. It allows people to lift their lives out of poverty. of which free trade is a major component. firms and consumers. U. and investments between member countries.heritage. along with the rights of U. Free Trade and Free Markets. Countries whose trade policies were unchanged experienced an average compound growth rate of 2. Countries that opened their trade policies between 1995 and 2004 saw their per-capita GDP grow at an average compound rate of 2.1 percent in per capita GDP. FTAs serve to promote U. Mehta. leads to faster economic growth and improved standards of living. The USTR negotiates agreements that include transparent dispute resolution and arbitration mechanisms to guarantee that the agreements are upheld. FTAs contain provisions that safeguard investors from discrimination and uncompensated expropriation of property. http://www. and services exports. insure nondiscriminatory government procurement.S. the Administration authorized the negotiation of a free trade agreement with the UAE in 2004 as part of President Bush’s plan to create a Middle East Free Trade Area (MEFTA) by 2013. America’s free trade agreements (FTAs) go beyond winning lower tariffs on U. is a pillar of national defense . protect investors.” Consistent with the 9/11 Commission’s recommendations. According to The Heritage Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom. services.S. and it reinforces the habits of liberty. Trade Representative (USTR) Rob Portman re-emphasized this point by warning that “canceling this port deal would be contrary” to U. These results support the 9/11 Commission’s recommendation that “a comprehensive U. and opportunities for people to improve the lives of their families and to enhance prospects for their children’s future. Daniella Markheim is Jay Van Andel Senior Analyst in Trade Policy. strategy to counter terrorism should include economic policies that encourage development. spurs economic and legal reforms.8 percent average compound growth rate.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.” Last week. interests. The Bush Administration’s 2002 National Security Strategy correctly identifies “free trade and free markets” as the keys to a secure America and necessary components of our national security strategy. countries with freer trade policies experience higher per-capita GDP growth than countries that maintain trade barriers. and strengthen environmental protection. This move is about far more than just trade. and the fight against corruption. more open societies. As pointed out in the U. FTAs open markets.06. bolstered by free trade. This move enjoyed broad bipartisan support at the time of the Administration’s initial consultations with Congress.” The opportunity to promote economic freedom in the UAE through free markets and free trade should not be sacrificed in the current debate on the port deal.S. protect and enforce intellectual property rights. Kim is Research Data Specialist. manufacturing. Protectionism would endanger U. and make it more difficult to use trade as a tool to spread American values and bolster U.org/research/tradeandeconomicfreedom/wm1006. Last month. A strong economy. Astead. 3. / 47 . in the Center for International Trade and Economics at The Heritage Foundation. Peace through superior firepower. Economic freedom. National Security Strategy: “Economic growth supported by free trade and free markets creates new jobs and higher incomes. and Anthony B.S. not weaken them. agriculture. and increase economic opportunity and prosperity. prosperity—the cornerstone of security—strain relationships with important allies in the war on terrorism. increase regulatory transparency and eliminate excessive red tape. Each element of an FTA strengthens the transparent and efficient flow of goods.S.5 percent. “Free Trade with the UAE Supports America's National Security Interests” The Heritage Foundation. it would do the opposite.

" says David Levy. Argentina. But when survival of key domestic industries is in doubt "it's natural to say we can't have all those cars coming into the U. in almost all cases. So newly elected President Herbert Hoover raised tariffs even more. "Clearly there's enough understanding that extreme trade wars can be destructive. The global economy is in a delicate state: "Rattle it and it can break. be either a useless or a hurtful regulation." leading to a panicked.must. Its latest survey covered the September 2008 to March 2009 period. The law passed despite the failure of the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. and pointed to more than 200 measures." country by country." several include trade-limiting government aid and subsidies." the WTO report states. and that's better than starting without that underlying belief.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff." Desperate times often bring damaging measures. But the public grows impatient as the pain of recession intensifies. a self-destructive virus that strangled trade and was only wiped out by a world war. and various buying and hiring restrictions. and American farmers continued to suffer. the World Trade Organization regularly tracks "trade and trade-related measures. The G-20's defense of free trade is laudable. in many cases. But protectionist acts will only further stifle world trade. enacted in 1922 to protect the American farmer. making the downward spiral uncontrollable and unstoppable." which was solidified by Smoot-Hawley in 1930.S. The world has experienced the misfortune of protectionism before. But Brown still stands behind his "British jobs for British workers" cry.000 imported products considered sensitive. Rosta is the Editor-in-Chief of Industrial Equipment News. the "800-pound gorilla because the importer has more clout in this situation." Levy calls the U. Indeed. the WTO says. Although most stimulus bills "clearly favor the restoration of trade growth globally. most WTO members appeared to have successfully kept these pressures under control. the measures could limit imports.com/usb_article. some appear to be skirting its spirit. Chapter 2 of "The Wealth of Nations". This protectionist stance may win them votes. June 09. "At the start of this year. with higher tariffs. The nature of the debate changes. "this will worsen the contraction of world trade and undermine confidence in an early and sustained recovery in global economic activity." Levy observes. thus lengthening and deepening the recession." But it is clear that. Now the barricades are going up. Congress successfully inserted "buy-America" provisions into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. and is considered one of the basic non-tariff trade barriers. The 300 tariff hikes signed by President Bush complied with WTO rules." he warns. Adam Smith makes clear his distaste for what the modern world calls protectionism: "To give the monopoly of the home-market to the produce of domestic industry. or its intent." according to most recent report from the director-general to the organization's Trade Policy Review Body. for example. and anti-dumping actions on the rise." the WTO says. downward spiral. and UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown promised "British jobs for British workers. and the "buy-America" provisions in the stimulus bill were altered to the same effect. is protectionist in nature.S. a pure play for votes. And as anti-trade measures pile up. In Book IV. chairman and director of the Levy Forecasting Center. In no time other industries sought and were granted similar "protection. http://www." Protectionism could "push a particular player to default. An escalating imposition of retaliatory measures ensued amid already weakened economies. The allure of protectionism is growing. But overproduction eroded prices.html?id=200905221SXXYW2W Former President George W. introduced reference prices for "around 1." While G-20 nations and most other free-trading countries strive to meet the letter of international trade law. but it will harm their economies..americanbanker. Fordney-McCumber greatly limited European agricultural imports. / 48 . and Sarkozy has not withdrawn his repatriation remarks. High tariffs didn't create the Great Depression. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism devastates the global economy –making material recovery impossible Joseph Rosta. but they made it greater. depending on their situation — too ignore the temptation. Peace through superior firepower. "It's difficult for politicians who want to stay in office — or alive. Statesponsored reference pricing allows domestic companies to sell their goods at just below market prices.. French President Nicolas Sarkozy threatened to repatriate auto manufacturing from Eastern Europe. often with multiple effects. “Protectionism Is not Self-Defense” US Banker. Some of the actions are no doubt acceptable under WTO rules — and the organization says its listing "implies no judgment by the WTO Secretariat on whether or not such measure. Astead. Mehta. Smoot-Hawley was a craven concession to the perceived public will. other restrictions. Bush increased 300 tariffs in the final days of his administration.

He also said. all the nations would have been better off. least of all the poor. Switzerland. (2) In 1930 when the world economy was sinking as it is today. Thus. Princeton Universities Economics Professor. global trade is expected to shrink by more than 2. Though more than 50 nations are covered by treaties with the United States. India is proposing to increase tariffs on foreign steel at the request of its steel industry. "No one person's benefit can compare with the loss felt by the displaced worker. 2/12 (Mainul. it's time to say that history really repeats itself. if all the countries worked together and coordinated with each other. On January 30th. / 49 . we will see that three of the Uncle Sam's attempt led the World to the Great Depression: (1) Tighter monetary policy during the depression which allowed to fall money supply at least one third. have issued protests about the proposed legislation. The Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke is also a student and researcher of the great depression. "Protectionism does not create jobs. Thus. contains a provision. while accusing China of dumping them below cost. Economic Proffessor Texas Tech U.thefinancialexpress-bd. But the total benefits do exceed the costs. "Buy American". retaliation could cost America more jobs than the proposed provision would create. requires that all "manufactured goods" bought by taxpayers for the stimulus be produced domestically. Mehta.S. United State's trading partners also retaliated. for instance. the WTO is as powerless as the United Nations (UN). and selling them our commodities on which we have comparative advantage over country A. in one his article on the Wall Street Journal says." http://www. the US Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. foreign steel in federal projects would only be allowed if domestic products were either unavailable or drove up the cost of the projects by 25 per cent or more. and thus may be entitled to exceptions to the restrictions. he already flooded the market with liquidity. for instance by resuming subsidies to dairy farmers' exports and effectively barring Chinese screws and bolts from their market. when the US met at an emergency meeting in Washington with the world's 20 largest economies. But." He also added that the solution for the displaced worker is job retraining and adjustment assistance. yes. As a step towards retaliation. We know that world trade allows both parties to be better-off by importing inexpensive commodities from country A. Unfortunately. Policymakers neglected the fact that "Buy American" provision invites retaliation by other nations too. and it also risks turning a global recession into a 1930s-style great depression. chicken and beef. Astead. "Protectionism protects nobody. it destroys it. However. But what are the US politicians doing? The House of Representatives' version of the economic stimulus bill." He is right. which essentially shut off imports into the US Consequently. and kept interest rate near zero. Protectionism will simply destroy jobs. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism collapses the economy – history flows aff Ahsan.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.2 per cent in 2008.html) AHerndon Not only the Bangladeshis. 2009. according to the WTO. and poor people in this world will experience most of the pain. Financial Times Express. Peace through superior firepower. not create them. British Prime Minister and Labour Party head Gordon Brown said that protectionism will lead to "longer and deeper" recession . but also the Americans do not learn from the history! If we go back to 1930s. the US is planning retaliatory tariffs on Italian water and French cheese to punish the EU for restricting imports of U. Protectionism in the name of "Buy American" will surely destabilize trade and capital flows. So. the truth is US government's intervention in 1930s in fact prolonged depression .1 per cent this year after growing by 6. The EU nations have reversed direction and tightened their own trade rules. and the European Union (EU). The EU has already declared that it will not stand by idly if the US violates its trade agreements and its obligations to the World Trade Organization (WTO). all countries agreed on "the critical importance of rejecting protectionism and not turning inward in times of financial uncertainty." Surely most of the parties forgot their promise just like before . and (3) President Herbert Hoover made the situation even worse by signing a "Buy America Act" requiring all federal government projects to use only American manufactured materials. as the world-wide recession leading to depression deepens. "Buy American" bill contains stronger anti-free-trade provisions. In October 2008. But. Now. And competitive markets have spurred the innovation revolution that has made the US the economic powerhouse that it is. Since the US is the biggest exporter in the world. and to improve the safety net available to displaced workers during the transition period.com/2009/02/12/58600. and world trade plummeted. Burton Malkiel. many of those countries. at the World Economic Summit in Davos. International trade analysts say the current rash of trade constraints could make it harder for global economic growth to recover from the current downturn. protectionist sentiments get a boost to "save" jobs.

more prosperity ensues. Add in the promised repeal of the Bush tax cuts and you have an additional 4. yet it should also be clear that people gain prosperity faster in areas with more economic freedom. Astead. There is certainly room for disagreement on how to achieve growth. Big mistake. Taken together. http://www. There are also proposed increases for dividends and capital gains. If you restrict economic freedom by increasing taxes or laying on more bureaucratic red tape. but let’s not lose sight of the goal — a strong. Mehta. manufacturing output has never been higher.S. Effective top rates approach 50 percent. Co-founder large financial advisory firm that was founded in 1987.2 percent. FDR hiked the top rate to 90 percent. Colombia’s goods can now come here largely without restriction.fundmasteryblog. Roosevelt’s Treasury crafted taxes to punish business. though employment in manufacturing is dropping due to improvements in productivity. all by itself. The Colombia free trade pact is a perfect example. Our economy is resilient. these will make the U. Author of three books on mutual fund investing. yet Congress is holding it up due to opposition primarily from U.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. taking the top marginal rate to 63 percent from 25 percent. The Washington Post continues with a second point on how we could squelch the recovery: Increasing taxes in a downturn.S. Peace through superior firepower. you inevitably reduce prosperity. prosperous economy. Perhaps worse. that ultimately sucked cash from a capital-starved economy. But. exporters improved access to Colombian markets. The proposals start with lifting the cap on Social Security payroll taxes — an effective increase in the top marginal tax rate of 6. Today.com/author/admin/) AHerndon Free trade has been one of the chief engines of global prosperity. There is plenty of disguised protectionism going around today in the form of misleading claims about America’s manufacturing output. economy sluggish and more like that of Europe… (…) If you improve and enhance economic freedom. Hoover more than doubled income tax rates. In fact.6 percent increase. it should be clear that we want to encourage — rather than squelch — economic growth. including an undistributed profits tax and an excess profits tax. There is also plenty of obstructionism about trade agreements as well. It would be a huge mistake to adopt protectionism as the Smoot-Hawley legislation did prior to the Great Depression. labor unions. Democrats are planning tax increases that make Bill Clinton’s hike look mild.S. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism restrict economic growth and causes economic decline Brouwer. No matter what happens with this presidential election. 8 (Kurt.4 percent. there is a bill that would give U. That seems unambiguously good for us. or for some 12. / 50 .

That action is being taken in retaliation against Washington for canceling a program that allowed Mexican truck drivers the right to transport goods across the United States.S. The fear. Mehta. Ecuador. Canada." said Sean Spicer. Zoellick. Astead. products. which many experts say is greatly overcapacity. and they tend to build upon each other and provoke more responses. or taxes on imports -. China. Britain.represent only about a third of all measures taken. which made a bad situation much. "Leaders must not heed the siren-song of protectionist fixes. with supply chains for a single car made in China or a plane made in the United States now often relying on components manufactured in many other nations. whether for trade.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. he added "economic isolationism can lead to a negative spiral of events such as those we saw in the 1930s. "There are consequences for this kind of action. a host of nations has imposed a total of 47 measures that restrict trade at the expense of other countries. Some measures. Trade Representative during the Bush administration. / 51 . is that actions like these could touch off countermeasures that could lead to broader trade wars. the World Bank said. since last November. The report noted that current trade laws. That could prevent the natural readjustment of the industry." said World Bank Group President Robert B. The report comes ahead of an April 2 summit in London in which the heads of state from those 20 industrialized and developing economies will seek to shape a coordinated response to the economic crisis. with aid pouring out from governments including the United States.raising tariffs. make it tougher for nations to take the more sweeping measures that triggered the trade wars of the 1930s. That has led to a new measure of caution when putting up trade barriers." The Bank said that. may distort global production for products like cars and trucks . Protectionist measures may also sharply worsen the collapse of global trade.furthers economic disaster TWP. Argentina and Brazil. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars Protectionism sparks global trade wars.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/03/17/AR2009031703218. now total some $48 billion globally. stimulus packages or bailouts. http://www. Is that really the kind of path we want to go down?" Peace through superior firepower. critics contend. the report concludes.washingtonpost. however. has raised tariffs on more than 600 items.S. much worse. Their inability to keep their November promises is another indication of how difficult it will be to implement any agreement reached next month on a global scale. The report underscores a "worrying" trend toward protectionism as countries rush to shield their ailing domestic industries during the global economic crisis. a official at the Office of the U. "I think the one thing that people forget is that at the end of the day. "Trade Barriers threaten Global Economy. The era of globalization has made countries more interdependent than ever before. Germany. Additionally. global treaties have made it more difficult to enact draconian barriers. France. Noting that protectionism is widely viewed as having deepened and prolonged the Great Depression. 3/18 (The Washington Post. It comes one day after Mexico vowed to slap new restrictions on 90 U. illustrating the tit-for-tat responses that experts fear could grow in coming months. for instance. But most are taking more creative steps that fall into the gray area of what is considered legal under international trade law. The most obvious trade restrictions -. which the World Bank said is facing its steepest decline in 80 years as global demand dries up. according to a World Bank report unveiled yesterday.html) AHerndon At least 17 of the 20 major nations that vowed at a November summit to avoid protectionist steps that could spark a global trade war have violated that promise. our failure to comply with NAFTA is going to result in the loss of more jobs here in America. Some countries are taking a direct approach. with countries from Russia to the United States to China enacting measures aimed at limiting the flow of imported goods. National bailouts and subsidies proposed worldwide for the auto industry. allowing automakers to continue to produce more cars than consumers need.

currently about 8% . open-access education system. http://ziny96. which identified Finland as the world's most competitive economy. whether it's from shop staff or people talking to overseas visitors. rather than having primary and secondary schools. Astead. We always need new skills for the labour force . as a matter of economic survival. In a relatively short of space of time.Education is the new age way of sustainable economic growth Egloo. BBC News Reporter. she says the country's educational success can be attributed to the "unified" school system. there are no university fees and students can stay in the upper secondary stage (loosely equivalent to sixth forms) for up to four years.and an aim of the education policy is to improve adult education. a minister in a centre-left coalition government.com/4766681) How can a small. (…) The emphasis on investing in education has created a system where as much as possible is delivered to students without charge. high-skill economy? It can't compete with the low-cost economies of Asia. we believe we have to invest in education. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ Finland proves. says that this economic imperative is best served by having a broad-based.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. affluent country such as Finland maintain a high-wage. in research and in higher education. so that they can manage in the changing labour market. such as ICT [information and communication technology]. "Education can pioneer new areas for jobs. 8 (Michael. Ms Haatainen. "We have lots of people who do not have any education beyond basic education and they have been in the labour force for a long time. "In Finland. citing its "culture of innovation". speaking at Finland's education ministry in Helskini. "And we have a special programme for these people to give them chances to come back to vocational training." she says. Re-posted on his blog.so it means that we have to keep investing. And in particular.egloos. Re-skilling workers Compared to the UK. Finland has transformed itself from an agricultural country to a high-tech economy. And the fast-forward button has been education. Peace through superior firepower. invest heavily in education and training. School meals are free to all pupils. which sees children staying at the same school between the ages of seven and 16." This policy received an endorsement last month from an annual report from the World Economic Forum. "We don't divide at an early stage between students who do well and those that don't manage so well in schools. associated more with mobile phone company Nokia than with timber-felling. so it must." Language learning is also a key to this effort to compete . / 52 .and the success is apparent in the hugely impressive standards of English to be heard throughout Helsinki. Mehta. Finland has a higher unemployment rate .

to war.com/x-3108-Baltimore-Republican-Examiner~y2009m2d26-Will-this-recession-lead-toWorld-War-III) Could the current economic crisis affecting this country and the world lead to another world war? The answer may be found by looking back in history. Astead.examiner. that’s Paulus. fascist movements arose to seek economic and social control. This forced other up-and-coming nations (such as Germany) to be more competitive in world trade which led to rivalries and ultimately.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. / 53 . Asia. will competition for resources and economic rivalries with the Middle East. However sometimes history repeats itself. http://www. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – 2AC War Add-on STEM education key to the economy – builds a robust workforce that increases GDP and offsets recessions. In the 19th century France and Great Britain became wealthy through colonialism and the control of foreign resources. or South American cause another world war? Add in nuclear weapons and Islamic fundamentalism and things look even worse. Peace through superior firepower. After the Great Depression ruined the economies of Europe in the 1930s. From there fanatics like Hitler and Mussolini took over Germany and Italy and led them both into World War II. One of the causes of World War I was the economic rivalry that existed between the nations of Europe. Hopefully the economy gets better before it gets worse and the terrifying possibility of World War III is averted. 9 (“Will this recession lead to World War II.” 2/26. With most of North America and Western Europe currently experiencing a recession. Economic decline causes nuclear war The Baltimore Examiner.

will be impacted by AYP. career academies. 2005). “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education. According to the Center on Education Policy (2006).pdf) Career and technical education (CTE) has weathered many storms in the recent past. which in turn may cause those students to have a less rich curriculum (Mantel. CTE will be increasingly squeezed off the plate in terms of student enrollment in courses unless CTE champions and leaders can clearly show that these programs • are contributing to the academic success of students as measured by the state academic tests • serve as a motivation for students to stay in school and help students perform better in their academic courses. Mehta. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education.. Neill. 2006. anecdotal evidence indicates that curricula may be getting “left behind” in relation to other areas. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. Jason.lib. some states already have increased the academic requirements for graduation. 2006). findings indicate that the increased pressure on assessment mandated by NCLB seems to have a negative impact on the quality of instruction and results in narrowing of the curricula (Abrams et al. **note: AYP = Adequate Yearly Progress. “The Future of Career and Technical Education. Herman & Dietel. but it will face substantial new challenges as a result of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation.com/pdf/CTE%20white%20paper. http://www. It also reinforces the unfortunate belief that students must choose to take either career technical or academic education—students can take both and succeed in both during their high school careers. the last stage of NCLB’s sanctions. 2 – President of the International Center for Leadership in Education (Willard R. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE NCLB trades off with CTE – curriculum trade-off Fletcher. In addition. they must build upon the lessons learned and successes they have experienced with such initiatives as Tech Prep. 2002.edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher. school districts. Some have forecasted that this focus on academics will result in a reduction of secondary CTE programs. The goal that all students will be able to perform at proficient levels by 2014 means that states and locals will be intensely focusing on academic achievement. project coordinator at the Center on Education Policy. school-to-work. Astead. among others. Austin & Mahlman. 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. This likely influences CTE curricula. and school-to-career programs. once again. While NASDCTEc supports all students receiving sufficient academic coursework to make successful post-high school transitions. Weland. If CTE leaders are to meet these challenges.pdf) Another issue expressed by Diane Rentner.” http://scholar. 2003. Due to the increased emphasis on core academic programs. thereby reducing the time available for students to take career technical education courses. the testing requirements on schools created by No Child Left Behind Peace through superior firepower.vt. many students need more than additional academic coursework to improve their academic achievement.leadered. including CTE students. applied academics. In a review of the literature. and schools come to grips with the new NCLB requirement of 100 percent of students – in each of nine subgroups – achieving proficiency in their academic requirements. “Urban districts are increasingly experiencing the greatest effects…about 90% of the schools in restructuring.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. NCLB decreases enrollment in CTE courses Daggett. CTE programs will. 2005. As states. 2005. ix).” July 2002) All students. are in urban districts” (p.” International Center for Leadership in Education. is that school districts with fewer funds are more likely to spend more time preparing students in math and reading. / 54 . AYP causes a trade-off Phelps. Circle. be at risk. High Schools That Work.

History tells us that states may go to war over access to resources. This will raise demand for feed grain at the same time that the growing world population will need vastly more basic food to eat. But of course there is no guarantee that we can achieve those results again. Much US agriculture has seen similar increases. 1970).6 tonnes of corn per hectare – typical for a farm in central Indiana. Instructional technology is a division of the body of knowledge known as "educational technology. Fundamental research will generate the innovations that will be necessary to feed the world. At stake is not only preventing starvation and saving the environment. 1988).” Journal of Career and Technical Education Volume 20. it’s been done before. Astead.org/OurPlanet/imgversn/143/lugar. and other media (Commission on Instructional Technology. 3 . The leading position of the United States in agriculture can be attributed in part to its infrastructure for developing and delivering new technologies. Number 1. but also world peace and security. Collapse of ag causes extinction Lugar. data lines. we will have to produce an annual average of 25 tonnes per hectare.lib.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. that will mean a major shift in the way we conduct and fund agricultural science.unep. it is easy to lose sight of the long-range challenges. Agricultural education in secondary schools is part of the infrastructure of this remarkable system." Educational technology is the "overall methodology and set of techniques employed in the application of instructional principles" (Cleary. 1998). Inevitably. Indiana. improved machinery and better tilling techniques combined to generate a threefold increase in yields since 1935 – on our farm back then. “USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA. People in rapidly developing nations will have the means greatly to improve their standard of living and caloric intake. 1). turmoil in the Middle East. With the world population expected to grow from 6 billion people today to 9 billion by mid-century.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v20n1/alston. The day is near when every child will be able to stretch a hand over a keyboard and reach every book ever written. every painting ever painted. http://scholar. My farm in Marion County. Fall 2003. It includes television. That’s a tall order. Working to feed the world will minimize factors that contribute to global instability and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. for example. the demand for affordable food will increase well beyond current international production levels. Instructional technology is the media born of the communication revolution which can be used for instructional purposes. And our success at increasing food production may play a decisive humanitarian role in the survival of billions of people and the health of our planet. we in the United States will have to grow roughly three times more food on the land we have.assistant professor of agriscience education @ North Carolina A&T University (Antoine. For agricultural education to remain viable. yields on average 8. 4 – U. http://www.8 to 3 tonnes per hectare.html#FFA) United States agriculture is one of the most productive systems in the world. we must invest much more in scientific research and target that money toward projects that promise to have significant national and global impact. Can we possibly boost output that much? Well. Mehta. The United States can take a leading position in a productivity revolution.S. Given the urgency of expanding food production to meet world demand. For the United States.html) In a world confronted by global terrorism. 1976. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on Technical education key to ag industry – continuous innovation is key Alston. But we do so at our peril. Peace through superior firepower. my dad produced 2. The long-term environmental consequences could be disastrous for the entire globe.3 to 8. Advances in the use of fertilizer and water. To triple our production by 2050. people destroy timber resources and even rainforests as they try to create more arable land to feed themselves. One of the most daunting of them is meeting the world’s need for food and energy in this century. researchers have suggested that perhaps curriculum development initiatives and educational delivery approaches in local schools have not kept pace with the rate of technological change that the agricultural industry has experienced over the past decade (National FFA Organization. videotapes. As good land disappears. and that poverty and famine have often bred fanaticism and terrorism. Instructional technology can help keep educational programs aligned with new developments in agriculture. Productivity revolution To meet the expected demand for food over the next 50 years . 1999). / 55 . that means eating more meat. computers. new ways need to be generated to deliver instruction in the total secondary agricultural education program (National Research Council. burgeoning nuclear threats and other crises. Senator (Richard. With this technological change. p. Complicating a solution to this problem is a dynamic that must be better understood in the West: developing countries often use limited arable land to expand cities to house their growing populations. and every symphony ever composed (Clinton.vt.

Canada. It took more than 200 years for the U. nearly 1 million of whom are in engineering. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education. “Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a networked global economy. recordings. and those involving specific skill sets—such as systems analysis. database administration and computer science—will be some of the fastest-growing occupations through 2012. http://acte. Even more concerning.ed States has outpaced the number of outsourced jobs to emerging nations. Although Yahoo! has already indexed many billions of Web pages. Bureau of Labor Statistics has identified computer-based jobs as one of the hottest areas of growth. and the next phase of business differentiation relies on the network for the real-time information and services that will foster rewarding customer interactions. At least 1. A critical part of this mission is a stronger commitment from corporate leadership to work closely with schools at multiple levels. developers and problem solvers. The U. business-education partnerships.pdf) During the genesis of the Internet. students and high school guidance counselors. In a little more than two years. Library of Congress to build its collection of mil. 8 – Ph. is that many women and underrepresented minorities are not even considering science and engineering programs as a field of interest.lions of books. Astead. Those who question the future growth of this communication technology and its effectiveness need only to look at the amount of digital information being created today. And that’s only the virtual Web. for every job outsourced from the United States. both for development and deployment. According to the Council on Competitiveness. believed by parents. We are seeing now that everything physical will eventually be connected to everything else.S. especially in computer science. more pages are hidden behind corporate firewalls or in private databases. Mehta. connecting home and business networks and providing ubiquitous access. Wireless access will be everywhere—integrating personal communication and computing devices. IBM estimates that by 2010.com/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_Online_Media/files/files-techniques-2008/Facingthe-IT-Talent-Squeeze-in-a-Networked-Economy. The digital equivalent of that same information is now created every 15 minutes—and this is just the beginning. China and India produce 6. The global competition for skills and jobs is escalating. / 56 . U.4 million graduates a year.S. One is a myth.hodgsonconsult. Ever since the dotcom bust in the United States there’s been a steep drop-off in the number of students pursuing science and engineering degrees. hospitals. but also true for the schools. this “dark Web” is 500 times the size of the Internet as we know it. the Middle East and Asia foresee similar retirement rates. PDAs and set-top boxes. Workforce Development Manager @ Cisco Systems Inc. that computer science and engineering jobs are all being outsourced to China and India. helping to prepare students for the workforce. businesses and other institutions that will use technology around the world. that number will probably reach 14 billion. enough for 4 trillion novels. Adding to the talent squeeze is the retirement of approximately 70 million baby boomers that will leave the workforce over the next 15 years. This is true on a global scale for not only technology companies. and schoolto-career transition (Peter J. That is the equivalent of 9 quintillion typed characters.” Techniques. about 70. this will make the shortage of computer-skilled employees even more dramatic. Ac. educators and industry leaders must advance the nation’s competitiveness by keeping the innovation pipeline fortified with fresh ideas and talent.S.S. Education and Social Policy from Harvard. Europe. The number of newly declared computer science majors has actually declined by 32 percent over the last four years. The Squeeze Meeting the opportunities ahead will require a technically skilled workforce.000 of the 1 million U. nine U. Technological advancements depend on encouraging top students to be the next researchers. has authored numerous publications on workforce issues. who interact via instant messaging. with growth rates anywhere from 40 to 70 percent in the United States alone. Just about all the early inhabitants of the Internet were computers.D. This is absolutely not the case. the voluntary attrition in the Unit. computers were considered the sources of value and the network was viewed as a simple pipe between them. A decade after the introduction of the World Wide Web. the amount of digital information is expected to double every 11 hours. There are a couple of reasons for this problem. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2] Internet expansion falling off due to job vacancies Joyce. With only 40 million new workers coming in. photographs. college graduates each year earn engineering degrees. math and engineering. maps and manuscripts. This is nearly two times the number of letters you’d need to write down all the words ever spoken.cording to a government study. jobs are created. but the mix is now shifting to other devices such as cell phones. The world is becoming a much more networked place.S. the number of computing devices connected to the Internet had grown to 100 million.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. By some estimates. This is particularly evident with the growing Web traffic from young people. Today we are seeing an Internet-driven revolution. an entirely different level of instant and complex collaboration across the increasingly critical global human network. By 2010. worldwide Internet traffic will hit 9 exabytes per month. The technology industry is experiencing a squeeze for talent.5 million additional IT field professionals will be needed by the end of this year. Furthermore. Peace through superior firepower. cell phones and MySpace as they watch TV and YouTube on the Web.

mentoring networks or other initiatives.” Techniques. “Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a networked global economy. Education and Social Policy from Harvard. Create More Interest—We must continue to foster interest in technology careers among young people. It is important to get the word out by working with local employers and demonstrating to students and workers the connections between local educational pathways. Attract Untapped Groups—Women and minorities continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering fields. Academic and business leaders must reach out to our successors and serve as role models. http://acte.pdf) The Internet is on the verge of yet another expansion.com/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_Online_Media/files/files-techniques-2008/Facingthe-IT-Talent-Squeeze-in-a-Networked-Economy. whether it’s through classroom interaction. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education. business-education partnerships.hodgsonconsult. / 57 . and schoolto-career transition (Peter J. has authored numerous publications on workforce issues.D.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. Workforce Development Manager @ Cisco Systems Inc. It is critical to attract and encourage a diverse pool of workers. We must take advantage of the opportunity to build on our partnership successes to ensure that we are well positioned for the future. Peace through superior firepower. 8 – Ph. Astead. Here are the challenges that the United States must undertake to meet our collective education and workforce goals. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2] Low-income education key to job growth that solves internet expansion Joyce.

take place. Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.democracy activities of government institutions whether local or international. Furthermore.ejisdc. and nations. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) Internet technology is key to freedom of speech Shirazi. it is enshrined in many national constitutions throughout the world. information and even the freedom to exercise religious beliefs. “THE CONTRIBUTION OF ICT TO FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF A RCHIVAL DATA ON THE MIDDLE EAST. thoughts. it is impossible to protect other rights. Clift (2003) uses the phrase “representative e-government” to describe the e. as well as those on the global stage such as the United Nations. regions. egovernment.org/ojs2/index.democracy is the use of information and communications technologies and strategies by “democratic sectors” within the political processes of local communities. In addition. http://www. Ferdinand (2000) argues that as a means of communication. engaging in comparative case studies of the Internet across a variety of developing counties. That must be protected at all costs—the alternative is war and genocide D’Souza. Astead. It has been argued.int/hearings/speech/freedom_en.” http://www.htm] In the absence of freedom of expression which includes a free and independent media. This section addresses the impact of ICT development and. to the extent that the outcome will be a new wave of democratization world-wide. Enshrining the right to freedom of expression The right to freedom of expression is formally protected in the major international treaties including the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. the Internet has the potential to revolutionize political activity far more profoundly than the telephone or television ever did. Prof of anthropology @ Oxford. either through anonymity or access. for the promotion of ethnic conflict. Their efforts make this one of the most dynamic and important areas of e-democracy development. including many authoritarian regimes. Ryerson University. including the right to life. 96 [Frances D’Souza. the Internet and mobile cell phones on the promotion of freedom of expression in a region that is governed mostly by such regimes.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. as authoritarian regimes will find it increasingly difficult to survive and as established democracies transform. upheld. At one end of the spectrum there are supposedly minor infringements of this fundamental right which occur daily in Western democracies and would include abuse of national security laws to prevent the publication of information which might be embarrassing to a given government: at the other end of the scale are the regimes of terror which employ the most brutal moves to suppress opposition. amongst other human rights. must be considered to be a primary right. Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Kalathil et al. and/or rallying social action about things that concern citizens. Morrisett (2003) points out that ICTs can be used to enhance the democratic process in form of e-government in which citizens are able to effectively impact the decision-making process in a timely manner within and between institutionally. that in the absence of free speech and an independent media. states. specifically protected in the major international human rights treaties. although this does not always guarantee its protection. more specifically. the media and to fashion them into instruments of propaganda. freedom of expression is. and do. For this reason alone the right to freedom of expression. and will undoubtedly be discussed at this Hearing. Clift (2003) argues that e. Mehta.eu.php/ejisdc/article/download/499/255] ICTs provide new tools for efficient public participation in the democratic process in the form of e-democracy. war and genocide. 8 [Prof @ Institute for Research on Innovation and Technology Management @ Ted Rogers School of Management. expressing “democratic intent”. (2003) found that some studies have addressed the question of media and democracy. Government institutions are making significant investments in the use of ICTs in their work. such as individualism and freedom of speech. Brinkerhoff (2005) states that the Internet facilitates the expression of liberal values. Once governments are able to draw a cloak of secrecy over their actions and to remain unaccountable for their actions then massive human rights violations can. It is significant that one of the first indications of a government’s intention to depart from democratic principles is the ever increasing control of information by means of gagging the media. and preventing the freeflow of information from abroad.europarl. ideas. This has led to the prediction that it will completely revolutionize government and democracy. as it were. e-voting and the dissemination of opinions. politically or geographically distinct networked communities. it is relatively easy for governments to capture. 2. / 58 . even for those countries which are not signatories to the above international treaties through the concept of customary law which essentially requires that all states respect the human rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Peace through superior firepower. European Parliament Hearing on Free Speech.

Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One virtue of the widespread or customary respect which has been built up in the post World War II years. / 59 . Mehta. 3.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Is free Peace through superior firepower.

wealthy Western democracies. the poor are unable to influence the ruling elite in whose interests it may be to initiate conflict and wars in order to consolidate their own power and position. Of the total 63 countries in conflict. Examples of censorship To some the right to free speech may appear to be one of the fringe human rights. unlike the American First Amendment Rights which allow few. In this sense democracy empowers people. but it also denies people the information which they must have in order to monitor their governments actions and to ensure accountability. 4. or rather the lack of it. There seems to be no doubt that there is a clear association between poverty and war. Astead. Who censors what? Despite the rather strict rules which apply to restrictions on free speech that governments may wish to impose. is no bad thing! It requires a recognition of some of the fundamental principles of democracy to understand why censorship is so immensely dangerous. there are permitted restrictions encoded within the international treaties which in turn allow for a degree of interpretation of how free free speech should be. 5. let alone other aspect of society. however trivial. war was ongoing in 30 countries and severe civil conflict in a further 33 countries. are thus powerless and have no voice. and demonstrably necessary in a democratic society in order to protect the individual and/or the state. perhaps even more importantly. war and denial of free speech There are undoubted connections between access to information. Of the 126 developing countries listed in the 1993 Human Development Report. and thus not arbitrarily imposed: proportionate to the legitimate aims pursued. and war. Allowing a government to have the power to deny people information. They are normally Peace through superior firepower. religious intolerance and damage to the individual’s reputation or privacy. the poor are not able to have influence over their own lives. including the need to protect public morals and public order and perfectly understandable attempts to prevent racism. in the regional courts such as the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. checks on free speech or on the independence of the media. / 60 . Mehta. the public interst.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Censorship tends to have small beginnings and to grow rapidly. if any. sexism. And the distance between such silencing and the use of violence to suppress a growing political philosophy which a government finds inconvenient is even shorter. violence. perhaps. One can argue that democracy aims to increase participation in political and other decision-making at all levels. generally assumed to be something to do with banning obscene books or magazines. as indeed there are between poverty. The link between poverty. The mechanisms employed by governments to restrict the freeflow of information are almost endless and range from subtle economic pressures and devious methods of undermining political opponents and the independent media to the enactment of restrictive press laws and an insist-ence on licensing journalists and eventually to the illegal detention. read. In recent years several landmark cases have helped to define more closely what restrictions may be imposed by government and under what circumstances. many justifications are nevertheless sought by governments to suppress information which is inimical to their policies or their interests. 55 are towards the bottom scale of the human development index which is an indicator of poverty. 6. not only sets in place laws and procedures which can and will be used by those in authority against those with less authority. where free speech causes insult or injury to the rights and reputation of another. hear or discuss. the extent to which the media in the republics of former Yugoslavia were manipulated by government for purposes of propaganda. or where free speech would create a public disturbance. Thus. and remains the cornerstone of democracy. it has been 60ondition60 by the European Court that any restriction must comply with a three-part test which requires that any such restriction should first of all be prescribed by law. Because of this essential powerlessness. limiting free speech or media freedom where it impinges on the individual’s right to privacy. These justifications include arguments in defence of national and/or state security. It is reasonably safe to assume that the vast majority of people do not ever welcome war. The poor are denied access to information on decisions which deeply affect their lives. There have been dramatic and terrible examples of the role that censorship has played in international politics in the last few years: to name but a few. In particular. especially when compared to such violations as torture and extra-judicial killings. torture and disappearances of journalists and others associated with the expression of independent views. Given that these permitted restrictions are necessarily broad. The 60ondition of democracy is that people are able to make choices about a wide variety of issues which affect their lives. the violent role played by the government associated radio in Rwanda which incited citizens to kill each other in the name of ethnic purity and the continuing threat of murder issued by the Islamic Republic of Iran against a citizen of another country for having written a book which displeased them. including what they wish to see. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) speech absolute? While it is generally accepted that freedom of expression is. the limits of free speech are consistently tested in national law courts and. While this may seem a somewhat luxurious distinction preoccupying. the international treaties are concerned that there should be a balance between competing rights: for example. it is a comparatively short distance between government censorship of an offensive book to the silencing of political dissidents. where speech is construed as incitement to violence or hatred. It is also sometimes difficult to dissuade the general public that censorship. the right to freedom of expression and development.

succeeded because there weren’t the means to challenge it. more often than not by propaganda. Government sponsored propaganda in Rwanda. If the majority of people had a democratic voice they would undoubtedly object to war. avert war. are necessary aspects of democracy which can. Peace through superior firepower. / 61 . Astead. into fear. Mehta. This is because the government needs civilians to fight wars for them and also because the media is needed to re-inforce government policies and intentions at every turn. But voices are silenced. the freedom to express one’s views and to challenge government decisions and to insist upon political rather than violent solutions. One has therefore to conclude that it is impossible for a particular government to wage war in the absence of a compliant media willing to indulge in government propaganda. extreme nationalist sentiments and war by their governments. Thus.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and do. as in former Yugoslavia. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) coerced.

Astead. * Structural violence is normally invisible. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. This has freed up money for other pressing anti-poverty needs. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. If Presidentelect Obama can expand on this. which continues year after year. especially a psychological theory. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps 575. In the past two decades. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. the equivalent of an ongoing. / 62 . capital punishment. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. “Look to the Internet to fight poverty. unending. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. or genocide. lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. for they are inextricably related to each other. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. political parties. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three major respects attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic inequities on a worldwide basis. every fifteen years. they found that including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. This is. *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. and even government. (232 million). Internet innovation has transformed business. professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. on the average. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. rather than sporadically. The government's efforts should be focused on expanding access to Internet and other technologies for as many Americans as possible while continuing to develop our national broadband capacity. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. information technology has begun to transform anti-poverty efforts and bring to the poverty world some of the increases in productivity that have been common in the private sector. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence.S. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. wars. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. thermonuclear war. 1954-1973). it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. In an Obama administration. or human. In other words. 8 [Elaine Kamarck. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !) Internet expansion solves poverty Kamarck. whereas murders. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. soldiers in warfare.R. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously. or lethal is moot. When they 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. suicide.” Dec 1 http://www. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. suicides. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed.benton. and the U. in effect. in fact accelerating. entertainment. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. the chances for him to make good on a broad social justice agenda will increase in spite of the other challenges he faces. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. During the past decade. executions. and about their families and friends. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. Outweighs nuclear war Gilligan. Hearing about their lives. Mehta. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide).000) deaths).S. it can transform approaches to poverty at home and abroad. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives.org/node/19414] In the past decade. Any theory of violence. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. and Peace through superior firepower. dangerous. Kohler and Alcock the deaths we attribute to homicide. electronic database and Internet technologies have driven down the cost of government overhead while significantly elevating the productivity of the nation's anti-poverty programs. such as . 1939-1945). and so on. These are not acts of God. standpoint. Fraud has been reduced while the needs of the economically distressed are addressed in a more timely manner. compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. as cause to effect. 96 [James. throughout the world. even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U.

however.” Engler also noted .T. scientists and engineers that will intensify as the baby boom generation retires. creative and high-paying jobs means students have to go on after high school and get some postsecondary education. there are many opportunities to get into jobs in manufacturing where they will have the chance to be innovative and creative and entrepreneurial and do the kind of things they really like to do.” If there is any doubt about the need the manufacturing industry has for skilled workers. “Manufacturing Success. such as those in manufacturing.H. Wagner says.” campaign and Web site. managing director of NAM’s Center for Workforce Success. Mehta. Do It. we hope they will want to move up the career ladder. you don’t necessarily need to be as academically savvy as young people going on to a four-year college. Astead. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education (Susan.” Wagner believes that providing students with better information about career opportunities. Dreams of Success NAM is taking actions to address the need for skilled workers in the industry and has even launched the “Dream it. and we are supporting the development of industry-led certificates and two-year degrees. and then to understand that can come not just from being a rock star or a movie star or a basketball star. released the handbook. hoping to interest young people in careers in manufacturing. The Facts About Modern Manufacturing. The Manufacturing Institute.com/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_EMedia/files/files-techniques-2007/March07_Thm1. that the industry faces unprecedented challenges. “an aspirational campaign to help young people think about their hopes.” she says is. “We certainly think this is a very good idea. 7 – Contributing Editor of Techniques. So we are very supportive of helping young people think about their future and then providing them with a lot of options about how they would get there. NAM President John Engler noted.” she says.pdf) When NAM and its research and education arm. Then. will help them make better decisions.S. In fact. at some point. in October 2006. which still had 10 spots available in the winter classes. history and continues to support our economy.hodgsonconsult. so that people can graduate from high school and get a two-year degree or a certificate and then get into a good job in manufacturing. “Nothing could be more important than helping our young people understand the opportunities for careers as they think about who they are and what they want to be.” Peace through superior firepower. / 63 . “We are very supportive of two-year colleges to help them understand what the workplace competencies are for the 21st century workforce. this is simply not the case. an ad that appeared in the January 16 issue of Pennsylvania’s Butler Eagle newspaper provides compelling evidence of the situation.” According to Jerry Jasinowski. Do it. One of the things that I think is a long-held myth is that if you go into a technical career. Training Center. tuition-free manufacturing training program at Penn United Technology’s L. including “a serious shortage of skilled production workers. “Certainly two-year colleges and technical colleges are a great stepping stone into a technical career.I. A network of more than 100 manufacturers in southwestern Pennsylvania ran the ad offering job placement with their partner companies to individuals who complete the six-month.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. “Manufacturing output in America is at the highest level in U. Noting that the latest report from the National Center for Education and the Economy discusses providing all students with opportunities for technical education as well as academic education. president of The Manufacturing Institute. Stacey Wagner. says. http://acte. Of course. manufacturing offers “a broad range of high-paying. at which point they will have the opportunity to build upon those two-year degrees by going on to other institutions of higher learning.” “Dream It.” Techniques. and their dreams and their passions.” Wagner notes that part of finding those interesting. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2] Plan key to manufacturing Reese.G.000 for young people with the right skills and education. It helps people get both the technical education that they need to go on to technical jobs as well as an academic background. and might help change the fact that more than half of those who go straight into a four-year college after high school end up dropping out. interesting jobs with average annual compensation of nearly $65.

5) extended enterprise management and 6) having sustainable products and processes. which include: 1) customer-focused innovation." according to the study.thomasnet.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. this is a significant threat to U. The majority of respondents (71 percent) also view manufacturing as a national priority and 59 percent believe that U. marketing. 3) advanced talent management. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2] Key to the economy – outweighs all other internals Fontelera. The ASMC asked manufacturers where they stood within the "next-generation manufacturing" framework of competitiveness strategies. / 64 .000 small and mid-sized firms comprise the backbone of the industry. merely 14 percent are under-performing.S. Moreover.” Thomas Net News http://news. competitiveness and the viability of these companies.S.S." Likewise. transportation and business services. exports and drive more net-wealth creation than any other industry. Based on the study's findings. Mehta.com/IMT/archives/2009/06/new-studies-identify-critical-threats-to-competitivenessfor-us-manufacturers. However. 2) systemic continuous improvement.html?t=recent) Two new reports identify significant threats that could impede the ability of U. the American Small Manufacturers Coalition (ASMC) said in an announcement of its own new findings.S. the public viewpoint survey found that 81 percent of respondents believe the manufacturing industry significantly impacts their standard of living and 74 percent say that the U. released this month. including the public perception of pursuing a career in manufacturing. a serious gap exists between the strategies U. should further invest in manufacturing industries. One-third of respondents who had annual revenues less than $10 million are neither at nor near "world-class" in any strategy. manufacturers believe to be critical to success and their progress in implementing those strategies. This should come as little surprise to most. according to the research.000 firms — are at risk of not being able to compete on the global stage. "In a country where 282." ASMC Board Chair Michael Klonsinski said. 82 percent of respondents agree that America's manufacturing base is key to the country's economic prosperity. Manufacturers Face Critical Threats to Competitiveness. It is perceived as the backbone of the economy and the one that contributes the most to the United States' economic success. considering the manufacturing sector employs 13 million Americans and drives job growth in industries such as logistics. Of those with more than $100 million in revenue. "The consequences of inaction could trigger more job losses in manufacturing and ultimately a lower standard of living for all Americans. 4) global engagement. Astead. manufactured goods represent two-thirds of U. manufacturing competes effectively on a global scale. the ASMC has found that more than a quarter of American manufacturers — about 90. manufacturers to successfully compete in the global economy. Small and mid-sized manufacturers are especially at risk.S.S. In Deloitte LLP and The Manufacturing Institute's new Public Viewpoint on Manufacturing survey. Peace through superior firepower. 9 (Jorina June 30 “U. Americans believe manufacturing as the most important industry for economic prosperity.S. The results are "a wake-up call.

“But we don’t have much time because the technology is moving forward quickly. “The field is wide open. college students.” 2/28.com/news. “We still have a long road ahead in educating people. providing teaching tools and enhancing their enthusiasm for helping students pursue science and engineering careers.spaceflight more accessible than transoceanic travel today.S. teachers and the general public. Peace through superior firepower." The book that made a big impression on me.S. http://www.D. entrepreneurs and marketers. Training teachers and guidance counselors about experimental sciences. which Drexler cowrote. subsequently published under the title "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. where just about everything could be made cheaply. universities supported by the NSF. nanotechnology will directly employ more than two million workers worldwide.in fact.04/joy." Assemblers could make possible incredibly low-cost solar power. Astead. government is investing a billion dollars a year in the technology of the very small. chief scientist of Sun Microsystems (Bill.” Healy added. undergraduate students – and the general public. Nanotechnology is already here. and restoration of extinct species. teachers.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. nanotechnology is mostly seen as the province of Ph. in which he described beautifully how manipulation of matter at the atomic level could create a utopian future of abundance. / 65 . Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on Plan’s workforce expansion key to nanotech development NTW. the NNIN supports a broad base of educational programs focused on K-12 students. essentially complete cleanup of the environment. The National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates that by the year 2015. Goals of the effort include: Exposing young people to nanotechnology research to help encourage them toward careers in science and engineering. whose efforts are headquartered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. A subsequent book.wired. not just for technical people.” Today.” said Healy. and almost any imaginable disease or physical problem could be solved using nanotechnology and artificial intelligences. technical professionals. “There are many opportunities. though some of the most important aspects of it are still 10 or 15 years away. http://www. was Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation. The most important skill will be the ability to work with people in other disciplines – to be an interdisciplinary person. but also for specialists such as patent attorneys.” A consortium of 13 U.nanotechwire. 6 (Nanotech Wire. cures for cancer and the common cold by augmentation of the human immune system.asp?nid=2973) The U. Yet 80 percent of the people recently surveyed by the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies admitted to knowing little or nothing about it. Creating and distributing educational materials for children. it will need people at all education and skill levels to meet needs that range from cutting-edge research to maintenance of manufacturing equipment. Unbounding the Future: The Nanotechnology Revolution. But as the industry grows. Nano leads to utopia – solves all impacts Joy. “Programs Focus on Work Force for Nanotechnology. in the mid-'80s. pharmacists.com/wired/archive/8. Mehta.html) The many wonders of nanotechnology were first imagined by the Nobel-laureate physicist Richard Feynman in a speech he gave in 1959. incredibly inexpensive pocket supercomputers . 2K – Cofounder. and Focusing efforts on populations having disproportionately low employment and education in the sciences. “Why the future doesn’t need us” Wired Magazine. scientists and engineers. any product would be manufacturable by assemblers at a cost no greater than that of wood . imagines some of the changes that might take place in a world where we had molecular-level "assemblers.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2]
Science education key to science diplomacy Lord and Turekian, 7 (Kristin and Vaughan, respectively. Elliott School of International Affairs, The
George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.; Chief international officer, AAAS, Washington, DC 20005, USA. “Time for a New Era of Science Diplomacy.” http://www.scienceonline.org/cgi/content/full/315/5813/769#AFF1)///HM It is time to adopt science diplomacy for a new era. Old-fashioned diplomacy between governments, while necessary, is no longer sufficient. In this age of the Internet, rapid and relatively low-cost travel, and 24-hour global news, the power of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private companies, and social networks is rising. To protect and advance U.S. interests, the U.S. government needs to accelerate its engagement with these new actors and to build positive relationships with foreign publics, as well as their diplomats. Science and technology (S&T) offer a promising entry point for engaging citizens and civil society organizations worldwide. An opinion piece on the op-ed page of the Washington Times called on the U.S. government to recognize the opportunities afforded by widespread respect for American S&T (4). We concur. But without the engagement and commitment of the U.S. scientific community, the government cannot succeed. Why Diplomacy Through Science? Nearly 4 years ago, the United States entered a complex and difficult war with Iraq. Since then, global public opinion regarding the United States has reached all-time lows. Polls in 33 countries indicate that only 40% of those surveyed view America's influence in the world as mainly positive. In contrast, 45% view China positively and 58% hold favorable views of Europe. Dislike of America extends to long-time friends and allies. Only 30% of Canadians, 21% of Germans, and 15% of Turks hold favorable opinions of the United States (5). Readers may ask why this matters if the U.S. government is charged with protecting U.S. interests, not winning popularity contests overseas. The answer is that, increasingly, our interests depend on the support (or at least acquiescence) of foreign populations. Negative images of the United States translate directly into constraints on American influence and ability to implement policy. Engaging foreign citizens is the goal of public diplomacy. As the 9/11 Commission report (6) underscored, engaging foreign public opinion is vital to winning the global struggle of ideas. President Bush clearly agrees, having appointed one of his closest advisers, Karen Hughes, to the position of Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs in 2005. Despite this high-level attention, however, promoting America's image overseas continues to be a daunting task, particularly in predominantly Muslim countries. In our view, public diplomacy is most effective when exercised through deeds rather than words. The U.S. government should focus on doing things that positively affect foreign societies and speak to what we stand for as a nation. We should foster tangible initiatives that promote education, economic growth, human well-being, and hope. If we understand public diplomacy in these terms, the role of S&T is pivotal. Scientific education creates citizens with the critical thinking skills necessary for successful participatory governance and competition in the global economy. S&T are linked strongly with economic development (7). Zogby public opinion polls in several Middle Eastern nations, where the United States is particularly unpopular, indicate that S&T are the single most respected elements of American society (8). Social science research indicates that collaboration to solve common problems is one of the best ways to foster positive relations between groups (9). Under Secretary Hughes increasingly appreciates the unifying power of science (10). She held major events on breast cancer awareness in the Middle East and has launched a project on fighting malaria (11). She has created new International Science Fulbright awards and supported activities, led by Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs, Paula Dobriansky, to cultivate networks of women scientists and engineers (12). Yet, in an era where international skepticism about U.S. foreign policy abounds, government can only do so much. Ultimately civil society--including scientists and engineers--will need to join in this diplomacy of deeds in order for the new science diplomacy to succeed. The fact that science is, and should remain, outside the realm of politics only makes scientists better suited for this task. How can the U.S. science community contribute to science diplomacy and remind the world that Americans are defined by more than specific U.S. government policies? Individual scientists can contribute by realizing that they are valuable ambassadors of goodwill. They can intensify their global activities and promote greater engagement with counterparts worldwide. They can increase their efforts to invite foreign peers to review scientific articles and papers. Senior U.S. researchers can use their own international networks, including former students and postdocs working outside of the United States, to reach out to junior scientists in other countries, to collaborate with peers, and to promote broader international cooperation. U.S. scientists should make a special effort to engage with scientists from countries where the United States is misunderstood or disliked--not to justify or promote any government policy, but to build bridges and trust. They can engage more with university students and the general

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[Lord and Turekian Continue, no text omitted] public overseas, not just other scientists, and let them know how scientists from all nations make a collective difference in their lives. In so doing, U.S. scientists will make the world a better place, and perhaps improve foreigners' views of America along the way. Scientists can also encourage their universities, research institutions, professional societies, and laboratories to adopt global engagement as a priority. Although a large sum of individual efforts is important, effective global engagement will be most influential if it engages whole organizations as well. Many of the major U.S. scientific and engineering societies already have specific offices or initiatives dedicated to international collaborations. To give just one example, in January AAAS joined the U.S. Department of State, the Kuwaiti government, and a Kuwaiti science NGO to convene a conference in Kuwait City to promote networks of women scientists and engineers in the broader Middle East (see figure above). AAAS has also recently started a pilot program that remotely links U.S. researchers with university-level science students in developing and emerging countries in order to share and discuss seminal papers across a range of scientific disciplines (13). Yet, despite current efforts, scientific organizations can do more. Of course, all this assumes that scientists and engineers are willing to be ambassadors and to participate in the new science diplomacy. Why would they? The answer is threefold. First, while science holds great benefits for diplomacy, diplomacy also benefits science. For instance, in large-scale programs such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (14), scientists from major powers such as China, India, Russia, Korea, Japan, the European Union, and the United States will work together in an unprecedented international agreement to develop fusion energy. Moreover, diplomacy can create opportunities to conduct research in parts of the world critical to scientific advancement. Scientific research ranging from astronomical observation in Australia to archaeological research in Libya depends on broader access, as well as diplomatic support. Second, the health of the U.S. scientific community depends on the continued willingness of foreign scientists and students to come to the United States for study, research, and work. Visa difficulties, combined with a perception that the United States does not welcome foreigners, reduced the number of foreign students coming to the United States after 9/11. This trend is beginning to reverse, but negative perceptions persist and it is important to remain vigilant. The U.S. economy benefits greatly from foreign scientists and science (15).We must ensure that the United States remains attractive and welcoming. Third, scientists are citizens. Like their counterparts outside of the scientific community, many scientists and engineers share concerns about negative perceptions of the United States.

Science Diplomacy key to innovation and the economy Dobriansky, 6 - Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs
[Dr. Paula J., "The Art of Science Diplomacy" http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/67518.pdf] As President George W. Bush stated, “Science and technology have never been more essential to the defense of the nation and the health of our economy.” To remain at the forefront of scientific and technological achievement, America must cooperate globally. Historically, global leadership in science and technology is transitory, and leaders must expend considerable effort to maintain their position. As Secretary Rice stated, “Today, dynamic advancements in science and technology are transforming the world— making it possible for more and more people to compete equally across all fields of human endeavor. America must remain at the forefront of this new world.” Our economy benefits from collaborative efforts. Science and technology are major drivers of innovation in the United States and an important source of exports. Economists estimate that the increase in American productivity growth that began in the mid-1990s is entirely due to technology investments.

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Sustainability efforts skyrocket venture capital investment BCNS, 9 (Bay City News Service, “'Green industry' offers hope for Silicon Valley,” February 18th, 2009,
http://www.paloaltoonline.com/news/show_story.php?id=11268) An emerging "green industry" could offer huge economic gains for Silicon Valley, according to an economicoutlook analysis released Tuesday. The outlook showed the region suffering recessionary economic woes in 2008, but analysts cautiously report the emerging green industry could offer huge economic gains for the area. In a special analysis companion to the "Silicon Valley Index 2009," published each year by community groups Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network and Silicon Valley Community Foundation, financial analysts detailed trends in the valley's portfolio that are both worrisome and favorable. "The national trends have finally overtaken the Silicon Valley and brought us down," said Russell Hancock, president and CEO of Joint Venture. This year's report, he said, indicates the area has the economic equivalent of a head cold that could threaten to escalate into pneumonia if left untreated. Employment numbers began to fall into negative percentages in November 2008, lagging behind nationwide negative
employment trends until year's end, analysts reported. The metropolitan statistical area encompassing San Jose, Sunnyvale and Santa Clara posted a 1.3 percent drop from December 2007 to December 2008.Home foreclosure sales are higher than the statewide average and the demand for commercial real estate has dropped, the report said. However, the region is better poised than most to reinvent itself, Hancock

said. "We don't have a single industry that has been our mainstay for generations," he said. "It's an idea-driven, knowledge-intensive economy." Hancock said clean technology, especially solar technology, is thriving, and could be the key to invigorating the Silicon Valley economy. While venture capital investment fell 7.7 percent from 2007 to 2008, capital investments in clean tech are up 94 percent, according to the report. Data shows this sum accounts for 31 percent
of all national clean industry investment over the same time period. This sector has reportedly supported job growth at 23 percent since 2005, the report said. "This is the world's epicenter for solar technology right now," Hancock said. "Maybe we won't be the Silicon Valley anymore; maybe we're the green valley." In California, 15 percent of new hybrid vehicles, 10 percent of electric cars and 5 percent of new natural gas vehicles are registered in the Silicon Valley, according to the report. As the region's focus shifts toward cleaner forms of technology, the report highlights

the need for additional education and training to help employees make this transition. "People are self-starters, but wouldn't it be nice if there were industry partnerships with our educational institutions," he said. Hancock was quick to add that local colleges are "oversubscribed and underfunded," and lack the resources to make such partnerships a reality.

Strong VC solves the economy Portland Business Journal, 2 (“Venture industry gears up for major transition” lexis)
So where is the venture capital industry heading? More importantly, what effect will this have on the U.S. economy as a whole? To date, much of the carnage in the venture industry has been masked by an illusion of investment
activity. Many venture funds have spent the last two years performing triage on their existing portfolios. The bulk of new venture dollars invested by these firms has been used to prolong the survival of struggling portfolio companies. Many of these companies will fail, resulting in poor returns for the limited partners who supply the venture firms with the capital they need to survive. As a result, the number of active venture firms will decrease dramatically over the next five years. Particularly vulnerable are first-time venture funds that were caught up in the internet bubble and now have little value or track record to show for their invested dollars. While I've heard some colleagues predict a decline in the number of firms of 15 percent to 20 percent, I expect we'll see a much sharper decline on the order of 40 percent to 50 percent. Why such a sharp decline? The institutions that back venture firms continually expanded the number of funds they invested in throughout the 1990s. By attempting to spread the risk of their venture fund portfolios through diversification, institutions failed to realize the venture industry has a scarce pool of experienced and talented venture capitalists. The result was a dilution of the overall quality of the venture capitalists they backed, which subsequently led to significant losses. A majority of institutions realize their mistake and will likely revert to their old strategy of concentrating their investment dollars in the hands of a more limited set of venture capitalists. In particular, venture funds that have provided institutions with consistent returns over a long period of time will receive the highest allocations. We will see a continually maturing venture industry during the next decade, resulting in fewer but larger venture firms. While some niche venture funds focused on a particular industry sector will continue to exist and thrive, the majority of investment dollars raised by venture funds in the future will be concentrated among the top 20 to 30 firms. Like many industries, the 80/20 rule applies to the venture industry as well. In aggregate, the venture capital industry will grow and become a more established asset class in the coming years. The influence and importance of venture capital as a vital engine for growth

has no equal in our economy or our country. According to an economic impact study released last year by the National Venture Capital Association, the $273.3 billion of venture capital invested during the 30 year period from 1970 to 2000 created 7.6 million U.S. jobs and more than $1.3 trillion in revenue as of the end of 2000. The study also shows that although venture capital represented less than 1 percent of U.S. investment activity during the 1970 to 2000 period, companies created with venture capital were responsible for 5.9 percent of the nation's jobs and 13.1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product in 2000.

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And. the first estimate for Q2:2004 U. The 2003 spike associated with the invasion of Iraq is a good example.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. http://pages. Thus.nyu.3% average rate could be expected to see a slowdown of its growth to a level between 4. the reduction in the G7 growth rate may be closer to 1% of GDP. persistence of oil prices at recent high levels of $43-44 per barrel (or even higher prices) could further slow down the U.0%. indeed. Mehta.4% within a year. GDP growth was 3.stern. Oxford (Brad.pdf) These effects are not trivial: oil shocks have caused and/or contributed to each one of the US and global recessions of the last thirty years. confirming that high oil prices in the first half of 2004 put a dent on real consumer demand. private estimates of the negative effects of an oil shock currently range between 0.0% and 3. Astead. economy below a 3% growth rate. Peace through superior firepower. Private sector estimates generally suggest that a persistent 10% increase in the price of oil – say an increase from $30 to an average of $35 over the course of 2004 -.3%. and calculate that if oil prices were to increase further to levels closer to $45.edu/~nroubini/papers/OilShockRoubiniSetser. Shocks collapse the global economy and magnify their impact Setser.S. This means that the US economy. Yet while recent recessions have all been linked to an increase in the price of oil. Global growth would also deaccelerate from its current very strong pace. not all oil price spikes lead to a recession. Some (Goldman Sachs) are more pessimistic. which was growing in Q4:2003 and Q1:2004 at about a 4. Looking ahead. 4 – Research Associate @ the Global Economic Programme University College. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on Plan solves oil shocks by offsetting oil with renewables – that’s Barrett.3%0.S.would reduce the US and the G7 growth rate by about 0. / 69 .3% to 1% of US and G7 GDP growth.

90 percent of respondents indicated a moderate to severe shortage of qualified. but in the industries of the future: industries like wind turbine manufacturing. http://www. and green building. Peace through superior firepower. Some are a bridge to high-skill professional jobs or entrepreneurial opportunities.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. operation and maintenance. 8 (“Green-Collar Jobs in America's Cities. in the power sector. construction.americanprogress. and are growing. Green jobs exist. green jobs are the kind of family-supporting jobs that once anchored the American middle class. In a 2005 survey by the National Association of Manufacturers. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: Ext. and installation. America’s growing green economy faces a looming labor shortage in sectors like manufacturing.” March 13th. Most are “middle-skill” jobs. Clearly if America is to rise to the global energy challenge. Astead. Mehta. skilled production employees like machinists and technicians.Job Shortages Labor shortages kill green job growth Center for American Progress. Similarly. construction and installation. and capture the economic opportunity it represents.html) Unfortunately. the National Renewable Energy Lab has identified a shortage of skills and training as a leading barrier to renewable energy and energy efficiency growth.org/issues/2008/03/green_collar_jobs. / 70 . requiring more education than a high school diploma. others are perfect entry level or transitional jobs for urban residents looking for a pathway out of poverty. This labor shortage is only likely to get more severe as baby-boomers skilled in current energy technologies retire. solar panel installation. energy efficiency retrofits. In short. in a range of industries and at every skill and wage level. we need to prepare the next generation of Americans for the important work that lies ahead. Many are in the skilled trades: manufacturing. nearly onequarter of the current workforce will be eligible for retirement in the next five to seven years. for example. 2008. but less than a four-year degree.

As central topics in the science communities and related to the health and stability of societies today. the actions are segregated (and therefore marginalized) in Environment Health and Safety (EH&S) offices or in debates about ethics and social responsibility. but education has not kept up. This knowledge cannot remain marginal to the education of citizens. productive soil.g. In management education. these issues are migrating to the core of corporate strategy. Chairperson. yet we still design feedstocks and final products. While having always influenced the physical environment.Chemical Industry Impact Chemical industry solves extinction – job training key Trainham et al. Trainham III. with accompanying exponentially expanded throughput of industrial materials. Mehta. 69) This reality needs to be communicated through education and training. Astead. pg. / 71 . growth demands and technological advances place ever growing requirements for natural and synthetic materials. including throughout supply chains to final product users. need the systems orientation of green chemistry and sustainability science. healthy air. Moreover. Not only does the knowledge base of scientists need augmenting but those working in industry. has led to unavoidable pollution and health challenges. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs . The scale and accelerating rate of change results in activity and waste streams that disrupt and degrade natural systems worldwide (e. it is still relatively segregated and marginalized in the study of ecology and other environmental sciences. COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY under the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. air. Peace through superior firepower. Anthropogenic impact fundamentally alters the chemistry. ecology.A Workshop Report. Yet these same systems provide critical services on which society and the economy depend—clean water. hydrologic. and biology of living and nonliving systems. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: Ext. and maintain industries that produce them as though we were ignorant of these changes. and safe food. and biogeochemical cycles). Today. clean energy. 5 (James A. Historically unprecedented population growth. the reach of humans has been extended dramatically in the last 100 years through technology and globalization.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.

As a result too few American students are qualified to take these slots. from health care to banking to retail business. government to harness science in the service of national security and to attract qualified scientific and technical personnel. only a well-trained and educated population can thrive economically. private proprietary expenditure on technology development far outdistances public spending. The harsh fact is that the U. Mehta. do find these professions attractive and. and business have served the nation well over the past five decades. but the world is changing. pose critical national security challenges for the United States. while salaries are often more lucrative in areas requiring less demanding training. America’s international reputation.” http://govinfo. technology.edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR. Other countries are striving hard.pdf) The scale and nature of the ongoing revolution in science and technology. however. and engineering is not being met. and education for the common good over the next quarter century. This is an ironic predicament. need for the highest quality human capital in science. as well as the defense industrial base. Current institutional arrangements among government. / 72 . and higher education. It is an issue of fundamental importance to national security. technology. math.library. In a knowledge-based future. thanks to science. In such a future. we can think of nothing more dangerous than a failure to manage properly science.S. they increasingly fill American university graduate studies seats and job slots in these areas.S. Second only to a weapon of mass destruction detonating in an American city.S. America remains today the model of creativity and experimentation. This is not a matter merely of national pride or international image. and therefore a significant aspect of its global influence. depends on its reputation for excellence in these areas. and technical preparation superior to that of many Americans. nationals. even were they so inclined. Non-U. and what this implies for the quality of human capital in the 21st century. only an America that remains at the cutting edge of science and technology will sustain its current world leadership.unt.S. and with discipline they will outstrip us. The internationalization of both scientific research and its commercial development is having a significant effect on the capacity of the U.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. Another reason for the growing deficit in high-quality human capital is that the American kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) education system is not performing as well as it should. and from national prosperity provide the foundation for national cohesion. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB Education key to defense industrial base and national security The United States Commission on National Security. One reason for this is clear: American students know that professional careers in basic science and mathematics require considerable preparation and effort. These changes are transforming most facets of the American economy. mathematics. performance is not keeping up with its reputation. Complacency with our current achievement of national wealth and international power will put all of this at risk. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. and its success has inspired other nations to recognize the true sources of power and wealth in science. since America’s strength has always been tied to the spirit and entrepreneurial energies of its people. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. Peace through superior firepower. Today. U. higher education.

when NCLB will require science testing at least once in each of three grade spans (third-fifth. Now we're holding out hope for elements of subsequent proposals. whose formal title is the Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology. The trend is even worse when researchers look at average test scores. Science literacy is. George Miller. Sen. whereas most other industrialized countries do have nationwide educational standards. So.S.isbe. Hispanic. or SPEAK. Earlier. the achievement gap actually has widened. all children deserve our very best efforts to teach them science and mathematics. CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and executive publisher of the Journal Science. either. and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. the National Research Council. widely accepted guidelines set forth by Project 2061 at AAAS. Vernon Ehlers. With the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act up for renewal. the performance gap between math and reading test scores for white versus minority youngsters has narrowed since 2002. California Democrat. The importance of nationwide standards may become painfully clear during the upcoming school year. Whether they're rich. American children deemed proficient in science and math in one state might miss the mark if their families move. Michigan Republican. Standards Key to DIB Need National Standards – key to national security Leshner. uniform set of national science standards. Though sometimes criticized for its emphasis on students' math and reading scores. President Bush just signed the America Competes Act. Louisiana Democrat. 7 (Alan I.net/news/2007/newsclips/070817. Astead. nationwide standards in science and math. calling for voluntary. an essential next step is clear: Scrap the crazy-quilt pattern of wildly differing tests and proficiency thresholds that currently vary from state to state. the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Rep. which sadly remains pending. but in fact a baseline requirement for any student hoping to compete for jobs in the 21st century. Even where the gap is shrinking. which again points to the need for a coherent. and Science Act. Connecticut independent. particularly as American students overall continue to score worse than students in other industrialized nations. http://www. Mary Landrieu. male. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. economic and security challenges: When the president signed the America COMPETES Act. female or in any other category. fairness and flexibility in measuring progress. Chris Dodd. white. he authorized an additional $33. black. Let's seize the positive momentum and move now toward voluntary nationwide science standards as well. standards and learning goals vary from place to place. Minnesota Republican — pitched their All Students Can Achieve Act to help close the performance gap between white and minority students. rather than the percentage of students meeting different state proficiency levels. sixth-ninth and 10th12th). Sens. engineering. proposes changes to increase funding. There's no need to cook such standards up from scratch. overwhelmingly approved by a bipartisan Congress pursuing a first-rate science and mathematics education for all children at a time when American youngsters lag behind many of their peers abroad. Joe Lieberman. and Rep. 8/15/07. In Washington state. and Norm Coleman. It's no wonder. technology. Nationwide.6 billion over the next three fiscal years for science. poor. Mehta.htm)///HM Washington Times. but the problem persists in some regions. keeping America competitive will require tapping every potential talent pool and bringing them to the highest possible levels of achievement. Earlier this year. The core concepts of both bills are on the mark. Education. Moreover.. Revise NCLB to set voluntary nationwide education standards. to be developed by the National Assessment Governing Board with public input. Connecticut Democrat.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Policy-makers clearly see scientific discovery and science education as keys to the nation's health. the Center on Education Policy reported. it often remains unacceptably wide — up to 40 percentage points in some states. They could be based on well-tested. A recent study confirmed better student test scores in most though not all regions since enactment in 2002. no longer merely a luxury for the gifted and wealthy. The American Association for the Advancement of Science applauded the bill. Peace through superior firepower. after all. These disparities are dramatic and discouraging. especially for consistent science standards. the NCLB approach is working. U. At least two NCLB revision bids are in play. floated the Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for Kids Act. / 73 . But one critical piece is missing. and math education programs.

Astead. From the Indian perspective. In Tibet. better designed to service Chinese warships than the non-existent Myanmarese fleet. It also incorporates components from several other countries including Britain. however. Rather than interfere with these discussions. 19.S.” President-elect Obama needs to understand the value of what President Bush has left him.” From the U. While the United States and India have a common enemy in radical Islam. is a vital source for technology to speed its economic development. in concert with NATO and India. Beijing has built all-weather military roads linking army bases. whose terrorists were waging a campaign in the Indian province of Kashmir long before 9/11. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari understands that the threat to the survival of his democratic government is internal. An arms deal will pull the military of the two countries together and foster interoperability. but a common cause for the Islamic terrorist movement. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2] Defense-industrial base averts Sino-Indian war Hawkins. is a Russian design built in St. the U. The 2008 annual report to Congress from the Office of the Secretary of Defense on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China had as its key finding. The way for closer ties was opened with the ratification of the U. “China’s expanding and improving military capabilities are changing East Asian military balances.S. which has included important back-channel negotiations over Kashmir.aspx?ARTID=33188) From Beijing’s perspective. http://www. Under Secretary of State Nicholas Burns said when the nuclear deal was signed that it was. aiding Pakistan keeps India focused to the west. with both Barack Obama and Joe Biden voting with the majority (along with John McCain and Hillary Clinton). should help Islamabad advance its militant demands on India. Russia is not the super power it once was. Germany. a senior Indian Navy planner recently told Defense News. and is now looking for increased access to the American defense industry. the larger common threat is from China. the Indian frigate Tabar. During his presidential campaign. “positive for United States national security interest because it will help us cement our strategic partnership with India. Beijing’s rapid economic rise is giving the Communist regime the means to project its power across a wide arc. Russia under Vladimir Putin has aligned Russia with China to counter American “hegemony. Afghanistan and Kashmir are not separate issues.frontpagemag.” India has turned to France. Indian naval officers now speak in the Pentagon’s language of “net centric warfare. For example. is not the only reason Washington wants an American firm to win the Indian bid. India has found this relationship less appealing. Israel. by both aircraft and missiles. Russia. perspective. has identified three littoral regions — the Arabian Sea. particularly during the Soviet period. Mehta. Obama needs to keep focused on the larger strategic importance of closer ties with New Delhi. the U. where it is the main source of support for the military dictatorship in Myanmar (Burma). Ukraine. The implementing legislation was signed by President Bush on Oct. a country that poses no danger to Islamabad unless provoked. India will have to obtain the technology and weapons systems from foreign sources to do so. Pakistan now wants to normalize relations with India. 8 – consultant on international economics and national security issues (William R. Such a policy would only embolden jihadists and reward radical elements in Pakistan’s army and intelligence services who are the political enemies of the country’s new democratic government. Obama’s thinking seems to be that to win greater Pakistani cooperation against militants in its border provinces with Afghanistan. a retired Indian Navy commodore. / 74 . which sank a pirate ship off the African coast Nov. India is an emerging great power in Asia whose alignment with the United States is vital to the maintenance of a balance of power favorable to American security interests. Denmark.S. and Britain for arms. New Delhi also needs to improve its general naval capabilities. China is increasing its ability to launch strikes deep into India. which is very important for our global interests. Beijing has built naval bases along Burma's coastline in the Bay of Bengal.S. Instead. 8. Rather.S. Alienating India in order to give the militants a partial victory would be a strategic disaster for the United States.com/readArticle. The larger gains go beyond the nuclear pact itself. There is already an ongoing and productive peace process. need to make clear to Islamabad that the legitimacy of its claim to sovereignty over its border areas depends on preventing its territory from being used for attacks against its neighbors. The Senate vote was 86-13. Lockheed Martin's F-16 Fighting Falcon and Boeing's F-18 Super Hornet have already emerged as the front-runners in the competition to sell 126 fighter jets to India worth $12 billion. Petersburg. Russia. The diplomacy behind the agreement will expand a relationship that was started by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 when he signed a memorandum of understanding on high-tech sales to India. and it is no longer an ally against China. Germany. The immediate benefit is that it boosts America’s chances in competition with Russia and France when bidding on the eight nuclear reactors India plans to import by 2012. tilt towards Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute. the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal — that India needs to dominate. India needs to match the ability of Chinese nuclear submarines to remain submerged while launching nuclear missiles. major airfields and ballistic missile sites. India is the only country on the Asian mainland that has the heft to counter China. and India itself. in the wake of growing unrest by the Tibetan people against Chinese oppression. its equipment is second rate. But since the collapse of the USSR. and to improve its military capabilities. Obama raised fears in India regarding a potential U. not external. Sweden and France are also in the hunt for one of the world’s richest export opportunities. a week after it was passed by both houses of Congress. Washington. For example. improvements in China’s strategic capabilities have implications beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Money. Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.” In the air. Zachariah Mathews. has been India’s primary source for military equipment. allowing the Chinese more freedom of action in Southeast Asia.-India Agreement for Cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.

ideological. and religious differences in Asia. it is possible to envisage war in Asia involving the major powers: remnants of Cold War ideological confrontation still exist across the Taiwan Straits and on the Korean Peninsula. Also. the region has no history of successful multilateral security cooperation or arms control. China and Japan are amongst the top four or five global military spenders. Mehta. Terrorism and Other Threats to Global Business p. Risky Business: Corruption. http://findarticles. 2 – analyst at Merchant International Group and Alan Bailey (Stuart. The strategic situation in Asia is more uncertain and potentially threatening than anywhere in Europe. Asia also has more nuclear powers than any other region of the world.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Indonesia--which is the world's fourth-largest country--faces a highly uncertain future that could lead to its breakup. Unlike in Europe. / 75 . Fraud. and these two countries are more confrontational than at any time since the early 1970s. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2] Escalates throughout Asia Poole-Robb. There are positive tendencies. Peace through superior firepower. Such multilateral institutions as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the ASEAN Regional Forum have shown themselves to be ineffective when confronted with major crises. including the resurgence of economic growth and the spread of democracy. followed by the Middle East and parts of the former Soviet Union. But there are a number of negative tendencies that must be of serious There are deep-seated historical. 1 – Professor of Security Studies at the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies (Paul. territorial. which would encourage an optimistic view. 181-182) Most likely scenario for global war Dibb. India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. concern. or it could slide into confrontation and military conflict. in Southeast Asia. The Asia-Pacific region spends more on defense (about $150 billion a year) than any other part of the world except the United States and Nato Europe. Astead.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_1_54/ai_75762211) The areas of maximum danger and instability in the world today are in Asia. Asia's security is at a crossroads: the region could go in the direction of peace and cooperation.

withdrawal is likely to lead to an intensified struggle for regional domination. No. Higher oil prices would reduce the U.S. Turmoil in Asia and Europe would force major economic readjustment in the United States. The result would be a much more dangerous world in Peace through superior firepower.especially since unification -. gross domestic product.S. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on STEM education key to hegemony and competitiveness. the shock of a U. withdrawal could not. and the nations of Southeast Asia already fear Japanese hegemony.S. defense effort. such a power might seek global hegemony and the United States would face another global Cold War and the risk of a world war even more catastrophic than the last. U. exports and imports and jeopardizing U. it could gain a significant capability to damage the U. ‘95 Spring. Multiple scenarios for nuclear war Zalmay Khalilzad. In the Persian Gulf. European competition for regional dominance could lead to major wars in Europe or East Asia.S. in the long run.S. European concerns about Germany appear exaggerated. protection. Indonesia. a neo-isolationist approach might well increase the danger of major conflict. and precluding its domination by rival powers. stabilizing the region. the United States was but one of several major powers. to say nothing of the plutonium stockpile Japan has acquired in the development of its nuclear power industry. U. Already several rogue states such as North Korea and Iran are seeking nuclear weapons and long-range missiles. Vol. The same is also true of Japan. that’s Carafano. To preclude this development.S. Russia. the West European nations might compete with each other for domination of East-Central Europe and the Middle East. That danger would only increase if the United States withdrew from the world. 84 Realistically and over the longer term. and a united Korea could come significant risks of preventive or proeruptive war. Any country that gained hegemony would have vast economic resources at its disposal that could be used to build military capability as well as gain leverage over the United States and other oilimporting nations. Israeli security problems would multiply and the peace process would be fundamentally undermined. in the past. / 76 .S. This could result in arms races. The higher level of turmoil in the world would also increase the likelihood of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and means for their delivery. Astead. Germany might seek influence over the territories located between them. however. result in the renationalization of Germany's security policy. rather than cooperating with each other.S. withdrawal from the world. It could also build long-range missiles and carrier task forces. withdrawal could be even greater.to balance the growing Chinese forces and still-significant Russian forces. Iran and Iraq have. including the possible acquisition by Japan of nuclear weapons. it’s key to longterm innovation and technological dominance which is the base project power. investments in these regions. A power that achieved such dominance would seek to exclude the United States from the area and threaten its interests-economic and political -. increasing the risk of war between the Arabs and the Israelis. If either Iraq or Iran controlled the region that dominates the world supply of oil. if it should so decide. By withdrawing from Europe and Asia. Given a U.S. protection. and eventually undermine U. (Former Assist Prof of Poli Sci @ Columbia). Such a development would threaten U. Now that the United States is the world's preponderant power. China. Given the strength of democracy in Germany and its preoccupation with absorbing the former East Germany. prosperity. 2. Given Japanese technological prowess. Similarly.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.Europe or East Asia could become dominated by a hostile power. Mehta.in the region. Japan would have to look after its own security and build up its military capabilities. perhaps by purchase.an unlikely prospect -. The extension of instability. Given that total imports and exports are equal to a quarter of U. If the United States stayed out of such a war -. The Washington Quarterly. conflict. What might happen to the world if the United States turned inward? Without the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). interests. their own nuclear weapons. With the shifting balance of power among Japan. perhaps reducing U.S. and hostile hegemony in East Asia. Germany -. In Western and Central Europe.S. Besides. isolationism had disastrous consequences for world peace. it could obviously become a nuclear weapon state relatively quickly. the cost of necessary adjustments might be high.S. with the domination of Europe or East Asia. both sought regional hegemony. 18. But it would be a mistake to assume that U. Pg. Hegemony over the Persian Gulf by either Iran or Iraq would bring the rest of the Arab Middle East under its influence and domination because of the shift in the balance of power. At that time. the Saudis might seek to acquire. Korea.S. Europe. In the 1920s and 1930s. the weak oilrich states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) would be unlikely to retain their independence. Without U.S.would be the natural leading power. China. the United States would deliberately risk weakening the institutions and solidarity of the world's community of democratic powers and so establishing favorable conditions for the spread of disorder and a possible return to conditions similar to those of the first half of the twentieth century. Without U. Britain and France fear such a development. and world economies.S. require a greater U. standard of living. Either in cooperation or competition with Russia. German efforts are likely to be aimed at filling the vacuum. Japan is likely to increase its military capability dramatically -. and the Persian Gulf would harm the economy of the United States even in the unlikely event that it was able to avoid involvement in major wars and conflicts. threaten world peace. and potential new regional powers such as India.

the Peace through superior firepower. the security of every nation in the world. which many states possessed WMD capabilities. Mehta. If this happened. / 77 . Astead. including the United States. Kostrinsky Wave One likelihood of their actual use would increase accordingly. would be harmed.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.

Volume 51. and people. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg Competitiveness outweighs all other internal links Martino. most obviously from Germany and Japan in the first half of the twentieth century and from the Soviet Union in the second half. Mehta. the objective is economic superiority. America also faces other challenges to its physical security and economic prosperity. “A Strategy for Success: Innovation Will Renew American Leadership. There is. government. and the means of execution will have to include a partnership of industry.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. There is therefore an urgent need for America to resume its historic emphasis on innovation. and especially our ability to continuously recreate it. They are almost certainly what America will have to pursue in order to prevail over the contemporary challenges involving economic competitiveness and energy dependence. generation after generation. and assemble the means of execution. the threat posed by our declining competitiveness in the global economy. the threat posed by our increasing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East. However. In this case. 7 – Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute (Rocco. These problems are. The United States needs a national strategy focused upon developing new technologies and creating new industries.1 There is.” Orbis. both immediate and important. these two threats are increasingly connected. second. Indeed. Astead. as China and India themselves are greatly increasing their demand for Middle East oil. the solution is new industries which build upon the contemporary revolution in information technology. determine a solution. Perpetual innovation and technological leadership might even be said to be the American way of maintaining primacy in world affairs. the United States has been unique among great powers in its ability to keep on creating and recreating new technologies and new industries. Every successful strategy must define an objective or mission. first. / 78 .3 Peace through superior firepower. and these are more long-term and probably more profound. of course. Crucial to America's ability to prevail over these past challenges was our technological and industrial leadership. Moreover. a threat most obviously represented by such rising economic powers as China and India. Issue 2) Much of the foreign policy discussion in the United States today is focused upon the dilemma posed by the Iraq War and the threat posed by Islamist terrorism.2 The United States of course faced great challenges to its security and economy in the past.

the Soviet Union shocked Americans by launching Sputnik. and by their own desire to escape totalitarian regimes and live in a free society. Employers are increasingly interested in hiring people who not only can execute well but also can create the next wave of innovation. Foreign competition: China not only graduates four times as many engineers as the United States.8 has extensively documented the critical situation in U. such as patents and scientific articles. President Eisenhower signed into law the National Defense Education Act. American industry has become increasingly dependent — some would say overly dependent — on foreign nationals to fill the demand for talent in a variety of fields that require strong backgrounds in science. research and education.” http://www. growing competition from other countries for the same foreign talent and the technological capacity for foreign talent to work in their home countries — have underscored the need for greater scientific and technological self-sufficiency in our country. since 1970.S. students' lagging interest and measured performance in math and science. The indicators range from measurable declines in U. however.7 Today.10 Interest in engineering: Out of the 1. rely so heavily on foreign talent to fill critical positions in teaching. a major part of the effort to restore America's scientific pre-eminence.046 percent) as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP). Less than a year later. funding for basic research in the physical sciences has declined by half (from 0. A number of developments — including heightened security after September 11. a widening gap between a complacent America and countries with the drive. as the U. innovation.12 This is not surprising when nearly 70 percent of middle school students are assigned to teachers who lack a major and certification in mathematics.S. AeA. Astead. “Tapping America’s Potential. a business and technology advocacy group (William T. the first Earth orbit satellite. engineering and mathematics. however.1 million high school seniors in the United States who took a college entrance exam in 2002. the American education system provided a substantial part of the talent and proficiency needed to sustain and improve our way of life.S.14 For most of the 20th century. challenge. Today.tap2015. to U. commitment and vision to take our place. Peace through superior firepower. many foreign scientists were attracted to pursue research in the United States by the American scientific enterprise's top-notch facilities and financial support. One of the pillars of American economic prosperity — our scientific and technological superiority — is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own human capital. economic growth by as much as a half percentage point a year. technology. there will be a slow withering. We cannot and should not.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.”15 All projections suggest that the discrepancy between supply and demand of domestic talent will grow more pronounced.9 but it also offers lucrative tax breaks to attract companies to conduct research and development (R&D) in the country.13 Investment in basic research: In the United States. In addition. One economist estimates that “trailing other developed countries on education measures may reduce U.11 Student achievement: In a recent international assessment of 15-year-olds' math problem-solving skills. to soaring numbers of students in Asia majoring in these fields. Virtually every major respected organization representing business. economy becomes even more reliant on workers with greater knowledge and technological expertise. our nation faces a more serious. 5 – Former President and CEO. the United States had the smallest percentage of top performers and the largest percentage of low performers compared to the other participating developed countries. If we wait for a dramatic event — a 21st-century version of Sputnik — it will be too late. science. In the face of the declining interest and proficiency of Americans in science.S.093 percent to 0. as well as government science and statistics agencies and commissions. The U. a gradual decline. math and engineering. and we should continue to do so. no moment of epiphany. Rather. response was immediate and dramatic. the domestic supply of qualified workers is not keeping up with the skill demands.S.pdf) Almost 50 years ago. no catastrophe that will suddenly demonstrate the threat. The United States is at such a critical point in our own history. History is replete with examples of world economies that once were dominant but declined because of myopic. selfdetermined choices. The United States has always welcomed the best and brightest from other countries to study and work here. if less visible. technology. Mehta. There may be no attack.org/about/TAP_report2. just under 6 percent indicated plans to pursue a degree in engineering — nearly a 33 percent decrease in interest from the previous decade.S. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness STEM education key to the economy and competitiveness Archey et al. research and industry. engineering and mathematics. / 79 .

This combination is working: 100 percent of High Tech High graduates are accepted into college. Last year. http://www. Astead.S. innovation has been the catalyst for the digital information revolution. Government and businesses can both play a role.S.S. Companies must advocate for strong education policies and work with schools to foster interest in science and mathematics and to provide an education that is relevant to the needs of business.html) For centuries people assumed that economic growth resulted from the interplay between capital and labor.S. (…) During the past 30 years. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness Education key to competitiveness – outweighs other internals Gates. This is not to say that the growing economic importance of countries such as China and India is bad. We must also make it easier for foreign-born scientists and engineers to work for U.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and co-chairman of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. But if we are to remain competitive. Education has always been the gateway to a better life in this country. Other governments are waking up to the vital role innovation plays in competitiveness.the issue is political will. Innovation is the source of U. The writer is chairman of Microsoft Corp. Mehta. If the United States is to remain a global economic leader.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/02/23/AR2007022301697. Students there know they're expected to go on to college. Talent in this country is not the problem -. Contrast that with the national average of 17 percent. / 80 . But on an international math test in 2003. 7 (Bill. we must demand strong schools so that young Americans enter the workforce with the math. project-centered curriculum. Government must work with educators to reform schools and improve educational excellence. Two steps are critical.washingtonpost. Government investment in research. high school students ranked 24th out of 29 industrialized nations surveyed. First. the world benefits as more people acquire the skills needed to foster innovation. I visited High Tech High in San Diego. regardless of where they were born. U.S. we must foster an environment that enables a new generation to dream up innovations. economic leadership and the foundation for our competitiveness in the global economy. U. On the contrary. His wife is a director of The Washington Post Co. Peace through superior firepower. creating industries and generating millions of highpaying jobs. it's an amazing school where educators have augmented traditional teaching methods with a rigorous. The most important factor is our workforce. To remain competitive in the global economy. science and problem-solving skills they need to succeed in the knowledge economy. companies. we must build on the success of such schools and commit to an ambitious national agenda for education. universities -. But our status as the world's center for new ideas cannot be taken for granted. and 29 percent major in math or science. Today we know that these elements are outweighed by a single critical factor: innovation. Our schools can do better. we need a workforce that consists of the world's brightest minds. and our primary and secondary schools were long considered the world's best. strong intellectual property laws and efficient capital markets are among the reasons that America has for decades been best at transforming new ideas into successful businesses. Scientists and engineers trained in U.the world's best -have pioneered key technologies such as the microprocessor.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. etc.leadered. and mathematics and soon thereafter in science • beginning in 2002-03. Unfortunately. 2 – President of the International Center for Leadership in Education (Willard R. however. The salient points. Mehta. Part H of NCLB and is designed to support activities that prevent school dropouts and support former students’ reentry into schools. sustainable. this will raise the anxiety level of all administrators dramatically.” July 2002) Career technical education has long claimed that its programs can be used as a strategy in preventing school dropouts. it is more essential than ever for career and technical education to be able to prove that it contributes not just to the applied workplace competency demands of business. They are: • by 2004-05. and NCLB recognizes this concept.pdf) While the workplace has brought increasingly rigorous academic and technology-related skill requirements as criteria for career success. Peace through superior firepower. Jason.” International Center for Leadership in Education. and widely replicable.) where all students are today and then demonstrate adequate yearly progress (AYP) for each subgroup for each of the next 12 years until they all achieve 100 percent proficiency. and for implementation of strategies for school dropout prevention and reentry. by gender. The Dropout Prevention Act can be found in Title I.com/pdf/CTE%20white%20paper. and developing clear linkages to career skills and employment. Among other things. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education. LEP. or student-to-teacher ratio reduction. writing. http://www. ethnic minorities. Resources can be used to collect data on the effectiveness of programs in preventing dropouts. counseling atrisk students. Solution: No CTE Program Left Behind Fortunately. low socioeconomic status. all students must reach a specified proficiency level in reading. Astead. schools must identify for nine subgroups (students with disabilities. all with the goal of raising students’ academic achievement. some wonderful success stories have emerged out of CTE’s extensive reform efforts over the last several years. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves Integrating CTE into No Child Left Behind expands job training Daggett. but also to the academic proficiencies of served student populations on state academic tests — if CTE is to remain a viable program in our secondary schools. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. mathematics.400 pages. are fairly straightforward. these success stories are more random local acts of excellence than systemic initiatives across the national CTE landscape. writing. Integration of the two works – dropouts clause proves Phelps. remedial education. such strategies may include “approaches such as breaking larger schools down into smaller learning communities and other comprehensive reform approaches. these strategies must be scientifically based. creating alternative school programs. “The Future of Career and Technical Education. and science • any school that does not achieve AYP for all students two years in a row will face serious consequences from both state and federal authorities. for professional development. The NCLB legislation totals more than 1.” As with other parts of NCLB. This proficiency will be measured in large part by satisfactory performance – including demonstrable improvement – on state tests in reading. / 81 . No Child Left Behind will bring enormous pressures from within the test-driven education system to raise the proficiency standards for all students. Therefore.

“Almost twenty states have reported gains from 2003 to 2005 in the percentage of eighth-graders rated “proficient” (or the equivalent) in reading on their own state tests. Fellow @ the Center for American Progress (Cindy. whereas a state with lower standards can report higher levels of academic achievement among their students. relate to how high states set their standards. STEM Support Grows" # The Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for Kids (SPEAK) Act would create. This progress is just not verified by NAEP. None of these states made any progress in eighth grade reading at NAEP's “proficient” level. Mehta. they provide the public with a false sense of the condition of education at the local. however. overall progress on NAEP is.” (See Chart 5 which highlights the largest differences in proficiency results.org/kf/standards-based_framework. the differences in scores. A state with high content standards may have student performance scores that appear low (or even high if student proficiency cut scores are set low). But the establishment and implementation of national standards and the testing and reporting of student achievement in two or three core subjects like reading.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. standards. Today. Astead. and Elena Rocha. and implement a set of core education content standards in math and science in grades K–12 and give states incentives to voluntarily adopt them. / 82 . and science would provide the public with a much more accurate picture of how United States’ students are progressing nationally and state-by.americanprogress.” November 2005. Accountability. which can be drastic. and benchmarks for academic achievement in math and science across states—more than 50 different sets of academic standards. Peace through superior firepower. Creating a single set of standards would ensure that all students were given the same opportunity to learn to a high standard no matter where they reside and allow for meaningful comparisons of student academic achievement across states. 5 – Fellow @ the Center for American Progress.pdf) As disappointing as the minimal. and 50 definitions of proficiency.org/PEmagazine/pe_0709_NSPE_Today_Policy. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good National standard resolves education shortfalls Brown.National Society of Professional Engineers ("NSPE TODAY: POLICY PERSPECTIVES As Stars http://www. The No Child Left Behind Act allows for great variability in the measures. in fact. While some states have high expectations of their students and therefore high standards for their performance. state and national levels.nspe. Some states reporting gains from 2003 to 2005 on their own tests had declining rates of proficiency on NAEP. state testing results really tell the public little about how schools are performing and progressing. adopt.) As noted above. and Fiscal Equity. Creating a single set of standards is the only way to improve academic achievement PE Magazine. others choose not to aim as high. More importantly. for states with data available. “The Case for National Standards. when comparing 2005 state and NAEP data). reporting of state assessment results are misleading. math. the more troubling story is the contrasting progress reported by most states. (See Chart 6. http://www. Fordham Foundation has pointed out.state. Among those states. Consequently.html) Align. 50 state assessments. As the Thomas B. only three show any progress at even the “basic” level on the latest National Assessment of Educational Progress…. July 09 .

and Washington. Astead. and those gaps have grown to unprecedented levels since the federal No Child Left Behind Act became law in 2002.” 4/18. they are finding inventive ways of showing higher test scores. Peace through superior firepower. the law is encouraging states to lower the bar for passing state tests or otherwise adjust their definition of "proficiency" downward in order to avoid identifying too many schools as missing their targets. "So. Texas. North Carolina. a professor of education and public policy at Berkeley who led the study. A similar widening occurred between state and federal gauges of math performance in eight of 12 states. Illinois. In all but two states--Arkansas and Massachusetts--the disparity between the share of students proficient on state reading tests and on NAEP. Kentucky. "State leaders are under enormous pressure to show that students are making progress. Schools and districts that do not meet annual targets for the percentage of students who score proficient on those exams face an escalating series of federal sanctions. Berkeley. according to the researchers. was released here April 10 during the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The study by Policy Analysis for California Education. Massachusetts. California. lexis) Far greater shares of students are proficient on state reading and mathematics tests than on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Critics have suggested that. rather than raising academic standards. grew or remained the same from 2002 to 2006. Oklahoma. a congressionally mandated program that tests a representative sample of students in every state. The researchers compiled state and federal testing results for the period 1992 to 2006 from 12 states: Arkansas." Under the federal law. 7 (“Gaps in Proficiency Levels on State Tests And NAEP Found to Grow. / 83 . New Jersey. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good National standards key to check achievement gaps Education Week. Those findings call into question whether the state-reported gains are real or illusory. with the target rising to 100 percent proficiency in 201314. Nebraska. Iowa.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. a nonprofit research group based at the University of California." said Bruce Fuller. states must give reading and math tests annually in grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. a study released last week concludes. Mehta.

The expenditure base at each school incorporates a minimum 2 percent hold-back as a contingency if state funds are adjusted.810 to $3. / 84 . Astead. News Chief. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Title I Key Title I funding is key – low levels are killing school effectiveness and leading to teacher lay-offs Goodrin." said Lake Wales Charter Schools Board Chairman David Ullman. "It's consistent with what the county is seeing across the board. 6/16 (Shelly." Ullman said. which includes funds from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).5 percent from last year's count.newschief.com/article/20090616/news/906165037?Title=Charter-schools-see-decrease-in-funding) LAKE WALES . http://www. though all but one school is seeing a decrease in students. are estimated to decrease 14 percent. Employer retirement rates for the Florida retirement system will not change from last year for eligible employees. Bok Academy will see about 145 more students next year as the school expands.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. ROTC and Title 1 funds (given to schools with high numbers of low-income students). Health insurance is budgeted for a 7 percent increase. there will not be any salary increases for Lake Wales Charter Schools employees next year.com. "That's what helped us this year.With a decrease in student funding. Hillcrest Elementary is expected to see a decrease of only three students while Janie Howard Wilson Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 48 students. Lake Wales High School is expected to see a decrease of 27 students and Babson Park Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 14 students. "We had that 2 percent hold-back and we come to the end of the year and didn't need it. The schools held back 2 percent from the current budget year as well. Mehta. but employees will be able to choose from dual plan options for medical and dental insurance. State reductions from the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) will decrease from $3. Polk Avenue Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 35 students." The expenditure base and special revenue funds program revenue.560 per student The student count for all six schools increased . Florida Newspaper. Peace through superior firepower.

assess. With an undertaking of this size. shortages of graduates with advanced science and math skills. Educators and government officials who champion the need to improve minority student achievement often do so by pointing to the need for equity among the entire population and by recognizing that poor education is largely responsible for social ills such as poverty and crime. The need to overcome them. it is not surprising that parts of the education industry have not fully embraced this initiative. / 85 . Astead. Poor achievement among minority students is the most publicized and among the most important challenges. 4 (Mark. however. and identify further actions that will raise the level of traditionally low-performing students. The need for these groups to improve cannot be overstated. The US government is currently addressing this challenge through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. An essay on page 18 further describes the importance of learning standards. and to take action to raise the achievement of those students who fall short of the learning standards. low teacher retention. and school-choice issues.dtic. and the emerging demographic shifts in the US.pdf) The education industry faces several challenges. This law pushes states to monitor. There is another reason.xxxii As a result. Moreover. make reasonable adjustments to the law when necessary. Colonel in the US Army. the rapid race to stay at the forefront of advancing technologies. these groups are playing a growing role within America’s economy and national security. Some have existed for many years.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. that makes this challenge even more worth confronting: the percentage of Hispanics and African Americans making up the US population is increasing. Mehta. to hold the schools and their leaders accountable. whether it is through their economic participation in the US workforce or through their direct service in the US Armed Services. http://www.xxxiii The challenge is to stay focused on the end goal. whereas these challenges have merely represented obstacles or socioeconomic nuances in the past. Peace through superior firepower. however. they now have clear national security implications. The most important challenges are poor achievement among minority students. while others are relatively new. and report the performance of virtually every student.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. powerful teacher unions. is greater than ever because of globalization’s explosive economic competition. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key Need to address low-income education – key to overall workforce McGuire.

This ongoing failure to deliver equal educational opportunities to poor black and Hispanic youth is not just an economic and personal tragedy but a moral problem as well. Astead. in Poli Sci @ Amherst (David. In the American Creed it has been the main ground upon which ‘equality of opportunity’ and ‘free outlet for ability’ could be based. Sweating the Small Stuff: Inner-City Schools and the New Paternalism. former researcher/teacher @ the John F. In the modern era. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation Moral obligation for low-income education Whitman. B. Mehta. Today. And even as urban crime rates have plunged during the last 15 years. incarceration rates among young black males have soared — so much so that a staggering 60 percent of black male dropouts now have served time in prison by the time they are in their midthirties. education is more critical than ever to ensuring equal opportunity for disadvantaged black and Hispanic students. 11) Yet for all the progress of the last century. the central problem facing American high schools in 2008 is still the problem of the color line — and the premier civil rights issue of the day is arguably the achievement gap. In few areas of American life are the country’s professed ideals so at odds with reality. “Education has always been the great hope for both individual and society. pg. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard.A. / 86 . 8 – covered social policy for U. nearly three out of four young black men who have dropped out of high school are jobless. his landmark study of race relations.S.” 1 Peace through superior firepower. A school record that was good enough to land a well-paid factory job a quarter century ago is no longer good enough. As Gunnar Myrdal observed as far back as 1944 in An American Dilemma. News & World Report for nearly two decades. when college is often a prerequisite for obtaining a decent job in the global economy.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.

and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. During the past decade. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. or genocide. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. of course. This is. suicides.S. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on Education is the instrumental tool in alleviating poverty Khan and Williams. compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. dangerous. unending. wars. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. 1939-1945). because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes.R. and Peace through superior firepower. *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. Poverty outweighs nuclear war Gilligan. Astead. as cause to effect. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. in fact accelerating. soldiers in warfare. such as . and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. It is also a key factor in improving the quality of governance that has a significant impact on national income. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. throughout the world. Education empowers a person and it helps them to become more proactive. thermonuclear war. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths.edu. executions. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three major respects attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic inequities on a worldwide basis. standpoint. These are not acts of God. suicide. they found that including those by genocide—or about eight million per year.u21global. (232 million).000) deaths). It had the least inequity in income and living standards. 96 [James. Hearing about their lives. or lethal is moot. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. and the U. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps 575. which means they are less likely to be marginalized within society at large. The relationship between education and poverty is quite clear. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. especially a psychological theory. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. Study. Education is recognized as a basic human right and it is closely linked to virtually all dimensions of development economic. or human. on the average.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country.S. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. and so on. / 87 . When they 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. social. Mehta. which continues year after year. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. whereas murders. professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. for they are inextricably related to each other. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. 1954-1973). a key ingredient for the maintenance of economic growth. Any theory of violence. In other words. and human. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. in effect. http://www. Kohler and Alcock the deaths we attribute to homicide. every fifteen years. political parties. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. rather than sporadically. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. U21 Global Poverty Center. 6 (Habibullah and Jeremy.sg/PartnerAdmin/ViewContent?module=DOCUMENTLIBRARY&oid=157294) Despite the inherent difficulties in quantifying the real contribution of education to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or other national income aggregates.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. and about their families and friends. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. the equivalent of an ongoing. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. and to broaden the range of available options (UNESCO 1997). educated people have higher earning potential and are better able to improve the quality of their lives. * Structural violence is normally invisible. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. capital punishment. gain control over their lives. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country.S. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. it has always been considered a powerful instrument for reducing poverty and inequality through productivity enhancement which is.

Since 1990. or they must ignore the problem entirely and address the symptoms. bachelor's degree from the University of Iowa and a master's of public policy degree from the College of William and Mary (Chad.html . about a third of black and Hispanic children attend a high-poverty school.com/2009/05/condition-of-education-economicand. Segregation is racist and an independent D-rule TLW. 5/28 – Policy Analyst @ Education Sector.php?viewStory=215) "This is a critical time for America. "When America faced a crisis in race relations and civil rights in 1957. Efforts to integrate by economic factors face their own complications. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on Status quo education policies are equivalent to segregation Adleman. http://www." Those leaders issued a document declaring that civil rights are essential to democracy." said Steele. And over the past 50th years. Solutions must do one of two things. such as providing incentives for effective teachers to work in them. The latter would suggest focusing more resources and attention on these schools.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The one at left looks at the percentage of students. who attend a high-poverty school. only four percent of black and six percent of Hispanic children attend low-poverty schools. These conditions will not likely be addressed through school assignment policies. Without such efforts. the percentage of students attending a school with a minority population comprising at least 75 percent of the student body has risen from 16 to 24. The Supreme Court has ruled that even non-binding race windows are unconstitutional in school assignment plans. Mehta. By contrast. rather than the problem itself. “The Condition of Education: Economic and Racial Segregation. and that all Black people should reject segregation absolutely and nonviolently. 8 (The Louisiana Weekly. we've gained strength to have an even greater impact. These numbers are in part a reflection of growing segregation in our nation's schools. A third of all black and Hispanic students attend such schools. while only four percent of white children and 13 percent of Asian/ Pacific Islanders do. defined as a school where 75 percent of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. Either they must attempt to address large-scale housing and location decisions that are the basis for school segregation in the first place.louisianaweekly. that segregation must end. by race.blog) Over the next few days I'll highlight some of the charts and tables I found most interesting. head on. SCLC today fulfills that same role. defined as schools with ten percent or less of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. not least of which is the flight of effective teachers out of low-income.” http://www. The former would require localities to emphasize mixed-use neighborhoods and other zoning tools to address de facto segregation. highminority schools. Nationwide.com/news. Astead. schools will be powerless to counter prevailing societal living patterns. It is a critical time for Black America. some of the nation's most distinguished Black religious leaders came together to lead our country through difficult times and to encourage our people to fight for equality and justice. / 88 . Peace through superior firepower.quickanded. 62 percent of whites attend a school where the student body is more than 75 percent white.

A disheartening 30 percent of African-American males in their mid-thirties who did not attend college now have prison records. News & World Report for nearly two decades. During much of the last century. Education Week’s June 2007 “Diplomas Count” report shows that. former researcher/teacher @ the John F. if ever there was one. But a stunning 60 percent of all black male high school dropouts in their mid-thirties have prison records — a grim measure. Mehta. the black high school dropout rate stopped plummeting.S. High school dropouts have a particularly devastating impact in poor black communities. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard.000 of the more than 20. only 58 percent of Hispanics and 53 percent of blacks graduate on time. Sweating the Small Stuff: Inner-City Schools and the New Paternalism. 8 – covered social policy for U. Peace through superior firepower. Nearly half of black students nationwide and about 40 percent of Hispanic students attend those 2. About 2. while nearly eight out of ten white students graduate with a high school diploma in four years.000 high schools in the United States produce almost half of the nation’s dropouts. / 89 . by some measures black and Latino students are less likely to graduate from high school in a timely fashion today than in 1990.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. But in the last 15 years. In fact. where 60 to 80 percent of students typically fail to get a diploma in four years. 14-15) The second factor feeding current disparities in achievement — this time at the end of the educational pipeline — is the high dropout rates of black and Latino students. in Poli Sci @ Amherst (David. pgs. These inner-city schools have been likened to “dropout factories.000 failing high schools. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on Low-income schools have high drop-out rates Whitman. where many black male dropouts eventually turn to crime. B.A. These dropout rates are even worse in urban schools in high-poverty neighborhoods. Astead.” and they remain the locus of the nation’s dropout problem. black educational attainment rose dramatically. of the costly toll of the achievement gap.

California." said Bruce Fuller. 6 – Professor of Public Administration and Economics @ Syracuse.” 4/18. To highlight differences in the stringency of accountability standards. In all but two states--Arkansas and Massachusetts--the disparity between the share of students proficient on state reading tests and on NAEP. a professor of education and public policy at Berkeley who led the study. rather than raising academic standards.3 While for both states the average student was well above these targets through 2004.maxwell. Berkeley. The study by Policy Analysis for California Education. the law is encouraging states to lower the bar for passing state tests or otherwise adjust their definition of "proficiency" downward in order to avoid identifying too many schools as missing their targets. grew or remained the same from 2002 to 2006. “The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind?” http://www cpr. the average proficiency rate in Missouri was less than 40 percent of the rate in Kansas. Illinois. Ryan 2003). and William Duncombe. Peace through superior firepower. Figure 1 compares the intermediate targets and actual performance levels for Kansas and Missouri. Critics have suggested that. states have an incentive to set low proficiency levels and to backload the required proficiency improvements over the 12-year period (Kim and Sunderman 2004. A similar widening occurred between state and federal gauges of math performance in eight of 12 states. Kansas set the proficiency level for its students at about 50 percent compared to 13 percent in Missouri. and those gaps have grown to unprecedented levels since the federal No Child Left Behind Act became law in 2002. a nonprofit research group based at the University of California. New Jersey. they are finding inventive ways of showing higher test scores. and Washington. was released here April 10 during the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Thus. Texas." Under the federal law. a congressionally mandated program that tests a representative sample of students in every state. a study released last week concludes. Kentucky. Massachusetts. Oklahoma. Nebraska. "State leaders are under enormous pressure to show that students are making progress. states must give reading and math tests annually in grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. "So. Those findings call into question whether the state-reported gains are real or illusory.” and in setting intervening performance targets for the years leading up to 2013-14.syr. Astead. In 2002. North Carolina.edu/efap/Publications/costing_out. The researchers compiled state and federal testing results for the period 1992 to 2006 from 12 states: Arkansas. Vagueness of “proficiency” causes a race to the bottom Yinger. Schools and districts that do not meet annual targets for the percentage of students who score proficient on those exams face an escalating series of federal sanctions. according to the researchers. States are provided a fair amount of discretion in defining the level of performance that is “proficient. Mehta. and Anna Lukemeyer.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. with the target rising to 100 percent proficiency in 201314. Associate Professor of Public Administration @ UNLV (John. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom State policies under NCLB cause achievement gaps Education Week. / 90 . Iowa. Professor of Public Administration @ Syracuse. 7 (“Gaps in Proficiency Levels on State Tests And NAEP Found to Grow. lexis) Far greater shares of students are proficient on state reading and mathematics tests than on the National Assessment of Educational Progress.pdf) NCLB sets as its target that all students reach proficiency on these measures by 2013-14.

schools with many disadvantaged students generally face harsher sanctions than other schools (Kim and Sunderman 2004). Professor of Public Administration @ Syracuse. Depending on assumptions about inefficiency.4 billion of additional spending.064 per pupil. In a study on costs of implementing NCLB in Texas.edu/efap/Publications/costing_out. Mehta. and William Duncombe.pdf) Another important issue for evaluating either a state accountability system or NCLB is that districts with a high concentration of disadvantaged students cannot be expected to achieve the same level of student performance as other districts unless they receive additional resources. Imazeki and Reschovsky (2006) estimate that meeting AYP associated with a passing rate of 70 percent would require $4. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools Low-income schools get harsher sanctions under NCLB – hurts education Yinger. or $1. In a recent analysis for Ohio. Astead. which can potentially lead to a number of perverse incentives (Ryan 2003). Associate Professor of Public Administration @ UNLV (John. / 91 . 6 – Professor of Public Administration and Economics @ Syracuse.syr.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.maxwell. Under NCLB. Peace through superior firepower. and Anna Lukemeyer. “The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind?” http://www cpr. Driscoll and Fleeter (2003) estimate that “intervention costs” represent over 95 percent of additional costs from NCLB and average $760 per student. the potential cost increases to state governments to provide adequate resources to high-need districts could be large enough to dominate other types of costs.

Neill. In addition. assessments are considered high-stakes depending on the level of consequences. 2003). Peace through superior firepower. Tracey. resulting in utilizing the assessments for invalid uses.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. therefore making the assessment high-stakes. The intended purpose of using high-stakes testing is to ensure accountability among all students and schools.vt. In a review of the literature on teacher perceptions of the increase in testing. an increase in stress and decrease in morale were also factors noted by teachers and students. According to Goertz and Duffy (2003). frequent low performance on high-stakes testing may result in dropping out of high school (Harvey & Koch.. assessments may have high-stakes for schools because of their inability to demonstrate progress and may result in state intervention or full state control over school administrators. Astead. the overwhelming perceptions among teachers are negative (Abrams. 2004). & Madaus.lib. In 2008. the end results often create a difficult circumstance. Kim. in addition. In a review of the literature. assessment experts tend to disagree with using one assessment to make multiple decisions such as indicating the performance of students. The study also indicates that teachers sacrifice good teaching practices by focusing on test-taking strategies and studying the content mirrored on state tests. A nationwide survey disseminated by the National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy found that the increase in testing students contradicts teachers’ perspectives of administering proper educational practices (Abrams et al. 2002). Vogler. 2003. in-grade retention. and graduating from high school (Harvey & Koch. 2004). Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – High-Stakes State policies under NCLB are high-stakes – decreases teaching quality and causes drop-outs Fletcher.pdf) Another issue regarding raising standards by testing is that some high schools set a cutoff score for their students and require that they meet or exceed it to warrant a diploma. Neill. and (b) the fairness of the assessment and the long-lasting affects of categorizing students based on their performance is debatable and problematic. These high-stakes assessments are used for making important decisions about students. yet. This appears to be the consensus among current research (Herman & Dietel. & Orfield. and assisting in revamping instructional methods (Goertz & Duffy. 2004. 2003. 28 states will enact a requirement for their students to pass a state-mandated assessment to meet their graduation requirements (Vogler. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. 2006). 2005. making decisions regarding the future of schools and students. 2006. 2004). 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. Austin and Mahlman (2002) point out two dilemmas that involve high-stakes assessment: (a) the current educational policies (such as NCLB) and public expectations of the assessments often outweigh the capabilities of the assessments.” http://scholar. Plake. 2003). including decisions about promotion to the next grade level. / 92 . 2004). Mehta. seven states will place student scores on transcripts or diplomas (Goertz & Duffy. Pedulla.edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher. Sunderman. For students.

Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone NCLB spills over – decreases overall education quality Thomas. not advanced students. who tend to be low-income minority kids.orlandosentinel. And that should worry you if you have a smart kid in school because Florida is adopting the federal law. they are being put in the position of rationing education. "While the nation's lowest-achieving youngsters made rapid gains from 2000 to 2007. the pattern was evident in states using standardized testing and accountability. the Fordham Institute. http://www.6352426. meaning more resources thrown at those students who often are least interested in taking advantage of them.0. No Child Left Behind closely tracks progress made by low-performing students. This means more pressure on schools to elevate struggling students. In it. No Child Left Behind was passed in 2002.column) No Child Left Behind is leaving a most unlikely group of kids behind — the smart ones. I asked them: "So how was it?"They rolled their eyes. examined standardized test scores between 2000 and 2007." the report states. The lowest 10 percent did a lot better. Those schools that continually fail to do so could be taken over by the state. an education research center. I once was a soccer coach of a very bright group of third-grade girls. which grades schools based on FCAT scores.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The evening after they took the FCAT for the first time. Astead. It's not hard to figure where they will direct limited resources when they get more credit for turning an F student into a D student. But this came with a consequence."The report noted that even before No Child Left Behind was passed. are their top priority. than an A student into an A+ student. 7/5 – Columnist. Schools that fail to educate them face sanctions. "Borrring!"How much time had these smart kids spent prepping for a test that basically is designed to measure minimum standards? Is it relevant for them? Could that time be better spent on other pursuits? Fordham shed more light on its study with a teacher survey. The report revealed that schools did increase math and reading scores for low-performers. Orlando Sentinel (Mike.I've had my own doubts about this. Last year.com/news/local/orl-locorlmike thomas-smart-kids-0070509jul05. the performance of top students was languid. There also is a growing emphasis on dropout prevention. This is separate from Florida's accountability system. Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. a strong majority of teachers agreed that "struggling students." The struggling students receive much more oneon-one time in the classroom. the highest 10 percent made "minimal gains. Even before the financial crisis. / 93 . Now the state and federal measuring sticks are being combined. with their administrative staffs and teachers thrown out. The timing couldn't be worse for school districts. this dynamic was taking place. Faced with massive budget cuts. including the loss of their students to other schools.

from teachers to tests. the children in our urban schools continue to languish. and from claims of insufficient resources and funding to lack of parental involvement. The guarantees of greater accountability for student learning and for the improvement of sub-par public schools promised by the Bush administration's No Child Left Behind legislation have created what has proved to be an insurmountable challenge for federal and state governments.html) JOHN Chubb's recent op-ed "21st-century School Reform" failed to mention that while city schools have improved overall in standardized test scores. teachers. Across the country. public schools. As the pendulum of blame for this failure swings back and forth from lawmakers and administrators to teachers. administrators and even private management companies are still continuing to fail urban students and their families. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good NCLB fails – can’t even increase ELA and math scores Eastman. slipping further and further behind. Astead. Despite their best efforts. / 94 . as well as for the educators charged with enforcing the NCLB policies.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. as in just about every other big city. victims of an education system that has become not only broken but immobile.com/dailynews/opinion/20090629_Real_education_reform__Start_with_a_teardown. 51 percent of 11th-graders still tested below basic proficiency in math and 41 percent were below in reading (2008 PSSA results). Mehta. major school reforms have failed to yield astounding results.they need a revolution. need more than just reformation . politicians. “Real education reform: Start with a teardown. The public schools in Philadelphia.” http://www. Peace through superior firepower.philly. These numbers hardly constitute the success Chubb claims for the Philadelphia school district or its private management companies. 6/29 (A.M.

high national standards are already available. we have high national standards at hand for specific. important purposes. Even as we debate whether we should have any national standards. Peace through superior firepower. 50 Standards: The Continuing Need for National Voluntary Standards in Education” http://www. eighth. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse NAEP is much more accurate Ravitch. Astead.aspx) At the same time that we have low national standards in common use. 9 (Nonresident Senior Fellow.edu/articles/1996/summer_education_ravitch. and the governance of education. July 9th. While the nation was in an uproar about the proposed national history standards. and twelfth grades—are based on rigorous. challenging content standards in every subject area. Diane Ravitch specializes in education policy issues such as standards and testing. “50 States. Questions on the National Assessment of Educational Progress—the congressionally mandated. even as we fret about our inability to figure out how to develop good ones. proficient. / 95 . Mehta. federally funded examination of a national sample of students in the fourth.brookings. basic. NAEP assessed a broad cross-section of American students using its own carefully developed curriculum framework. NAEP's independent governing board has identified performance standards that it calls "achievement levels" (advanced. below basic). An education historian and former assistant secretary of education for research. There is no doubt that NAEP's curriculum frameworks represent national content and performance standards that are credible with educators and the public.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Government Studies. which is closely aligned with the core issues in the national history standards.

Not by a long shot. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards. they're going to have a lot more kids failing and looking bad. "The politics are going to be in states with low standards that know if they sign on to high standards.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. vice president for national programs and policy at the Thomas B. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog. There's an extra sense of urgency that we're slipping economically and that could be in part because we're slipping academically. . who knows if it will be enough money. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. Fordham Institute. It's been a very public demonstration that some states are asking more or less of kids. "It's the mush that is ineffective. the states have to agree to adopt the standards. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. Once the draft standards are released. but he can help the states with finding the money to develop the tests. And that's where politics will really come in: Under NCLB. States have agreed to participate in the NGA-CCSSO project. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog." Needs federal money Darby.aspx) Indeed. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards. "You'll get standards that are impossible to teach.tnr. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward. says Mike Petrilli. http://blogs. and there hasn't been a concerted effort to get input from education interest groups. which favored maintaining the autonomy of the states over education policy.aspx) Several education experts I've spoken to this week say Duncan's support is needed. Jennings notes that Duncan should view the 1990s as a cautionary tale: Both George H." What's more..tnr. It's clear to governors and business leaders that other countries are doing better than the United States. "you're going to be hearing from every corner of society. Astead. and. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA) NGA proposal is a joke Darby. because of very public. if the committee doesn't have a good mechanism for reviewing and incorporating recommendations. president and CEO of the Center for Education Policy.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. embarrassing evidence that current education standards don't work. He's removed a major obstacle. in part. the committee will need to be clear about how a final proposal will be formulated--who exactly will make the decision of what to send to the states.. / 96 . But the question remains: Will it actually work? Several people I spoke with aren't swooning just yet. "There are too many incentives to keep the bar low." says Jack Jennings. in many ways." Jennings says. particularly because they are in dire straits [because of the economic crisis]. "The other thing that's different is the economic crisis. states are encouraged. some of the biggest names in education are also skeptical. "He certainly shouldn't dictate the content of standards. http://blogs. or if it tries to split the difference by including what all or most parties want in the proposal-making it too expansive. it seems. the committee is working behind closed doors and disconcerting some with its lack of transparency: The names of the experts haven't been released. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests.W.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. there's much to be excited about with regard to the project and Duncan's approach to it." says Andrew Rotherham of Education Sector (who has an interesting post about the standards push here)." Still. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward." Petrilli says. "We've had seven years of experience under No Child Left Behind with widely varying state standards. The standards could meet their demise then." But these factors don't mean the standards project will be a success." He suggests--as many education experts do--that Congress reevaluate and revise NCLB to make it a better law that doesn't support what Duncan calls "the race to the bottom." Jennings says. Among other problems. Bush and Bill Clinton kicked off efforts to define standards at the national level and were cut off by Congress. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. to keep their achievement standards weak because they don't want their students and schools labeled as failing. Then. Mehta. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education." Petrilli explains. Peace through superior firepower. For one thing.

Peace through superior firepower.” says Lydia Logan. The college and career-ready standards will be based in part on input from major employers and workforce development boards.S. There’s also a push to benchmark the standards to international ones. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants) It’s the same thing as the NGA proposal and only for math and English Crawford. the Council of Chief State School Officers and not-for-profits ACT (American College Test Program).Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The effort to establish common standards for math and English is led by the National Governors Association. 7/7 – Researcher for the Kiplinger Letters (Jonathan N. the College Board and Achieve.S. / 97 . “It is much more important for Americans to understand where we fall against other countries.kiplinger.html) The Education Department is committing $350 million of the $4. Chamber of Commerce. executive director of the Institute for a Competitive Workforce. a nonprofit affiliate of the U. Advocates see common standards as key to bolstering school curricula and ensuring that education systems are capable of producing a competitive workforce that must increasingly face off against workers in other countries.” http://www. What has come with the global economy is global competition. Astead. students stack up against those of other countries.com/businessresource/forecast/archive/Obama_ups_ante_on_education_reform_090707. “Education Reform: Obama Ups the Ante. giving educators a clear view of how U. Mehta. We are not just competing with the person next door or in the next state but with those in other countries.35 billion to help create common standards.

Vermont.5% of the teachers are non-union.counterpunch. self-sustaining districts and see if the students in these schools don’t continue to score significantly higher. Granted. how about the disintegration of the American family and the decline in parental supervision/involvement? Being a good student requires discipline. So.—to one of those South Central LA shit-holes. because the teachers’ unions are so domineering and evil—because their leaders will do anything to maintain union hegemony. given that she lives in Brentwood. big union. railed against the “powerful” California teachers’ union.” are able to improve the test scores of these stunted. in itself. good schools are found in good neighborhoods.org/macaray03202009. and society itself. school administrators fire. In non-union North Carolina. so we shouldn’t be looking to this man for enlightenment. where 92. had he taken five minutes to research the subject. An even more startling comparison: In California.91% of its probationary teachers. Although this ratio clearly outraged him (he appeared visibly upset by it). Astead. he’d have realized that this figure represents the national average—with or without unions. say. Fact: Oregon has a good public school system. the teachers in those classrooms were union members. Maher came armed with statistics.5% of tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired. So do South Dakota. by virtue of their innate “classroom abilities. Have we witnessed any “breakdowns” in these areas over the last 40 years? Or how about the rise in urban poverty? Or the hollowing-out of the middle-class (the average worker hasn’t received a pay increase. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Teachers Unions Bad Evil teacher unions are a myth which sidetracks education reform and gives false perceptions of good teachers Macaray. Maine and Washington. her daughters attend prestigious private schools. he was utterly mistaken. accusing it of contributing to the crisis in public education by not allowing the school district to remove incompetent teachers. among others. Connecticut. etc. or real estate agent. in real dollars. ranked 35th in the world in math.7% are non-union. "The Myth of the "Powerful" Teachers' Union" http://www.html) There’s a myth circulating out there that not only threatens to ruin the reputation of America’s school teachers. families are in crisis.38%. and 40% of the students live in foster care. and California in particular. and that barely 50% of California’s public school pupils manage to graduate from high school. having eaten a nutritious breakfast. and bad schools are found in bad neighborhoods. where 97. because of the union’s protective shield. since 1973)? Or the assimilation of non-English-speaking immigrants? Or the decrease in per capita funding on California public education? Or the chaos created by school boards arbitrarily mandating wholesale changes in “educational ideology” every two years (LAUSD has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on consultants)? Ask any teacher. You hear these charges everywhere. with its “powerful” teachers’ union. And in North Carolina. And. See if these “good” teachers. it’s not uncommon for parents in California to lie about their home addresses in order to get their children assigned to better schools. they contradict it. has a college degree and a teaching credential and managed to survive the scrutiny of a lengthy probationary period. Wisconsin. remarkable. California is actually tougher on prospective candidates.former labor union rep (David. The same teachers who were winning those awards for excellence belonged to the “powerful” teachers’ union.” he declared). Fact: During the 1950s and 1960s. despite Maher’s display of civic pride and self-righteous indignation (“We need to bust this union. On Friday. In South Carolina. Not only is the promise of good schools one reason why people with kids buy homes in good neighborhoods. More significantly. can’t seem to do. Maher. 9 (March) . has been echoing such claims for years. For Huffington to be riffing on the state of public education is. where 100% of the teachers are non-union. as part of that same experiment. Moreover. neighborhoods are ravaged. Minnesota. people know this “formula” to be true. less than 1% of California’s tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired. move the “incompetent” teachers to these healthy. only 0. He noted with dismay that the U. Mehta. a miniscule . Maher is a professional comic trolling for laughs. on time.S. Arianna Huffington. 29th in science. Simple as that. California’s public school system was routinely ranked among the nation’s finest. see if the graduation rates in these depressed communities rise significantly. An experiment: Try moving those “good” teachers from decent school districts—where the kids show up each day. overmatched and underprivileged kids. Moreover. cultural attitudes or demographics? For openers. where crime is rampant. It’s the assertion that “powerful” teachers’ unions are responsible for the decline of public education in the United States in general.32%.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. He blamed the teachers for this. on average. it was demoralizing to hear someone this hip say something so stupid and simplistic. 6. comedian and uber-liberal Bill Maher joined the attack on his HBO show. and not a “social scientist” dispensing wisdom. bright-eyed and attentive. / 98 . child psychologist. In Georgia. Let that sink in a moment: Good schools. having completed their homework. application and. causing her to hastily lock the doors and windows of her Prius and speed away. for that matter) in the last 40 years to lead one to believe there might be causes other than labor unions to explain the drop in graduation rates? Have there been any significant changes in. it’s 0. a California resident. Although every teacher in the LAUSD (Los Angeles Unified School District). prepared.03% of tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired—the exact same percentage as California. perhaps. March 13. sociologist. even with the “bad” teachers now running the show. Still. The statistics not only don’t support his argument. See if these “good” teachers can do what a generation of parents themselves. Propagators of this myth claim that the reason test scores of American children have sunk so low in recent years is because our public school teachers are too incompetent and lazy to provide adequate instruction. good teachers. including not allowing demonstrably inferior teachers to be fired—school administrators are powerless to act. and the closest she’s ever come to an inner-city school was the day she accidentally drove by one. a certain level of respect for authority. that figure is only 1. You can look it up. Which raises the question: Has anything else changed in California (and the rest of the country. Is Peace through superior firepower. Maher made a huge deal of the fact that. In one of his signature tirades. but has the potential to side-track any realistic hopes of education reform. Maher piously maintained that these teachers were unqualified to run a classroom. the late-to-the-party liberal and celebrity blogger. considering his liberal creds (from the environment to civil liberties to corporate mischief to drug law reform). and they’ll tell you the same thing: As a general rule.

relatively homogeneous. The United States was not only the first nation in the world to offer free public education. etc. and don’t face a fraction of the challenges facing California? For the record.. with no recourse to union representation and no access to the grievance procedure. Oregon or Connecticut—has the authority to insist that management keep unqualified teachers? Since when does a labor union dictate to management? Since when does the hired help tell the bosses what to do? The accusation is absurd on its face.S. Also.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In the U. great emphasis is placed on education. One wonders what their national test scores would be if those many millions who can’t read or write were factored in. Connecticut is 98%. Indeed. Mehta. / 99 . you must attend school until at least age 16 (some states have even higher age requirements). In India (where I once lived and worked). comparing the scores of American students in foreign countries is a bit misleading. That means our national average is going to incorporate test scores of every kid from every background in every neighborhood in the country. No grievance. it was the first to make it compulsory. Fact: During the first two years of employment. one that scores well. India has 400 million people who are illiterate. Could any arrangement be more favorable to management? Peace through superior firepower. If the district doesn’t like you for any reason. Wisconsin is 98%. India has a decent school system. Oregon and Washington teachers are 100% unionized. No union. the teachers in these aforementioned good schools are overwhelmingly unionized. Two full years. But school attendance is not mandatory. accordingly. Nothing. Astead. by law. Who honestly believes a teachers’ union—whether in California. they fire you. any teacher in the LAUSD can be fired for any reason. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Teachers Unions Bad that because the folks living in these states are exceptionally bright? Is it because their teachers are extraordinarily talented? Or is it because these school districts are stable. Fact: Teachers can be fired.

tnr. There's an extra sense of urgency that we're slipping economically and that could be in part because we're slipping academically." says Andrew Rotherham of Education Sector (who has an interesting post about the standards push here)." Jennings says." Jennings says. in many ways. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests. says Mike Petrilli. But the question remains: Will it actually work? Several people I spoke with aren't swooning just yet. or if it tries to split the difference by including what all or most parties want in the proposal-making it too expansive. Among other problems. It's been a very public demonstration that some states are asking more or less of kids. http://blogs. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog.. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. because of very public. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States Uniform state standards fail – they’ll try to keep the bar low and create impossible requirements Darby. there's much to be excited about with regard to the project and Duncan's approach to it." Petrilli says. Mehta. For one thing. it seems. Once the draft standards are released. . to keep their achievement standards weak because they don't want their students and schools labeled as failing. and there hasn't been a concerted effort to get input from education interest groups. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. who knows if it will be enough money. some of the biggest names in education are also skeptical. "We've had seven years of experience under No Child Left Behind with widely varying state standards. states are encouraged.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. "It's the mush that is ineffective." Petrilli explains." Still. the committee will need to be clear about how a final proposal will be formulated--who exactly will make the decision of what to send to the states." What's more. Not by a long shot.aspx) Indeed. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards. they're going to have a lot more kids failing and looking bad. in part." He suggests--as many education experts do--that Congress reevaluate and revise NCLB to make it a better law that doesn't support what Duncan calls "the race to the bottom. It's clear to governors and business leaders that other countries are doing better than the United States. / 100 . the states have to agree to adopt the standards. "There are too many incentives to keep the bar low. "The other thing that's different is the economic crisis.. the committee is working behind closed doors and disconcerting some with its lack of transparency: The names of the experts haven't been released. And that's where politics will really come in: Under NCLB.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward." Peace through superior firepower. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards. States have agreed to participate in the NGA-CCSSO project. Fordham Institute. vice president for national programs and policy at the Thomas B. if the committee doesn't have a good mechanism for reviewing and incorporating recommendations. embarrassing evidence that current education standards don't work. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. "You'll get standards that are impossible to teach. and. "The politics are going to be in states with low standards that know if they sign on to high standards. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. Astead. Then. The standards could meet their demise then." But these factors don't mean the standards project will be a success. "you're going to be hearing from every corner of society.

Tapped is the group blog of The American Prospect) Despite the awkwardness. If parents asked me how much confidence they can take home from their sons’ and daughters’ test scores. richer.. don’t even sneeze at them! Don’t ask what 50 different states mean by “proficient.. 50 standards. when political and educational leaders all too often found that the quickest way to raise scores wasn’t better teaching—but easier tests or lower pass scores. I hope you parents in the audience will do me one favor in return. So there you have it: Three of the most influential education leaders in the country. but all raising their eyebrows at the current state and testing-industry-led effort to get there. "What we've done politically is that every time something is important to anybody.gov/?q=node/3699/print) And now that I’ve brightened your day a little. in which 46 states and the testing industry will work together to create high school reading and math standards. then it can't control its outcomes.org/csnc/blogs/tapped_archive? month=06&year=2009&base_name=weingarten_rhee_and_klein_we_d -. It mandated testing in every state and brought greater accountability for all students to schools across the nation. "Will we be able to call out if this effort doesn't mean anything more than it has to date?" Rhee agreed that "we shouldn't be naive" about the NGA effort. tomorrow every state would adopt Massachusetts' standards. It settled on an approach of “50 states. Mehta. Of course. "If a state can't control its standards or assessments. in large part. they would find the same kind of doubt and uncertainty in nearly every state." she cautioned.2. 7 – Connecticut Senator ("Senator Dodd's Prepared Remarks at the Launch of the SPEAK Act" http://dodd. it passed with bipartisan acclaim. And if parents held all 50 sets of standards up to that kind of scrutiny. They’d find it severely difficult to measure the success of their children’s education. and clearer" national standards. I’d have to tell them about students in another state who passed the state-designed test at a rate of 85 percent—and then turned around and failed the NAEP test at a rate almost as high. there was one topic about which Weingarten.prospect. Don’t get close to those numbers. it becomes part of the standards . don’t touch them. Astead. "It's very political. The consensus among these urban educators was that state legislators have less than a stellar track record in implementing education reform with teeth. Joel Klein.” And it left each of those 50 tests dangerously open to meddling. as they were required to do by No Child Left Behind. states that have made the right choice instead of Peace through superior firepower. . If America wanted to do something very smart. so they can obscure how far behind their students actually are. It was a huge step forward. American Federation of Teachers President. Standard 4.C.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.senate.3. Weingarten said. It demanded proficiency but didn’t tell us what proficiency meant. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States Most qualified sources agree – even attempts at uniformity would devolve into disparate standards Goldstein. And most of all. And Klein warned that low-performing states still have every incentive to maintain their own standards and assessments. / 101 . you’d find out you were being mislead—that that picture of excellence was an illusion. but at the state level. because we have so many standards to begin with. 6/10 – associate editor at The American Prospect.” Don’t ask how they decide or who exactly gets to figure it out. citing Randi Weingarten. there are notable exceptions.” http://www.” I’d have to tell them about a state where 90 percent of students passed the local math test—but where six out of ten failed the “gold standard” test from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)." he said. which she regards as fairly toothless. and Klein agreed: All are skeptical of the Common Core Initiative announced last week by the National Governors' Association. AND KLEIN: WE DON'T TRUST STATE-LED STANDARDS PUSH. 50 tests. D. and Michelle Rhee. I would in all honesty have to answer—“Not very much. RHEE. “RANDI. Five years ago. Don’t ask if proficiency in New Mexico is related at all to proficiency in New Hampshire. But it was also a first step. Rhee. Because if you did. all supporters of national standards. Differences in standards means CP doesn’t solve Dodd. Indeed. deeper. standardswriting often leads to more complexity and confusion for teachers. Please—no questions. We do need "fewer. New York City schools Chancellor. when President Bush brought No Child Left Behind before Congress. And they would find that the problem starts. schools Superintendent (Dana." which are considered by many education experts to be the strongest in the country. local politicians may not want to undo the years of work they've put into developing statespecific standards and assessments. when you come across those numbers by which it is so tempting to paint a picture of excellence—don’t inquire too closely.

it starts with No Child Left Behind and its Peace through superior firepower. But if you want an explanation for those misleading figures I spoke of earlier. states that have maintained or are working towards rigorous systems. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One the easy one. / 102 . Mehta.

Lower scores and lower expectations are going to translate to an America that is less competitive on the world stage. That’s the work we’ve come here to complete—to standardize our standards. That may be fine for a while—a decade. Peace through superior firepower. They’re entering with children in Shanghai and Mumbai and Taipei who are receiving the kind of education today that you could once only get in America. maybe two. / 103 . America is going to reach a tipping point. when public education doesn’t work. In a study of fourth graders. the United States ranks 24th among 29 industrial and developing nations. “If we don’t work toward unified standards. no text omitted] unfinished work. somebody else will”—but unfortunately for us. we’re going to wonder why we didn’t do anything about it while we still had time. “I’m telling you. And I don’t think the average American understands the impact of this for our future. It’s getting harder and harder to lift or dig or assemble your way to success the way you once could. Astead. I wish I could say. Children here in Washington are no longer just entering the job market with children in Dallas and Chicago.” said one global marketing expert.” The truth is that we no longer live in the economy of old. Today. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States [Dodd Continues. when we fail to compete as one nation. In one international assessment of the reading and math skills of 15 year olds. everybody else already has. But at some point. Mehta. we rank 20th out of 25 nations. whereas we’re making miniscule progress.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. “[Asian countries] are making rapid progress. our students are losing ground to students overseas. countries with national standards are outpacing us. And if it happens. our entire country will get left behind. you’ve got to think your way to success—and so. and that has devastating consequences for us. And I am sorry to report to my fellow parents that. because they’re going to have the bulk of the intellectual and creative talent in the world. if we do nothing to address this decline. Across the board. from kindergarten through high school.

whereas its percentage of students reaching “basic” and “proficient” on NAEP dropped a point each. for example. nationwide education standards in science. promising dividends for tomorrow's workforce and for our economy. He is also president and trustee of the Thomas B. and the national average fell by a point. and Rep. too" http://www. Its own test results show the number of eighth graders proficient in reading rose 8 points (from 55 percent to 63 percent) between 2003 and 2005. Moynihan. Vernon Ehlers. consulting firm say that closing the science gap between U. South Carolina should get on board. Voluntary. but they need encouragement and support to persist.S.S. only at the “basic” level. and make science “cool” again.3 trillion in 2008. R-Michigan. Previously. Preparing a math. That's bad for the U. (If schools are not progressing.) But here’s the catch: The states define “proficiency” however they like. and Jo Ellen. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Standards Key National is better – state results are corrupted Finn. Perhaps this is why the Golden State posted gains of nine points in its proportion of eighth graders reaching proficiency on reading. America further must improve teacher pay and classroom support. But many other young people are lagging. We analyzed data from state tests as well as the national assessment and looked at states’ progress on both over the past two years. But surely that’s not the case for all states. Finn Jr. (Eighth-grade NAEP reading results were disappointing almost everywhere. senior fellow of the Hudson Institute.) States may say that such discrepancies merely reflect the different subject matter they test versus the content assessed by the feds. Chester E. and you want your state’s schools to look good. / 104 . and other consequences. "Alan Leshner and Jo Ellen Roseman: U. and international students could have increased America's gross domestic product by $1. too. He served as assistant U. Closing the racial gap in science scores among U. has laudably rejected “whole language” reading instruction and other faddish ideas that have partially infected the national test. California.S.3 trillion to $2. even then. So if you’re a governor or education commissioner. The result? Nineteen states (of the 29 with available and comparable data) reported their eighth-grade students made progress on state reading exams. Peace through superior firepower. Fordham Foundation. education secretary for research and improvement from 1985 to 1988. are the next logical step. exiting students. Uniform standards and federal funding are key to top-level US scientists which is key to the economy Leshner and Roseman 6-22-09 . Astead. Mehta. (The percentage of Arizona’s students reaching NAEP’s lower “basic” level also dropped by a point.S. Sen. founding partner with the Edison Project and legislative director for Senator Daniel P. President Barack Obama. is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and chairman of the Koret Task Force on K–12 Education.greenvilleonline. he was professor of education and public policy at Vanderbilt University. students might have added another half-trillion dollars.) Consider Arizona.hoover.-students-need-shared-science-standards--too) Top-performing U.html)//HM But there are perverse incentives at play here. A clear roadmap for improving science-learning standards has already been set forth.S. Chris Dodd. science students are still among the world's elite. But only three of these states show any gains on NAEP and. his education secretary and bipartisan leaders in Congress are showing leadership.com/article/20090622/OPINION/906220304/Alan-Leshner-and-Jo-Ellen-Roseman-U.. you have a strong incentive to relax your definition of “proficiency” in reading and math and make your own state tests easier. students need shared science standards. 5 (Chester E. Yet the percentage of Arizona eighth graders scoring at NAEP’s “proficient” level actually fell two points during the same biennium.chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and executive publisher of the journal AND Director of Project 2061 (the AAAS science-literacy initiative) (Alan I. they face a cascade of interventions. This bill would provide incentives for states to adopt robust. The larger trend line is clear: The news is much rosier if you believe state reports than if you believe the national assessment. No Child Left Behind seeks to help all students reach “proficiency” by 2014 and requires states to develop tough accountability systems to ensure that their schools are making progress toward that end. economy: McKinsey & Co. provide consistently high-quality textbooks. just re-introduced their SPEAK Act (“Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for All Kids”). D-Connecticut.S.org/publications/digest/2905221. along with reading and math.and science-literate workforce will of course require more than uniform standards. the firm reported.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Adequate funding will also be essential. well-tested national science standards developed by the National Assessment Governing Board.S. http://www. Last week’s good news is shadowed by early evidence that some states may be doing just that.

the council’s executive director. But the new initiative would change that. acknowledge that it’s unlikely all 50 states will get onboard with the new approach because of long-standing support for state control of education. The organizers of the project. experts say. Illinois joins effort toward national standards. said this month that he expected 25 to 35 states to join. / 105 . Peace through superior firepower. Astead. the Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Uniformity Fails No incentive for lasting participation. under a system of local oversight that is at the core of the U. 5/19 (Tara Malone.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.” lexis) States have long determined what schoolchildren should learn. and when. "To better compare students. Gene Wilhoit.S. even with uniformity Chicago Tribune. education system.

state leaders still confront structural challenges. Too often. state education and economic systems have few linkages. These skills are largely absent from state education standards as well. Even when reforms occur. several challenges remain.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. CTE curricula typically fit poorly with state standards and assessments. Astead. making the educational response to emerging growth industries slow or nonexistent.org/Files/pdf/0706TECHED. 7 – Education Division @ NGA Center for Best Practices (David. Mehta.nga. Deeply held ideological differences about student capabilities and expectations further delay needed reforms. “Retooling Career Technical Education.” http://www. As a result. / 106 .PDF) Although CTE programs are shifting away from an old voc-ed mentality to embrace the demands of the innovation economy. State assessment systems rarely measure the workplace and industry-specific skills that employers demand. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE States can’t implement CTE – no linkages to industry and structural barriers Wakelyn. Peace through superior firepower.

who knows if it will be enough money. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. 9 (Seward. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?”. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards." Peace through superior firepower. Among other problems.aspx)///HM Still.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. / 107 ." Jennings says. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards. Astead. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Spending DA Costs tons of $$$ Darby. http://blogs. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test.tnr. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money.

These effects were greater in higher-income counties. while mandated increases in state education aid did increase total spending on education. "THE EFFECT OF MANDATED STATE EDUCATION SPENDING ON TOTAL LOCAL RESOURCES" http://www. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Trade-off DA State funded education trades off Baicker and Gordon.nber.org/papers/w10701.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. Localities. and welfare. public health. Each dollar of increased education funding a locality received from the state resulted in an average decline in funds from the state for other purposes of about 20 cents. reacted to the increased state revenue-raising and spending by cutting back on their own revenue-raising and their spending on both education and other programs. in turn. highways. Peace through superior firepower. and public buildings. fire protection. Thus. and Nora.pdf?new_window=1) We find that states did change their spending patterns in a way that partially offset the mandated increase in their education spending (although not in a way that diminished their progressivity). they did so at the expense of drawing resources away from spending on other programs. The greatest impacts were on hospitals. and Department of Economics UCSan Diego (Katherine. but there were also significant declines in spending on police. / 108 . 4 . Mehta.Department of Economics at Dartmouth.

Peace through superior firepower. The controversy reached into the Los Angeles High School faculty.4 billion last year under the No Child Left Behind Act. requires the states to assess students before they receive high school diplomas. The testing is the most controversial feature of No Child Left Behind. "Banking Collapse Lands on America’s Schools" http://www. Mehta. This legislation. Astead.truthdig. 8 – lecturer in journalism at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and is vice president of the Los Angeles City Ethics Commission (Bill. which amounted to $24. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Cali Econ DA Repealing No Child Left Behind would skyrocket California’s budget deficit Boyarsky.com/report/item/20080929_banking_collapse_lands_on_americas_schools/) Although the Bush administration and Congress took a hands-off attitude toward Wall Street—until the collapse— Washington enthusiastically reached into the classrooms of every public school in the country with the No Child Left Behind Act. / 109 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Without such testing—in California it is called the California High School Exit Examination—schools could lose federal funding. passed early in the Bush administration with bipartisan support.

These revenues have plunged as the economy has gone into freefall.pdf?new_window=1) We analyze primarily major revenue and expenditure categories. 4 – Department of Economics at Dartmouth.stm] The 50 US states play a much more important role in the US system than local authorities do in a European context. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending Most states passed laws prohibiting deficit spending—counterplan would get rolled back Schifferes 7/2 – Economics reporter. elementary and secondary education expenditures comprised over 60 percent of our measure of total direct spending by local governments. and Department of Economics UCSan Diego (Katherine.uk/2/hi/business/8130318. This has hit them very hard as the US recession starts to bite. Other major categories of expenditures include hospitals. BBC News [Steve. and for consistency we construct total revenue and direct expenditure by aggregating up spending and revenues from these categories.bbc. Together they make up about one-third of all public spending. and welfare. "US states face budget meltdowns" http://news.they have nearly all passed laws in the past 20 years requiring them to have a balanced budget. Real county-area revenues per capita in our sample grew from $1565 on average in 1982 to $2272 in 1997. "THE EFFECT OF MANDATED STATE EDUCATION SPENDING ON TOTAL LOCAL RESOURCES" http://www.org/papers/w10701. Our totals are. police. unlike the federal government. Mean real per capita direct expenditures (excluding intergovernmental expenditures) grew from $1345 in 1982 to $1919 in 1997. States have a limited ability to do deficit spending—means that funding to other areas are largely impacted Baicker and Gordon. States rely on sales taxes and property taxes at the local level to fund much of their spending. And the states also have an important constraint that the Federal government does not . roads and welfare support is made at the state level. consistently constructed over time to contain the largest sources of revenues and expenditures.co. with three-quarters of those earmarked for education – so changes to this funding stream are likely to have a substantial impact on other aspects of state and local budgets. In 1997. / 110 . and forbidding them to borrow money to pay for current spending. they have faced higher bills to pay for the casualties of the recession. At the same time.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. highways. County-areas received just over 40 percent of their revenues as intergovernmental grants from the state. or 10% of US GDP.12 The totals presented here are therefore smaller than actual totals reported in the Census of Governments data and education spending as a share of our total spending measure is a larger ratio than education spending as a share of the reported Census of Governments total. Peace through superior firepower. and Nora.nber. Most spending on schools. Most localities. however. have limited ability to run deficits so it is not surprising that revenues exceed expenditures on average. Astead.

ultimately hurting their professional opportunities. "Will publishers cave in to pressure from the Texas board to include junk science in their textbooks? It has happened before." says Scott. And if one doubts this. History is unequivocal in teaching this lesson." Other new standards include language such as "is thought to". Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2] Texas’ science standards would cause a national shift to creationism teaching – their textbooks spill over AIP 3/31 – American Institute of Physics ("Science setback for Texas schools" http://www." NCSE presented the board with a petition from 54 scientific and educational societies. or "proposed transitional fossils" to make evolutionary concepts seem tentative when.physorg. but could result in watered-down science textbooks across the U. and there is little room for doubt their true intentions. "But textbooks that please the Texas board will be rejected in other states. and effectively dismantle American democracy by instituting religious indoctrination in the schools and halls of public policy making. They mean to supplant all of these things with a form of oligarchy wrapped in the shrouds of a dumbed down science and legalistic religion. "Having students 'analyze and evaluate all sides of scientific evidence' is code that gives creationists a green light to attack biology textbooks. not a victory. the need to fight it on all fronts. Religion has ever been a sanctuary of those who seek to secure their eminence at the expense of others. one need only consult the web sites and publications of such notable creationist organizations as the the Creation Museum. The changes will not immediately affect curricula in Texas high schools. 8 – Evangelical minister for 14 years (Lee. their mission is to redefine the United States of America. "The Creationist Buffoonery and Its Dangerous Implications".org/2008/01/thecreationist-buffoonery-and-its-dangerous-implications/) Make no mistake. Although the "strengths and weaknesses" wording that has been part of the standards for over a decade was finally excised--wording that has been used to pressure science textbook publishers to include creationist arguments--a number of amendments put the creationist-inspired wording back in. Mehta. ubiquitous standardized tests are central to measuring student progress and proficiency. / 111 . notes Rosenau. There is no higher imperative if we mean to preserve America’s intellectual Peace through superior firepower. eviscerate the Constitution. a project director for NCSE. urging the board to reject language that misrepresents or undermines the teaching of evolution. Eugenie Scott. you might ask? The answer is not hard to fathom. The true mission of creationism is theocracy. Creationists are quite explicit in their stated goals." says Dr. And why. not to mention diminishing America’s leadership in science and technology. Scott. in fact. Teachers teach to the test. but "the standards will affect standardized tests and textbooks. not a draw. and textbooks have to reflect this. The creationist attack on the teaching of evolution devalues science. "This is a setback for science education in Texas. and Biology standards (TEKS) with loopholes and language that make it even easier for creationists to attack science textbooks.html) The board majority amended the Earth and Space Science. Creationists aim to not only destroy science in an effort to protect their creationist fairy tales. philosophical. theological." For example. creationism intends to redefine science. and yet as blind as we are we seem to have failed to learn it. There's a reason creationists are claiming victory. "What we now have is Son of Strengths and Weaknesses." cautioned Dr. is made even more clear. The revised wording opens the door to creationism in the classroom and in the textbooks.S. Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education (NCSE). scientific. which the board likewise ignored. stasis and the sequential nature of groups in the fossil records. "The final vote was a triumph of ideology and politics over science.com/news157728177. The new standard directs students to "analyze and evaluate the sufficiency of scientific explanations concerning any data of sudden appearance. cheapens theology as well as condemning America’s students to an inferior education. http://dissidentvoice. Thanks to such laws as No Child Left Behind. administrative and judicial. the revised biology standard (7B) reflects two discredited creationist ideas--that "sudden appearance" and "stasis" in the fossil record somehow disprove evolution." "Let's be clear about this. The decisions will not only affect Texas students for the next ten years. Thus exposed. and replace it with a meaningless shell of supernatural speculation and deceit. "The board majority chose to satisfy creationist constituents and ignore the expertise of highly qualified Texas scientists and scientists across the country." says Josh Rosenau." says Rosenau. the Institute for Creation Research and the Discovery Institute.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff." Teaching creationism dooms American democracy and means they can’t solve the case Salisbury. Publishers will have to choose between junk science and real science. such concepts are well-documented and accepted by the scientific community. Astead.

Astead. / 112 . Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One Peace through superior firepower. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff freedom.

and democracy (Larry. / 113 . and author on foreign policy.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/di/di. accountability. foreign aid. lecturer. Astead. http://wwics. Mehta. Most of these new and unconventional threats to security are associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of democracy. with its provisions for legality. chemical. 95 – professor. adviser. issues and imperatives : a report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict”. The flow of illegal drugs intensifies through increasingly powerful international crime syndicates that have made common cause with authoritarian regimes and have utterly corrupted the institutions of tenuous. The very source of life on Earth. and biological weapons continue to proliferate. Peace through superior firepower. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2] Democracy prevents extinction Diamond. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990s: Actors and instruments. the global ecosystem. democratic ones. and openness.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.si. appears increasingly endangered. popular sovereignty. In the former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread. December 1995. Nuclear.htm) This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well-being in the coming years and decades.

Although the new Earth and Space Science standards crafted by an expert writing team mandated robust earth science instruction in Texas high schools.nestanet. Peace through superior firepower. a series of amendments weakened these standards and opened the door for creationist teachers to bring nonscientific ideas into the science classroom. the standards Texas uses to select textbooks have a major influence on national textbook content. "Creationism in the New Texas Standards http://www. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One Ext: Texas Spills Over Texas spills over and kills solvency Newton. / 114 . 9 (Summer Issue) . The Texas State Board of Education finalized its new science standards during a meeting in late March 2009.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. Because of Texas’ purchasing power. National Center for Science Education (Steven.Public Information Project Director.org/cms/sites/default/files/journal/Summer09.pdf) for Earth and Space Science" The State of Texas is one of the nation’s largest buyers of K-12 textbooks.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. So states were allowed to continue setting their own standards. that many school districts judged as failures would be judged as successes if only they were located in a different state. This obvious problem is receiving attention from President Barack Obama’s administration. This is because the Bush administration did not want to broach the divisive issue of national academic standards. 9 (Educational patchwork: States should cooperate on ending the glaring inconsistencies among academic standards. http://www. Just as unfairly. / 115 . Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Links to Politics Obama will take the blame – he is championing state cooperation Las Vegas Sun. Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. Astead. meaning that mediocre school districts could continue to be mediocre if the state set low achievement standards — yet be rated as successes under the federal law.com/news/2009/feb/22/educational-patchwork/)/HM A new study has confirmed what many critics of the No Child Left Behind federal education law have said all along. which is leaning toward encouraging states to cooperate on a plan to establish national academic standards for core subjects. school districts that had surpassed mediocre but were within states with high standards could end up being labeled as failures.lasvegassun.

although gaps did not change significantly from 2004 to 2008. and particularly minorities. Consider. Peace through superior firepower. After all. can be traced to the standards-based reforms embodied in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law and the state efforts that predated it. it doesn't help much if a child does well in fourth grade but graduates ill prepared for college or the workplace. NCLB is now up for reauthorization. This is no time for retreat on No Child Left Behind" lexis) THE GOOD news that America's elementary and middle school students have made impressive improvements in reading and math is unfortunately tempered by the dismal performance of high school students. for instance. evidence that the emphasis on reading and math has -. the scores of 17-year-olds stayed alarmingly flat over 35 years. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Repeal NCLB CP No Child Left Behind is improving education—data proves—BUT a new national standard is key Washington Post 5/10 ("What Test Results Suggest. better efforts to improve teaching and. Educational reforms that seem to be helping younger students must be strengthened and applied to the later grades. white and Hispanic 9-year-olds all posted higher scores than in previous years.helped students to do well in other subjects such as science and history. There have been welcome gains in shrinking achievement gaps between white and minority students since 1971." not the "whys" behind the scores. According to the new long-term trend report on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). There is a need for even more rigor in school curriculums. / 116 . there's not a minute to waste. When the longterm trend results are viewed in the context of other national assessments. Astead. we hope. NAEP officials report only the "what. as the latest results from federal tests show. but it's significant that black and Hispanic students of all age groups made greater gains in math than white students since 1973 and that black. an even stronger picture of NCLB's benefits emerge. and. Improved performance of younger students. and the NAEP report is a clear prompt not to retreat from its principles.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. students at ages 9 and 13 did significantly better on 2008 tests than their counterparts of the early 1970s. Minority students who were long overlooked by the education system still trail their white counterparts. national standards. Unfortunately.contrary to the hypothesis of some critics -. the adoption of common.

Jennifer A. An unfortunate consequence is that many students mirror their teachers’ preferences and acquire a lifelong disinterest in STEM by the time they reach middle school. offering a balanced curriculum to a broad student body. this is due to the poor-quality education at early levels that leaves students ill equipped to pursue higher levels of STEM education. Peace through superior firepower. and is compulsory up to age 16. not enough students are making it to the advanced levels of STEM studies. K-12 sets the foundation for all subsequent education and training and prepares citizens for entry into the labor force. a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies. http://www. has the biggest challenges. Jena Baker McNeill is Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. Charter schools represent 3. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Higher Education CP K-12 key to labor force and defense McGuire.” In the education pipeline from elementary to graduate education.D. Plan is a prerequisite – lack of K-12 STEM education kills potential for higher-level STEM Lips et al. an in-depth assessment of all sectors is beyond the scope of this report. Too few freshmen who declare a STEM major graduate with a degree in STEM. but only with state and local government approval. This result is the problem of the “leaky pipeline. Competitiveness with K–12 STEM Education and Training"Ethel Machi.pdf) In today’s schools. Colonel in the US Army. / 117 . In many cases. an independent researcher. High school students are not being trained at a high enough level to compete with international students once they reach college.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and magnet) and private (parochial and non-parochial) schools. Elementary school teachers in particular are often not as passionate or trained in STEM subjects as they are in the arts.heritage. often cater to a narrow student body.x Traditional public schools are most common. it is the largest sector within the industry. Astead.dtic. Nearly 90 percent of K-12 students attend public schools. at The Heritage Foundation http://www. 6/16 – Senior Policy Analyst in Education in the Domestic Policy Studies Department (Dan. but very few liberal arts majors migrate to STEM. Brief assessments of the other key sectors are provided in an essay on page 21. and operate with more autonomy than traditional public schools. Ph. is Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf)) Given the education industry’s size. The K-12 system includes public (traditional.org/Research/Education/upload/SR_57.. Instead. this paper focuses on K-12 because it is most important to national security. "Improving U. the majority of math and science teachers do not have math or science degrees. Private schools operate outside of government control because government funding is not normally provided.2 percent of the public schools and address specific community needs. However. Many STEM students migrate to liberal arts. 4 (Mark. Mehta. xi Magnet schools are more rare and offer concentrated curriculums for students with specific interests and advanced talents. Marshall is Director of Domestic Policy Studies.S. and James Jay Carafano. private schools receive public funds in at least five states and the District of Columbia. charter. Further.

many of them in information sciences. Astead. economy in general. The technology-driven economy will add twenty million jobs in the next decade.edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR.S. which must simultaneously develop and defend against these same technologies.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and information science will combine to reshape most existing technologies. Peace through superior firepower. is the strength of the American economy. But education in science.pdf) Education is the foundation of America’s future. will depend not only on professionals that can produce and direct innovation in a few key areas. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. clearly. nanotechnology.library. national security. It was basic science and engineering excellence that brought about the information revolution in the first place and. The United States will need sharply growing numbers of competent knowledge workers. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Liberal Arts CP Only STEM education solves the aff – our evidence is comparative The United States Commission on National Security. Mehta. The health of the U.34 But it is misleading to equate “information science” with “science” itself. / 118 . an area in which there are already significant shortages. and engineering has special relevance for the future of U. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. High-quality preparation of Americans for the working world is more important than ever. This is critical not just for the U. many of them requiring significant technical expertise.unt.S.S. but also on a populace that can effectively assimilate a wide range of new tools and technologies. economy. Quality education in the humanities and social sciences is essential in a world made increasingly “smaller” by advances in communication and in global commerce. At the base of American national security. for America’s ability to lead depends particularly on the depth and breadth of its scientific and technical communities.” http://govinfo. the interplay of bioscience. therefore. mathematics. but specifically for the defense industry. over the next quarter century.

Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Disads Disads non-unique – math and English funding Crawford. The Department of Education will issue grants to states that demonstrate innovative ideas for improving performance and a track record of successful implementation. Astead. rather than choosing to go it alone.” http://www. “Education Reform: Obama Ups the Ante. The White House wants states to use the funds for programs and methods that will better prepare K-12 students for college and the workforce. Mehta.kiplinger. A chunk of the federal education money will help states establish rigorous testing programs to gauge whether students are ready for work or college. Peace through superior firepower.com/businessresource/forecast/archive/Obama_ups_ante_on_education_reform_090707.35-billion pot of federal money. An open competition will determine grant winners. Some of the money will also go to charter schools and teacher pay-for-performance programs. Nearly all states have agreed to develop common academic standards for math and English. / 119 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.html) The Obama administration is zeroing in on improving the nation’s schools by providing states with an unprecedented $4. 7/7 – Researcher for the Kiplinger Letters (Jonathan N.

(…) Joining the Pennsylvania generals for the event was Lancaster County resident and Silver Star recipient Specialist Jason Harrington. "Given all the threats that this nation faces around the world -. We cannot begin just with basic training: we have to start early.com/article/pressRelease/idUS162605+03-Jun-2009+PRN20090603) Retired military leaders from across Pennsylvania held a news conference at the State Capitol today. http://www. They found that the at-risk children who attended were 44 percent more likely to complete high school than the children who did not attend. But we need to make sure our recruits in the future are educated. The retired generals said that investments in early childhood education will increase the number of young Americans who graduate and qualify to serve. with five or more arrests." Burns said. among other reasons. With that knowledge.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. former Deputy Commandant of the US Army War College in Carlisle.America's men and women in uniform stand ready to keep the country safe." Peace through superior firepower. Willing." which cites new statistics from the Pentagon showing that 75 percent of young people ages 17 to 24 are unable to enlist because they lack a high school diploma. This is a threat to national security. / 120 . or are physically unfit. Retired Major General William Burns. PA. the at-risk children who did not benefit from the early learning were five times more likely to be chronic offenders. Mehta. Researchers tracked the progress of at-risk children who participated in the program together with similar children who did not participate.released a new report called "Ready.A successful education system is the key to maintain national security and military readiness Doster. have a criminal background. "It is disturbing for me to learn that so many young Americans are ineligible to serve in the military. "Our national security 20 years from now is dependent on the investment our country makes in young people today. so we would like our legislators to be at the forefront of a program so critical to national security and the success of our children and youth: early childhood education. a groundbreaking early education program. Pennsylvania leads the nation in our forward thinking.we must do everything possible to invest in the most important component of any military -. He was awarded the Silver Star when he successfully coordinated a rescue of his wounded sergeant.its fighting men and women. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA Retired US Generals agree. Dan O'Neill. Iraq with the Pennsylvania National Guard's 28th Infantry from June 2005 to June 2006. "Make no mistake about it -. By age 27. members of his company and of himself after being stranded by an IED attack. Harrington served in Ramadi. and Unable to Serve." Craig said. calling for increased investment in early childhood education to improve school success and preserve military readiness for the future. responsible and top-notch. Astead. The generals cited a 40-year study of Michigan's Perry Preschool." Perugino said. 6/3 (Steven. and Joe Perugino -.all former commanders of Pennsylvania's 28th Infantry Division of the Army National Guard -. The group highlighted research showing that quality early education programs significantly increase graduation rates and reduce later crime among at-risk children who participate. Retired Military Brass Say Early Education Key to National Security. as well as major generals Wesley Craig. Reuters Reporter. it's our duty to make these early opportunities available to more kids who need them.reuters. "We know from the research that investing in early education will help us build a stronger military and a stronger country." said Harrington.

the NEA spent $10. than the top two defense contractors. didn’t equal the AFT and the NEA in federal contributions in the 2008 cycle. rigorous standards lead to more students reaching higher levels of achievement. Here in the United States. unfortunately. and federal lobbying records show they use this clout. They are more like huge corporations with high-powered lobbying arms and cozy connections with important politicians.7 million on lobbying.com/opinion/columns/TimothyCarney/Teachers-unions-say-jump-Congress-sayshow-high-40384837. the top recipient of military contracts most years. "Teachers unions say 'jump. These contributions give the unions clout. A good place to start would be revisiting the issue of national standards. defense contractors. Take defense contractors. which don’t want competition from private schools.. The American Federation of Teachers is the most powerful lobby in congress—they control the agenda at all times Carney 2/26 – senior reporter for the Evans-Novak Political Report and Washington Examiner columnist (Timothy P. Beltway bandits. Abundant evidence suggests that common. While there are legitimate doubts about the educational results of the D. The countries that consistently outperform the United States on international assessments all have national standards. are not well paid. for the most part. students there ranked fifth in the world on the mathematics portion of that assessment. it will be another triumph for a near-monopoly that has lined the coffers of nearly every member of Congress and deployed an army of lobbyists throughout Washington.500 in federal taxpayer money to some low-income district parents to use on private or religious schools. Astead. Academic standards for students in the rest of the country. "The Case for National dyn/content/story/2009/02/15/ST2009021502025. There are many areas in education around which we need to build consensus. I can see beyond the Capitol to Virginia. and their K Street hires reveals that lobbying to kill DC vouchers was a priority. The NEA employs four different lobbying firms in Washington. influential industries—most of them pale in their influence efforts compared to the teachers unions. and in places like D. If they win in the end and kill this program. are a mixed bag. Public school teachers. spent more on politics than any other defense firm in the 2008 elections.html) Standards" http://www.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.' Congress says 'how high?'" http://www. When the House passed the $410 billion omnibus appropriations bill this week—funding the normal operations of government for the next seven months—it included a provision that effectively would end the D.html) Teachers unions. / 121 . The result is 51 benchmarks of varying content and quality. scored on a par with the highestperforming countries in both math and science on a recent international assessment. Mehta.com/wp- From my office in Washington. The top two teachers unions— AFT and the National Education Association—spent more combined.just as every state in the union has its own standards. are on the verge of demolishing the chief threat to their monopoly—school vouchers for low-income families in the District of Columbia. and the NEA and AFT combined gave more than the top four oil companies combined. After Minnesota adopted rigorous math standards. But the image of the hard-working self-sacrificing teacher is not the proper symbol for the teachers unions in this country. They still spent less than the American Federation of Teachers.C. they do dangerous and difficult work with inadequate support. Over the past two years.washingtonpost. combined. Peace through superior firepower. which includes at least six lobbyists. These three jurisdictions are so close in miles yet have very different standards for what their students should know and be able to do -. Theirs is a noble undertaking. the AFT. voucher program.27 million. Reviewing the filings of the NEA. which has been recognized for setting high standards. which shelled out $2. the teachers unions look an awful lot like those corporate special interests Democrats supposedly oppose. The top five lobbying firms.C. in addition to their in-house lobbying arm. the voucher program is in Congress’s crosshairs because of the lobbying efforts and campaign contributions of the teachers’ unions. students in Massachusetts. Both of the teachers unions gave more than any oil company. I can ride a few stops on the Metro and be in Maryland. according to data from the Center for Responsive Politics. with core curriculum. through their allies in the Democrat-controlled Congress. which provides $7. Again. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Teachers Unions Teachers Unions support national standards Weingarten 2/16 – president of the American Federation of Teachers (Randi. $5.C. Lockheed Martin. school voucher program after next school year.8 million in the last cycle—with nearly every AFT dime going to Democrats. assessments and time for professional development for teachers based on those standards.washingtonexaminer. on closer inspection.

html) Reform is a challenge teachers unions embrace. Under the leadership of Randi Weingarten. Yes. Charter schools can provide opportunities for innovation and experimentation.com/149/story/626941.buffalonews. Astead. the American Federation of Teachers has launched a $1 million innovation fund to implement sustainable reform efforts developed by union members. especially in our cities where the achievement gap and all its ramifications threaten the vibrancy of local economies. and urge caution so that a proliferation of charters does not undermine full support for traditional public schools. including five here in Buffalo. Union leaders understand we have a responsibility to make schools work. We also believe charters must be accountable for the tax money they receive and transparent in how they spend it. "Richard C. This deeply held belief in reform is why NYSUT was an early advocate for smaller classes.funded program to develop “learning communities” that focus on ending the achievement gap. Obama recently pushed for even more reform — rewarding teacher excellence. Dozens of teachers unions in New York have negotiated innovative compensation models — from stipends for those who earn national certification to New York City’s bold experiment in school-based performance pay. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan Education reform popular among teacher unions Iannuzzi 4/2 – president of New York State United Teachers. the state’s largest union representing over 600. / 122 . And local unions in Dunkirk and Fredonia have begun taking part in a National Education Association. we have been speaking of the same things.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Peace through superior firepower. Rather than considering those subjects taboo. that’s right.. NYSUT is affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association (Richard C. Iannuzzi: Teachers unions embracing reform" http://www. NYSUT proudly represents teachers in more than a dozen charter schools. strict discipline. holding teachers more accountable and promoting innovation. Mehta. The record clearly demonstrates the commitment of teachers unions to improving public education. such as charter schools.000 professionals in education and healthcare. higher academic standards. quality early childhood education programs and the professional development necessary to provide every child with the most qualified teachers possible.

/ 123 . Mehta. This was a huge mistake. was a disaster for the academy in the public eye.com/post/?q=NmMxMGMxYzc5YjdiNGRiZmE4YmVkN2JmNWRmNDA3ZTA=) The NEA and the higher education lobby are massive.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the public is with us. Yet when it comes to higher education. 2/5/2008. Peace through superior firepower. and even Republicans legislators have little reason to oppose them and plenty of reason to fear them. http://corner. “Conservatives Dropped the Ball. Fighting the education culture war would have accumulated political capital. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda Plan popular – liberal education lobbies overwhelm conservative opposition and build pol cap Kurtz. People for the American Way. there are simply no conservative lobbying organizations to counter them. 8 – adjunct fellow of the Hudson Institute and a Senior Fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center (Stanley. a blog of The National Review. The public is with us on this.nationalreview. Without an large. modeled on. What we need is a mass-membership organization. and when they do. and far more influential on the Hill than most people realize. for example. The Bush administration’s attitude was that Bill Bennett/Lynn Cheney-type culture war issues sap political capital that could more profitably be put toward the war effort or social security reform. say. Conservatives rarely even show up for most legislative battles over education. When it comes to the left-leaning craziness of the education system. Democrats are completely in the pocket of these liberal lobby groups. Linking the Democrats with their crazy leftist pals in the academy is the best way to beat them. The problem is that we haven’t developed any institutional way of harnessing public antipathy to educational bias. Astead. And again. for example. broad-based lobby group. they are vastly outspent and outgunned. one for K-12 and one for higher education. able to rally folks who want to do something about our education system — or perhaps separate organizations. The Lawrence Summers dispute. such education battles as the Bush administration has chosen to fight intentionally avoid precisely the "culture war" issues that might make a real difference.” The Corner. we can’t effectively counter-balance the massive teacher-professor-based education lobbies.

towns and teachers. They also endorsed the Obama administration´s desire to extend student learning time to stay globally competitive and called for investments in state-of-the-art data systems so school systems can track student performance across grades. Mark Warner (D-VA) and Herb Kohl (D-WI)." The letter was initiated by Senators Evan Bayh (D-IN). Astead.americanchronicle. and signed by seven of their moderate colleagues. "By 2016. and Poland." they wrote to President Obama. http://www. Based on this report. / 124 ." the moderate Democrats commended President Obama for his focus on teacher quality and noted a recent report by McKinsey and Company that highlights the achievement gaps that persist among various economic.3 trillion higher last year. leaders of the Senate Moderate Dems Working Group. our GDP could have been up to $2.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. we believe we must embrace promising new approaches to education policy if we are to prepare our children to fill the jobs of the future.com/articles/view/107638) Washington—Ten moderate Senate Democrats today sent a letter to President Barack Obama voicing support for his key education goals and pledging to "lend our voices to the debate as proponents of education reform. "As legislators. Peace through superior firepower. Joseph Lieberman (ID-CT). schools. 6/25 (American Chronicle. Claire McCaskill (D-MO). To retain our global economic leadership. Other signatories on the letter include Senators Mary Landrieu (D-LA)." Saying that "now is the time to explore new paths and reject stale thinking. Tom Carper (D-DE). Iceland. the senators noted that "had the United States closed the gap in education achievement with better-performing nations like Finland. Bill Nelson (D-FL). and Blanche Lincoln (D-AR). Mehta. regional and racial backgrounds in the United States and the gaps between American students and their peers in other industrialized nations. we share your sense of urgency in moving an education reform agenda through Congress." The senators expressed support for new pay-for-performance teacher incentives and expansions of effective public charter schools. four out of every 10 new American jobs will require at least some advanced education or training. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats Moderate Dems love the plan – letter to Obama proves AC. Michael Bennet (D-CO).

Obama will claim that taxpayers will pay less for nationalized education since the increase in their federal taxes will be less than what they're now paying in local school taxes. which will go away. Why not centralize all those processes and save time. They'll be required to meet the same certification standards as national teachers. hires its own staff. Works for Wal-Mart. autos. The pragmatic case for uniform public education will cite economy-of-scale advantages whereby the federal government will eliminate multiple duplications of effort in a currently over-staffed management equation where every school district constructs its own buildings. Astead. rationalizing the nationalizing of public education K-12 will be a snap. Most citizens will see no inherent danger in bringing central planning to public education. And.com/2009/06/nationalizing_public_education. "Nationalizing Public Education Comes After Health Care" http://www.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. too dependent on the varying affluence levels among the states. and health care). effort and money? will be the argument. It doesn't take a crystal ball to see this coming. and jump through bureaucratic hoops that'll eventually dissuade many from being their child's teacher as well as their parent. buys its own materials.that'll sell.americanthinker. Most teachers and administrators will welcome the opportunity to become GS workers and enjoy the benefits of greater and more equitable pay. Many will welcome the end of the politico-educational fiefdoms called school districts. public equals central. Lower taxes . All of America's youth are entitled to an equal opportunity to receive a world class education. Peace through superior firepower. Candidate Obama's language about reforming public education was more emphatic and detailed than his discussion of health care. What groups will oppose this? Besides home schoolers.html) So we come to the point where the financial markets. / 125 . making a case for nationalizing public education will attract broader support than the three previous venues (banking. the distribution of school financing is. plus relocation opportunities without compensation penalties. the auto industry and eventually the health care industry will function under the aegis of the federal government. After all. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns No opposition to nationalized education standards Cary 6/11 – frequent contributor to American Thinker (Lee. Mehta. President Obama will proclaim public education K-12 as too crucial to the future of the nation to be left in the hands of volunteer citizen committees. and within their divergent communities. Anything less is unfair. Compared to the complexity of redesigning the American health care system. Large metropolitan school districts that are almost all dismal failures will gladly turn over their responsibility to the federal government. Obama will say. And. Equal opportunity demands equal funding. central equals public. also known as School Boards and Independent School Districts. and manages its own curriculum to its own state's standards. It's clear from his campaign rhetoric what will come next -America's public education system. that is. So the argument will go.

" said Michael Cohen." Proponents also argue that during the 1990s." agreed Ms. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. "It's just a different context now. I think. the president of the Washington-based Achieve Inc. Astead. Brown. Ravitch said. therefore.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 5 (“Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew. "I think a lot of conversation. Cohen and others argue that the context is different now . the director of education policy at the Center for American Progress. When the debate came up during the 1990s. politicians can take a second look at this and. "And. All states also now participate in NAEP reading and math tests in grades 4 and 8. with a deeper understanding among the public of what's at stake. but today there's far greater public knowledge and understanding than there was in 1992. 50 states are now involved in the effort to decide what standards are most important and how to measure them. who as an Education Department official helped lead the Clinton administration's work on voluntary national tests. Ravitch. the public was not engaged. a lot of public discussion needs to take place." Ms." But Mr.” 12/7. / 126 . she says. lexis) "I think the lesson from the last 10 to 15 years.. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples Last decade irrelevant – future will be bipartisan Education Weekly. a situation that was not the case 15 years ago. consider it more deeply in a bipartisan fashion. regardless of which party is in office. far less attention was focused on the question of performance standards--or how good is good enough--because the content standards themselves were still under development. "is that it's difficult to separate any of the substantive issues around national standards and testing from the politics of education at the federal level. says Ms. Thanks to the NCLB law.

and discussion about this complex and bipartisan law is deteriorating into a partisan mud fight. said Kati Haycock. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Unpopular Reforms are unpopular – Congress prefers inertia on NCLB Hoff. The next time was when Congress required states to adopt standards for student performance in the 1994 version of the ESEA.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.cfm) Will Rogers once said. Mr. but it is unlikely to rewrite the law or add major new provisions. according to Washington observers. the president of the Center on Education Policy. Congress has changed direction only twice in the past 50 years.edu/suse/news-bureau/displayRecord. during the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson. 8 . Congress may be ready to amend the accountability rules and add efforts to improve states’ curricula. the director of the Education Trust. "The tendency of policy is toward inertia. http://www.org/research/education/bg1775. you would have no politics. who worked as an aide to House Democrats on education issues from 1967 through 1994. Mehta. a Washington group that has tracked implementation of the NCLB law. Mr. "Darling-Hammond report calls for moving away from K-12 tests and sanctions" http://ed." This is especially true when it comes to education and the federal law known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). But truth--always a rare commodity--is growing rarer still as the nation approaches November.. The ESEA created the Title I program for disadvantaged students—the largest federal K-12 program. the No Child Left Behind law—championed by President Bush—in 2001. to maintain the same policy or add on to it incrementally. Jennings." said Jack Jennings. for example.Education Week (David J. In K-12 education. according to Mr. But Congress and the new president—Democrat or Republican— would be unlikely to be interested in making the dramatic changes recommended in the forum's report. / 127 . 4 – Senior Education Policy Analyst @ Heritage (Krista. Jennings' organization has convened a group of researchers to evaluate federal efforts to improve schools and recommend whether the federal law should be just tinkered with or totally overhauled. "If you ever injected truth into politics.heritage. The first was when it passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965. One staunch supporter of the NCLB law said major changes are unlikely.stanford. Astead.php?tablename=susenews&id=436) Federal policymakers almost certainly will be ready to do a thorough review of the NCLB law and other K-12 legislation. Peace through superior firepower. In passing the latest version of the ESEA. a Washington nonprofit that lobbies for improving the educational opportunities of disadvantaged children NCLB debates create partisan fights Kafer. “No Child Left Behind: Where Do We Go From Here?” Heritage Foundation Report 7/6/04. Jennings said. one experienced policy hand said. Congress put more teeth into the law by requiring states to hold schools accountable for meeting goals for student performance in reading and mathematics.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Plan Unpopular – Political Capital
Drains political capital – election proves Lemann, 8 (Nicholas, “What No Child Left Behind Left Behind,” Writer @ The Washington Monthly,
http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2008/0808.lemann.html) Both presidential candidates have left themselves some room to maneuver on No Child Left Behind, partly just by not talking about it very much. John McCain could conceivably have come all out for vouchers, and abandoned No Child Left Behind as an unwarranted exercise of federal power. He didn’t. Barack Obama could have called for eliminating No Child Left Behind, as Hillary Clinton did (although she voted for it in 2001), for liberal reasons: too much testing and teaching to the test; too little funding and teacher autonomy. He didn’t. It’s safe to assume that no matter who wins the election, No Child Left Behind will not be going away. But to fix it—really fix it—will require dramatic changes and considerable investment of political capital. Neither candidate has indicated that he has that in mind. There isn’t any good way to ensure that students have basic skills, which they desperately need in order not to be left behind in the twenty-first-century economy, without testing. But to start with tests is to go at the problem backward. What schools need is, first, a national standard of what proficiency in reading and math means; second, a curriculum that gets students to that level; and finally, tests tailored specifically to that curriculum. That way teaching the class and "teaching to the test" are the same thing. And the schools with students farthest from proficiency are going to need a lot of extra resources to get them there.

Obama has tons of pol cap, but the plan drains it Stickings, 9 – Assistant Editor, The Moderate Voice
(Michael, “Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Here We Are Back in Culture War Hell,” The Moderate Voice, 1/16/09, lexis) First, how is it œstartling. The œpronouncement was blunt, to be sure, but, as Fox admits, Obama has long been opposed to the policy. Second, its not like the policy is extremely popular, whereas Obama is. He’ll need to spend much of his political capital on the stimulus package, of course, and then on health care, energy, and education reform, among other initiatives, but the good thing is, he has a lot of capital to spend. There would certainly be opposition both from within the military and from without, and it could become a minor distraction, but Obama would no doubt be able to handle it while making a strong case for doing away with the policy. Third, it is the right that wants to, and intends to, reopen the culture wars, as Palin and others tried to do during the presidential campaign, and it will go there regardless. Yes, this would give them an opening, but standing up for the rights of gays and lesbians to serve their country against bigots who want them to keep quiet about who they are or, better, to get the hell out of the military altogether is a fight Obama and the opponents of the policy should be willing to have. (more¦) Newstex ID: MODV-0001-31100840

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Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns
Plan can’t be popular – no constituency for reform Saba, 8 - president of the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence
(Dave, “Student Success Strategy,” American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence blog, December 3 rd, http://www.abcte.org/blog/2008/12/student-success-strategy) It has been incredibly difficult to gain momentum for the systemic change necessary for success in all of America’s schools. True change requires a comprehensive strategy that focuses on the many variables that affect student performance. While many individual programs are working toward this goal, those organizations working alone will not produce the education our students deserve and require in order to be competitive in the world market. The politics of education overshadows the merits of education change in America. The two camps have become so entrenched that many politicians determine which side they need to be on by who supports or fights against any given program. While conservatives usually focus on working toward education reform, that reform is perceived as principally revolving around school choice. As Andy Rotherham opined in a recent blog, conservatives are seen as “reflexively hostile to public schools.” On the other side, there are powerful groups that want to maintain the status quo. They have been very effective in positioning themselves as the student advocate through a comprehensive strategy to push for smaller class sizes, universal pre-k, more spending on education in general, higher salaries for teachers and reduced testing for students. These have the appearance of advocating for students when they really benefit the adults. A state group will work at the state level toward these goals, often with the advice and additional resources of a national group. Meanwhile, education reform groups operate in a single silo with national leadership and maybe a state group that is advocating for a single item in the reform agenda. Each state represents a win or lose scenario for each group. But each silo really only impacts a small number of students so it is too easy to marginalize that group when compared to the entire system. Reaching a small number of students has not, and will not, induce systemic change to provide better opportunities for all students. The position from the defenders of the status quo is that each education reform does not address the larger need of all students so we should continue to stay with the current and implement their strategy.

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2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]
1. Education is a social-service – job-training Baillie, 72 [Susan PhD, MS in Education from Indiana University and PhD in Social Services from Syracuse
University, Adjunct Associate Professor, and Director of Graduate Medical Education at the David Geffen School of Medicine, “The Potential Role of the School as a Site for Integrating Social Services. A Report.”, Educational Policy Research Center and Office of Education (DHEW), Washington DC, EBSCO]//VIJAY Finally, it would appear that education could play a vital and central role in an integrated social service program. First, there are educational facilities in virtually every community: they are reasonably accessible. Second, these facilities are primarily utilized during the daytime hours of nine—to—three. And most of these school buildings currently are used only sparingly during other hours. Third, educational services are an integral element of social services. That is, they address a very important felt need of a large number of individuals. Aside from the core educational program of kindergarten through twelfth grade, there are a number of other educational needs which are intimately related to other social services: day care——early childhood education centers, vocational education, prenatal and nutritional education, job training and re—training, and so forth. The integration of social services with education offers an obvious potential for improving the quality and nature of the services which are provided. At the same time, it also appears to present some possibilities for reducing costs. The problem with all of this, of course, is that the claims made on behalf of social service integration are largely a priori in nature. That is, they make a considerable amount of rational sense, but leave unanswered the question: Will it work? The notions in our heads of how things “ought to” work so often collide with what actually happens.

2. Counter-interpretation – social services include education in vocational training USDVA, 7 [“Social Services, Except Child Care,” March 23 http://www.vetsuccess.gov/resources/industries/profile?id=47]
Careers in social services appeal to persons with a strong desire to make lives better and easier for others . Workers in this industry usually are good communicators and enjoy interacting with people. Social services workers assist the homeless, housebound, and infirm to cope with circumstances of daily living; counsel troubled and emotionally disturbed individuals; train or retrain the unemployed or underemployed; care for the elderly, and physically and mentally disabled; help the needy obtain financial assistance; and solicit contributions for various social services organizations. About 102,000 establishments in the private sector provided social services in 1998. Thousands of other establishments, mainly in State and local government, provided many additional social services. For information about government social services, see the Career Guide statements on Federal Government, and State and local government, excluding education and hospitals. Social services contain four segments—individual and family services, residential care, job training and vocational rehabilitation services, and miscellaneous social services. (The child-care services industry, including day care and preschool care centers, is covered in a separate Career Guide statement.) Individual and family social services establishments provide counseling and welfare services including refugee, disaster, and temporary relief services. Government offices distribute welfare aid, rent supplements, and food stamps. Some agencies provide adult day care, home-delivered meals, and home health and personal care services. Other services concentrate on children, such as big brother and sister organizations, youth centers, and adoption services. Workers in crisis centers may focus on individual, marriage, child, or family counseling.

Residential care facilities provide around-the-clock social and personal care to children, the elderly, and others who have limited ability to care for themselves. Workers care for residents of alcohol and drug rehabilitation centers, group homes, and
halfway houses. Nursing and medical care, however, is not the main focus of establishments providing residential care, as it is in nursing or personal care facilities (see the statement on health services, elsewhere in the Career Guide).

Job training and related services establishments train the unemployed, underemployed, disabled, and others with job market disadvantages. Vocational specialists and counselors work with clients to overcome deficient education, job skills, or experience. Often industrial psychologists or career counselors will assess the job skills of a client and, working with both the employer and the client, decide whether the client would be better served by taking additional job training, by being placed in a different job with his or her current skills, or by restructuring the job to accommodate any skill deficiency. Miscellaneous social services include many different kinds of establishments, such as advocacy
groups, antipoverty boards, community development groups, and health and welfare councils. Many miscellaneous social services organizations are concerned with community improvement and social change. They may solicit contributions, administer appropriations, and allocate funds among other agencies engaged in social welfare services.

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Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5] 3.org/statement. and that an academic program revolving around standards. First. Mehta. The new approach recognizes the centrality of formal schooling. we believe that the time has come for U. offset the full impact of low socioeconomic status on achievement. and the cognitive. and on persistently underachieving schools. / 131 . and sustainable manner. by its acceptance of the popular assumptions that bad schools are the major reason for low achievement. either here or abroad. Despite the impressive academic gains registered by some schools serving disadvantaged students. including physical health. from birth through the end of formal schooling. No Child Left Behind and the public discussion it has supported have cast a bright light on the achievement gap. policy makers to rethink their assumptions and adopt a broader. that achievement gaps based on socioeconomic status are present before children even begin formal schooling. however. Bureacracy Disad A. Pedro Noguera (PhD. character. the new approach incorporates policies and practices whose effectiveness is reinforced by the preponderance of evidence presently available from serious research. 9 ( Tom. continues to be a vitally important strategy for promoting upward mobility and for working toward equal opportunity and overall educational excellence. teacher training.assistant secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education with the United States Department of Education. Second. Ph.html The Challenge More than a half century of research. This broader. The effectiveness of NCLB has also been weakened by its unintended side effects. and by the incentives that NCLB generates for schools to focus instruction on students who are just below the passing point. NCLB also requires a rate of achievement growth that exceeds the results of even the most effective school improvement measures.S.//LAURA June 25 “A Broader. Ladd (Duke University. While recognizing that the relations between cause and effect in education are often ambiguous. but to development of the whole person. Education policy in this nation has typically been crafted around the expectation that schools alone can offset the full impact of low socioeconomic status on learning. Evidence demonstrates. but it also recognizes the importance of high-quality early childhood and pre-school programs. Astead. and accountability can. is a professor in the Steinhardt School of Culture. Nevertheless. on underachieving disadvantaged children. Schools can—and have—ameliorated some of the impact of social and economic disadvantage on achievement. such as a narrowing of the curriculum. cultural. prof of econ and public policy).Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. in and of itself. bolder approach for education—one that is powerful enough to produce a large reduction in the current association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement. ex. It assigns value to the new knowledge and skills that young people need to become effective participants in a global environment. The persistent failure of policy makers to act on that evidence—in tandem with a school-improvement agenda—is a major reason why the association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement remains so strong. No Child Left Behind is victim to bureaucratic constraints Payzant et al. bolder approach pays attention not only to basic academic skills and cognitive growth narrowly defined. and Human Development at New York University)). and character development that occurs outside schools.boldapproach. Improving our schools. the approach is informed by a large and powerful body of literature from researchers over the years who have examined the powerful impact on student achievement of numerous contextual and environmental factors such as early learning. testing. Peace through superior firepower. at the expense of both lower-performing and higher-performing students. D from Harvard. both here and abroad. In particular. creativity. A Broader. bolder approach breaks with the past by embracing an expanded concept of education in two respects. Helen F. there is solid evidence that policies aimed directly at education-related social and economic disadvantages can improve school performance and student achievement. consistent. including citizenship. Bolder Approach To Education” http://www. and non-academic skills. It seeks to build working relationships between schools and surrounding community institutions. parenting. has documented a powerful association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement. and programs that develop parents’ capacity to support their children’s education. alone or in combination. therefore. bolder approach we support is also informed by research. poverty. after-school and summer programs. professor of practice at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Framework Cannot by Itself Meet the Challenge Through its disaggregated reporting requirements. conventional education policy making focuses on learning that occurs in formal school settings during the years from kindergarten through high school. Bolder Approach for Education Given the limitations of conventional policy. there is no evidence that school improvement strategies by themselves can close these gaps in a substantial. Weakening that association is the fundamental challenge facing America’s education policy makers. the broader. Education. social development. including NCLB. health. The potential effectiveness of NCLB has been seriously undermined. however. The broader. and the ability to respect and work with persons from different backgrounds.

He is currently Director of the £20 million ESRC. Social administration. have also failed to provide the necessary framework within which to study social development. As a result. Recent analyses of the political economy of welfare have. these critiques have usually remained implicit. and far from being incorporated into a theory of social policy. there are signs hat important social developments which affect welfare fundamentally. social administration has not yet succeeded in providing a systematic framework for the analysis of the perpetuation and growth inequalities in ‘welfare state’ societies. Astead. 81 (Dr Alan Walker joined the Department in 1977 and has been a Lecturer. social administration has continued to concentrate its attention on government action through the five social services: health. the boundaries of the subject are becoming increasingly blurred. There are signs that. EPSRC. social administration. It is argued that the essential aspect of social policies are their distributional implications or outcomes.5 million ESRC Growing Older Programme. Crushes policy debate Walker. BBSRC. The tendency to equate social policy with the institutionalized welfare state has reinforced the insular tendencies in British social administration. exposed some short-comings in the current conceptions of social policy. overemphasized the importance of government in the distribution of resources and fostered a false image of the benevolent state as the embodiment of welfare principles. with a split emerging between what some social policy analysts do and what is traditionally defined as being the concern of social administration.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In such analyses attention will be focused less on the problems of individuals or clients. Unless social policy teaching and research adapts its tools and methods to take account of these social factors it is likely to become increasingly detached from the real world of social welfare. He was appointed Professor of Social Policy in 1985 and was Head of Department from 1988 to 1996. nor to attempt to define precisely the boundaries of social policy. and the need for a reassessment of the scope of social policy teaching and research has not been openly and consistently recognized. However. education. for the most part. such as health insurance and employers fringe benefits. These aims would Peace through superior firepower. housing and personal social services. Social policies may be made implicitly or explicitly. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5] B. as the amalgam of disciplines within which social policy is studied is anachronistically called. they are too often seen as being the province of economists alone. This is not only confusing for students and others but more importantly this division may be exploited by those whose interests would be harmed by alternative analyses of social policy. Mehta. It is not intended to lay claim to large sections of disciplines such as economics and politics. Alternative definitions of social policy are needed to ensure that the analysis of welfare is more comprehensive than that carried out so far within the framework of social administration. 2001-2004. traditional conceptions oldie subject have proved to be remarkably resilient. Whether or not the welfare state is in or on the brink of a crisis. / 132 . the impact of inflation and income policies on stratification are rarely considered by social administrators. professions and classes in order to balance descriptions of the institutional framework through which the welfare state is administered with analysis of the social production and maintenance of inequality. The task of social policy analysis is to evaluate the distributional impact of existing policies and proposals and the rationales underlying them. is a relatively young and developing subject and it is not surprising. Existing conceptions of social policy do not provide an adequate framework for the study of the social production and exploitation of inequality. surely. to remain passive. therefore. and have succeeded in sowing the seeds of alternative and more sociological approaches.4 Whilst the coverage of welfare provisions in the private sector. despite the pioneering work of Titmuss in outlining the three divisions of welfare and Townsend in formulating the basis of a sociological approach to social policy. Nonetheless he still supervises a large number of postgraduate students and was until recently the Research Director for the Social Sciences Division in the University. ebsco) Abstract Teaching and research in social administration have been dominated by the study of the public social services. the fact that thirty years of institutionalized social service provision has not produced a major change in the unequal structure of British society is now. by a wide range of social institutions and groups. MRC and AHRC New Dynamics of Ageing Programme and is also Director of the European Research Area in Ageing and is spending most of his time on research.2 The evolution of this realization has been accompanied by periodic expressions of dissatisfaction about the limitations of the definition of ‘social policy’. He directed the £3. if its scope is questioned from time to time. Social Administration and the Social Construction of Welfare”. as a result. Furthermore. 1999-2004. by and large. “Social Policy. arc not receiving critical attention from social administrators because they fall outside of the compass of the subject as it has developed since the Second World War. than on the behavior of organizations. choosing instead. of course. has increased in recent years.3 However. Some of the limitations of this approach have been exposed by the perpetuation and growth of inequality in welfare state societies. firmly established. For example. including the state. partly reflects the fact that economists and sociologists. at best describing them and at worst ignoring them. like their famous predecessors. Senior Lecturer and Reader in Social Policy. ’ This. both as an activity or practice and as an academic subject. social security. and the UK National Collaboration on Ageing Research.

inter-disciplinary. that it is possible and desirable to arrive at a single definition of social policy or social administration. including other sectors of the state as well as financial and business concerns. is by definition. which it is hoped might play some part in an ongoing and fruitful discussion. As Donnison has argued: ‘The distinctive feature of our subject is neither its body of knowledge (for most of this could be incorporated into other disciplines) nor its theoretical structure (for it has very little). Despite some well-known exceptions. / 133 . is translated into a reluctance to investigate some integral pans of the institutionalized policy process. fruitless tasks for a subject that. which Slack has dismissed as neither profitable nor interesting. as an absence of clear agreement amongst analysts on the meaning of concepts that arc generally held to be central to the subject. Social administration has. One important reason for this is the successful social construction of ‘welfare’ as ‘the welfare state’ or government intervention in welfare. or the social differentiation of welfare . in turn. Although a definition of social policy is proposed.7 Rather. of course. if this will facilitate the study of welfare as a whole. this paper attempts to tackle some of the issues surrounding the continuing difficulty of studying social welfare within the framework of existing definitions of social policy as social administration. When this lack of agreement. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5] [Walker Continues.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. If social administration is to encompass adequately the analysis of welfare or dis-welfare. the problem is not so much a lack of alternative and untainted terms. The fact that social administration is a field rather than a discipline’ should not be allowed to inhibit attempts at the clearer definition of the scope and meaning of social policy. But while they continue to concentrate on government and its legislation. then some discussion of the nature of the subject is clearly called for. Mehta. Titmuss referred to this as the ‘unsoluble problem’. the study of social administration has focused its attention almost exclusively on the public welfare activities of government. Peace through superior firepower. as the result of the distributional outcomes of various institutionalized social policies. social administrators are in danger of ignoring the distributional outcomes of decisions made by other powerful social institutions and groups. this is not posited as a final answer. reinforced this stereotype through research and teaching. This process of re-examination assumes. therefore. This need is further emphasized by the implications for the study of social policy of the failure of the welfare state significantly to affect either the prevailing distribution of resources and power in society.8 However. I think. no text omitted] be presumptuous and. but as a tentative suggestion.’ Neither is it my intention to attempt to re-open the discussion on the shopping-list of ‘social’ as opposed to other policies. and we arc not interested in methodology for its own sake. Existing consensus appears to be confined to the study of certain parts of the policy system. it must at some stage re-examine its definition and scope. Astead.

No limits explosion – we’re the only educational policy that’s topical – even exclusive defs include job training S. reducing poverty. including: (1) child care services. Educational Policy Research Center and Office of Education (DHEW). improving outcomes of low-income children.”. It is based on the undeniable fact that different people have differing requirements for social services. and counseling services. and services related to soup kitchens or food banks. (8) services for the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. services related to the management and maintenance of the home. EBSCO] There wou1d appear to be two rationales for examining the feasibility of integrating social services with schools. protective services for children and adults. and (9) services related to the provision of assistance for housing under Federal law. Adjunct Associate Professor. welfare. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower. (3) job training and related services. participation. and individuals with disabilities (including physical. (5) the preparation and delivery of meals. / 134 . we are talking about increased “efficiency” or “effectiveness. (7) literacy and mentoring programs. It should be made clear at the outset. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5] 4. Finally. that we are also dealing with something other than the “logical—semantic” sorts of considerations just described. Washington DC. The term “integrated social services” (with or without education) has acquired particular meanings and connotations. “The Potential Role of the School as a Site for Integrating Social Services. and services related to the intervention in. Second. revitalizing low-income communities. of the individual.” broadly defined. Nor is there any assurance that he will be made aware of or receive all the services to which he is legally entitled. older individuals. however. The current practice is to have an independent set of services. For many it also suggests making social services more accessible to potential clients. or emotional disabilities). or control.gov/sitepages/leg/091506leg1. 5 [A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to repeal the excise tax on telephone and other communications. “integrated social services” is often a code— word for a fairly well articulated approach to the provision or delivery of social services.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 5. With this organization of social services no attention is ‘paid to the unique set of needs. and services to meet the special needs of children. mental. Job-training – they limit all affs that train people for jobs they don’t already have – means the unemployed couldn’t get jobs because they didn’t have one before – bad for the topic because it eliminates most poverty job-training affs B.senate. social services is defined as services directed at helping people in need. In either case. (2) transportation services. (4) information. recreation. it is intimately related——though it need not be——to various notions of community involvement.1321. job training. (6) health support services. MS in Education from Indiana University and PhD in Social Services from Syracuse University. adoption services. and Director of Graduate Medical Education at the David Geffen School of Medicine. it might be a way for providing social services at a lower cost. Astead. and prevention of. it might lead to some manner of improved social services. mental health. day care services for adults. referral. First.pdf] For this purpose. and so forth. For instance. Integrated social services – education is key to comprehensive social services – critical to effectiveness of all social services Baillie. and empowering low-income families and lowincome individuals to become self-sufficient. with each addressing a particular aspect of an individual’s needs——physical health. and employment services. 72 [Susan PhD. services for the prevention of crime and the provision of assistance to the victims and the families of criminal offenders. http://finance. services for children and adults in foster care. A Report. domestic violence. Limits Disad A.

library. and what this implies for the quality of human capital in the 21st century. technology. Astead. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and education for the common good over the next quarter century. Kostrinsky Wave One Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education Nuclear war outweighs education The United States Commission on National Security. Second only to a weapon of mass destruction detonating in an American city. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. / 135 .” http://govinfo. Peace through superior firepower. we can think of nothing more dangerous than a failure to manage properly science.unt. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes.pdf) The scale and nature of the ongoing revolution in science and technology. pose critical national security challenges for the United States.edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR.

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