Volume LXVIII]

[Whole Number 163



kitAb futuh al-buldAn

alrlmdm abu-1 'Abbas


ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri



permanent staff of the Syrian Protestant College, Beirut, Syria Gustav Oottheil Lecturer in Columbia University

Vol,. I

$ta Dork




P. S.

King & Son, Ltd.


in the

Nearer East has increased our desire to


as accurately as is possible the beginnings of the faith and of the various states that have played so important a

part in its history. The Arabs themselves have had, from the earliest times, a keen sense for historical tradition and

an equally keen desire to preserve that tradition in writing. There is, perhaps, no people of earlier times that has left us
so large an amount of documentary evidence as to its beginnings as they have. The evidence, of course, needs sifting and sorting according to the canons of criticism we

have learned to employ in all such cases. But, this work cannot be done by Oriental scholars alone, whose time is often taken up largely with the philological and literary
examination of the texts that have come


to us.

It is,

therefore, eminently a part of their duty to render these texts accessible to students of history who are not masters

of the Arabic language. Dr. Hitti has undertaken this task in connection with the
record of one of the earliest Arab historians whose


Since its publication in 1866 by Prohas been preserved. " " has fessor de Goeje, al-Baladhuri's Futuh al-Buldan

been recognized as one of our chief authorities for the
period during which the Arab state was in process of formation. This task of translating has not been a simple one proof is that the attempt has not been made before this.



and unintelligible. due to the fact that the work, as it has perhaps reached us, is a shortened edition of a much larger one
style of al-Baladhuri is often cryptic




which, though existent up to the seventeenth century, has not been found in any of the collections of manuscripts to In its present form, the work menmatters that probably were treated of in the longer recension, but of which now we know nothing. Dr. Hitti's translation is, therefore, in a certain sense also,

which we have
tions often

men and

a commentary and an exposition.
will be


such, I trust that


found useful to Orientalists as well as to students of His fine sense for the niceties of Arabic expreshistory.

sion has often enabled


to get

through a thicket that


impenetrable to us Westerners.

Richard Gottheil.
Columbia University, January,


Introduction Arabic Historiography with Special Reference to al-Baladhuri.


Chapter I AI-Madinah

Chapter II The Possessions of the banu-an-Nadir Chapter III The Possessions of the banu-Kuraizah Chapter IV



Chapter V Fadak


Chapter VI Wadi-1-Kura and Taima'
Chapter VII

Chapter VIII


The Wells
Chapter IX


Makkah Makkah


The Floods





Chapter XI
Tabalah and Jurash

Chapter XII
Tabuk, Ailah, Adhruh, Makna and al-Jarba'

Chapter XIII







Capitulation of Naj ran



Chapter XV Al-Yaman


Chapter XVII


Chapter XVIII Al-Yamamah


Chapter XIX The Apostasy of the Arabs

in the Caliphate of




Chapter XX The Apostasy of

the banu-Wali'ah and al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais ibnMa'dikarib ibn-Mu'awiyah-1-Kindi 153

Chapter XXI Al-Aswad al-'Ansi and those with him


al-Yaman who Apostatized

Chapter I The Conquest of Syria Chapter II The Advance of Khalid ibn-al-Walid on Syria and he Reduced on his Way
Chapter III The Conquest of Busra Chapter IV The Battle of Ajnadin (or Ajnadain) Chapter V

the Places 169




Battle of Fihl in the Province of the Jordan


Chapter VI

The Province

of the Jordan


Chapter VII The Battle of Marj as-Suffar Chapter VIII The Conquest of Damascus and





Chapter IX

CONTENTS Chapter ix PAGE X Battle of The al-Yarmuk 207 Chapter XI Palestine 213 Cities called al-'Awasim. .Wa'il Chapter III The Fortifications of the Mesopotamian Frontier Chapter IV Arabic made the Language of the State Registers 284 287 301 PART IV— ARMENIA Chapter I The Conquest of Armenia 3<>5 PART V— NORTHERN AFRICA Chapter I The Conquest of Egypt and al-Maghrib [Mauritania] Chapter II 335 The Conquest Chapter III of Alexandria 34^ The Conquest Chapter IV of Barkah and Zawilah 352 The Conquest of Tripoli 355 . Chapter XII The Province of Kinnasrin and the Chapter XIII Cyprus . 223 235 Chapter Chapter XIV 244 The Samaritans XV 246 253 Al-Jarajimah Chapter XVI The Frontier Fortresses of Syria PART Chapter I III— MESOPOTAMIA 269 The Conquest of Mesopotamia [al-Jazirah] Chapter II The Christians of the banu-Taghlib ibn.

or the Battle of Chapter IV The Battle of Mihran or an-Nukhailah Chapter V The Battle of al-Kadisiyah Chapter VI The Conquest of al-Mada'in 401 al-Jisr 403 4°5 409 4X 7 Chapter VII The Battle of Jaliila' 420 Chapter VIII The Founding of al-Kiifah 434 . Chapter II The Caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab Chapter III The Battle of Kuss an-Natif.x CONTENTS PAGE Chapter V The Conquest of Ifrikiyah Chapter VI The Conquest of Tanjah [Tangiers] 356 362 PART VI—ANDALUSIA Chapter I The Conquest of Andalusia 3^5 PART VII— ISLANDS IN THE SEA Chapter I The Conquest of Certain Islands in the Sea 375 PART VIII— NUBIA Chapter I Terms made with Nubia 379 Chapter II The Karatis 383 PART IX—AL-TRAK AND PERSIA Chapter I The Conquest of as-Sawad The Caliphate of abu-Bakr 387 as-Siddik.

Kashan and Chapter VI The Death of Yazdajird ibn-Shahriyar ibn-Kisra ibn-Abarwiz ibn-Hurmuz ibn-Anushirwan 490 Index 495 Errata 517 .CONTENTS Chapter IX Wasit al-'Irak XI PAGE 449 453 Chapter X Al-Bata'ih Chapter XI Madinat as-Salam 457 Chapter XII Arabic made the Language of the Register 465 PART X— MEDIA Chapter I [AL-JIBAL] 469 IJulwan Chapter II The Conquest of Nihawand Chapter III 471 Ad-Dinawar. Masabadhan and Mihrijankadhaf 478 Chapter IV The Conquest of Hamadhan 481 Chapter V Isbahan 485 Kumm.


and (3) genealogical lists and poetical compositions. Interest in Muhammad necessitated the compilation of traditions (Ar. and books of genealogy and classes (ansab wa-tabakdt) . interested. gave impetus to the study of genealogy in which even pagan attached special importance to descent. : The three sources of Arabian history therefore are ( I ) pre-Islamic stories. historical writing. The communistic theocracy of warriors under the early caliphs. e. The earliest books of history are: biography (sirah). in the strict sense of the term. hadith) relating to the life and campaigns of the Prophet and his companions. The elucidation of passages in poetry. the " battles between the tribes. were Arabs. i. (2) traditions relative to the life and campaigns of the Prophet and the companions.. books of campaigns {maghazi). and particularly 'Umar's system of assigning state pensions to Moslems according to their kinship to the Prophet. " the owners of the elephant " and the digging of the " Zamzam well " all of pre-Islamic antiquity yet Arabic — — . and such stories as the Ma'rib dam ". . is a branch of Islamic literature. and the necessity of determining persons and places referred to in their religious literature made phil- who ologists apply themselves to historical research. one of the earliest and most fully-developed modes of expression among the Arabs.INTRODUCTION Arabic Historiography with Special Reference to al-Baladhuri Although rudimentary elements of historiography can be traced back to the description of the " days ".

orators and poets. H. 1869. early Islam was the following found in " z For kings the study of genealogy and al-'Ikd al-Farid sayings in : histories. studying anecdotes. vol. law and history in their early rise overlap and are not sharply defined from one another. 1293 A. lems met. v. for warriors the study of battles and biography." from which history writing flowed was It was a pious custom that when Mostradition (hadith). 3 pp. 'al-Jahiz. Cairo. transmitting traditions. ii. The authenticity of the reported fact 1 Vol. . 77. Vol. one should ask for news {hadith). p. No student of Arabic literature fails to be impressed with the fact that the bearers of the torch of learning among the Arabs were in most cases of foreign and particularly of Persian stock. 1313 A. 198. and remembering stories especially if they commemorated the deeds of noble art of warring. H. p. The domains This is to be explained by the fact that public considered it contemptible for the Arab to busy opinion himself with the pursuit of knowledge to the neglect of the this general tendency. and the other Each should relate a saying or anecdote of Muhammad. read in al-Mas'udi that Mu'awiyah the founder of the We ' Umaiyad dynasty devoted one-third of the night to the of the news and battles of the Arabs and nonreading 2 Arabs. and for merchants the study of writing and arithmetic. The chief source event is related in words of eyewitnesses or contemporaries and transmitted to the final narrator through a chain of intermediate reporters. i.2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE of theology. Cairo. formed a conspicuous example. To — heroes." also read in al-Baydn that al-Mansur the " We Abbasid caliph after long hesitation decided to put abu-Muslim al-Khurasani to death as a result of hearing an anecOne of the favorite dote about Sapor the Persian king. however. 154-155. Paris.

" is that in which the compiler combines different traditions into one continuous whole.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY . that 'AbNajran: dallah ibn-Salih related to him. Thus would al-Baladhuri start his narrative regarding the campaign of the Prophet against " * Bakr ibn-al-Haitham related to me. on an independent isndd. depends on ( i ) the continuity of the chain and (2) the confidence in each reporter. " " back to the source " and system. where. has trace the line of authorities. 98. in the introduction to very his great work. on the authority of az-Zuhri. p. wherever need may by citing the particular authority. on the authority of Yunus ibn-Ziyad al-Aili. i. however." At-Tabari. ed. their golden rule being need not be told again. namely. he pleads. on the authority of al-Laith ibn-Sa'd. De Goeje. . 15) : Futuh al-Bulddn. who said. Leiden. conscious of the exception that many of his readers might take to some of his reports. This form of historic composition is unique in the case of the Arabs and meets the most essential requirements of modern historiography. p." The and from the trodden path sacrilegious. comparison or infer" what has been once well said ence. gives expression to that principle. 2 " only transmit We to others what has been transmitted to Another way of handling traditions us. criticism. is himself acknowledges in the 1 first lines of his Futuh (p. While al-Baladhuri an exponent of the former type and spares no pains in basing every fact. . whenever possible. . prefixing a statement of his authorities or contenting himself by interrupting the narrative. 'Vol. 7. Aside from the use of judgment in the choice of isndd the series of authorities the Arabian authors exercised it its drawbacks in that crystallized the record of events rendered deviation — — little power of analysis." . yet he sometimes resorts to the other method as he be. 1879-1881.

and (2) that of : ( I ) Notwithstanding the fact that al-Baladhuri lived Baghdad." On a geographical basis." or " it was said. Mu'awiyah ibn-abi2 Sufyan summoned from al-Yaman one. early favorite forms of writing history were biography. ed. . caliphs History. genealogy and description of campaigns. made its full appearance." This book of the kings and past events. Fliigel. whose domain in the time of the first four was not sharply denned. and asked him about past events." however. The oldest biography is Sirat Rasul Allah written for al-Mansur by The This we do not possess in its (d. first and was recorded for the time under the sway of the 1 Umaiyads. 89.4 " I THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE have been informed by certain men learned in tradition. abridged and pieced up together into one whole. the tradition of al-Madinah. al" Baladhuri introduces his narratives by they said." or "he said. caliph 41-60/661-680. Genealogy borders on biography and. histories of the Arabs " and foreign kings and ordered that the answers be re" corded. Where his store of authorities fails him. The geneaibn-Ishak logical 1 list served as an army * roll. 151/767). Moslem tradition may be into grouped two categories by in Muhammad that of al-Madinah as represented ibn-Ishak and al-YVakidi. both lead on to history. The study of tradition p. callGenealogical ing for elucidation. which for obvious reasons is more reliable than that of al-'Irak. 213/834). is lost. biography and the conquest of the lands whose narratives I transmitted. forms the basis of his works. 'Abid ibn-Sharyah. form but only in the recension of ibn-Hisham original (d. al-Trak. According to al-Fihrist. books were first written in the Umaiyad period." etc.

at- the secretary of al-Wakidi and the compiler of Kitdb role in the life of Campaigns playing an important Mu- the early caliphs soon began to assert their claim for special attention and were treated in special books. those in authority Wakidi's Some books were issued treating (d. Besides. coupled with the fact that the Moslem commonwealth was now richly recruited by Persian converts. or ". The most famous Tabakdt al-Kablr.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY 5 necessitated the study of the life and character of the reporter on whom the authenticity of the report depends. This gave rise to many books on campaigns (maghdzi). most of which books have been lost. Before the Abbasid period no books on general history were attempted. and what the ". 207/822). In the golden age of the Abbasid caliphate and under Persian influence. one of the oldest of which is althe conquered land. at the rise of Islam was a tradition- . last great his- torian of Moslem campaigns. for which the school of al-Madinah had paved the way. the necessity of recording and studying the campaigns arose from the fact that in levying a tax (khardj) on hammad and were first confronted " with the task of determining whether it was taken by " " force ". of the conquest of one city. Given a number of books on the conquest of different cities. historiography flourished and developed a new form of composition. develop to the plan of a complete series of annals. The first to Thus the historian who undertake such a history was at-Tabari. by peace by capitulation terms in each case were. the next step would be to compile them That step was taken by al-Baladhuri the — into one whole. The translation of such books as the Pehlevi Khuday-Nama by ibn-al-Mukaffa' into the Arabic Kitdb al-Muluk. made the idea of chronological collocation of events. Thus the reporters were classified into classes (tabakdt). writer of tabakdt was ibn-Sa'd (d. 230)..

113. i. mentally de- ranged as a result of drinking the juice of the anacardia (balddhur) hence his surname al-Baladhuri.6 ist THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE or reporter becomes now a chronicler. Besides writing Futiih al-Bulddn. 8-9. ed. Fawdt al-Wafaydt (Vol. Yakut. pp. His grandfather. also •See * de Goeje's introduction to al-Baladhuri. 7 seq. Instead Al-Mas'udi inaugurated a new system of writing history. p. minister of the finances of Egypt under the caliph ar-Rashid. Leipzig. Ahmad was an intimate friend of the caliphs al-Mutawakkil and al-Musta'in and tutored 'Abdallah. Fliigel. Other sources for (pp. but did not win so much favor record as that of at-Tabari. From these sources we learn that Ahmad ibn-Yahya Jabir. . his death. IbnKhallikan refers to him on more than one occasion but does 3 not give his biography. of grouping events around years as center. one in the Schefer collection of the lost. tradition and genealogy. I. Lineage of Nobles. 'p. the life of al-Baladhis life are 2 The huri is first we have regarding 1 that of al-Fihrist. Mu'jam al-Udaba. he grouped them around kings. ed. Bulak. The year 279/892 saw . 1907. Specimen Catalugi. pp. which is a digest of a larger work that has been he wrote Ansdb al-Ashrdf. ed.* of which only two volumes are preserved. 1835. Fliigel. His system was followed among others by ibn-Khaldun. Margoliouth. vol. 455 and 274. dynasties and races. the brilliant son of al-Mu'tazz. secretary to al-Khasib. Baghdad was ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri was a native of descended from Persian stock. See Hajji Khalifah. and al-Kutubi. 127-132). tinguished himself in poetry — He dis- especially satires. 1283). The annalistic method of at-Tabari was followed by ibn-al-Athir and abul-Fida. and Hamaker. 1 Leiden.

. is made. the author feels his duty fulfilled. 1 j and the other has been autographed Ahlwardt. 1883. See Noldeke. Being a synopsis of a larger work. 'Vol. 155-156.. Lbl. ed. 382-406. Leiden. ness. 1341-1349. Once the words is free supposed to have been uttered by a contemporary or eyewitness are ascertained. The book does not escape the weaknesses common to " " Arabian histories. The chapters on colonization. ZDMG. which book is also lost. Scarcely an opinion or remark the data. Phil. P. other books of Arabic history the advantage of tracing the report back to the source. Throughout the work the sincere attempt of the author to get to the fact as it happened and to record it as it reached him is felt. soldier's pay.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY Bibliotheque Nationale. appearing only as a recipient of a tradition. Noldeke. 1863. the personality of the author is almost eliminated. vol. and his function as a historian degenerates into that of a The personal equation is not only reduced but reporter. * iii. GGA.1006 seq. 109-110. 166. Muhammedanische Studien. Or. Cf. coinage and the like make it especially valuable. 1883. It from exaggeration and the flaws of imagination. The which was a source ipse dixit of strength was also a source of weakness. Of the works of al-Baladhuri the one that claims our 5 The book shares with special attention is Futiih al-Buldan. Greifswald. 5 De Goeje. land tax. GGA. 2 Al-Mas'udi 3 quotes al-Baladhuri's ar-Raddby 4 'ala ash-Shu' ubiyah (Refutation of ash-Shu'ubiyah). p. i. pp. The intellect is not brought to bear on >De 2 Goeje. pp. its style is characterized by condensation whereby it gains in conciseness but loses in artistic effect and clearCertain passages are mutilated and ambiguous. XXXVIII. vol. i. Goldziher. Thorbecke. 1866. .

p. 114) ( ." 6 According to Haji Khalfa. 346-372 in De Goeje's edition. be said. pp. v. Africa. however. In general the language of Futuh is clean. he cannot help feeling his sense of proportion suffer. we have is that of ibn-Hisham Uhak (d.8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE A weak characteristic of Arabic historians life. 646. These works are lost and the (d. is 2 dismissed with a few words. 355- 3 8 1 pp. 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair 7 and we read d. pp. still he stands superior to other historians. the governor of al-Basrah under 'Umar. . 77-82. canals and castles and only a small part relates to actual colonization. One might also add that Arabic historians were not very sensitive on the question of indecency of language. among others. De Goeje's edition. 93) and Wahb ibn-Munabbih (d. 434-448. that while from a modern standpoint he is defective in that respect. that Muhammad ibn-Muslim az-Zuhri wrote a book of camall paigns. pp. v. 154 and 647. "Vol. the first writers on biography and campaigns were. That 1 in most cases the same tradition that underlies the 2 * pp. are first biography 213) based on ibn- az-Zuhri. to the credit of al-Baladhuri. is their utter disregard of the social side of national Political his- It should. In vol. Az-Zubair and Ishak. As one reads Futuh al-Bulddn and that a long chapter is is devoted to the " struck by the fact digging of the wells of Makkah "/ whereas the conquest of Tripoli. with the exception of the case of al-Mughirah. tory to them is history par excellence. 151). 344-345 in pp. as well as ibn among the sources of al-Baladhuri. Most of the two chapters entitled " The Founding of al-Kufah " z and " of al-Basrah " 4 are devoted to the explanation of the names given to baths.

40. at-Tabari and Yakut. and one of al-Baladhuri 's teachers. 1856. Ibn-Sa'd (d. only a few of which have come his down to us. 99p. Hisham. both of which are lost and are known only by excerpts through al-Baladhuri. 34. In his Futuh. 2 4 3 p. P.34- PP. 652 and Baladhuri. al-Baladhuri alone has over forty citations from him. Hisham. He wrote a " and a book of campaigns ". p. Of these. 779 and Balad- huri. Hav- works were certainly accessible to Baghdad al-Baladhuri. it might be conjectured that he did not get his material at first hand from ibn-Ishak's work but through subsequent reporters. 230) being the disciple of al-Wakidi and the professor of al-Baladhuri acted as a connecting link between the two. Most of the quotations are made through ibn-Sa'd. A comparison between the cam4 s in alpaigns against banu-an-Nadir and banu-Kuraizah Baladhuri. p. the secretary of al-Wakidi. Al-Wakidi (d. Khaibar and Tabuk.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY life g is of Muhammad according to ibn-Hisham made use Futuh is made of by evident by a comparison of the chapters on the banu-anNadir. The isndd in Baladhuri being longer. Calcutta. von Kremer. . In his book 1 Cf. 3 p. Al-Mada'ini lived from " " history of the caliphs 135-215 (753-830). 42. ed. many of which were communicated by word of mouth and were recorded verbatim by al-Baladhuri.353 and 371. who quotes him on 80 different occasions and more than any other source. Al-Baladhuri makes no mention al-Baladhuri in the first chapters of his * of ibn-Hisham but quotes ibn-Ishak eleven times. 207/823) wrote 28 books recorded in al2 Fihrist. p. al-Baladhuri has 48 citations from him. and the corresponding ones in al-Wakidi's Kitdb al-Maghazi? shows many points of contact but no ing lived at absolute interdependence.

At-Tabari makes no mention of al-Baladhuri. Syria and al-'Irak in quest of learning and died in Baghdad. at-Tabakat (the Book of Classes). and among which he mentions " al-Baladhuri's paying it a high tribute in these words. 3 * 1861. Paris. . s Kitab a!-BuIddn. ties to the traditions 282/896) was another contemporary of He wrote a number of books of which only al-Baladhuri. Leiden. authors was thorities of probable that neither of the familiar with the work of the other. 14. Mukaddasi quotes 3 4 8 him. and al-Mas'udi. 303.I0 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE many striking similariof al-Baladhuri are noticed. Mu'jam al-BuIddn. p. 360. The remarkable work of Yakut. al-'Irak tradition It is is the basis of his work. al-Akhbar at- Ad-Dinawari (d. 1 ed. 346) cites scores of books from which he drew his material. know of no better work on the history of the Moslem We conquests ". 2 Not only did later historians draw freely from al-Baladhuri but subsequent geographers used him extensively as a source. 'Amir ash-Sha'bi. According to al-Fihrist and ibnKhallikan. Sufyan ibn-Sa'id ath-Thauri. and so al-Hamadhani. i. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham. 1888. The most illustrious writer on history after al-Baladhuri was at-Tabari (d. 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid and Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. Tiwal. Vladimir Guirgass. e. two In addition to these. 1 Contrary to al-Baladhuri. Muruj adh- Dhahab. In the introduction to his remarkable work. al-Mas'udi (d. Kitab at-Tonbih. al-Baladhuri quotes many other auwhom the most favorite ones are Hammad : ibn-Salamah. 'al-Mas'udi. he traveled in Egypt. Ahsan at-Takas'im.. 310). 321. 358. reproduces a great part of the book. most of whose works are either unknown to us or have entirely disappeared. one of importance has come down to us. 313.

and through them for many subsequent Arabic historians and lost. geographers.ARABIC HISTORIOGRAPHY The above-sketched attempt x j to view al-Baladhuri in his historic setting warrants the conclusion that the tradition of recorded by him was mostly communicated to him by word mouth and partly through books that have mostly been and that it was a source for al-Mas'udi and Yakut. .




15 . whose help i solicit! in al-Madinah. A suburb of al-Madinah. 3 Ibn-Hisham. see Yakut. *The Helpers —originally applied to the early converts of al-Madinah. Kitdb al-Isabah. prayer at that time being directed towards Bait-alMakdis [Jerusalem]. however. 2 iii.CHAPTER In the I Al-Madinah name of Allah. Of the Companions of the Prophet. 334. biography. Sirat Rasul Allah. Now. 3 Kuba' Mosque. abridged and pieced up together into one 1 whole. iv. vol. — ibn-Jabir : The Prophet Says Ahmad ibn-Yahya have been informed by certain men learned in tradition. and the conquest of the lands. whose narratives I transmitted. vol. of his discourse was carried on in the home of Sa'd ibn-Khaithamah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Malik of [the tribe of] banu-as-Salim ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Malik ibn-al- some thought he was the guest of the latter. p. So ibn-'Amr ibn-'Auf ibn-Malik ibn-al-Aus much. pp. that the Messenger of Allah emigrated from Makkah to al-Madinah he was entertained as the guest of Kalthum ibn-Hidm ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-al-Harith ibn- when Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Umaiyah ibn-Zaid ibn-Malik ibn-'Auf 2 1 in Kuba'. when the Prophet arrived in J-Ibn-Hajar. the merciful. 613-614. 23-24. Mu'jam al-Buldan. the compassionate. pp. the * who early Emigrants together with those of the Ansdr had joined him had already built a mosque at Kuba' to pray Aus that in.

The dissenters there" Should we pray on a spot where Labbah used fore said : to tie up her donkey ? Never. and Geschichte der Stadt Medina. " There are some who have built a text revealed by Allah for mischief and for infidelity and to disunite the mosque : ' Believers.Amir ar-Rdhib. abu-'Amir had fled from the face of Allah and his Prophet to Makkah and thence to Hence the Syria where he was converted to Christianity. s "Lajja" in F. Abu. That is why the people of Kuba' say that it is the one meant by Allah when he " says : There is piety. in time past. " warred against Allah and abu-'Amir. 9: 109. only the series 1 The tradition first have last 1 een cut and authorities being mentioned. 'AfTan ibn-Muslim as-Saffar from 'Urwah 3 who gave the following explanation to the text " There are some who have built a mosque for mischief and for infidelity. he led them in prayer in it.' and in exof him who. More worthy " a mosque founded from its first day in * Others that thou enter therein. his Messenger — referring Sa'id in in time past. pp.' and in expectation of him who." Now. p. of authorities introducing a short throughout the translation. 53. 131. . and to disunite the Believers. Wustenfeld. * Ibn-Hisham." in piety report that the mosque founded " is that of the Prophet [in al-Madinah]. to Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min al-Makri from Banu-'Amr ibn-'Auf erected a mosque Jubair : — ibn- which the 1 Koran.j6 the origins of the islamic state Kuba'. warred against Allah pectation " The mosque of Kuba' was built by and his Messenger z Sa'd ibn-Khaithamah and its site was owned by Labbah : ' : — where she used to tie up her donkey. p. Rather shall we select for our* comes selves some other place for prayer until abu-'Amir and leads our service. Geshichte der Stadt Medina. 561-562.

There is a mosque founded from its first day in piety." 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid and Ahmad ibn-Hisham from Sahl ibn-Sa'd Two men in the time of the Prophet : " — disagreed regarding the 1 " mosque founded i.. in piety. Hence : ' — 1 the text." the one meant being abu-'Amir. 564 (ed. But no sooner had in the Prophet got up to start." The mosque founded in piety?' Muhammad ibnHatim from 'Amir Some of the people of Kuba' used to wash with water the place of exit of the excrement. referring to the More worthy it is that thou men who aspire to purity and Which of the two is best? He mosque of Kuba'. Prophet to pray in as he prayed our friends' Abu-'Amir. they the Prophet to come and pray in it. warred against Allah and his Messenger. enter therein. They aspire to purity. Prophet of Allah. Lees). Muhammad ibn-Hatim ibn-Maimun from al-Hasan : — the text.' and in expectation of him who. the Prophet communicated with those who prayed in the mosque of Kuba' asking about the meaning of When " was the purity mentioned in connection with their name." the one Cf." Acerected a mosque and sent an invitation to cordingly. in time past. could erect a is jy banu-Ghanm ibn-'Auf who mosque and invite the ! This aroused the jealousy of " If we. who hath founded his building on the fear of Allah and the desire to please him. their brothers too. wash after voiding they replied. too.AL-MADINAH Prophet led them in prayer. Kashshaf. az-Zamakhshari. vol. excrement and urine. than the following text was " revealed to him There are some who have built a mosque : for mischief and for infidelity and to disunite the 'Believers. " never set thou foot in it." etc. and " We. p. . Therein are Allah loveth the purified. may pass here on his way from Syria and lead us in prayer. Therein are men who aspire to purity" revealed. said.

Tuesday. They finally came and asked the Prophet " * It is this mosque of mine.iS THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE contending it was the Prophet's mosque. vol. p. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. When 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar entered it for prayer. 3 Ibn-Hisham. until p. 401. and by Muhammad ibn-Hatim ibn-Maimun asSamin on the authority of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Sa'id Kuba' mosque was later enlarged and added to. the other. and that was the place where the Prophet always prayed. and Thursday. 65. the Kuba' mosque. that being the first Friday on which he led public prayer. he always turned his face to the al-Khudri's father." to which he replied. " polished column " 2 . Baidawi. : Muhammad ibn-Hatim from Ubai ibn-Ka'b —In answer my " to a question directed to the Prophet regarding the mosque " founded in piety. performed in a mosque erected by banu-Salim ibn-'Auf ibn'Amr ibn-'Auf ibn-al-Khazraj. Anwar at-Tanzll." the Prophet replied It is this : mosque. p. The Prophet spent in Kuba' Monday. Wednesday. 'Amr ibn-Muhammad from ibn-'Umar The " mosque : — founded in piety " is the mosque of the Prophet. The Prophet arrives at al-Madinah. kept his way. Friday prayer he riding away on Friday for al-Madinah. 336. Sa'id ibn-al-Musaivib who said " founded in piety that the great tradition to the same effect is reported by 'Ali ibn'Abdallah al-Madini on the authority of Kharijah ibn-Zaid ibn-Thabit and by 'Affan on the authority of Sa'id ibn-al- A Musaiyib. Then the Prophet passed by 3 the houses of the Ansar one by one and each one of them offered to entertain him." Hudbah ibn-Khalid from " regarding the mosque mosque of the Prophet is the one meant. 1 2 He i. however. .

3 Ad-Diyarbakri. Abu-Umamah 4 As'ad ibnZurarah ibn-'Udas ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Thaiabah ibn-Ghanm ibn-Malik ibn-an-Najjar. vol. 160. In this i 1 . one month departure [from Makkah]." He re- Khalid ibn-Zaid . 4 p. p. 60.AL-MAD1NAH he arrived at the site 1 jg camel knelt. O Prophet of Allah. 3 and in other cases to come. thereafter. vol. of his mosque in al-Madinah where his dismounted. mained at abu-Aiyub's for seven months. 7 1 Ibn-Sa'd. Man is where his camel's saddle is. Ibn-Hisham. too. i. i. pp. 503. 7 A gold coin worth about ten shillings. 386. . Kitdb at-Tabakat. requested As'ad to sell him a piece of land conin The land was in the hands of As'ad tiguous to this mosque. But the Prophet refused and paid for its price ten dinars. A/aHfr-in-chief. Ceschichte der Stadt Medina. the genealogical table has been cut short in the translation." But he said. saying. "No!" The mosque of the Prophet. He 2 . The Ansar presented to the " Prophet all the unoccupied parts of their lands. p. 6 Rafi' ibn-abi-'Amr ibn-'A'idh it As'ad proposed to offer to the Prophet and to pay its price to the orphans himself. used to pray. . 5 Kakib is their actions 6 the superintendent of a people who takes cognizance of and is responsible for them. 5 used to conduct Friday prayers for his Moslem followers in a mosque of his own which the Prophet. vol. " he retorted. 61-63. Then came abu-Aiyub ibn-al-Khazraj who took off the saddle of the Prophet's camel. The Prophet. but abu-Aiyub's. He took up his since his residence there after [Friday-] prayer. al-Khamis. take our own dwellings if thou wish. but belonged to two orphans in his custody whose names were Sahl and Suhail sons of ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Ghanm. ibn-Hajar. The Prophet took up his abode at 3 Certain Khazrajis invited the Prophet. p.

'Umar was made caliph he enlarged it and asked al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib to sell his house that he might add it A1-' Abbas offered the house as a gift to to the mosque. pp. 71. it 'Uthman 3 also added to the 2 mosque and carried to The was Marwan ibn-alHakam ibn-abi-l-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah who made his maksurah No change was thereafter introduced in of carved stones. Accordingly. 4 in the year 87. 'Uthman ibn-'Affan reconstructed the mosque with stone and gypsum. Kitab al-Buldan. p. 25. no caliph place 1 Al-Hamadliani. p. ing the mosque. and Geschichte der Stadt Medina. After this. 1 and 'Umar added it to the mosque. a freedmaid of the This took family of Mu'aikib ibn-abi-Fatimah ad-Dausi. making its columns of stone. Gottheil. he forwarded to him money. and first its roof of teak-wood. the mosque until al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan small pebbles from al-'Akik. marble. This al-Walid wrote to his 'amil [lieu- tenant. bricks were prepared and used for buildIts foundations were laid with stones. p. . When caliph he introduced no changes in the mosque. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. mosaic. 2 3 Hamadhani. ordering him to destroy the mosque and reconstruct it. and its columns When abu-Bakr became were made of trunks of trees. some say 88. caliph to plant in it maksurah succeeded his father. "a distinguished famof Fatimite Cadis". Allah and the Moslems .20 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE which money he secured from abu-Bakr as-Siddik. a freedman of Su'da. 73. By the Prophet's orders. p.. ily * See JAOS. Kitab al-Buldan. its roof was covered with palm branches. entrusting the supervision of its work and the expenditure for it to Salih ibn-Kaisan. xxvii. and eighty Greek and Coptic artisans from Syria and Egypt. vol. 273-274. In his caliphate. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. the 'amil rebuilt it and added to it. 24. Meanwhile. governor] in al-Madinah.

" Shaiban ibn-abiThe inviolability of al-Madinah. Al-Mahdi had visited Makkah before the pilgrimage season. i. the work in the latter being completed in the year 162. p. making length ibn. took these two one year to carry out the undertaking. but al-Madinah was conquered by the Koran. its trees note b.Muhammad al-Mada'ini..AL-MAD1NAH made changes caliphate. Prophet said: Every prophet can make a place inviolable. 7. al-Mahdi sent 'Abd-al-Malik 1 ibn-Shabib al-Ghassani and another descended from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to al-Madinah to reconstruct its and increase it in size. Goeje's edition of Baladhuri. BeShaibah-1-Ubulli : from al-Hasan — The " tween 1 2 its two Harrahs. in the 21 mosque down to the time of al-Mahdi's According to al-Wakidi. 2 De its herbage shall not be cut. The word means tracts of black stones. e. al-Madinah and al-Yamamah. the volcanic region in the vicinity of al-Madinah. caliph Ja'far al-Mutawakkil ordered that ordered that the mak surah the mosque of al-Madinah be repaired. 8 'Abdallah ibn-'Asim. dhira'] 300 cubits and its According to 'Ali were added width 200. ibn- to the rear. Ja'far enlarged the mosques of Makkah and al-Madinah. 'Amr ibn-Hammad ibn-abi-Hanifah from 'A'ishah : —The Prophet said "All districts or cities were conquered by force. Much mosaic was subsequently carried to it. In the year 246. The governor of al-Madinah It mosque was at that time Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali. so I have made al-Madinah inviolable as Abraham had made Makkah. in the year [ 1 ]6o. . al-Mahdi Sulaiman to the governorship of appointed Ja'far Makkah. One hundred its cubits [Ar. and be supplanted and that it be put on the same level with the mosque. and the year 247 marked the : completion of the work.

" Shaiban ibn-abi-Shaibah from Muhammad ibn-Ziyad's grandfather (a freedman of 'Uthman ibn-Maz'un and the holder of a piece of land belonging to the Maz'un family in " 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab with his robe Harrah) who said: — on head would sometimes call on me at midnight. al-Iami' as-Sahih. . often 5 or 6 ft. When No '. But one day he said Let no one thee superintendent of this place.' ' asked him. take away his rope and ax. shall be accepted. even if I should find the deer in Batihan I I And would not care for them. i. and p." Abu-Hurairah used to say: "By him who holds my 2 life in his hands. i. in height. may be cursed of Allah and his felled. allowing [only] the driver of the between a water-carrying camel to cut al-ghada trees and use them : — for repairing his ploughs and carts." Abu-Mas'ud ibn-al-Kattat from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad's The Prophet declared inviolable all trees growing father Uhud and 'Air. I would then bring him take a seat and converse with me. who does that or harbors in his home fight. . Shall I take his robe?' he answered. I have made his ' : : beat a tree with a stick [that its leaves may fall] or cut off a tree (referring to the trees of al-Madinah) and if thou . angels and all men." From him no repentance or ransom Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min al-Basri-1-Makri from abuThe Prophet said "My Lord. tracts as Abraham had made Makkah inviolits two stony able. 38. vol. vol. find I anyone doing ' it. 40. therefore. one who has done so. 3 " Of the genus Euphorbia with a woody stem. line Q. innumerable round green twigs "— Palgrave's Travels. 124. p. Also Bathan or Buthan see al-Hamdani. Sifat Jasirat al-Arab. 1 2 Al-Bukhari. Go not cucumbers and vegetables.22 shall THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE not be 1 nor should weapons be carried in it for He. p. Abraham was thy Hurairah : — : servant and messenger. and so am I thy servant and mes- have made inviolable all that lies between senger.

whereas if the cattle of this poor man perish. vol. commander of the the Moslems than Allah. ii. 26.. pp. Beware the cry of the oppressed. Reservation. and had it not been for the cattle [secured by declaring a place Hima] to be used in the cause of Allah." Hima an-Nakl ibn-'Umar: served that it it is Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam abu-'Ubaid from Prophet declared an-Naki' hima and re5 for the Moslem cavalry. 183-184. ibn-abi- Whose name was Hunai . . Rabadhah was a district 3 4 i. Naki' lay 20 parasangs from Madinah. for it is answered. 'Stretch not thy wing 3 to any Moslem. Treat leniently. p. he " comes to me crying. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. this is believers!" to offer To offer grass is easier for 4 money in gold and silver. 155. it is the 5 Hima easier to let the owner of the little herd feed his flock on than to give him money for sustaining his children. O. They would. 263.AL-MAD1NAH who 23 Hima ar-Rabadhah. Bukhari. pasture land reserved for the public use of a community or tribe to the exclusion of everyone else. p. commander of the believers! O. as some have it] —The and that the handakiik plant [sweet trefoil] grows Mus'ab ibn-'Abdallah az-Zubairi from Sa'd 1 in it. therefore. . Abu-'Ubaid told me an an-Naki' [and not al-Baki'. * and a village 5 miles from al-Madinah. an-Nihayah. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Zaid ibnAslam's father say to one 1 said : — " I heard 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab whom he placed in charge of Hima ar-Rabadhah 2 and whose name Bakr forgot. Hima'. Wakidi. p. Kitab al-Maghdsi. see ibn-al-Athir. vol. iii. I would never make a part of a people's land c . e. By land for which they fought in preIslamic time and which was included in their terms when their they became Moslem. certainly feel that I oppress them. Admit [to the Hima] the owner of the small herd of camels and sheep but keep off the cattle of ibn-'Affan and ibn-'Auf for if their cattle should perish they resort to sowing.

at which he must — 10 1 : — let it go to the holder of the lower land. Wakkas —The the Prophet whom I heard say. But Sa'd refused that the ax and the clothes be returned. Whomever ye find cutting trees in the " From hima. Wadi-Mahzur.' saying. I will ' " not give up spoils given me by the ax Sa'd made a life. The servant's mistress. or a woman of 'Umar ordered his kin. see al-Bakri. p.24 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : trees in the latter once found a young servant felling hima [reserved land]. 562. thus preventing the owner of the higher property from holding the water from the owner of the lower one. went to 'Umar and accused Sa'd. Mu'jam Ma-s- ta'jam. "This is the place for our camels to go loose. Abu-1-Hasan al-Mada'ini from ibn-Ju'dubah : When the Prophet was at Zuraib (proband abu-Ma'shar on his return from the expedition of dhu-Kard) banuably Harithah of the Ansar said to him referring to the site of al-Ghabah [forest]. He beat the servant and took his ax. ye should beat and deprive of what he has. Ishak from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-alibn-abi-Isra'il Harith The Prophet decreed in the case of the Mahzur torrent that the owner of the higher property should hold the water until it rises to the two ankles. Thus was al-Ghabah planted with trees. and for our women The Prophet then ordered that he who had to go out. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Hammad an-Narsi from abu-Malik ibn-Tha'labah's father: The Prophet decreed in the case of Wadi-Mahzur that the water be shut off on the the surface until it rises to the two ankles. 1 One of the valleys of Madinah. at which it should be conducted to the other place. shovel which he used in his property to the end of his Al-Ghabah." cut off a tree should replace it by planting a small shoot. vol. — and for our sheep to graze. Kitab ii. .

Haf s ibn-'Umar ad-Duri from 'Urwah The Prophet : — 1 1 said " : Batihan is one of the channels of Paradise. Al-Husain from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad's father : —The Prophet decreed in the case of Mahzur torrent that the owners of palm trees have right to the ankle-high water. Mawardi. covered the sadakahlands 1 " 2 2 of the Prophet. which necessitated the erection of a dam by 'Uthman. 562. the valley of banu- Kuraizah. by that time. the Prophet passed a similar judgment in the case of Batihan torrent. According to Malik. sent 'Ubaidallah ibn-abi-Salamah-l-'Umri who. with a big crowd. 'Abd-as-Samad ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn'Ali : — al-'Abbas. The governor at that time. 518. al-Ahkam as-Sultdmyah. " An old woman from al-'Aliyah- Mudhainib in al-Bakri. Sadakah is a portion which a man gives from his property to the poor by way of propitiation. It is primarily superogatory. after which the water is sent to the lower owners. ." ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini abu-1-Hasan from Ju'dubah and others In the caliphate of 'Uthman. whereas sakat is obligatory.AL-MADtNAH 25 abi-Bakr : 'Amr ibn-Hammad ibn-abi-Hanifah from 'Abdallah ibnibn-Muhammad ibn-'Amr ibn-Hazm al-Ansari's father The Prophet decreed in the case of Mahzur torrent — and Mudhainib * that the water be shut in until it reaches the two ankles. pp. sowers have right to the water as high as the two straps of the sandal. 292. started after the afternoon prayer to see the torrent which had. alMadinah was threatened with destruction by the Mahzur torrent. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad al-Tjli : Tha'labah ibn-abi-Malik's father —The Prophet was from abu-Malik ibncalled upon to decide in the case of Mahzur. upon which he decreed that water rising above the two ankles cannot be shut in by the higher owner from the lower owner. then the upper supplies the lower. Abu-1-Hasan added that in the year 156 the torrent brought a terrifying volume of water. p.

p. Jalil Idhkhir a small plant of sweet smell used for roofing houses." 7 Yakut. *Cf. s. a weak plant with which the interstices of houses are stopped up. There they dug and the water found exit through which it. 'Amir ibn-Fuhairah used to repeat the following "I have found death before verily the death of the I : tasted it. al-Fa'ik. Proverbia. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. 'Aliyah.] !" it. abu-Bakr often repeated the following verse " One in the morning may lie amidst his family and death may be nearer to him than his sandal's strap. Abu-'Umar Hafs ibn-'Umar ad-Duri from mother of the believers: —When the Prophet emigrated 3 : al-Madinah. 5-6. i. s 10. Muhammad ibnThe Prophet invoked Aban al-Wasiti from al-Hasan : — Allah's blessing on al-Madinah 2 and its inhabitants calling 'A'ishah. vol. 63. Akhbar Makkah.V. Azraki. vol. i. no. the to it Taybah.] coward comes from above. During his illness. no. p. 7. ii. Kitab al-Buldan. . p.26 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE * region pointed out to them a spot to which she had often heard people refer. 492. Among those taken seriously ill were abu-Bakr. 23. would at I that I spent a night Fakh where idhkhir and jalil 5 plants surround me! And would that I some day visit Majannah-water to drink and see Shamah and Jafil [Mts. a water-course which empties its The Prophet calls al-Madinah Taybah. 6 [Man struggles according to his own like the bull that protects his skin 1 with his horn. pp. it Mahzur water in to Mudhainib is From passed to IVddi-Batihkn. p." 4 Bilal often repeated the following: " O. 2 Al-Hamadhani. 6 7 Freytag. 383. 12 ability. a disease spread among the Moslems in it. Bilal and 'Amir ibn-Fuhairah. 414. p. p. vol. Az-Zamakhshari. Freytag. Hisham. 10. 5 Arabum Proverbia.

AL-MAD1NAH " : 2y Make This was reported to the Prophet and he prayed al-Madinah. Az-Zubair said " : Give A similar tradition was communicated by al-Husain Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father father. I never gave such a land in fief. tradition occurring here and defining certain terms in the previous tradition has been omitted in the translation. Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Aswad al-Tjli from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father As 'Umar was par: 2 — fiefs." a piece of dead land. from 13 Khalaf ibn-Hisham al-Bazzar from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's who said : —"Umar ibn-al-Khattab gave out as fief to Khauwat ibn-Jubair al-Ansari we bought from him. wholesome for us as thou hast made Makkah for us. he came to a part of it regarding " which he remarked. Give it out to me." And 'Umar did. p. 'Umar accomAl-Husain from Hisham ibn-'Urwah az-Zubair set out to distribute fiefs." Al-'Akik as fief. use the water. : 'Umar Al-Husain from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's father gave al-'Akik in fief from its upper to its lower end. p. O Allah. Evidently it is a gloss. 1 Wakidi. 1 One . and as panied by 'Umar was giving them out. al-Azraki." it out to me." And celling al-'Akik into 'Umar did. !" and bless for us its sa' and mudd 1 [grain measures] The water-course of al-Harrah. This A similar tradition was communicated to me by al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad on the authority of Hisham's father. from 'Urwah — One of the Ansar had a dispute with : Al-Walid ibn-Salih az- Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam regarding the water-courses that run " from al-Harrah to the plain. then turn it to thy neighbor. The Prophet said." To " this Khauwat ibn-Jubair replied. 14. al-Maghazi. Zubair. 382. he passed by al-'Akik and said " Where are the seekers of fiefs ? I have not yet today : — — : passed by a more fertile land.

one al-Kabaliyah. ." Then they brought forth a statement written for them by the Prophet on a palm leaf which 'Umar kissed : and with which he rubbed his eye saying to his steward " Find out what the income and the expenses are. of see al-Mutarrizi. Well- hausen. Nor do I know of any disagreetr. 103-104. vol.28 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Other fiefs. Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from certain learned out as • fief to 2 az-Zubair the land lying between al-Jurf • men The Prophet gave out as fief to Bilal ibn-al-Harith al-Muzani certain mines s in the Furu' district. day's journey from Madinah. : — 'Amr an-Nakid and ibn-Sahm al-Antaki from abuTkrimah the freedman of Bilal ibn-al-Harith al-Muzani : — The Prophet gave out a mountain and to as fief to Bilal a piece of land having mines.-Mughrib. Mus'ab az-Zubairi from Malik Bilal ibn-al- On this. 2 A valley near Mount Thaib. pp. Called 'Arsat al-Bakal in al-Wakidi's days. see Wakidi. our learned 1 —The the metals. a valley stretching from at-Ta'if to al-Arhadiyah and Karkarat al-Kudr and thence it comes to Sudd-Ma'unah from which it runs by the end of al-Kadum and ends at the head of Kabur ash-Shuliada [martyrs' tombs] at Uhud. The zakat on ibn-Anas : Prophet assigned as fief to Harith certain mines in the Furu' district. 108. " The sons is (or he of Bilal there- What we sold thee not the minerals but the tillable land. and give them back the balance. The sons of Bilal sold a part of it 'Umar said : ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz in which one mineral may upon have said two) appeared. retain what thou hast expended. all 14 men agree. '' The mines ii. Kitab a'." Abu-'Ubaid from Bilal ibn-al-Harith The Prophet gave : — out all al-'Akik as fief to Bilal. p. Al-Husain from 'Urwah: —Abu-Bakr gave * • and al-Mada ini told me that Kanah is Abu-1-Hasan Kanah.

Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Ja'far ibn- who Muhammad pieces : —The i. Malik ibn-Anas. 36. etc. vol. iv. 3 : — 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assigned to 'Ali as fief A and another piece was added to it. That is what the people of al-Trak say impose on the mines of al-Furu'. and ash-Shajarah. the canal of Banat-Na'ilah is named after children of Na'ilah. 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad's father Yanbu'. p. 260-261.. It is re- one-fourth of the ported that az-Zuhri often repeated that in the case of mines zakat is binding. Kitab al-Umm. cated to me by one in The next tradition was communiibn- whom I : Mus'ab ibn'Abdallah az-Zubairi az-Zubair reservoir is is —The well of 'Urwah . pp. pp. ran. Yakut. The well of 'Urwah. 'Ali's fiefs. 2 the two Fukairs. ii vol. Bi'r-Kais. 'Ali as fief four of land. vol. 3 Yakut. abuat present 1 Hanifah. Wadi-1-Kura and others one-fifth in Naj accordance with the view of Sufyan ath-Thauri. .AL-MAD1NAH ment among our followers regarding the case of mines the zakdt is 2g fact that in the tithe. similar tradition was communicated to me by al-Husain on the authority of Ja'far ibn-Muhammad's father. 47. trust on the authority of named after 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair the named after 'Amr ibn-az-Zubair. 2 2 . Prophet assigned to e. iii. p. It is moreover reported that he said that the zakat is one-fifth. vol. the reservoir of 'Amr and the canal of Banat-Nailah. A similar tradition was communicated to me by al-Husain on the authority of Ja'far ibn-Muhammad. al-Mudauwanah. abu-Yusuf and the school of al-'Irak. 1038-1039. dhu-1-Warwah. ii. daughter of al-Farafisah-1-Kalbiyah and wife of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan ('Uthman had taken possession of 1 'Amr this canal and conveyed ash-Shafi'i.

al-Mushtarik. 'A'ishah being a man's name of al-Aus. "8 and . See ibn-Khurdadhbih. Mu'alla's freedman. Jerusalem. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Ata ibn-Yasar." his grandfather The 'A rim dam. Bait 2 al-Makdis or al-Bait 79. Ibn-al-Murtafi' well is ascribed to Muhammad ibnal-Murtafi' ibn-an-Xadir al-'Abdari. daughter of al-Harith ibn-Hazn ibn-Bujair of al-Hilal tribe When the Prophet wanted to found a market in al-Madinah he : — said: " This is your market and no kharaj will be assessed on it. Wakim at al-Madinah. The Suk in al-Madinah. Al-Muttalib well and al-Murtaft well. Kasr-Nafls. to is abu-Hurairah ad-Dausi . al-Mukaddas. expelled of the See Yakut. This 'Ubaid and his father were among the captives of 'Ain at-Tamr. al-Harrah. Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from and Sharki ibn-al-Kutami-1-Kalbi When : — Nebuchadnezzar 1 2 destroyed p. 'A'ishah well. 'Ubaid ibn-al-Mu'alla died as martyr 1 5 Others say it is Xafis ibn-Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Murrah. the freedman of Maimunah. It is said that the Nafis castle is ascribed to Nafis at-Tajir [the merchant] ibn-Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-al-Mu'alla ibn-Laudhan ibn-Harithah ibn- Zaid of al-Khazraj.3° its THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE water to a piece of land at al-'Arsah x which he cultivated and worked) the land of abu-Hurairah is ascribed . pp. His surname was abu-'Abdallah. 'Ubaid ibn-Murrah died in the battles of in the battle of Uhud. 159. Kitab a!-Masa!ik. Al-Muttalib well on the 'Irak road is ascribed to al-Muttalib ibn-' Abdallah ibn-Hantab ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Ubaid ibn-'Umar ibn-Makhzum. and as-Sahwah in Mt. Juhainah the sadakah of 'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas. The 'A'ishah well is ascribed to 'A'ishah ibn-Xumair ibn-Wakif. the allies of banu-Zuraik ibn-'AbdThis castle stands in HarratHarithah of al-Khazraj.

taking possession of their cultivated and pasture lands. which stood between two mountains and had pipes which the people could open when they wished and get as much water as they wanted. The wanderings of al-Azd. There they settled. 1863. Seeing what happened. 1348. Among these. changing them into khamt. Muzaikiyah . the Israelites settled and associated with them. . 'Amr re" marked To seek herbage before knowledge is weakness. summoned the Azd the property and cattle and started together to the land of the tribe of 'Akk. Thus did Allah let their gardens sink and 2 their trees disappear. tamarisk 3 and some few jujube trees. This is the 'Arim dam. and Yathrib.AL-MADINAH Israelites those 3I whom he expelled. . 16 i. as Jurhum and al-'Amalik were decreasing. At that time there lived in Yathrib a tribe of Jurhum and a remnant of al-'Amalik who lived on date-planting and wheatgrowing. p. through. ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan sold he possessed." : The 1 2 tribe of 'Akk were distressed 15. until the former drove the latter from Yathrib and established their authority over it. . This was their condition for a long time. Then it came to pass that those of the people of al-Yaman descended from Saba ibn-Yashjub ibn-Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan were filled with the spirit of oppression and tyranny and ignored the grace of their God in regards to the fertility and luxury he bestowed on them. 3 GGA. at the fall of their best Koran. 'Amr ibn-'Amir all . e. Allah created rats that began to bore the dam. . and kept increasing in number. 1 The rats went on working on the dam until it was broken. and carried away those whom he carried into captivity. 34: A tree with bitter fruit. some Israelites fled away to al-Hijaz and settled in Wadi-1-Kura. . Consequently. Taima'.

realized after this that the place was unwholesome. another for as-Sarat. — and they shall see whether we or they are the weaker. They made their abode in Batn-Marr. another for Syria and one band chose Makkah for abode. Here they met resistance from the inhabitants of the place but finally won . After settling in Najran they departed with the exception of a few who had special reasons to stay. howgot control of the plain. after being defeated. and they did. Near Sudd-Ma'rib al-Yaman . ye al-Azd. 'Akk of 'Akk. But it occurred to them to move. another for al-Anbar and al-Hirah. in some of you p. The next place they came to was Najran. in reference to which Jidh' composed the following verse ate the land. Hisham." (Previous to this al-Azd had settled near a spring called Ghassan. . : "• We are the descendants of the Ghassan of Ghassan versus the Mazin there is no doubt. ever. the victory. Tha'labah the son of 'Amr Muzaikiya demanded of Jurhum that the plain of Makkah be given to his people. Makkah which was populated with Jurhum tribe. leaving a small band behind. a battle ensued in which Tha'labah Tha'labah and his people. 'Ashirah . This made Jidh' sav : \y " Every time ye go 1 to a place. and found it hard to make their living in it so they dispersed. The Azd. one band of them leaving for 'Uman. 6. Hence their name. returned and charged. .) Al-Azd now set 1 off until they arrived in the land of Hakam ibn-Sa'd al- There they fought and won the victory over Hakam.22 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE lands into the hands of al-Azd and asked the latter to evacu- Thereupon a one-eyed and deaf man of alAzd. This reAl-Azd then arrived in the quest having been refused. made an attack on a 'Akk party and deThis resulted in a war between al-Azd and stroyed them. . ibn Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan. named Jidh'. 'Akk. Ghassan.

The Jews of Kainuka'. They settled outside the city where they grew and increased in number and became so strong as to drive the Jews from Yathrib. Some say she was a Ghassanide of al-Azd tribe." Makkah were called Khuza'ah. and the Prophet exThe first land that the pelled them from al-Madinah. Thus they came to live inside the city and the Jews outside of it. Ye becoming the who settled in among the Arabs. p. inkhasa'a.Nadir. Geschichte der Stadt Medina. They became battles so used to fighting that their valor spread far. others say she was of 'Udhrah tribe. 2 Then came Tha'labah ibn-'Amr Muzaikiya with his son and followers to Yathrib whose people were Jews. It is his Prophet and to honor reported that at the arrival of the Prophet in al- Madinah he wrote an agreement and made a covenant with 4 the Jews of Yathrib. daughter of al-Arkam. 4 One of the names of Madinah. the Aus and the Khazraj saw many which made them trained in warfare. . In pre-Islamic times. feared them. 56. Prophet conquered '- Ar. p. their bravery was often cited and their name became a source of terror in the hearts of the Their possessions were well guarded against encroachment. was that of the banu-an. who Allah wanted to have them support them by lending him aid. p. 140. and all that was preparatory to the fact that Arabs. Azraki. their cour- age became well known. Al-Aus and al-Khazraj are the sons of Harithah ibn-Tha'labah 3 ibn-'Amr Muzaikiya ibn- 'Amir. were the first to violate the covenant.AL-MAD1NAH detach 1 33 are on the point of That is why those themselves from the tail rest. however. see an-Nihayah under khaza'a. 55. 2 3 Hisham. and their neighbor was well protected. and their mother was Kailah. Al-Aus and al-Khazraj.

palm-trees. at the close of which they capitulated. vol. the Prophet. 353- p. agreeing to evacuate his town and to be whatever the camels could carry with the exception of coats of mail and armor. Ta'rikh. abuii 2 . 'Umar and Usaid ibn-Hudair came to the banuan-Nadir who were Jews and solicited their aid for raising the bloodwit of two men of the banu-Kilab ibn-Rabi'ah who had made peace with him and who were killed by 'Amr ibn1 Umaiyah ad-Damn. 'Abd-ar. Hisham. p.CHAPTER The II Possessions of the banu-an-Nadir Banu-an-Nadir besieged. 652. p. Pa Al-Ya'kubi. Ibn-Sa'd. The Jews refused to comply. and announced hostility. Fiefs assigned. entitled to all ig the possessions of the banu-an-Nadir become the property of the Prophet. coats of mail and other arms. a\-Maghazi. The Jews intended to drop a stone on him but the Prophet left them and sent them word ordering them to evacuate his city [Yathrib] because of their perfidy and violation of covenant. The Prophet once accompanied by abu-Bakr. With what could not be consumed. he bought horses and arms. 2 Upon this the Prophet marched and besieged them for fifteen days. 49. ii. 40. 34 . the Prophet taking their Thus did land.Rahman ibn-'Auf. The Prophet used to sow their land planted with palm-trees and thus provided for his family and wives for one year. gave 1 fiefs to abu-Bakr. vol. Al-Wakidi. Of the land of banu-an-Nadir.



Simak ibn-Kharashah





occurred in the year 4 of the Hegira.

According to al-Wakidi, one of the banu-anNadir, Mukhairik, was a learned rabbi and he believed in the
Prophet and offered him all that he possessed, which was seven palm-gardens surrounded with walls. This the ProThe seven gardens are phet set apart as sadakah-land.
al-Mithab, as-Safiyah, ad-Dalal, Husna,



Barkah, al-A'waf,

Mashrabat umm-Ibrahim, 3 Ibrahim being the son of the Prophet and his mother being Mariyah, the Copt.
Other versions of the conquest Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from az-Zuhri The attack on the banu-an-Nadir, the Jews, took place six months after the battle of Uhud. The Prophet


pressed the siege until they agreed to evacuate the city stipulating that they take with them whatever utensils their

camels could carry with the exclusion of the coats of mail. Hence the text revealed by Allah "All that is in the heavens





on the earth praiseth Allah!

And He


the mighty, the wise He it is who caused the unbelievers " the people of the Book ", etc., 4 to among put the wicked
to shame."

The next tradition was communicated to us by al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad on the authority of Muhammad ibn-Ishak 5 regarding the above text which Allah hath revealed to his



referred to are banu-an-Nadir.



pressed not towards

with horse or camel.

But Allah

giveth his Messengers authority over whomsoever He will6 eth ", Allah showed that it is wholly assigned to the

Ya'kubi, vol.


p. 50.

2 8

in Geschichte

der Stadt Medina,






p. 166.

5 6

Koran, 59:

Hisham, pp. 654 and
Baidawi, vol.


pp. 322-323.



Prophet and to no one
out the land


the Emigrants.

The Prophet then parcelled But when Sahl ibn-


Hunaif and abu-Dujanah mentioned their poverty, he gave " them a share. As for the text: The spoil taken from the people of the villages and assigned by Allah to his Messenger, it belongeth to Allah and to the Messenger," etc., to the end of the text, it means that Allah made another division among the Moslems. According to a tradition I received from Muhammad ibn-Hatim as-Samin on the authority of ibn-'Umar, the Prophet burnt and cut down the palm-trees of the banu-anNadir in reference to which Hassan ibn-Thabit says



to bring

leading men of the banu-Lu'ai would have regarded about the great fire at Buwairah." 1



According to ibn-Juraij,
Allah revealed the text


or left

it was in this connection that Whatever palm-trees ye have cut standing on their stems was by Allah's per-

mission and to put the wicked to shame."

A similar tradition was communicated to us by abu-'Ubaid
on the authority of ibn-'Umar.




other reporters, holds

was composed by abu-Sufyan ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib and that its wording is
that the above-quoted verse

as follows


The leading men

of the banu-Lu'ai would have regarded



to bring about the great conflagration of


(According to other reports



the following:

Hassan ibn-Thabit


Buwailah [and not answer to that wrote

under Buwairah; Ibn-Hisham, pp. 712-713.

Yakut, vol.

p. 765.




Allah perpetuate the conflagration

and make the fire rage in its parts. They were given the Book but they lost it. Thus with respect to the Taurat they are blind and erring."


The Prophet's special share. 'Amr ibn-Muhammad anIt was stated Nakid from Malik ibn-Aus ibn-al-Hadathan

by 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab that the possessions of the banu-anNadir were assigned by Allah to the Prophet, the Moslems " having not pressed toward them with horse or camel." 20

Thus they were wholly his property. The Prophet used to spend their annual income on his family and invest what was left in horses and arms to be used in the cause of Allah.

Hisham ibn-'Ammar ad-Dimashki from Malik ibn-Aus 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab told him [Malik]

that the Prophet had three special shares which he appropriated for himself namely, the possessions of the banu-anNadir, Khaibar and Fadak. The possessions of the banu-an;

Nadir he reserved for use in case of misfortunes that might Those of Fadak were reserved for wayfarers. befall him. Those of Khaibar he divided into three portions, two of which he divided among the Moslems and the third he reserved for his and his family's expenses, distributing what








needy among the


The possessions Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from az-Zuhri of the banu-an-Nadir were among the things that Allah asThe Moslems " pressed not towards signed to his Prophet.
them with horse or camel."

They were therefore wholly


property of the Prophet; and he divided them among the Emigrants, giving nothing of them to the Ansar with the
exception of two persons

who were needy, i. e., Simak Kharashah abu-Dujanah, and Sahl ibn-Hunaif.



Hassan ibn-Thabit, Diwan,

p. 46.



Al-Husain from al-Kalbi

—When the Prophet secured the
: '

possessions of thebanu-an-Nadir, who were the first he made " He it is who caused the to evacuate the land, Allah said

People of the Book to quit their homes and join those who had evacuated previously." * Thus these possessions were among the spoils towards which




The pressed not with horse or camel." " then said to the Ansdr: Your brethren, the EmiProphet If ye therefore desire, I will grants have no possessions.



divide these [newly acquired possessions] and ready possess among you and the Emigrants.

what ye alBut if ye
divide these

keep ye your possessions and



among the Emigrants alone." To " Divide these among them and give Ansdr replied them from our possessions whatever thou wishest." Be" cause of this the text was revealed They prefer them be[newly acquired ones]

this the


Therefore themselves, though poverty be their own lot." " abu-Bakr said May Allah give you the good recomupon


pense, ye Ansdrs your case and ours to by al-Ghanawi where he said,


like that referred

who when our

Ma}- Allah recompense in our behalf the Ja'far. feet slipped in al-Wat'atain and we fell,



took ungrudging care of us although our mothers would have



they were in their


rich are

goes to places kept

many and every hungry man warm and sheltered.' "

Al-Husain from Hisham ibnof az-Zubair. The Prophet assigned as fief to az-Zubair 'Urwah's father




ibn-'Auwam a

piece of the banu-an-Xadir's land planted

with palm-trees.

Al-Husain from Hisham ibn-'L'rwah's father:

—The Pro-

Koran. 59




Kor., 59



phet gave out of the land of the banu-an- Nadir in gave a fief to az-Zubair.


and he




the secretary of al-Wakidi, from and 'Abdallah ibn-Numair from Hisham


ibn-'Urwah's father The Prophet assigned as fief to azZubair a piece of the banu-an-Nadir's land planted with palmtrees. Abu-Bakr assigned to az-Zubair as fief al-Jurf.


in his tradition says the land
in his tradition that

was dead.


ibn-Numair says

'Umar gave az-Zubair

as fief all of al-'Akik.
"Ibn-Sa'd, vol.
ii 2 ,

p. 41.



Possessions of the banu-Kuraizah

the banu-Kuraizah. The Prophet bebanu-Kuraizah for a few days in dhu-1-Ka'dah, and a sieged few days in dhu-1-Hijjah, of the year 5, the whole time being 1 fifteen days. These banu-Kuraizah were among those who

The subjection of

had assisted in the fight against the Prophet in the battle of al-Khandak [the moat] also called battle of al-Ahzab [the confederates]. Finally they surrendered and he installed Sa'd ibn-Mu'adh al-Ausi as their ruler. The latter 2 decreed that every adult be executed, that women and children be carried as captives and that all that they pos3 sessed be divided among the Moslems. The Prophet ap-

What thou hast decreed proved of the decree saying in accordance with the decree of Allah and his Prophet."



Gabriel appears to the Prophet. 'Abd-al-Wahid ibnWhen the Prophet was done with Ghiyath from 'A'ishah the battle of al-Ahzab, he went into the wash-room in order


to wash.

There Gabriel appeared


him and



hammad, thou

hast laid down thy arms; but we have not Hasten against the banu-Kuraizah." 'A'ishah upon this " said to the Prophet O Prophet of Allah, I have seen him a hole in the door with the dust around [Gabriel] through

his head!"



23— dhu-1-Hijj ah







210; Tabari, vol.




"every one on whose beard the razor could be used."
p. 373. p.


Wakidi, Maghasi,


Wakidi, Maghasi, 40



Ibn-Sa'd, vol.



55; Ibn-Hisham, p. 684.

adults executed.


Kathir ibn-as-Saib

ibn-Ghiyath — Banu-Kuraizah were presented


to the

Prophet with the result that those of them who had attained to puberty * were executed and those who had not
attained to puberty were spared.

Huyai ibn-Akhtab put Bakiyah from al-Hasan:

—Huyai ibn-Akhtab made a cove-


death with his son.



nant with the Prophet agreeing never to assist anyone against him and mentioned Allah as surety for the covenant. When he and his son were brought before the Prophet on the day " of Kuraizah, the Prophet remarked The one mentioned as surety has done his part." the order of the Prophet By

were cut off. 2 The division of the booty. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from I once asked az-Zuhri whether the banuMa'mar who said Kuraizah had any lands, to which he replied directly, " The Prophet divided it among the Moslems into different
the heads of the

man and

his son


Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from

ibn-' Abbas


—The Prophet

divided the possessions of the banu-Kuraizah and Khaibar 3 among the Moslems.

The conquest according
siege against



Kasim ibn-Sallam from az-Zuhri

—The Prophet pressed



banu-Kuraizah until they surrendered to Sa'd ibn-Mu'adh who decreed that their men be executed, their
captives Accordingly, a certain to death on that day.
1 Literally every one adolescence.


be taken as




number of men were put



" had the dreams and hair that mark


Tabari, vol.


p. 1494.


Wakidi, Wellhausen, pp. 220-221.




The Prophet invaded capitulation of Khaibar. * in the year 7. Its people contended with him,

So the Prophet bedelayed him and resisted the Moslems. 2 They then capitulated sieged them for about one month.
on the terms that
their blood

would not be shed, and


children be spared, provided that they evacuate the land, which he permitted the Moslems to take together with the

gold and silver and arms

—except what was on

the person of

the banu-Khaibar, and that they keep nothing secret from the " have special They then told the Prophet, Prophet. experience in cultivation and planting palm-trees." and asked


to be allowed to remain in the land.

The Prophet granted

them their request and allowed them one-half of the fruits and grains produced saying: "I shall keep you settled so
long as Allah keeps you."

During the caliexpels the people of Khaibar. phate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab, a pestilence spread among them and they mistreated the Moslems. 'Umar, thereupon,


made them evacuate the land, dividing what they had among those of the Moslems who already had a share in it. The terms made. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Muham" I once asked ibn-Shihab about mad ibn-Ishak who said

Khaibar and he told


that he

was informed

that the




p. 503.


Diyarbakri. Ta'r'ikh al-Khamis, vol.



Prophet captured


by force after a

and that



people who surrendered did so on condition that they leave the land but the Prophet asked them to enter into a treaty, which they did." Huyai hides a bag full of money. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-


Prophet. the Moslems.

among the spoils which Allah The Prophet took its fifth and
Those of

assigned to his divided the land



an-Narsi from ibn-'Umar


—The Prophet came


the people of Khaibar and fought them until he drove to their castle and captured their land and palm-trees.



then capitulated on the terms that their blood be not shed, that they evacuate the land and be entitled to all that their

camels could carry, and that the Prophet be entitled to the 2 The Prophet made it a condigold and silver and arms. tion for them that they hold nothing secret or hidden from

him, otherwise they are no more within his protection or They, however, hid a leather bag in which were

money and jewels belonging to Huyai ibn-Akhtab. This bag Huyai had brought to Khaibar on the occasion of the expulsion of the banu-an-Nadir. The Prophet asked


"What has become of the bag which from the banu-an-Nadir?" To this Sa'yah Huyai brought " Wars and expenses have emptied it." But the answered, " It was a short time and a big sum of Prophet remarked, Moreover, Huyai was killed before that." The money. Prophet then turned Sa'yah over to az-Zubair and the latter " I saw Huyai At last Sa'yah said put him to the torture. roaming about in a deserted place yonder." Search was made in the deserted place and the bag was found. The Prophet, thereupon, put the two sons of abu-1-Hukaik to 3 death, one of whom was the husband of Saf iyah, the daughSa'yah ibn-'Amr saying,

Ibn-Sa'd, vol. ii pp. 79-80. Hisham, p. 779. who became one of the wives of Muhammad, see an-Nawawi, Tahdhib al-Asma', pp. 846-847.





ter of

Huyai ibn-Akhtab. Moreover, he captivated their women and divided their possessions because

children and

of their breach of faith.

'Abdalldh ibn-Razvahah estimates the produce.

The Pro-

phet also wanted to expel the banu-Khaibar from the land but " Let us stay in the land to repair it and manage they said,

The Prophet and his companions having no slaves to manage it, and they having no time to do it themselves, he

gave them Khaibar on condition that they have one-half of x every palm-tree or plant ... as it occurred to the Prophet.
'Abdallah ibn-Rawahah used to come every year and estimate by conjecture the quantity of dates upon the palm-trees and rent them one-half. Banu-Khaibar accused him to the

Prophet charging him with partiality in estimation and offered to bribe him. To this he ['Abdallah] replied saying,

"Do ye enemies of Allah mean to give me unlawful money? 2 By Allah, I have been sent to you by one whom of all men I love best. As for you, I hate you more than monkeys and


never stand in the

hatred to you and love to him, however, shall way of my being just to you." They

then said, Through this [justice] have heavens and earth been established !"

The green spot in the eye of Safiyah, the Prophet's ivifc. Once the Prophet, noticing a green spot in the eye of
Safiyah, daughter of Huyai, asked her about it. and she said, "As my head lay in the lap of ibn-abi-1-Hukaik, I saw in


sleep as if a


moon fell in my lap. When I told him of saw he gave me a blow saying, 'Art thou wishing to

" have the king of Yathrib?' 3 Safiyah added, Of all men the Prophet was the one I disliked most, for he had killed

Text not
Kor., 5



67 and 68.


Tabari, vol.



land Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-'Amr ibnthe people of Khaibar in Hazm The Prophet besieged their two fortresses al-Watih and Sulalim. Kor. 780. 'Abdallah : — ibn-abi-Bakr ibn-Muhammad — Prophet had already taken possession of all their property including ash-Shikk. 56. father and brother. 3 . It was stated by Na. 2 Six fortresses mentioned by Ya'kubi. 48:18. they requested the Prophet This he did. ii. 'Umar divided the those of the people of Hudaibiyah who had among taken part in the battle of Khaibar.' until 'Umar divides Khaibar. The division of Khaibar. did this and that. When they felt that their destruction was sure. 1 by hurling him from Consequently." The Khaibar and another are 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Laila meant who could not be subdued by the Persians and Greeks.KHAIBAR 45 my ' husband. an-Natat and al-Katibah together with all 2 their forts except what was in the above-mentioned two. p. father excited the Arabs to unite against me and he 25 hatred was gone away from me.fi' that dur- ing the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. 'Amr an-Nakid from Bushair ibn-Yasar: The Prophet divided Khaibar into thirty-six One-half of shares and each share into a hundred lots. following tradition regarding " the text "And rewarded them with a speedy victory was transmitted by al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad on the authority of "Speedy 3 : victory. The forts of Khaibar. The to let them off and spare their lives. vol. all Thy But he kept on saying. p. : — — the shares he reserved for himself to be used in case of 1 Hisham." The Prophet used to give annually each of his wives 80 camel-loads of dates and 80 loads of barley from Khaibar.. the people of Khaibar mistreated the Moslems and deceived them and broke the hands of the son of 'Umar the roof of a house.

an-Natat. turned into icakf the Prophet laid that he had not enough 'omils Among the lands were al-Katibah and Sulalim. it was to collect taxes and conquer more . 'Umar expelled the Jews to Syria and divided the property 26 and as the money bethe lands of the Moslems. 1 Unalienable legacy to the Moslem general community. Abu-'Ubaid from Maimun ibn-Mihran The Prophet besieged the inhabitants of Khaibar between twenty and thirty : — — day-. ment lasted throughout the life of the Prophet and abu-Bakr. accident or distributed and the other half he among share the Moslems. he found 2 for the land. and the caliph. as for ash-Shikk. He therefore it over to the Jews on condition that they use the This arrangeland and keep only one-half of its produce. the ash-Shikk with an-Xatat and whatever was included within them. Thus the part of the produce assigned by Allah to the Moslems was divided among the Moslems until the time of 'Umar who divided the land itself among them according to their shares. Prophet's included ' According to this. : Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from az-Zuhri When the Prophet Khaibar the fifth share of it [reserved for himconquered self] was al-Katibah. visitors. among the Moslems.4 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE what might befall him. When his hands on these possessions. ' Governors whose chief function lands. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Bushair ibn-Yasar The divided Khaibar into thirty-six shares Prophet eighteen — : — the Prophet to meet the expenses of accidents. Sulalim and al-Watih thev were given to the Moslems. The Prophet left the land in the hands of the Jews on condition that they give him one-half of the produce. turned But when 'Umar was made came abundant in Moslems became numerous enough to cultivate the land.

What has bea thing your blood will become lawful to me. tr. each one of which was subdivided into one hundred lots. p. of your enmity to Allah and to his Prophet. . Athir. vol. to which they replied is justice. " " come of your utensils ?" they replied. Eighteen of these shares were divided among the Moslems including the Prophet. 47 and the remaining eighteen shares to be among one hundred men. 171. In that fort were the members of a family strongly opposed To them the Prophet said "I am aware to the Prophet. ii. who had divided each 1 : — meet the expenses of visitors and delegates and accidents that might befall him. : The people of Abu-'Ubaid from Maimun ibn-Mihran on their lives and children Khaibar were promised security on condition that the Prophet get all that was in the fort. but this is not to hold me from granting you what I granted your com: — Ye. vol. 1588. Khaibar was divided from Bushair ibn-Yasar Al-Husain into thirty-six shares. l Cf. from an inhabitant of al-Madinah : —The Ishak ibn-abi- Prophet 27 made terms with the sons of abu-l-Hukaik stipulating that But they did conceal. 'Amr 'Abdalldh ibn-Rawahah estimates the produce. Tabari. Wakidi." The Prophet then gave word to — i. p. and the they conceal no treasure.KHAIBAR and delegates. p. They were all " used up during the fight." Israil The sons of abu-l-Hukaik put to death. have promised me that if ye conceal panions. and upon justice have heaven and earth been in addition eighteen shares to — : established. Prophet considered it lawful to shed their blood. Wellhausen. an-Nakid and al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-'Umar: The Prophet sent ibn-Rawahah to Khaibar who made a conjectural estimation of the palm-trees and gave the people " This their choice to accept or refuse. however. 285.

he expelled the Jews until said. otherwise. estimated and divided into two halves and asked them to choose whichever one they wanted. The vessels were disinterred and the Prophet struck off 'Abdalldh ibn-Rawahah. Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah from ash-Sha'bi The Pro: — phet turned Khaibar over to its inhabitants for one-half of the produce and sent 'Abdallah ibn-Rawahah to estimate the dates This he (or perhaps he said the palm-trees). ye estimate " Upon this they said. The " Jews Hammad of Khaibar expelled. 1 " Gottheil. Dhimmis and Moslems p." in 0. . "If ye wish. It is by this that heavens and earth have been established. of a fight." 1 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab investigated he found " it certain and assured that the Prophet had There can be no two religions at the same time in the Arabian peninsula. of Khaibar. : — will estimate and let me choose. in Egypt. an-Xarsi from ibn-Shihab : —The 'Abd-al-A'la 2g Prophet said There can be no two religions at the same time in the Arabian peninsula. 351." A J certain friend of said to ibn-Rawahah and let 'Abdallah abu-Yusuf from Anas the people of Khaibar. ii. their heads." az-Zuhri — The Prophet took Khaibar by force : The division of Khaibar." Accordingly." you choose. T. Upon this they said. vol. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from as a result one-fifth. and after taking away he divided the ibn: remaining four-fifths among the Moslems.48 his THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Companions to go to the place where the utensils were. and Semitic Studies. " It is by this that heavens and earth have been established. mad ibn-as-Sabbah from ibn-' Abbas 'Amr an-Nakid and MuhamThe Prophet turned : — Khaibar over with its soil and palm-trees to its inhabitants allowing them half of the produce.

turned them out of Khaibar and divided it among those of the Moslems who were present [in its battle] giv- the latter he said. 'Umar. therefore. : I Al-Walid from Aflah ibn-Humaid's father who said was made by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz governor of alKaribah and we used to give the heirs of the recipients of . divided into 1580 shares. To this end.KHAIBAR The Prophet gives al-Wakidi's sheikhs: —The his share. 49 Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Prophet assigned his share in Khaibar as a means of subsistence. and on abu-Bakr. al-Hassan. he drew up for them a document. Then 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar visited them for some him one-half purpose and they attacked him in the night. 'Umar divides Khaibar. of whom 1 540 had taken part in the battle of al-Hudaibiyah and forty were with Ja'far ibn-abi-Talib in Abyssinia. on his uncle al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib 200 loads. those heirs being num- bered and recorded by us. al-Husain and others including the banu-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf a certain number of loads. He ['Umar]. ibn-'Urwah's father The Prophet gave as fief to az-Zubair lands in Khaibar planted with palm. ing a share to the Prophet's wives. " Whichever of you likes to have the fruit can have it. : — 29 . Samin from hands of Nafi' : —The Prophet turned Khaibar over Muhammad ibn-Hatim asto the its people on condition that they give Thus they held it during the life of the of the produce. —" the Prophet's bestowals their due.and other trees. and whatever ye choose will be yours and your heirs' after you. and likes the estate can have it." Khaibar was Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-' Abbas To whichever : — The Moslems were 1580 men. 'Umar. bestowing on each one of his wives 80 camel-loads of dates and 20 loads of barley. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from The fief of az-Zubair. abu-Bakr and the early part of the caliphate of Prophet.

vol. Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman from Yahya ibn-Sa'id : —The people of Fadak made terms with the Prophet agreeing to give When 'Umar exone-half of the land and the palm-trees. abu-1-Haitham Malik This value 'Umar paid to the Jews and expelled them to Syria. As the Prophet departed from Khaibar. 2 The Prophet accepted. he sent to the people of Fadak * Muhaiyisah ibn-Mas'ud al-Ansari inviting them to Islam. and Zaid ibnNaiyihan). pp. Yakut. ii. 258. vol. Mas'udi. They made terms with the Prophet. Kitab at-Tanbih. The inhabitants of Fadak remained in it until 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab became caliph and the expelled the Jews of al-Hijaz.CHAPTER V Fadak The capitulation of Fadak. who estimated justly the value of oneibn-at-Taiyihan half of its soil. Thus one-half was assigned wholly to the Prophet because " Moslems pressed not against it with horse or camel." 3 The Prophet used to spend the income on the wayfarers. p. On that occasion he sent (some say anSahl ibn-abi-Haithamah al-Ansari. 3 Athir. 171 . iii. 856-857- 2 Not only 50 the produce. Their chief was one of their number named Yusha' ibn-Nun the Jew. agreeing to give its up one- half of the land with soil. p. he sent some one to estimate their share in land pelled them. . Thabit al-Ansari. ( Umar expels the inhabitants. and palm-trees and he gave them 1 their value.

They betook themselves to the fortifications and asked the Prophet to The people of Fadak save their lives and let them go off. : — What we leave as sadakah cannot be inProphet say This property therefore is the property of the herited?' of Muhammad to meet the expenses of the accidents people ' — and guests." A similar tradition was transmitted to us by al-Husain from 'Abdallah ibn-abi-Bakr. 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-Tjli from 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair The wives of the Prophet delegated 'Uthman ibn-'Affan to ask abu-Bakr to give them their inheritance from the share of But 'A'ishah said to the Prophet in Khaibar and Fadak." On 1 hearing this. ii. vol. Diyarbakri. The wives of the Prophet demand an inheritance. pp. that among those who were intermediary between the two parties was Muhaiyisah ibn-Mas'ud. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from az-Zuhri. Thus Fadak became the special share of the Prophet. Khaibar which he divided into three parts. and when I die it after me. 57 and 64. Al-Husain from 'Umar : —The Prophet had three portions : appropriated to himself exclusive of his men the land of banu-an-Nadir which was unalienable and to meet the expenses of the accidents that might befall him. and Fadak the income of which was reserved for wayfarers. " Do ye not fear Allah ? and have ye not heard the them. with one addition. 1 having heard of that surrendered on the same conditions. 'Abdallah ibnabi-Bakr and certain sons of Muhammad ibn-Maslamah : — Only a remnant of the Khaibar was spared. for the 30 Moslems " pressed not against it with horse and camel.FADAK Bakr ibn-al-Haitham $j : from az-Zuhri — 'Umar ibn-al- Khattab gave the people of Fadak the price of one-half of their land and palm-trees. . goes to the one in authority the other wives desisted from their request.

I have inherited from thy father neither gold nor : — : — 1 Bukhari. But abu-Bakr said. he reinstated the land in its old condition. Thou. iii. " Give me Fadak. " In such a case no evidence could be accepted unless it be rendered by a man and two women." AbuBakr called for evidence and she presented umm-Aiman : — — and Rabah. The Prophet assigned to me Fadak thou : — — . said 31 rendered by two this she departed. the " called on abu-Bakr and asked Who Prophet's daughter. and umm-Aiman " testified in her favor. knowest that no evidence can be accepted unless it is thereupon. the Prophet has assigned it to me. vol." answered abu-Bakr. will inherit thee when thou art dead?" to which he replied." asked she. Abu-Bakr." Why then. the Prophet's freedman.52 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE A similar tradition was communicated to us by Ahmad ibn- ibn-Ibrahim ad-Dauraki on the authority of 'Urwah. p. 'Abdallah ibn-Maimun alMukattib from Malik ibn-Ja'wanah's father Fatimah said " to abu-Bakr." Ibn-'A'ishah at-Taimi from umm-Hani Fatimah. daughter of Allah's Prophet. 131. both of whom testified in her favor. shouldst therefore give it to me. But abu-Bakr asked for x another witness. " " " My son and family. Ibrahim : Muhammad ibn-'Ar'arah from al-Kalbi The banuUmaiyah confiscated Fadak and violated the law of the Prophet in regard to it. The banu-Umaiyah confiscate Fadak. Fatimah demands Fadak." 'Ali ibn-Abi-Talib acted as a witness in her favor." Upon Rauh al-Karabisi from one supposed by Rauh to have been Ja'far ibn-Muhammad Fatimah said to abu-Bakr. by Allah. men or a man and two women. But when 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph. . hast thou and not we inherited the Prophet's possessions?" " " Daughter of Allah's Prophet.

' : 'Umar ibn'Uthman ibn-abi-Shaibah from Mughirah once summoned the banu-Umaiyah and ad'Abd-al-'Aziz " Fadak belonged to the Prophet and dressed them saying the income from it he met his own expenses. "Against which ye pressed not " 1 or camel The places referred to are Kura : Kura The following was trans- in explana- — with horse 2 'Arabiyah that belong to the Prophet. this ' To abu-Bakr on my death it should be turned over to the Moslems. p. And now and ye will original use. 59 : 6." Daughter of Allah's Prophet. e." said she. mitted to us by Suraij ibn-Yunus from az-Zuhri tion of the text. The following is taken from the Nakid from abu-Burkan with the Prophet. but he refused. Maghazi. I replied.. am be my I going to put witnesses. i. . silver and pack-saddles. supplied the by needy among the banu-Hashim and helped the unmarried among them to marry. Abu-'Ubaid from az- Zuhri or someone else : —'Umar expelled the Jews of Khaibar place." it back to its tradition 'Arabiyah. : — 1 Kor. used it in the same way. and this and that. 'Amr anThe khutbah of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. thou hast inherited our share in Khaibar and our sadakah in Fadak. they retained half the fruits [produced] and half the soil. abu-Bakr And so did 'Umar when he be- came caliph. 374. in accordance with the conditions on which they made terms 'Umar paid them the price of half the and half the soil in gold. 32 and they evacuated the As for the Jews of Fadak.. Fadak." " " But. This is but something assigned by Allah as a means of subsistence to use during my life. After the Prophet's death. products and then expelled them. . 2 Bakri. 'Umar expels the Jews of Fadak.FADAK silver. 657-658 Wakidi. pp. neither this 53 " nor that. Fatimah asked him to bestow it on : — her. heard Allah's Prophet say.

saying. and I But when Mu'awiyah became caliph he as the Prophet. the thing granted or given as such. Thus I brought it into one whole again.' The Prophet used Then came abuto spend the income from it on wayfarers. Sulaiman and myself. In Allah alone does the success as well as the strength of the commander of the believers lie. Thus it was handed down to al-Walid. In like manner. I asked Sulaiman for his share and he gave it. I asked him to give me his share. Thou hast nothing to demand from have nothing to give thee. it as fief to Marwan ibn-al-Hakam and the latter gave . And nothing that I possess is dearer to me than it Be ye therefore my witnesses. ! it was. 'Uthman and 'Ali who put it to the same use me. he said. 'Umar. The Prophet had given Fatimah.54 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE speech of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz on his installment in " Fadak was among the spoils that Allah the caliphate assigned the Prophet and the Moslems pressed not against : ' it with horse and camel. To Kutham the that effect he wrote ibn-Ta'far. That was an evident and . believers.' ' When Fatimah asked him to give her the land. When al-Walid became caliph. his daughter. the Prophet granted some- whom thing or gave it as sadakah. Fadak and bestowed it as sadakah on her. that I have restored it to what bestowed it on my father and on 'Abd-al-Malik. and to do what makes him win His favor is his [the commander's] chief desire. in commander of his position in the religion of Allah and as caliph [successor] of his Prophet and a near relative to him. to " his 'amil ! Greetings — The in al-Madinah. Bakr. the commander of the believers al-Ma'mun 'Abdallah ibn-Harun ar-Rashid ordered that Fadak be delivered to the children of Fatimah." Al-Ma'miin gives Fadak to the descendants of Fatimah. has the first right to enforce the Prophet's regulations and carry out his orders and deliver to him. which he did. In the year 210.

it has been cus1 tomary on every mausim to have any person claim a grant. Mutarrizi. ordering him to give Fadak back to the heirs of Fatimah. all to be delivered to Muhammad ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib ibn-Yahya ibn-al-Husain ibn-Zaid and to Muham- mad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Husain ibn- 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. the commander of the believers has deemed it right to return it to the heirs of Fatimah and is entitled. . p. to them. and including its slaves and products and other things. see Bukhari. and Ar. see an-Nihdyah. then Fatimah' s claim on what the Prophet has bestowed on her should —above that of every one the else —be accepted has as true.FADAK 55 well-known fact on which there was no disagreement among 33 the relatives of the Prophet. ii. to al- The commander of believers written Mubarik at-Tabari. And since. and what He has enabled him to do in the way of winning His favor and His Prophet's favor. and treat Muhammad ibn-Yahya of the believers Meeting time of the pilgrims. who do not cease to lay claim on what was given to Fatimah as sadakah and to which she Consequently. 2 1 iv. 211. it his win the favor of Allah and of Allah's Prophet command and his wish regarding his This the commander of the believers ordered re- corded in his registers and sent in writing to his 'dmils. 285. the Prophet's daughter. both of whom the commander of the its believers has put in charge of the land in behalf of owners. deliver by by carrying out sadakah. Let those under thee know it. 168. iii. his freedman. or sadakah or promise. 250. Know therefore that this is the opinion of the commander and what Allah has inspired him to do as His will. vol. 2 and to have his claim accepted. ii. al-Mughrib. vol. with all its boundaries and the rights attached to it. vol. seeking thereby to establishing his right and justice. p. after the death of the Prophet. p. 'idat. p. vol.

year 210. When al-Mutawakkil. became caliph. he ordered that the land be reinstated in the condition in which it had been before al-Ma'mun. however. and help them in any way that makes for the fertility. interest and productivity of the land. and peace be unto thee. Written on Wednesday. May it be Allah's will.56 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah as thou hast treated alMubarik at-Tabari. two days after the beginning of dhu-1-Ka'dah. ." Al-Mutawakkil restores Fadak to its old condition.

and Allah gave him as booty the possessions of its inhabitants. I was informed by certain scholars that the Prophet had a slave. tr. When the Prophet de- * parted from Khaibar. 34 The Prophet reduced the place by force. prophet of Allah. To the lot of the Moslems fell pieces of furniture and other commodities of which the Prophet took away one-fifth. 2 Wellhausen. Wakidi. Jews and divided it the administrative district of al-Madinah and is 2 Some included among its suburbs. however. vol. Rifa'ah ibn-Zaid al-Judhami had presented to him. Blessed. 292. They refused and started hostilities. is thy slave. 57 . named Mid'am. quest. p. Today it is annexed to people of Khaibar.CHAPTER VI Wadi-l-Kura and Taima' Wadi-l-Kura taken by assault. The Prophet left the land with its palm-trees in the hands of certain Jews on the same rent terms which he had made with the say that 'Umar expelled its among those who fought for its conOthers." the Pro- O 1 Yakut. p. for it is not included in al-Hijaz. iv. whom Dur- Mid'am was shot by an arrow from an unknown quarter as he was putting down ing the invasion of Wadi-l-Kura. say that 'Umar did not expel them. he came to Wadi-l-Kura and invited its people to Islam. 678. the saddle of the Prophet's camel. for he was shot by an arrow and suffered martyrdom. When someone re" marked. Mid'am condemned to Hre .

65. the mantle he took from the spoils on phet replied. p. so has suffered martyrdom!" to which he replied. p." Taima how the people of Taima' heard the Prophet had subjugated the people of Wadi-1capitulates. . pp." Someone remarked Shaiban ibn-Farrukh from al-Hasan " to the Prophet. iii. ibn-Haudhah-l-'Udhri This his whip's 1 4 in Wadi-1-Kura. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Hammad an-Xarsi from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz 'Umar ibn. 765. Hamzah was the Hisham. Rather he is dragged to fire in a mantle he unlawfully took from the spoils. lad. they made terms with him. : — al-Khattab expelled Khaibar. 3 Diyarbakri. and asYazid ibn-abi-Sufyan after its conquest. al-'Asi The Prophet assigned 'Amr ibn-Sa'id ibn- ibn-Umaiyah as governor to Wadi-1-Kura.58 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " Nay. 1 the day of Khaibar shall verily burn on him like fire. 2 Bukhari. vol. year 7. so and so. When Kura. ii. Taima' and people between the Prophet and the people the of 35 of Wadi-1-Kura took place in Jumada II. The fief of Hamzah ibn-an-Nu'mdn. Al-'Abbas ibnHisham al-Kalbi from his grandfather: The Prophet gave — as fief to Hamzah ibn-an-Xu'man throw p. for thy lad. The fight Fadak." to which the Prophet " replied. 330. 129-130. the latter signed having become Moslem on the day of the conquest of laima 'Umar expels the inhabitants. " — Rather he is dragged to 2 fire in a mantle he unlawfully took from the spoils. and so. and they settled in their homes with their lands in their 3 possession. vol. * Mawardi. agreeing to pay poll-tax." 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from al-Hasan: Some one " remarked to the Prophet. Happy art thou. has suffered martyrThy : — dom.

The fief of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwdn." To " this Yazid replied income 1 " : We things. ii. Annali dell Islam. if it is false. 'Ali ibn-Muham'Abd-al-Malik ibnmad from al-' Abbas ibn-'Amir's uncle Marwan called on Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah and said. so much . is When 'Abd-al-Malik departed Yazid the remarked. vol. said that this is man that will rule If that and expect to have granted him a 1 right. "O commander of the believers. Thou lost. 50. It is in it." p." then said. is Thou canst have it." said Yazid. Mu'awiyah in his caliphate bought from certain Jews a piece of land in Wadi-1-Kura and made : — many improvements into negligence. Give it therefore as fief to and its income has deme. hast let that land fall therefore creased. we would have done him favor receive something in repay. nor can a Its trifling escape is our eye. note 7. L. "It after us.WADI-L-KURA AND TAIMA' chief of the banu-'Udhrah and the first $g of the people of al- Hijaz to offer the Prophet the sadakah of banu-'Udhrah.. . Caetani. we gift.. and I shall take care are not stingy in big 'Abd-al-Malik " of it.

This incident provoked evil and fighting between the two parties. p. p. then those of " rose and said. attacked him and crushed his head. Fakihi. will enter into a covenant with Kuraish. p. Kuraish reinforced banuKinanah and together they attacked Khuza'ah in the night time. who desires to make a covenant with Muhammad can do and he who desires to make a covenant with Kuraish can do so. and he of the banu-Kuraish or their allies should be returned. Hisham. pp. J Hisham. 387. 'Amr ibn-Salim ibn-Hasirah-1-Khuza'i composed : the following verse " O Allah ! I am seeking from Muhammad 2 o^ the hereditary alliance of our father and his. 42. who comes to the Prophet Kinanah who were present We . thus violating the covenant and the arrangement. When the Prophet made arrangements with the Kuraish in the year of al-Hudaibiyah and wrote down the statement of the truce 1 to the effect that he so. 746-747. 806.CHAPTER Makkah VII The cause of its invasion." One of the clan of Khuza'ah hearing one of the clan of Kinanah sing a poem satirizing the Prophet. Maghazx. and that he of the Companions of the Prophet who comes to Kuraish should not be returned. 60 p. Wakidi. We into the covenant of Muhammad and his contract. " " will enter and accept their terms but Khuza'ah said. . 1 Wakidi. 803. Maghazx." Since between 'Abd-al-Muttalib and Khuza'ah an old alliance existed. 402.

Caetani. 1 . " renew the alliance and reconcile the parties Abu-Sufyan proceeded to al-Madinah where he met abu-Bakr and said to him. note 2 and p. and shelter. tr. "Abu-Bakr. p. to invade Makkah. Wellhausen. We only gave them provision. thereupon. water." " Go and They. p. 61 Thereupon. and he of the his way to Syria and the East is safe. p. 2 place Kuraish provided banu-Bakr with arms. By Allah. and the Khuza'ah were in: — cluded in the peace terms of the Prophet. Hisham. 49 and 144-145. 747.Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from 'Ikrimah The banu-Bakr of Kinanah were included in the peace terms of Kuraish. 114. 803." yet the others not. ii. stipulating that both parties promise each other security against treachery stealth. 'Abd-al. Ye have We have violated the covenant. Abu-Sufyan as an envoy. Accordingly he met 'Umar and said. 106. 646. Yakut." Abu-Bakr asked him to see 'Umar. " replied. renew the alliance and reconcile the parties. Fakihi. Fa'ik. vol. so that a man coming on pilgrimage to " Makkah visit there. or passing on his safe. " Renew the alliance and reconcile the 1 Hisham. Some of the Kuraish objected ' 37 saying. . vol. 257. and shelter. But a fight took between the banu-Bakr and Khuza'ah at 'Arafah. 'Amr ibn-Salim ibn-Hasirah-1-Khuza'i came This led the Prophet The following is taken from a long tradition communicated to us by abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam on the authority of 'Urwah : —Kuraish and or to made terms with 1 the Pro- phet.MAKKAH to the Prophet and solicited his aid. Wakidi. In this covenant the Prophet included banu-Ka'b and Kuraish included in their covenant their allies of the banu-Kinanah. iii. way between al-Yaman and at-Ta'if is " who passes through al-Madinah on polytheists . we did not fight. ii. said to abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb. vol. and gave them water to drink. pp. p. p.

is The Prophet had said. 'Ali replied. to to the Prophet and complained of secure one of the The Prophet said. Thou dost bring us neither war that we may be warned. O Allah.62 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE which 'Umar replied. Thou art the sheikh of Kuraish and its chief. When he [abu-Sufyan] got to Marr az-Zahran and saw the fires " and the tents he said. May Allah cut what is still connected and wear out what " said. phet. Kor." Thereupon. Renew therefore the alliance and reconcile the parties. He returns satisfied without having effected any result. who took him prisoner and he was brought before the Pro." of " Khuza'ah then came what had befallen them. strike upon their ears [with deafness] that they may The not hear. Thus he set out with the Companions saying." Abu-Sufyan then By Allah I never saw a worse head of a tribe than thou!" Thence he went to Fatimah who asked him to meet 'Ali. . the Prophet ordered that the march be com" menced.. parties. 18 10. 1 so that we may march take them by surprise!" until Prophet pressed the he camped at Marr az- Zahran." Abu-Sufyan then clapped his right " I have renewed the alliance the left saying. Kuraish had asked abu-Sufyan to return. hand against and reconciled the parties. This he did and " made the same request. nor peace that we may feel safe. What is the matter with the people ? They seem like the people celebrating the night of 'Arafah." to alliance " off the is still new. but al: Cf. "Abu-Sufyan coming. " I was ordered two towns Makkah or at-Ta'if. he was surrounded by the Prophet's horsemen. 'Umar came and wanted 1 to execute him." When he returned to the people Makkah he told them what had happened and they said." Saying this. By Allah we know none more foolish than thou." He then left and came to Makkah.

When the time for morning prayer came. Ye have been surrounded on all sides. 'Abd-al-Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from abu-Hurairah The spokesman of Khuza'ah repeated : — the following verse before the Prophet x : Fakihi. embrace Islam and ye shall be safe. 150 ." ye people. or the Greeks who have long fore-locks. p." answered al-'Abbas. 2 Fakihi. Wakidi. " " mean to kill me?" No. 405. however. Send me to the I may invite them to Islam. when he prostrated himself. Fa'ik. "What is the matter?" said " Do they abu-Sufyan to al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib." As they began to pray. vol. there is az-Zubair in the upper of it. they prostrated themselves upon which " he remarked. i. 338. Maghasi. . "And what are Khuza'ah with their mutilated noses !" The entrance into Makkah. that the polytheists ' 1 ' may ' Al-'Abbas. as I did to-day. the submissiveness of a people coming from here and there — not even in the case of the noble Persians. and there is the Prophet of Allah at the head part of the Emigrants. By Allah I never saw. Bring my uncle back to me." " Al-'Abbas asked the Prophet saying. 155. refused to return until he came to Makkah and made the following statement kill : not him." To this Kuraish in the replied. the Moslems bestirred themselves for ablution before prayer. Ansdr and Khuza'ah. . Ye are confronted by a hard case that is beyond your power. abu-Sufyan noticed that 38 when the Prophet knelt they knelt." No people of Makkah that sooner had the Prophet sent him than he called him back " saying. p. p.MAKKAH 63 'Abbas prevented him and he [abu-Sufyan] embraced Islam and presented himself before the Prophet. 2 Here is Khalid O lower part of Makkah. p. they have risen for prayer.

and summon the worshippers of Allah. of Abu-Hurairah describes the conquest. the latter of 3 against them and the martyrs was Hubaish al-Ash'ar ibn-Khalid al-Ka'bi the tribe of Khuza'ah. I am seeking from Muhammad the hereditary alliance between our father and his. Then abu-Hurairah asked. and we used to prepare food for one another. seq. . vol. i. however. 817. and Here I am!" the Prophet replied. and panions Khalid al-Ash'ar al-Ka'bi suffered martyrdom on that day. Abu- Hurairah was one of those who often invited us to I his dwel- [ibn-Rabah] therefore prepared a meal and ling-place. invited them. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. 1621-1622. O Ansar. p. amuse you with a narrative concerning you?" and 1 Tabari." Accordingly. Reinforce therefore. pp. and they will come for help. called the Prophet as he " force. Fakihi. Others state that twenty-three men from Kuraish were killed on that day and the rest took to flight seeking refuge 39 in the mountain heights which they climbed. with Allah's guidance. Shaiban ibn-abiShaibah-1-Ubulli from 'Abdallah ibn-Rabah number of : —A deputations came to call on Mu'awiyah. 3 153. Khalid ibn-al-Walid led the fight was the first to receive the order of the 2 to enter. So he killed twenty-four men from [the Prophet tribe of] Kuraish and four from [the tribe of] Hudhail. It was in Ramadan.64 " THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Lord. Kurz ibn-Jabir al-Fihri. a band of Kuraish took up arms on the day of the conquest [of Makkah] " Never shall Muhammad enter the city except by saying. " Shall I. According to al-Wakidi among others. Of the Comof the Prophet." O * Hammad Khuza'ah states on the authority of 'Ikrimah that was washing himself. a mighty victory. p. in "'Khunais ibn-Khalid" Hisham.

my 1 Fakihi. ' Prophet of Allah. Prophet of Allah. he sent az-Zubair. is annihilated. 'He who enters the house of abu-Sufyan is safe. Kuraish had gathered their mob and followers saying. He therefore said ' O ye Ansdr. we is will join them and .' said the Prophet. was through the bottom of the valley.' I summoned them and they came In the meantime.' and I replied.' Accordingly kill..MAKKAH 6: he went on to describe the conquest of Makkah as follows " The Prophet advanced until he came to Makkah. 154. To this the Prophet added. 'Abu-Hurairah. ' Meet me at them. answered the Ansdr. head of the other. each man killing whom- abu-Sufyan came to the ProO Prophet of Allah. Here I am.' mob then ' of Kuraish?' Do 'We ' ye see do. Let us send these ahead. ' we shall give what' ever demanded. and of the The way they took infantry abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. At the at the head of one of the two wings of the army.Allah and to you. ' we set out.' x The Prophet thereupon announced.. There is no more Kuraish after this day. If they around. the majority of Kuraish phet saying. ' win. Nay.' said he.' as-Safa.' On this the Ansdr remarked one to the other. life is your life death is your death !' ' ' ' My . he who closes his own door is safe.' 'Summon the Ansdr. We have. ye have said so and so . p. 'and let no one come but my Ansdr. if defeated.' The Prophet at this received the inspiration which we never failed to observe whenever it came. On seeing me the Prophet called.' until : ever he wanted to ' ' I am the replied the Ansdr. 'The man is moved by love to his relatives and compassion on his clan. the He made kill a sign with one hand over the other as if to say. The Prophet was at the head of his cavalry detachment.' said the Prophet. slave of Allah and his Prophet. . I have immigrated to . 40 and he who lays down his arms is safe. Khalid ibn-al-Walid.

Tahdhib al-Asma'. . it is the prop1 When the circuit was done. execute no prisoner. and ordered the demolishing of the idols and the effacement of the pictures that stood in the Ka'bah. p." Accordingly. iKor. . the was Kais. he erty of vanity to vanish. 66.' and he raised his hand praising Allah and praying." The Prophet's orders. 414. Hisham. Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah from 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Utbah the conquest of " : ' — On the occasion of Makkah. with a bow to an idol at the side of He began to stab the eye of the idol saying. ibn-Duraid. He also said. The Prophet proceeded to the stone ' ' and laid hold of He made the circuit of the House in his hand held at its curved part. pursue no fugitive. the Prophet made the following wounded person. climbed it until he could see the House. we said what we said only in our anxiety to spare the Prophet of Allah. 2 Al-Wakidi. and the name of ibn-Khatal one who put him to death was abuThis ibn-Khatal had two female slave- Shiryab al-Ansari..' The people then crowded to the house of abu- Sufyan and closed then its doors laying ' down ' their arms. Kitab p. and whosoever closes his door is safe. calls him abu-Bardah Nawawi. abu-Barzalr-1-Aslami put him to death.' the Ka'bah. To the governorship of Makkah he assigned 'Attab at the ibn-Asid ibn-abi-l-'ts ibn-Umaiyah. Al-Wakidi states that the invasion in which the conquest was effected was carried on in the month of Ramadan in the year 8. and came. p. al-Ishtikdk. cf. the Ansar began to weep saying. p. Accordif 41 ing to abu-al-Yakzan. came to as-Safa. however." Ibn-Khatal proscribed. On that occasion statement. Slay no the Prophet remained in Makkah to the time of the festival end of Ramadan. By Allah. even ye find him holding the curtains of the Ka'bah. 'Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. 788. it. 17:83. 819. "Put ibn-Khatal to death.66 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 4 Hearing this. after which he proceeded to invade Hunain.

One of them was killed. e. and satisfied to forsake Islam. Hashim ibn-Subabah ibn-Hazn.. took revenge on him by force leaving it. the ProMikyas phet having announced that whosoever finds him may kill him. pp. Ibn-Khatal's slave-singers. Numailah ibn-'AbdalMikyas ibn-Subdbah proscribed. ibn-Subabah-1-Kinani. 2 . Hisham. 229-230. to pay his thereby bloodwit. I attained I my ambition. 819. deep in the blood flowing from his veins his clothes soaked. the Prophet in disguise. the high in rank.MAKKAH singers 67 who always sang poems satirizing the Prophet. 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib killed alHuwairith ibn-Nukaidh ibn-Bujair 2 ibn-'Abd ibn-Kusai. and was the first Al-Huwairith proscribed. after which he apostatised from Islam and said " My I soul has been healed by having him lie. The Prophet did this for the following reason: Mikyas had a brother. the Prophet having declared that whosoever finds him him. Hashim was mistaken by one of the " " and killed. slew him and took to flight. and the other lived to the time of 'Uthman when a rib of hers was broken and caused her death. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from A female slave-singer owned by Hilal ibn-'Abdalal-Kalbi : may kill — lah. who embraced Islam and witnessed with the Prophet the invasion made on al-Muraisi'. came to She embraced Islam and acknowl- Mawardi. bloodwit should pay Mikyas received the bloodwit and became Moslem. for the leaders of banu-an-Najjar." 1 my vengeance. 1 ibn-Khatal al-Adrami of the banu-Taim. Mikyas thereupon Ansdr for a polytheist came to the Prophet and the Prophet decreed that the relalah al-Kinani killed tives of the slayer responsible for the it. i. : Later he attacked his brother's slayer. p.

No blame be on you this Allah will forgive you. A noble Thou said. 821.68 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE chief.' Verily every debt. 2 ! 4 The sanctuary Tabari.' and every blood and every claim Verily every privilege of pre-Islamic time lie under my feet with the ' ' 2 and the providexception of the custody of the House ing of the Pilgrims with beverage. however. p. at p. but he was not molested. edged the Prophet as the Prophet did not molest her. 1642. and gave his army 1 victory alone defeated the confederates. Both singers. good. used to sing satires against the Prophet.. On the day of 42 the conquest of Makkah the Prophet declared his blood lawful. 92. Ibn-az-Ziba'ra as-Sahmi embraced Islam before the Moslems had chance to kill him. and what we say is good." 1 Hisham. and priviof pre-Islam lie under my feet with the exception of lege the custody of the House and providing the pilgrims hast succeeded. i. Ibn-az-Ziba'ra embraces Islam. Azraki. vol." The Prophet then ' " ' ' with beverage. and the son of a noble brother. . 12 : Makkah. Kor. The other singer of Hilal was killed. p. for he is the most merciful day. 17 seq. of the merciful. possession. What think ye?" 3 to which they replied. My answer is 4 that given by my brother Joseph." Khalaf al-Bazzar from 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman's sheikhs " : —On the day of the conquest of Makkah the Prophet " asked Kuraish. Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah alBazzaz from al-Kasim ibn-Rabi'ah On the day of the battle : — of Makkah " : the Prophet delivered the following khutbah [speech] ' Praise be to Allah who made and all his promise true. and sang poems in praise of the Prophet. The Prophet's khutbah. Not knowing who she was. What we think is brother thou art.

156. according to other readings zuhur See Wakidi." cluded. all Makkah is inviolable. Shaiban seize the treasure of the . : — 1 1 Abu-Ishak ash-Shirazi." remarked al-'Abbas. Muhammad and Caetani. abu-Bakr. 129. . tr. 'Amr an-Nakid from Mujahid in the cause of Allah. 338-3393 Ar. 540. at-Tanbih." A1-' Abbas said. has kubur " graves ". and for the roofs. —The Prophet cut. From 2 this should be excluded the idhkhir plant to be used by our day. Azraki. 85. kuyun . 4 and for the cleansing of the houses. ii. pp. see an-Nawawi. " tuhiir. p. 'Commander 5 who would of the Believers came thy two companions 6 have surely done so. 6 7 note 1. blacksmiths and as a means of cleansing " a our ex- houses." 4 6 Ar. To me it was made lawful for only one hour on one thorny trees be chased. its shall not jewelers. Its fresh herbage shall not be cut. : from al-Hasan Ka'bah to use it : 'Umar advised not to confiscate 'Umar wanted to — ' the treasure. its shall not be felled. p. Yea. The idhkhir : is Yusuf ibn-Musa-1-Kattan from ibn-' Abbas " said. is between its two rugged mountains was not lawful for any one before me. ibn-Jabr. Wellhausen. p. what is game found x in it shall not be kept unless previous announce" ment has been made of the find. vol.MAKKAH Shaiban from 'Abdallah ibn-'Ubaid ibn-'Umair " : 69 —The What Prophet said in his khutbah. if it were an act of virtue. But Ubai ibn-Ka'b al-Ansari turned to him and said "Before thee." This the smiths Prophet allowed." T Makkah inviolable. p. its The fresh herbage of felled. A sweet rush resembling papyrus used for roofing houses." trees shall not be " Makkah shall not be With the exception " of the 43 which is for the blackidhkhir plant." The Prophet then added. nor will it be made for any after me.

5 seq." The following those who tradition regarding the text. The following communicated Mujahid alike —The inhabitants of Makkah and other people are so far as the dwellings are concerned. : Kor„ 22 25. proout of his home." The dwelling places of Makkah ' not to be Muhammad " ibn-Hatim al-Marwazi from 'A'ishah who Build for thee. Prophet of said to the Prophet. being entitled to live vided none of the natives of Makkah goes wherever they want. your houses that the stranger may live wherever he wants. ." said the Prophet.. have read a letter written by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz which the renting of houses in Makkah is prohibited. 7 " p. "Alike for 2 " was comabide therein and for the stranger lis municated to Rahman and ibn-Sabit by 'Uthman ibn-abi-Shaibah from 'Abd-arBy the stranger is meant the pilgrims : — visitors who go there and who have equal right in the buildings.' I ' Once " in I Khalaf ibn-Hisham al-Bazzar from ibn-Juraij who said.' to which he replied. a house in Makkah that will protect thee against the Makkah is the dwelling place sun." 1 'Amr an-Nakid from 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-abi-Sulaiman : : — " —A message written by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to the " Let not the inhabitants of Makkah chief of Makkah reads : receive rent for their houses because it is not legal for them." : The latter said The Abu-'Ubaid from ibn-'Umar whole of al-Haram is a place of worship. 'Uthman and 'Amr from Mujahid — 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab : : tradition regarding the same text was to us by 'Uthman on the authority of 44 Make no doors for once said to the people of Makkah. its " It is not legal rented." 'Azraki. said. " only of those who are already in it. Allah. either to sell its dwellings or to rent houses.o " THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE is Makkah inviolable.

" 'Alike for those who abide therein and for the stranger. it is all the nights of the Pilgrimage it whether the one who right. the courts. 1 Cf. if is the rent is made during it void. ' 7I 'Uthman ibn-abi-Shaibah and Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from The latter said. is Rabi'ah and abu-az-Zinad. " I once told Sa'id ibn-Jubair in Makkah that I wanted to 'abide therein to which he reThou art already abiding therein and he read. ibn-abi-Laila and abu-Hanifah. " I saw ibn-abi-Dhi'b receiving the rent of his house in Makkah between as-Safa and al-Marwah. and the abodes that are in a state of ruins.MARKAH abu-Hasin." same effect was transmitted to me by abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Awdi on the authority of ashtradition to the Shafi'i. there for renting houses or for selling Al-Wakidi said." " It was said by al-Laith ibn-Sa'd. hires is a neighbor or not. . 17. : — Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : —Many cases were brought before abu-Bakr ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Amr ibnHazm regarding the rents of the houses of Makkah. al-I'lam. Kutb-ad-Din. A Said Sufyan ibn-Sa'id ath-Thauri To rent a house in " Makkah is illegal and he insisted on that. Whatever has the form of a house its rent is legal for its proprietor. According to al-Auza'i. : " . and abu-Bakr in each case judged against the tenant. p. This too is the view of Malik and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. he who comes to them first can have them first without rent. but if is in other nights. plied. the roads. for the halls.' The following tradition in explanation of the same text was communicated to us by 'Uthman on the authority of — ' ' Sa'id ibn-Jubair All people in it are alike whether they are the inhabitants of Makkah or of some other place. As But according to no harm in taking money 1 dwellings in Makkah.

its rent is The one " abiding therein " and the absolutely legal. . he should pay the value of the tree he cuts and cannot have the wood for his use.72 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to certain followers of abu-Yusuf. as stated by Muhammad ibn-'Umar al-Wakidi. Aswad from 'Abd-ar-Rahman found no harm in gathering vegetables. The same view is held by abu- According Hanifah. 'Abd-ar-Rahman allowed it in the case of rotten trees that have decayed and fallen to pieces. making any other use of anything ibn-al-Aswad —The : Al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-allatter cutting. abu-Hanifah. are alike only as regards stranger " House. but if the man who does it is ignorant he should be taught and receive no penalty. whatever in the Haram is grown by man or was grown by him can be cut with impunity whatever is grown : without the agency of man. From this cate- Makkah be it palm-trees or otherwise. According to al-Hasan ibnSalih. eating or else planted by man in 45 only disapproved of this being done with trees and plants that grow of their own accord without the agency of man. it is wrong at all events. for its its cutter should be responsible value. there is no harm in cutting the branches of the thumdm plant and the ends of the senna plant from the Haram to be used as medicine or tooth-picks. he should be punished without paying the value of the trees. to abu-Sufyan ath-Thauri and abu-Yusuf. He gory al-idhkhir was excluded. According to the view of Malik and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. According to Sufyan ibn-Sa'id. and abuYusuf." the " " making the circuit of The plants of the Haram. According to Malik ibn-Anas and ibn-abi-Dhi'b. regarding the legality or illegality of felling a tree of the Haram. if he knows but is impious. He who cuts it may have it for his use.

and they said. Then I asked about the case of a tree that may grow ' of its own accord in his garden it and that does not belong by man. abi-Laila. became caliph and the number of the Moslems increased." pilgrim or visitor of the Haram. When 'Umar. but the man should not cut the grass for them.MAKKAH " 73 I once." ibn-Sa'd from Mu'adh ibn-Muhammad " I Makkah The Muhammad tables " : — latter said. They answered in the affirmative. But Malik. but Mujahid disapproved of it." asked ath-Thauri and abuYusuf regarding the case of one who plants in the Haram something that is not ordinarily grown and which he tends until it grows high. grass for it. he enlarged the mosque and bought certain houses which he demolished to increase Certain neighbors of the mosque refused to sell their houses and 'Umar had to demolish their houses. The history of the Haram-mosque. likes. 'Affan and al'Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi from Laith 46 'Ata' found no harm in using the vegetables of the Haram as well as what is planted therein including the branches and — the tooth-picks.' to the category of trees planted He can do with whatever he latter said. however. " Muhammad ' ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : —The It has been reported to us that ibn-'Umar used to eat in vegetables grown in the Haram. have seen on the table of az-Zuhri vege- grown in the Haram. . holds that there is no harm in having : someone cut the grass. have his camel graze in the Haram." " shall No ibn-abi-Dhi'b. The Haram-mosque at the time of the Prophet and abu-Bakr had no wall to surround it. however." said al-Wakidi." said abu-Hanifah. would it be right for him to cut it. the its size. abu-Yusuf and ibn-abi-Sabrah are of the opinion that there is no harm in having the animals Ibngraze. Sufyan. nor shall he cut The same view is held by Zufar.

and he will fall injuring those behind. "Raise.74 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE prices of which he deposited in the treasury of al-Ka'bah 1 Moreover he raised around until they took them later. taking refuge in it against al-Husain ibn-Numair as-Sakuni who was fighting with a Syrian army. 2 or Usaid. upon which 'Uthman addressed " It is only my compassion on you and them as follows the this wall the : my do leniency in dealing with this against me." The suggestion until it was built was followed by Kuraish. so that no one may enter without a ladder. In case some one ye hate should come. When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph. 307. see Azraki. seized after depositing their prices. p. the bottom of the door of the Ka'bah was level with the ground by Kuraish. p. at which time abu-Hudhaifah ibn-al-Mughirah said. people. met him near the "House" with loud protests. On lamps were put. Then would no man whom ye do not want to enter be able to do so. which he did on the occasion of enlarging it. . mosque a low wall not higher than a man's stature. In the days of Abraham. one of 'Abdallah's followers carried one day 1 Azraki. 'Umar did you that made you venture to exactly what I am doing but ye kept silent and were satisfied. reported that 'Uthman was the first to erect the porches of the mosque. the door of the Ka'bah. ye may throw him down. When 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair ibn-al-' Auwam fortified himself in the Haram-mosque. 307." He then ordered them to jail where they remained until 'Abdallah ibn-Khalid ibn-Asid 2 ibn-abi-l-'Is spoke to him on their behalf and they were It is released. Jurhum and the 'Amalik. he purchased certain dwellings and thereby Certain people whose dwellings he enlarged the mosque.

The doors of the Ka'bah. 4 . This took place in the year 64. As a result.MAKKAH burning fibres of 75 wind being a palm-tree on the top of a lance. Kutb-ad-Din. and the other to the west one for entrance and the . 81. space comprised by the curved wall al-Hatim. removing all stones thereof. and they were removed. He then demolished the Ka'bah. p. After the death of Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah and the departure of al-Husain ibn-Numair to Syria. structure what he volun- In pre-Islamic times the cover 1 Cf. al-Hajjaj pulled according to the shape given by Kuraish. a spark flew and attached itself to the curtains of the Ka'bah and burnt them.. ibn-az-Zubair plated with gold. its After this made ibn-az- Zubair do with the Ka'bah and 4 tarily undertook to do !" The cover of the Ka'bah. 81. other for exit. as it had been described to him by 'A'ishah. and rebuilt it on its old foundation. the Ka'bah down and rebuilt it it at it hav- Accordingly. p. the stones hurled ing made cracks in the walls. 84. ibn-azZubair ordered that the stones that had been thrown into it 1 47 be removed. one to the east. Ibid. p. which encompasses the Ka'bah on the north-west side. using stones in the building. 'Abdal-Malik wrote to al-Hajjaj ordering him to rebuild the Ka'bah and the Haram-mosque. and its keys he made of When al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf fought on behalf of gold. The violent. 2 shape the authority of the Prophet. s 2 The Kutb-ad-Din. the walls were cracked. on laid was it on al-Hijr. and turned black. " I wish I had 'Abd-al-Malik often repeated. tion In building it he found that the founda- His object was to give it the had in the days of Abraham. He opened two doors on the ground. the mother of the believers. 3 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan and killed ibn-az-Zubair.

109. p. vol. The reconstruction of the two mosques. p. it 2 and Yazid silk. p. p. 'Umar and 'Uthman clothed it in Coptic cloths. 1 Cf. made a belt of silver around it. p. iii. clothed robes offered as tribute by the people of Najran. veyed to year 139. Ja'far enlarged the two mosques of Makkah and al-Madinah and rebuilt them. Kutb-ad-Din. s 4 Azraki. 54. 68. and cf. 180. vol. silk. iv. its old covers The when ibn- the cloths of silk were put At last came al-Walid who amplified the Haram-mosque and concolumns of stone and marble. alMadinah and al-Yamamah. See Nihayah. Yakut. and mosaic. Azraki. Kutb-ad-Din. 176. p. clothed 1 its pillars with 4 silk.76 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 of the Ka'bah consisted of pieces of leather and ma'aUr cloth. in The it Umaiyads during a certain part of their rule. Umaiyads used 'Abd-al-Malik it in to strip 3 the Ka'bah of on. 282. A tribe in al-Yaman. The Prophet covered it with Yamanite cloths. ibn-Mu'awiyah clothed it in Khusruwani ibn-az-Zubair and al-Hajjaj clothed After Yazid. . According to al-Wakidi. plated its walls and ceiling with gold which act was unprecedented and — — — — . al-Mansur added to the mosque durThis took place in the ing his caliphate and rebuilt it. It has been stated by 'All ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah al-Mada'ini. that ' Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al- Abbas was made by al-Mahdi governor over Makkah. Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far ibn-abi-Ishak al-Mu'tasim-Billah 48 ibn-ar-Rashid Harun ibn-al-Mahdi renewed the marble of the Ka'bah.

77 . 95. 439.CHAPTER The Wells of VIII Makkah Before Kusai brought Kuraish together. pp. Fakihi. few verses composed in regard omitted from the translation. Later. rain-water tanks on mountain tops. This Hashim also dug Sajlah 3 which Asad ibn-Hashim gave to 'Adi ibn-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf abuIt lies close to It is asserted by some. however. that he sold and by others that it was 'Abd-al-Muttalib who gave it to him when he dug Zamzam and the water became abundant in Makkah. 120. and Kusai ibn-Kilab dug another which he called 2 al-'Ajul and prepared a drinking place in connection with it. they used for drinking purposes reservoirs. 496 . p. 766. 436. Kilab ibn-Murrah 1 dug outside of Makkah three wells Khumm. 'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf dug out at-Tawi which lay in the upper part of Makkah. He dug out another for his 1-Mut'im. This Sajlah was later included in 49 the Mosque. a well called al- Yusairah dug by Lu'ai ibn-Ghalib outside the Haram and another well called ar-Rawa dug by Murrah ibn-Ka'b and which lay just beyond 'Arafah. and before they entered Makkah. Rumm and Jafr. 2 A to this and other wells have been 5 Bakri. Hisham. Azraki. it to him. Khandamah at the mouth of abu-Talib's water-course. p. Badhdhar was a well dug by Hashim ibn-'Abd-Manaf. After the death of Kusai a certain man of the banu-Nasr ibn-Mu'awiyah fell into al-'Ajul well and it was no more used. 1 p.

Wa'il. 438. 'Akil ibn-abi-Talib had dug a is 4 well which now included in the house of ibn-Yusuf 5 . 4 Azraki. 441. al-Mughirah ibn-' Abdallah the well of Hisham the ibn- ibn-'Umar ibn-Makhzum. In the pre-Islamic period. p. the well of the banu-Asad. 2 Bakri.jg THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE special use called al-Jafr. Umm-Ahrad was one dug by the banu-'Abd-ad-Dar ibn- Kusai. Azraki. 'Abd-Shams dug two wells which he called Khumm and 2 Rumm after Kilab ibn-Murrah's wells. Khumm lay near the dam. 437. pp. Banu-Makhzum dug as-Sukya. which has lately been included in Dar al-Kawarir erected by — Hammad al-Barbari in the caliphate of Harun ar-Rashid. lies Islamic period. an ally of the banu-'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf. dug his own well which was the last to be dug in Makkah during Near by this well. Banu-Sahm dug the well called al-Ghamr which is the Banu-'Adi dug al-Hafir. Azraki. and Rumm near Khadijah's house. 318. well of al-'Asi ibn." Mansur the the prethe tomb of al- The 1 first name of al-Haclrami was 'Abdallah ibn-Tmad. * p. 432. 437-438. p. Al-Aswad ibn-abi-1-Bakhtari ibn-Hashim ibn-al-Harith al- ibn-Asad ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza had at al-Aswad gate near by 1 Nawawi. is Banu-Taim dug ath-Thuraiya which well of 'Abdallah ibn-Jud'an ibn-'Amr ibn-Ka'b ibn-Sa'd ibn-Taim. the well of Khalaf Banu-Jumah dug as-Sunbulah well which is the same as 50 ibn-Wahb al-Jumahi. Maimun ibn-al-Hadram. . Banu-Asad ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza ibn-Kusai dug a well 3 called Shufiyah. 6 p. Besides. Jubair ibn-Mut'im had a well the banu-Naufal well. The banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai dug an-Nak*. " Commander of the Believers.

Mu'awiyah's freedman. At-Talub. a freedto Siraj. Azraki. was the property of 'Abdallah Huwaitib well was named after Huwaitib ibn-Safwan. cf. which lay in the lower part of Makkah. maid of al-Mahdi the Commander of the Believers. al-'Irak Bakkar lived in was named after a man from who Makkah. the owner of ibn-'Alkamah house in Makkah was Tarik ibn-'Alkamah ibn-'Uraij ibn-Jadhimah-1-Kinani. gives al-Muttalib gives Khirash.Wada'ah ibnDubairah as-Sahmi. and was later added to the Mosque. Wardan well after * Wardan." AlBarud which lay in Fakh belonged to Mukhtarish 2 al-Ka'bi of [the tribe of] Khuza'ah. a freedman of as-Sa'ib ibn-abi. 2 .THE WELLS OF MAKKAH Hannatin [embalmers'] a well that was Mosque. . Hisham. p. Al-Aswad well was named after al-Aswad ibn-Sufyan ibn-Makhzum and lay near the well of Khalisah. Siraj drinking place lay in Fakh . ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza ibn-abi-Kais of banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. a maternal uncle of ibn-Umaiyah . and belonged freedman of the banu-Hashim. as well as 'Amr 'Amr ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Safwan ibn-Umaiyah ibn-Khalaf al-Jumahi. a . and it lay in dhu-Tuwa. p. . " Certain houses and gardens in Makkah. 1 Azraki. 5 1 Shaudhab well was named after Shaudhab. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. p. . 442. Some say that this Shaudhab was the freedman of Tarik ibn-'Alkamah ibn-'Uraij ibn-Jadhimah-1-Kinani. 442. after 'Amr well. Marwan ibn-al-Hakam well ibn-abi-l-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. Abu-Musa well belonged to abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari and lay at al-Ma'lat. 'Ikrimah well was al-'Asi later 79 added into the named after 'Ikrimah ibn-Khalid ibn. 462. others that he was the freedman of Nan' ibn-'Alkamah ibn-Safwan ibn-Shikk al-Kinani. and it lay in the court of his house at the bottom of the valley. . ibn-Hashim ibn-al-Mughirah water-course.

and Dar al-Kawarir in Makkah. . Kuraish used to in it to consult about war and general affairs. that it In reality.80 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna. As f or an-Nadwah [council-chamber]. cried. The mother of the poet Turaih ibna spear by Wahshi. 1098. he was challenged by ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib ' Come. and people used to meet 2 in it and have the cases decided. 1 " An expression of contumely used by the Arabs whether the mother is 2 really a female circumciser or not." (Taj al-'Arus. . I was told by Mus'ab ibn-' Abdallah az-Zubairi that was so called after ibn-'Amir Makkah in pre-Islamic times was called Salah. Hamzah who ' of the female circumciser 1 ! and killed him. 175: Tabari. In the battle of Uhud. 65. My father wrote back the following answer "As for ibnSiba' jail. Later. after ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz. about the story of Dar anNadwah. told to me by al-' Abbas 52 jail. p. p. Diyarbakri. i. 'Abdal-Malik ibn-Kuraib al-Asma'i and others. This was the first house established in Makkah by Kuraish. and all that is mere guessing. p. garden. to assemble it Dar an-Nadwah. assign the standard-bearers and to contract marriages. it is ibn-Ma'mar's garden. it was a house for 'Abdallah ibn-Siba' ibn-'Abd- Ibn-Siba The following was : — : al-'Uzza Siba' in ibn-Nadlah ibn-'Amr ibn-Ghubshan al-Khuza'i. an ally of the banu-Zuhrah. . thou son As Hamzah he was thrust with stooped on his victim to take his armor. pp. was built by Kusai ibn-Kilab. A certain Kindi inquired in writing ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from my father about the one after whom ibn-Siba' jail of al-Madinah was named. 16.) i. . Others say al-Hadrami still others. was surnamed abu-Xiyar and his mother was a midwife Makkah. Azraki. Isma'il ath-Thakan was the daughter of 'Abdallah ibn-Siba'. vol. vol. Dar al-'Ajalah. ibn-'Amir garden was the property of 'Umar ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn-Lu'ai mistake called ibn-'Amir or the banu-'Amir and was by . Istakhri. 66.

Hence Ku'aiki'an [rattling] the name of the place from which he Ku'aiki'dn and Ajydd. 'Amr appeared carrying arms that were rattling. and the latter converted it into a governor's sold was house. Then comes Dar al-'Ajalah which belonged The banu-Sahm claim that was built before an-Nadwah. but in the this is a false claim. 'Umar granted them perhis visit in the year 17. Dar al-Kawarir belonged to 'Utbah ibnRabi'ah ibn-'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf. and however. was related by Hisham ibn'Amr ibn-Mudad al-Jurhumi fought with another Jurhum man named as-Sumaida'. up to that time. daughter of abu-1-Fadl " ibn-al-Mansur the Commander of the Believers. An-Nadwah remained ibn-Kusai until it hands of the banu-'Abd-ad-Dar by Tkrimah ibn-Hashim ibn'Abd-Manaf ibn-'Abd-ad-Dar ibn-Kusai to Mu'awiyah ibnabi-Sufyan. but imposed the condition that the wayfarer should have the first claim on the water and shade. " The common people of Makkah. Ddr al-Kawdrir. it Ddr al-'Ajalah. who asked 'Umar for permission tobuiH dwelling places between Makkah and al-Madinah where. it was said that he appeared with horses that were marked. hence name Ajyad call it [steeds]. " " who said : —"We accompanied 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab on owners of the and on the way were met by the wells. the According to ibn-al-Kalbi." Al-Walid ibn-Salih from' Kathir ibn-'Abdallah's grandfather. the hall It was by called al-Kawarir [the jar buildal-Barbari in the caliphate was built Hammad It of ar-Rashid. Jiyad as-Saghir Jiyad al-Kabir. Hence Ajyad [necks] the name of the whence he appeared. al-Kalbi Muhammad that appeared. and mother. then to al-' Abbas ibn-'Utbah ibn-'Abd-Shams ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. Zubaidah. mission. As-Sumaida' appeared with bells covering his place horses' necks.THE WELLS OF MAKKAH 81 to Sa'id ibn-Sa'd ibn-Sahm." Belater to Ja'far's cause earthen jars were partly used in making its pavement 53 and ing]. walls. no houses stood." .

the part of Makkah.CHAPTER The Floods in IX Makkah Umm-Nahshal flood. pp. pp. One was umm-Nahshal flood which took place in the days of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. 394-395 : 'Ubaid ". which took place in the year 80 in the time Juhaf w-al-Juraf It overtook the pilgrims on of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. Thus was ibn-Umaiyah. This flood rose so that it penetrated into the Mosque from the highest high 'Umar therefore made two dams. the house being that of 'Abdallah ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf who ruled al-Basrah at the time of the insurrection of ibn-az- Zubair) and the house of Aban ibn-'Uthman ibn-'Affan. carried poet said 1 s Azraki. 54 Another flood was that of alAl-Juhaf w-al-Juraf. 394-398. higher of which extended between the house of Babbah : — 1 (so called by its occupants. The lower dam lay at al-Hammarin and it is the one known . was carried away by the flood from the higher part of Makkah and therefore was the flood named after her. Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham from ibnMakkah was visited by Kharrabudh al-Makki and others four floods. 82 . " Azraki. the daughter of 'Ubaidah as Al-Asid dam. a Monday morning and : their them away together with About this the baggage. and surrounded the Ka'bah. the flood kept back from the Haram mosque. According to the same tradition umm2 ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi Nahshal.

Abu-Shdkir. 397. p. fair [of the pilgrims]. so many were saddened and so many eyes wept. Azraki. disease in their When Another flood was the one called alit came. 396. so that the — — houses should be secure. Cf. Wddi-Makkah a place known as The flood of Wadi-Makkah comes from Sidrat 'Attab ibn-Asid ibn-abi-1-ls. the other of the banu-Kurad. many were afflicted with a body and palsy in their tongues." when 2 On this occasion. 2 3 The "black stone" of al-Ka'bah. who in that year had charge of the . Hence the name al-Mukhabbil [rendering some limb crippled]." 1 8 Al-Basrah and al-Kufah. p. and when the flood carried away the people of al-Misrain 1 and made the secluded women run astray climbing the mountains. he sent a Christian the walls and set up the dam known as the banuKurad's or banu-Jumah's. Other dams were constructed in who made lower Makkah. 'Abd-al-Malik wrote to his 'dmil in Makkah. and to erect dams at the openings of the roads. Al-Mukhabbil. water rose almost as high as the " stone. Mukhabbil. 'Abdallah ibn-Sufyan al-Makhzumi others say that the poet al-Harith ibn-Khalid al-Makhzumi was his 'dmil ordering him to build walls without clay around the houses that bordered on the valley. To this effect. The Hood in the caliphate of ar-Rashid. " A poet says : One drop if I of tears pass the dam I shall keep. It was reported by 'Abbas ibn-Hisham that a great flood took place in the caliphate of al-Ma'mum 'Abdallah ibn-ar-Rashid and its . Azraki. Still another flood came later in the caliof Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in the year 120. and around the Mosque.THE FLOODS IN MAKKAH " 83 Ghassan never saw a day like Monday. It is phate known as abu-Shakir flood after Maslamah ibn-Hisham. ." I shall pour forth.

84 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The limits of al-Haram. accompanied by abu-Bakr as-Siddik. According to alKalbi. Kurz saw on the cave a spider web. the one who followed the steps of the Prophet to the cave in which the Prophet. his 'dmil in al-Madinah. " This the Prophet's foot-print which he recognized saying. he wrote to Marwan ibn-al-Hakam. tablish the limits of if he were still alive. this was Kurz ibn-'Alkamah ibn-Hilal ibn-Juraibah ibn-'Abd-Nuhm ibn-Hulail ibn-Hubshiyah-1-Khuza'i. ordering him to ask Kurz ibn-'Alkamah-l-Khuza'i. to es- them. had disappeared. and he established the limits which are today the marks of al-Haram. but here the track is lost. is the Prophet's foot. and below it. A1-' Abbas from 'Ikrimah : —A c$ part of the limits set to al-Haram having been obliterated in the days of Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. al-Haram." . when he wanted to take the Hegira to alMadinah. since he was familiar with Kurz was still alive.

143. in the year 8. protected from what is thrown upon them. killing the Moslems underneath. p. 872. mand and Certain slaves surrender. vol. Certain slaves from at-Ta'if presented themselves before the Prophet. the surviving remnant came to Awtas. the Prophet's freed[later] — c6 a machine made of skins and wool. fled to at-Ta'if. See Zaidan. Malik ibn-'Auf ibnSa'd of banu-Duhman ibn-Nasr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-Bakr ibnHawazin. try to make a breach. 85 . and the Prophet set a ballista on the fortress. Hisham. When the Hawazin were defeated in the battle of Hunain. Thakif hurled stones and arrows on the Moslems. dabbabah it — and is 3 Cf. p. Ta'rikh at-Tamaddun al-Islami. Among them were abu-Bakrah ibn-Masruh. the the chief of the 2 by the Prophet lasted for fifteen days. The Moslems had a mantelet 1 made of cows' skins on which Thakif threw hot iron bars and burnt The siege of at-Ta'if it. i. Moslems until they got to at-Ta'if. the invasion having begun in Shauwal. it 1 Ar. The Prophet led the gathered therein. Then abu-Musa 'Abdallah ibn-Kais al-Ash'ari took the com- Moslems advanced on Awtas.CHAPTER X At-Ta'if The Prophet lays siege was to at-Ta'if. whose people he found ready for the siege with their fortress repaired and the provisions Here he settled. phet sent them abu-'Amir al-Ash'ari who was put to death. men enter into propelled to the lower part of a fortress where the men. Hawazin at that time. Seeing that. and Duraid ibn-as-Simmah The Proslain.

who was a Greek blacksmith and slave. he wrote them a statement. i. It was from some of them that Mu'awiyah bought his possessions : — in at-Ta'if. and whose and al-Azrak after whom the Azarikah were named. ar-rikdz. The terms of capitulation. Hi sham. vol. 1 Thakif. would neither practise usury nor drink wine. p. . . 1670. who had settled there for trade. and whose [full] name was abu-Nafi' For doing so. had possessions in at-Ta'if to which they came from 1 Cf. however. 381 Mawardi. i. They they were addicted to usury. vol. p. Bukhari. Al-Mada'ini from certain sheikhs In the district of at-Ta'if lived some Tews from at-Ta'if driven from al-Yaman and Yathrib. A1-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib had a piece of land in at-Ta'if from which grapes were taken and made into the The men of Kuraish beverage used for the Pilgrims. these slaves were ibn-al-Azrak al-Khariji. 1325)s Ar. p. old name The Jews in at-Ta'if. and keep what they possess in the form of money or buried 3 The Prophet imposed a condition on them that treasures. vol. Then the Prophet left for al2 Ji'ranah to divide the captives and the booty of Hunain. set free.86 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [first] man. name was Nufai' — — It is claimed by others. i. . fearing lest he should return. The land of at-Ta'if is included in the district of Makkah. 874. abu-1-Fida. The tified of at-Ta'if was Wajj. On them poll-tax was imposed. To this end. 2 Tabari. 147 (Cairo. al-Mukhtasar. p. 207. treasures buried in pre-Islamic days. sent a deputation with whom he made terms stipulating that they become Moslem. When it was forand surrounded by a wall it was called at-Ta'if. that Nafi' ibnAzrak al-Khariji was of the banu-Hanifah and that the alAzrak who came from at-Ta'if was another man. p.

Kitdb ii 2 . e. Shafi'i. and p. p. ibn-Salih from 'Attab ibn-Asid : —The Prophet ordered " : Al-Walid that the vine-trees of Thakif be estimated as in the case of dates and that the zakat [legal alms] be taken in the form of raisins. but The vine- or small. and in fact all the land of at-Ta'if became one of the It districts of Makkah. whether large the zakat is taken. Kitab al- ii nun. al-Muwatta. was in the battle of at1 Ta'if that abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb lost his eye. thou shouldst protect their valleys. 100. 'Umar wrote back to him. 116-117." ii. al-Kliaraj. 124. : practice [Ar. The zakat from Thakif on grapes and dates. cf. vol.AT-TA'IF 87 Makkah to repair. % 3 Yahya ibn-Adam. Diyarbakri. Malik ibn-Anas. abu-Hanifah says trees are not estimated. 'amil of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in at'Amr ibn-Shu'aib " Those who own honey fail to conTa'if wrote to 'Umar. According to al-Wakidi. one vase out of each ten. 1 otherwise do not." gathered " If the produce is gathered and According to Ya'kub: the weight of it is five wasks [loads] then its zakat is oneis 57 tenth or half of one-tenth. its version of The conquest of Makkah and the conpeople to Islam made Thakif covet and lay- hold on these possessions. 2 state that according to commended taken by Shaiban ibn-abi-Shaibah from The zakat on honey. as in the case of dates. but with the conquest of at-Ta'if. on grape is —A tribute to us i. p. . 27. Sufyan Malik ibn-Anas and ibn-abi-Dhi'b the The same view The wask is equal is held by to 60 sa's. when the produce. vol. Abn-Sufydn loses his eye." ibn-Sa'id ath-Thauri. sunnah] the zakat 3 estimation as in the case of dates. what they used to contribute to the Prophet. pp.. they were again put in the hands of the Makkans." "If they would contribute.

According to al-Wakidi. it There is sadakah on the bee-hives. 40. if the honey 3 is is produced if in in the khardj-land." same if is the view of ash-Shafi'i. iii. it is exempt of everything. : . ii 121. 106. 33. but there is And if it is produced in the land of a kharaj on the land. Banu-Taghlib were Christian Arabs on whom 'Umar-ibn al-Khattab doubled the tax. There is no sadakah on to Malik and ath-Thauri. it has " been reported that ibn-'Umar said. p. but 5 the tithe land. vol. Al-Wakidi states that he was told by al-Kasim ibn-Ma'n " and Ya'kub that abu-Hanifah said: If honey is raised in the land of a dhimmi there is no tithe on it. p. view is held by ibn-abi-Dhi'b. nothing is to be taken. 2 3 Umm." The same view 4 held by Zufar. Kitdb al-Kharaj. one rati is taken out of ten. 2 According to abu-Hanifah. the honey is raised in a tithe-land the tithe is taken whether the honey is much or little. is 9 farak 16 rails. ever According to Muhammad ibn-al-Hasan. 68. but if it is raised in the kharajland. p. p. 1 The Therefore. no zakat is hives. — Da'ud ibn-'Abd-al-Hamid the kadi of ar-Rakkah from Khasif : —'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz wrote to his 'amils in " Makkah and at-Ta'if. 5 A A rati is about 5 pounds. because both zakat and kharaj cannot be taken from one and the same man. According to abu-Yusuf.88 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 'Amr ibn-Muhammad an-Nakid from 'Abd-ar. no sadakah what6 is taken on what is less than five The same faraks." According taken on honey though it may be in great quantities.Rahman 'Umar assessed one-tenth in the : ibn-Ishak's grandfather case of honey. p. 1 58 Muwatta. See abu-Yfisuf. . take thereof. vol. * Yusuf. Taghlabi one-fifth is taken thereof. Nihayah.

TA' IF It 89 was reported by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah at-Tahhan that " Whether it is produced in the titheone rati is due on every ten." It was stated by Yahya ibn-Adam that he heard Sufyan "There is no ibn-Sa'id (whose view is the following) say: well as — sadakah except on four of the products of the soil. The same viewor khardj-land. rice. No tithes on it. whose 'amil he was in at-Ta'if stating that before him was the case of a garden in which vine-trees grow. A tradition reported to me by abu-'Ubaid on the authority of az-Zuhri x states is that the latter held that one vase due on every ten. though it be a The same view is held by Zufar. according 1 to al-Wakidi. is held by al-Hasan ibn-Salih ibn-Hai. maize. wheat.AT. If any of these measure five wasks. ibn-abi-Laila said. provided the product meas2 But abu-Hani fan's view is that whatever ures five wasks. and soliciting But 'Umar's orders regarding the taking of its tithe. husked barley. raisins. But according to the view of Malik. ibn-abi-Dhi'b and Ya'kub. .. dates. Kitab a'-Kharaj. plum and pomegranate trees and other things that are many folds more productive than vines. beans. 100-110. is subject to the tithe. i. barley. vegetables and the like are not subject to sadakah. including lentils. " 'Umar wrote back. then it is same view. e. as . peas and the grains that can be measured and stored. barley. Yahya ibn-Adam from Bishr ibn-'Asim and 'Uthman ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Aus Sufyan ibn-'Abdallah ath-Thakafi wrote to 'Umar ibn-al[Ar. Nor is there sadakah on what is less than five wasks of wheat. The subject to sadakah." the tithe-land produces bundle of vegetables. 2 Yahya ibn-'Adam. sikk] The tithe : — 1 Khattab. dates and raisins. Indian peas and millet. is held by Rabi'ah ibnlike. sesame. on fruits and grains. A receptacle of skin for holding wine and the pp. tare.

2 Adam. pomegranates or the rest of the fresh fruits. plums. there is no sadakah except on what can 2 Abu-az-Zinad ibn-abi-Dhi'b and be measured by al-kafiz. but there they are sold. * pulse is is subject to zakat. . is sadakah on their prices the moment to A tradition was communicated me by 'Abbas ibn- Hisham on the authority of his grandfather to the effect that the Prophet assigned as his 'amil in at-Ta'if. The same view is held by ibn-abi-Laila. According to abu-Yusuf. p. 101. 59 ibn-abi-Sabrah hold that no sadakah is taken on vegetables and fruits.go THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to az-Zuhri all spices and Malik holds that no sadakah abi-'Abd-ar-Rahman. 1 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi Seed of a leguminous plant that is cooked. due on pears.

127. i. line 19. Bakri. p. imposing on every adult of the " People : Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from az-Zuhri x — The Tabalah and Jurash of the book " 3 among them one dinar. vol. and making it a condition on them to provide the Moslem wayfarers with board and lodging. 1730. p. al- Tabari. ii. Hamdani. Abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb was assigned by the Prophet as the governor of Jurash. and 238.CHAPTER XI Tabalah and Jurash people of 2 accepted Islam without resistance. 91 . pp. 1 Cities in al-Yaman. 1 Jews and Christians. p. 2 p. 191 i. 'Arab. 60. Yakut. The Prophet left them on the terms agreed upon when they became Moslems. vol. Jazirat 817 and vol.

So he spent a few days in Tabuk. * The Prophet made terms with the people of Adhruh stipulating that they pay 100 dinars in Rajab of every year. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Talhah-1-Aili : — 'Umar ibn- 'Abd-al-'Aziz never raised the tax of the people of Ailah above 300 dinars} AdJiruh makes terms. Hisham. Das Arabische Reich. Yakut. i. During his stay at Tabuk. 1692. Istakhri. this effect he wrote them a statement 2 that they may be kept safe and protected. p. agreeing to pay on every adult in his land one dinar per annum making it 300 dinars in all. i. vol. p. Ailah. 5 Yakut. 118. 46. * p. vol. p. . The people of al-Jarba' made ' 1 Ibn-Sa'd. p.CHAPTER Tabuk. 'Amilah. Judham and others whom he 1 learnt had assembled against him. and made terms. 174. Mukaddasi. the chief of Ailah. Ailah makes terms. vol. ii 1 . Lakhm. ii. 173. whose inhabitants made terms with him agreeing to pay poll-tax. 92 vol. The Prophet made it a condition on them that they provide with board and lodgTo ing whomsoever of the Moslems may pass by them. he met no resistance. Wellhausen. 902. p. p. XII al-Jarba' Makna and Tabuk makes terms. 58. Al-Jarba makes terms. Adhruh. p. Tabari. When in the year 9 the Prophet marched to Tabuk in Syria for the invasion of those of the Greeks. 893. 54. p. 3 * Hisham. there came to him Yuhanna ibn-Ru'bah.

ger of Allah has forgiven you your sins and all blood for which ye have been pursued. if ye . ye shall give one-fourth of what exempt. "your palm-trees produce. he will protect you. see Nihayah. . p. ye shall have no partner but the Messenger of Allah or the Messenger's messenger. It has been revealed unto me from above that ye are to From the time this my letter reaches return to your village. MAKNA AND To this of AL-JARBA' 93 Prophet terms and agreed to pay poll-tax. ii. p. Wakidi. There shall be no oppression on you nor hostility against you. iv. shall be safe and ye have the assurance of security you. one-fourth of the product of your nets. In the " Allah. horses and coats of mail. Abbasids. and one-fourth of what is spun by your women. tr. shall Only to the Prophet of Allah 2 belong your cloth-stuff. Against whatever the Prophet of Allah protects himself. vol. 405. Margoliouth translates "camp-followers" in Zaidan's Umayyads and 3 Ar. and which he copied and dictated to me as follows : name of From Muhammad. Wellhausen. agreeing to offer one-fourth of what they fish and spin. the writing on which was partly effaced.TABOK. p. slaves. save what the Prophet or the Prophet's messenger shall Besides that. 16. but all else shall you from 1 all be your own and God's Prophet has exempted further poll-tax or forced labor. ye from Allah and from his Messenger. In your village. Now. vol. the compassionate. the merciful. 148. effect the Makna makes terms. the Messenger of Allah. 1 An Egyptian told me that he saw with his own eye the statement that the Prophet wrote them on a red parchment. wrote them a statement. AILAH. kara'. ADHRUIi. and one-fourth of their fruits. and Mutarrizi. one-fourth of their horses and coats of mail. Verily. The inhabitants of Makna were Jews. p. the Messen. 121. to the banu: Habibah and the inhabitants of Makna peace be with you. The people Makna made terms 60 with the Prophet.

60. it should be " abi ". honorable 1 Sic! Being genitive." will be for the hear and obey. and whosoever means mischief to them. See note in De Goeje's edition. it shall be well for him. Written by 'Ali-ibn-abu-Talib * in the year 9. mischief shall befall him. p. Ye are to have no ruler save of your number of the family of the Prophet. . habitants of Makna bethinks himself to do well to the Moslems.94 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE it Prophet to do honor to the and pardon those among you who do among you Whosoever of the banu-Habibah and the inthe wrong.

the horses. iii. 142. ii. Your cattle which are pasturing shall and not. 95 . Athir. Tabari. herds shall graze wherever ye want. s 4 Diyarbakri. ii. to Ukaidir as he accepted Islam and forsook the people of Dumat : — objects of worship and idols. To us shall belong the water-places outside the city. and what is above the fixed number of animals from which a sadakah Your 1 * required shall not be taken into consideration. and ye shall obis vol. vol. and the running water. vol. be brought together [but shall be numbered on the pasture-land]. die ii. vol. 1702-1703. later as-Sakuni. as well as the de- fensive and offensive weapons. the un- tilled lands. and to the people of Dumat : — . " upon which the Prophet wrote for him and the the following statement This is a statement from Muhammad. and the fortress to you shall belong the palm-trees within the city. 214. vol. p. 3 Dumat 1 Islam. robbed him of a silk cloak interwoven with gold. i. The Prophet 61 sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi to Ukaidir ibn-'Abd-al-Malik al-Kindi. Ukaidir accepted al-Jandal. p. p. pp. Sprenger. 625. for the purpose of taking the sadakah.CHAPTER XIII DUMAT AL-jANDAL Khdlid ibn-al-W alid captures Ukaidir. Cf. p. and brought Ukaidir before the Prophet. killed his 2 brother. the Prophet of Allah. 419. Das Leben und Lehre des Mohammad. the deserts and waste lands. at Khalid took him captive. 4 Yakut.

however. Having killed him. Al-' Abbas from session of the property held by his brother. killing Ukaidir and After the death of the Prophet. Yazid 2 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam Abu-Bakr wrote to Khalid ibn-alwhen the latter was at 'Ain at-Tamr. i. I give time. violated the covenant and left Dumat al-Jandal for al-Hirah. and the Prophet wrote him a statement. than Ukaidir stopped the payment of the sadakah. 'Abd-al-Malik embraced Islam and thereby entered into pos- Dumat 1 ibn-Mu'awiyah married the daughter of Huraith. on Khalid's way from al-'Irak to Syria. and pay the zakat as it you the covenant of Allah and is due. 1 One verse omitted. ordering him Walid. Laila d aughter of al-Judi a captive. : — go against Ukaidir.THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE serve prayer in its this effect. Abu-Bakr s ends Khalid against Ukaidir. Ukaidir capturing Dumat. he became a Moslem. Khalid's horsemen from a Ghassan settlement stationed by through al-Jandal. Ukaidir was brought by Khalid before the Prophet. which he did. vol. Dumat among whom 63 1 Ibn-Hajar. left Dumat and then returned to it. Huraith ibnal-Jandal. 773. where he erected a building and called it Dumat after His brother. To his promise. by mistake gives " Huraib ". Others say Laila was carried away by al-Judi-1-Ghassani. the daughter of many captives. According to alWakidi. Witnessed by Allah and those of the Moslems who are present. he passed to which he captured. and ye are entitled to our sincerity as regards the fulfillment of the terms. p. But no sooner had the Prophet been dead. carrying away were Laila. al-Kalbi from his grandfather : —The Prophet Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham 62 sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid to Ukaidir. Huraith's daughter marries." Ukaidir violates the covenant. Khalid went to Syria. Ukaidir's brother. .

I heard it said by someone from al-Hirah that Ukaidir and his brothers used to go to Dumat al-Hirah and visit their uncles of the Kalb tribe and spend some time with them. the Prophet led the invasion against Dumat alJandal in the year 5 and met no resistance. It gy daughter of al-Judi was this whom 'Abd-ar-Rahman in love with. The reconstruction of Dumat al-Jandal. * Ar. to 'Ain p. At last. 2 was advised to give her what is usually given at divorce and send her to her own people. ii. : — ibn-al-Walid ibn-al-Mughirah to the people of Jandal who were some of the Christians of Dumat al- al-Kufah. year 9. The This city they rebuilt. One day as they were together on a hunting trip. and what has the daughter of al-Judi to do with me?" Thus did he win her hand and marry her. Az-Zuhri's version of the conquest. ibn-abi-Bakr as-Siddik had fallen and the one whom he meant when he said : "I thought of Laila with as-Samawah l intervening between. city was built of stones [ Ar. Al-Wakidi's version of the conquest. Istakhri. p.and other trees. But such a hold had she on him that he gave up all his other wives. vol. there arose before their view a city in ruins with only few walls standing. twenty months after the former had embraced Islam. and called it Dumat planted 3 al-Jandal in distinction from Dumat al-Hirah. jandal] in it olive. 23. . he sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid to Ukaidir.DOMAT AL-JANDAL a watering-place [hddir]. 263. According to alWakidi. 'Amr ibn-MuhamThe Prophet sent Khalid mad an-Nakid from az-Zuhri . their chief. and arranged to receive poll-tax from him. 208. mut'ah. however. which he did. 1 A desert from Dumat Muwatta. p. Khalid captured Ukaidir. she was affected with such a severe disease He that her looks were changed and he no more liked her. Caetani. at-Tamr s . In Shauwal.

To this effect. camels or goods they offered. pp. the people of Najran. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from az. 1 — robe delivered should be more than one ounce. the messengers [of the Prophet] guarantee to make up for them. ficiency should be weapons. horses. agreeing to offer two thousand robes one thousand in Safar and one thousand in Rajab each one of which should have the value of one ounce [aukiyah]. made And whatever the robes. 401. 4041. they are bound to offer as loan thirty coats of mail. . the de. Another condition was made that they provide board and lodging for the Prophet's messengers for a month or less.CHAPTER XIV The Capitulation of Najran Zuhri The terms agreed upon.64 There came to the Prophet the military chief and : — — delegated by the people of Najran in aland asked for terms which they made on behalf of Yaman. the surplus would be taken into consideration and if it were less. the Prophet gave them Allah's covenant and his promise. In case the price of the the civil chief. should be accepted instead of up. thirty mares and thirty camels. 98 p. if they are the same value. and whatever of these animals perish. and not detain them for more than a month. Another condition was that they be not allured to change their religion or the rank they hold in it. Yusuf. the ounce weighing 40 dirhams. nor should they be called to upon for military service or 1 made pay the tithe. Still another condition was that in case of war in al-Yaman. 2 Cf. 2 The Hisham.

al-Hasan and al-Husain." " What shall said to the other. Verily. Kor." said the former. 144." etc. " Ye have told a lie. iii. for if thou shouldst. . "We embraced Islam before thou didst. x." " who is 'Isa's father?" Al-Hasan adds that the Prothey. cross-wor" Well then. He created him of then said to him. s 51. kharaj rather than join with 4 him in imprecating the curse. Bukhari. pp. Three things keep you from Islam pork eating. Be and he was. 751-757." This the Prophet repeated to them and then asked them to join with him in imprecating the curse of Allah upon whichever of them was wrong. and they replied. vol. " we do then?" asked the other. join thou wouldst return with the curse on thee. : : Jesus dust : is as He in the sight of Allah. abu-1-Faraj.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN ^ Prophet made it a condition on them that they neither take nor give usury. " Al-Husain from Yahya ibn- 65 1 Yakut. p. we had better give him the ' " I believe." said ship and the claim that Allah has a son. vol. The two monks of Najran and the Prophet. Cfm Kor<) 3 ^ 4 mubdhalah. 3 : iv. At this. vol. Hence the text revealed by his Lord 2 " These signs and this wise warning do we rehearse to thee. to " on ' ' Adam — those who lie. 167-168. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from al-Hasan There came to the Prophet two monks from Najran. pp. Aghdni. phet was never too quick but always waited for Allah's command. 1 The Prophet proposed Islam : — to them." To this the Prophet replied. 3 taking hold of the hands of Fatimah. one of the two monks Climb the mountain and do not with him in imprecating the curse.." A statement of the treaty said : Adam who copied the statement of the Prophet to the people of Najran from that of a man who took it from al-Hasan ibn-Salih. These are the words I : — . 3 .

Muhammad. vol. and whatever robes cost more or less than two one one one one aukiyah. nor the sexton 'The 2 s text here is probably corrupt. them who are absent as well as those 4 The messengers and images. Sklzsen und p. and 132. in case of war in al-Yaman due to their rebelling. iv. thousand to be delivered in Rajab of every year. the compassionate. and also It is binding on them to offer as loan thirty coats of mail. the Messenger of Allah. Each robe shall be aukiyah. 25 cf. including those of and posses- who are present. 41. but which he benevolently left for them. Wellhausen. hashiyah z= Jews. It is binding on Najran to provide board and for one month or lodging for my messengers never to detain them for more than a month. what the Messenger of Allah. silver whose disposal and domestic were utensils. a monk from his ofnce as a monk. their slaves. Vorarbeiten. horses. state they previously held shall not be changed. their camels. No attempt shall be made to turn a bishop from his office as a bishop. * amthilah — Sprenger. and * all their fruits. lent to is Whatever is perishes of the horses or camels. Ar. and thousand in Safar of every year. camels or goods they substitute for the robes shall be taken into consideration. nor shall any of their religious services or images be changed. . Sent to bring the kharaj. and whatever coats of mail. their overcost or deficiency shall be taken into consideration. at wrote to Xajran. 502. the merciful. assessing on them thousand robes each having the value of one aukiyah. pp. religion. Yusuf. crosses and pictures used in churches. their gold. p. vol.lOO ' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In the name is The following of Allah. lands sions. guaranteed by my messengers and 3 returned by them. thirty mares and thirty camels. which security shall involve their persons. Najran and their followers are entitled to the protection of Allah and to the security of Muhammad the Prophet. iii. my messengers. 2 less.

They shall not sponsible for any wrong deed or blood shed in pre-Islamic time. they are entitled to the right of protection from Allah. p. he enforced the terms agreed upon and issued ancaliph other statement similar to that given by the Prophet. 352. then the land. 223. has " after this year ". p. is recorded in this document. vol. shall be held responsible for the guilt of the other. Melanges de la Faculte Orientate. p. And as a guarantee to what security of issued. Caetani. Ghailan ibn-'Amr. I have seen in the hands of the people of Najran another statement whose reading is similar to that of this copy. al-Akra' ibn-Habis al-Hanzali and al-Mughirah. until Allah's order and so long as they give the right counsel [to Mosand render whatever dues are bound on them. . ii. Lammens' comment on this protocol. but at the close of it the following words occur ing this I : Written by 'Ali ibn-abu-Talib. Malik ibn-'Auf 66 of banu-Nasr. vol. responsibility of his protection. case is decided with equity without giving the people of Najran the advantage over the other party. Athir. or giving the other party the advantage over them. iii. 502. Witnessed by abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb. 346. p. 3 * And not " abi " as required by the rules of the Arabic grammar. No army shall tread on their If some one demands of them some right. They shall neither be called to military service nor compelled to pay the tithe. But whosoever of them has up till now x received usury. I am clear of the 2 None of them. 2 ii. IO i whether what is under the conbe held re- of each is great or little. v 2 p. 62. vol. however. Sprenger. 4. When 'Umar 1 Ya'kubi. abu-Yusuf. vol. and to the is Muhammad the Prophet. prolems] vided they are not asked to do anything unjust.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN of a church from his trol office. ii. see H. Written by — ' " 3 Yaha ibn-Adam " adds. 'Abdallah ibn-abi-Bakr . p." When abu-Bakr as-Siddik became expels them.' 4 Concern- am at a loss to know what to say. . vol.

waste land 1 of the people of clear for them tillable ". and became so numerous as to be considered by him a menace to Islam. 42-43. Having made inquiry regarding ibn-Hunaif. He therefore expelled them and wrote to them the following statement " ! : ' I Greetings rak they happen to Whomever come of the people of Syria and alacross. 677. some settling in Syria and others in an-Najraniyah in the district of al-Kufah. v 2 . as follows : The civil ruler. pp. I ' their case from 'Uthman and found it learned that he had investigated their state 2 whom injurious to the great landlords I have. Whomsoever him Syria or al-Trak they pass by. they 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab became began to practise usury." Another source for 'Umars statement. for the sake of fore.102 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE caliph. reduced their taxation by 200 robes — \llah and in place of their old lands. after whom it was so named. Arlam." Thus the people of tillable Najran were dispersed. The Jews of Najran were included with the Christians in the terms and went with them as their f < illowers. becomes theirs in place of their land in al-Yaman. The Najranites under 'Uthman. alWalid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait. Another I heard say. let him clear for them land. MFO. . p. he wrote to his 'dmil in al-Kufah. I recommend them to thee as they are included among the people entitled to <»ur protection. I heard it said by one of the learned that 'Umar wrote them the following statement: — "Greetings! vol. When 'Uthman ibn'Affan became caliph. and whatever land they work. therethey prevented from possessing their land. the bishop and the nobles Greetings! of Najran have presented to me the written statement of the Prophet and showed me the recommendation : of 'Umar. 2 dihkiins. Lammens. let " land ".

ever. and I hate to act differently. he expelled the people of Najran to an-Najraniyah and bought their properties and possessions. and the conversion to Islam of 1 When Mu'awiyah Adam. To ' this 'Ali replied : 'Umar was * a man of sound judgment." AbuThe number of robes received by Mu'awiyah. howRein- state us in the land ". When 'Ali ibn" We they came to him and said. and returning to 'Umar Later. so he took this op- portunity and expelled them from the land. 'Umar had considered them a menace to the Moslems. al-Kufah used to send his messengers to all the people who were in Syria and other districts and to gather money assessed evenly on them for raising the required (or Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah) came to power. they complained to him because of their dispersion. 67 Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from his grandfather: — The Najran of al-Yaman received their name from Najran the land. but abi-Talib became caliph. the death of some of them. Transplant us from the land "." 'Umar refused. p. 10 $ 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Ham: mad an-Narsi from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz " — The Pro- There shall not remain two phet said during his illness. 'Umar and 'Ali refuse to reinstate them in Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Salim ibn-abi-1-Ja'd —The peo- Al- ple of Najran having increased in number to 40. in the land of Arabia.000. they repented. when religions 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab became caliph. became jealous of one another and came to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab " saying. Mas'ud al-Kufi from al-Kalbi: yah at —The chief of an-Najrani- of Najran robes." Consequently. plead with thee by thy right-hand writing and thy intermediacy on our behalf with thy Prophet that thou mayst reinstate us in the land.THE CAPITULATION OF NAIRAN One reason for their expulsion. 9. " said. . : ibn-Zaid ibn-Saba ibn-Yashjub ibn-Ya'rub ibn-Kahtan.

upon which 'Umar said. To this they added. Abu-l.000 dirhams. 'Umar ibn. charged when Yusuf ibn-' Umar was made 68 governor of al-Trak. In the time of al-Walid ibn-Yazid. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE They presented the statement for the reduction of the ibn-'Affan also issued by number of robes. he [Yusuf].Abd-al JAziz reduces the number. and that they suffered from the unjust treatment of alHajjaj. therefore. and become weaker. they met him on the way as he appeared in al-Kufah and strewed myrtle branches on the road and threw some on him as lie was g< >ing home from . Yusuf ibn-' Umar restores the original tax. "And now we have still more He then reduced the numdecreased. The poll-tax of the dead and the Moslems. the terms of this capitulation impose a tax on their heads and not on their lands. thus reducing the original number 'Uthman by four hundred. 1-' When abu- Abbas was proclaimed caliph.Abbas reduces the number of robes. When al-Hajjaj ibn- Yusuf was made governor of al-Trak and ibn-al-Ash'ath revolted against him. that the continuous raids of the Arabs overburdened them with heavy taxes for revictualling them. moved with partisanship them the original tax.800 robes. and it was found that they were reduced to one-tenth of their " I consider that original number. By 'Umar's orders their census was taken. and. to al-Hajjaj. Al-Hajjaj restores the number.io4 others. and ordered that the robes be of the kind adorned with figures. is annulled. that they were decreasing in number." ber by another 200 robes. however. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz came to power. they complained to him that they were in danger of extinction. he raised the number to 1." He therefore held them responsible for 200 robes of the value of 8. the former charged the non-Arab landlords and the people of Xajran with siding with the latter.

105 the caliph was greatly pleased." " Make war upon such of those to whom the Book has been given as believe not in Allah. AbuAr-Rashid writes them a favorable statement." 'Abdallah ibnar-Rabi' al-Harithi spoke in their favor. Therefore. and that their case before they pay the dues directly to the treasury. 2 : 189. Then. The statement I myself saw. . Moreover the caliph ordered that they be freed from dealing with the 'amils." and the following against the "People of the Book. 9 29. : Kor. the banu-1-Harith ibn-Ka'b. having a value of 8. mother's side). and who forbid not that which Allah and his Messenger have forbidden. By the caliph's orders there was written to them a statement fixing the number at 200 robes. Kor.000 dirhams. or in the last day. 1 Fight therefore against them until there is no more civil discord. Mas'ud When ar-Rashid Harun became caliph and started for al-Kufah on his way to the Pilgrimage. profess not the profession of the truth.." Thus the first among the "People of the Book" to pay poll-tax. so far as we know. were the people of Najran who were Christian. abu-1' "We Abbas held them responsible only for the 200 robes previously given by them. " said. the people of Ailah. and etc. To this they are somehow related to thy uncles (on the added.THE CAPITULATION OF NAJRAN the mosque.." 'Amr an-Nakid from ibn-Shihab az-Zuhri text : —The following was revealed against the unbelievers among the Kuraish " and the Arabs. they him and complained of the harsh brought treatment of the 'amlls." Adhruh and Adhri'at paid 1 it in the battle of * Tabuk. to " who humbled. and the only worship be that of 2 Allah. and al-Hajjaj ibnArtat confirmed what they claimed. Later they brought their case before him and told him of their paucity in number and of their treatment by 'Umar this With ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz and Yusuf ibn-'Umar.

according San'a. Thus they accepted Islam and the Prophet sent them his messengers and 'amils to acquaint them with the laws of Islam and its institutes and to receive their sadakah and the poll-tax of those among them who still held ." A similar tradition was communicated San'a'. and buried treasures were included in their terms when they be- them in the possession of came Aloslems. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from alHasan The Prophet wrote to the people of al-Yaman. and eat what we slaughter. Judaism or Magianism. the security of Allah and the security of his But whosoever refuses to do so. " Whosoever repeats our prayer. When the news of the rise of the Prophet and the success of his righteous cause reached the people of al-Yaman. tax is binding upon him. such a one is a : — Moslem and has Prophet. lands. in which position he died. The governor of reported by al-Wakidi that the Prophet sent Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi as a commander over San'a' and its land. to Christianity. they sent their envoys. turns his face to the 1 kiblah as we do. The Prophet's letter. and the Prophet gave them a written statement confirming 69 whatever property. 106 . Al-Wakidi adds that some say Prophet assigned al-Muhajir ibn-abiUmaiyah ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi to be governor of Still others say.CHAPTER XV Al-Yaman The people of al-Yaman embrace Islam. 1 that the Turning the face towards Makkah during prayer. It is to me by Hudbah on the authority of al-Hasan.

539. * ibn-Murarah ar-Rahawi that thou wert the first to desert my 1 Hisham. he assigned abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb to Najran after 'Amr ibn-Hazm. gather all your sadakah and Mu'adh is the chief of poll-tax and deliver them to him. Ziyad. Rima'. and assigned Mu'adh ibn-Jabal to al-Janad. governor of Hadramaut. as-Sadif and other places in addition to what he already ruled over in Hadramaut. gives Murrah " . assigned to Najran 'Amr ibn-Hazm al-Ansari and. p. . and one of the righteous among my imI have been informed by Malik mediate companions. without dismissing him from the governorship of San'a'. 956. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi and Haitham ibn-'Adi the Prophet assigned al-Muhajir over Kindah and as-Sadif. agreed by all that Hadramaut. : —The " 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-Mukri' from 'Urwah ibn-az-Zubair Prophet wrote to Zur'ah ibn-dhi-Yazan as follows ! : 7° Greetings On the arrival of my messenger Mu'adh ibn-Jabal and his companions. 'Adan and the coast region. Adan. Rimd . "Mararah ". that the i0 y one who made al-Muhajir governor over San'a' was abu-Bakr as-Siddik. On the death of the Prophet. made him kadi and He then charged him with collecting sadakah in al-Yaman. Al-Muhajir as governor of Kindah and as-Sadif. abu-Bakr wrote to Ziyad ibnLabid al-Bayadi-1-Ansari assigning to him the governorship of Kindah. " p. Al-Muhajir he assigned over San'a' and later asked him in writing to reinforce Ziyad ibn-Labid.AL-YAMAN to al-Wakidi. and Nawawi. who also assigned Khalid ibn-Sa'id over the provinces of upper al-Yaman. al-Janad and ing to other reports. The Prophet assigned abu-Musa-1Najran appointed. ' It is the Prophet assigned Ziyad ibn-Labid to c The governors of Zabid. messengers. Ash'ari to Zabid. accord. The letter of the Prophet to Zur'ah sent with Mu'adh.

the compassionate. therefore. for verily is the Prophet of Allah the As for the lord of both the rich and the poor among you. barley and grapes 3 (perhaps he said raisins) Instructions to one-tenth and one-half of a Al-Husain from 'Amr ibn-Hazm. Al-Husain orders Mu'adh to take the tithe. Diyarbakri. p. . Therefore. ii. vol.. good times lie be1 all Himyar. not legal for Muhammad or any of his relatives to take. All ye 4 this be faithful to your compacts the Mesan ordinance from the Prophet Muhammad. As for Mu'adh. Muhammad ibn-Ishak: — : This that have believed is from Allah and his Prophet. Tabari. not to exhibit perfidy or deviation. Prophet Musa ibn-T alhah : ibn-al-Aswad from —The Prophet sent Mu'adh dering him tenth. is a declaration ! : to senger of Allah. vol. and to take from the spoils the fifth that belongs to Allah as well as what is prescribed as sadakah on the is property of the Believers which is one-tenth in case it 1 llisham. for he is I. Himyar and embrace fore thee. 3 * Bukhari. Cf. sadakah. The Prophet wrote the following to 'Amr ibn-Hazm when he sent him to al-Yaman " In the name of Allah. 1719. the merciful. well. 2 p. p. p. It was Malik that conveyed the information and kept the secret. i. iii. ibn-Jabal to collect the sadakah of al-Yaman orto take on dates. vol.I08 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Islam. he is one of the righteous among my immediate companions and one of purified. 158. And I order you. He ordered him to fear Allah in whatever he performs. it is rather sakat through which ye are it is and which goes to the poor among the Moslems and the Believers. order you to treat him The And peace be unto you !" highly esteemed. 957. to 'Amr ibn-Hazm when he delegated him al-Yaman. 156. their coreligionists. 5: 1. wheat. Kor.

which is one-tenth. to al-Harith ibn-'Abd-Kulal. and half of the tenth 2 the bucket. s The Pr o phet's ibn-Jabal. 2 s i. p. observe the prayer." watered by spring. Tabari. vol. xx. 1727. in case the land if is or rain water. watered by means of letter According to Hisham ibn-Muhammad al-Kalbi the of the Prophet was addressed to 'Arib and al-Harith. . and half of a tenth on what is watered by means of the bucket and water-wheel. Ma'afir and Hamdan. and deliver what is prescribed by Allah to the Believers in the form of sadakah on the property. stating that oneon what is watered by rain or flowing water. and that Cf. i. the sons of 'Abd-Kulal ibn-'Arib ibn-Liyashrah. and one-half of a tenth 1 if it is watered by means of the bucket. Allah will guide you Greetings! to guidance. pay the sakdt. if ye act well. Yusuf ibn-Musa-1Prophet wrote to Mu'adh tenth was in al-Yaman. 1718. Nu'aim ibn-'Abd-Kulal. vol." The Prophet's lette r to the kings of Himyar. obey Allah and his Prophet. From the Prophet Muhammad. Tabari. . that on every adult one the latter is when to be assessed dinar or its no Jew 1 is equivalent in clothes is to be assessed 4 to be enticed to leave Judaism. al-Ishtikak. the Messenger of Allah. p. p. phet. an-Nu'man Kail dhi-Ru'ain. the merciful. 237. give out of the spoils the fifth that belongs to Allah. see ZDMG. vol. 308: " Yalyashrah " . let ter Kattan from al-Hakam: —The to Mu'adh.AL-YAMAN IOq watered by flowing water or rain. 4 Here is omitted the explanation of certain words in the tradition. from Muhammad ibn-Ishak The following : — Al-Husain is what the Prophet wrote to the kings of Himyar ' : of Allah. p. the share of his Pro- by his own and the portion which belongs to him as chief exclusive of his companions. the compassionate. Ibn-Duraid. Cf. and In the name 71 Sharh ibn-'Abd-Kulal.

Abu-'Ubaid from Masruk The Prophet delegated Mu'adh to al-Yaman giving him orders to take a one-year-old cow out of every : — thirty cows. 'Amr an-Nakid from 72 : —The Prophet al- collected poll-tax 'Amr ibn-Shu'aib's grandfather one dinar as tax on every adult : — The Prophet assessed the people among of al-Yaman. ibn-'Abdallah Al-Hajjaj said. Shaiban ibn-abi-Shaibah-1-Ubulli from Yahya ibn-Saifi or from ibn-' Abbas ' : —When the Prophet delegated Mu'adh " ibn-Jabal to al-Yaman he said.' they obey. The people of al-Yaman taxed. or The Hasan from the Magians of Hajar and the Magians of al-Yaman. ibn-abi- p. iii. from every adult. and one equivalent in clothes. . "Give sadakah on every and Allah there is : — leguminous plant. for between If his imprecation no veil or screen. '.I IO THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The instructions given to Mu'ddh. this abu-Burdah 157. you who can afford to offer made it obligatory on you If month of Ramadan of every year 'Allah made it obligatory on him of them. 'Allah to fast during the tell them." * / 'rod nets Shaiban from al-Mughirah subject to sadakah. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from its dinar. Magians taxed. If they obey. they obey. it to undertake a pilgrimage to Makkah '. 'Allah made it times per day and night '.' When tell thou comest to any obligatory on you to pray five If they obey. of the People of the Book. one full-grown cow." 1 Regarding Bukhari. tell them. 'Allah has made it obligatory on sadakah on your possessions to be taken from you the rich among you and turned over to the poor among you. then avoid their choice possessions and beware of the imprecation of the oppressed. and assessed one dinar or its equivalent in clothes on every adult or female from the Magians of al-Yaman. tell them. of every forty. vol.

Take sadakah on : — ' wheat. same effect was communicated to me by al-Kasim ibn-Sallam and others on the authority of Abyad ibn-Hammal. stance when camels amount . Al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Aswad from Ta'us: When Mu'adh arrived in al-Yaman." 2 the Prophet refused to assign it. which made Musa ibn-Talhah " to abu-Burdah.' Why more tax on the Syrians. awkas = what . like perennial water. According to a tradition to the between one faridah and the next as. awkas. on which he said. riI He is right ". instructions to take anything on this. Why levy on the people of Syria a heavier poll-tax than on the people of al-Yaman ?' and he " Because they were people of means. . Nothing on al-awkds. A 1 Ar. is . one sheep or goat is to be given for them and nothing is to be given for such as exceed that number until they amount to ten thus what is between the five and ten is termed waks. The Prophet sent Mu'adh ibn-Jabal to al-Yaman and gave instructions to collect sadakah on dates. dates and corn. barley raisins. pi. " 73 'AH ibn-'Abdallah " said. I al- Madini from ibn-abi-Najih who ' once asked Mujahid.AL-YAMAN Musa " said. wheat. and there occurred in it the following statement. there was brought before him a medial number of cows and a did ' 'Umar — of honey. barley. The Prophet giv es a fief in Hadramaut. It is — ." him and 'Amr an-Nakid from Musa ibn-Talhah ibn-'Ubaidallah " I have read the letter of Mu'adh who said ibn-Jabal when the Prophet sent him to al-Yaman. This man [al-Hajjaj ?] now claims say that his father was among the Prophet's Companions. for inin number to five.' replied." medial amount x " I have no The salt of Ma' rib. 2 Having an unfailing and continuous output. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Abyad ibn-Hammal: The latter asked the Prophet to give him " as fief the salt in Ma' rib but hearing someone say.

certain plant like sesame existing in al-Yaman only. Muhammad ibn-Yusuf severe on al-Yaman. 1 1 A A A A plant product used for dyeing the hair black. Among the lands he thus wrested was al- Harajah. all the canonists of al-Hijaz. 'Ali ibn- Muhammad mad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abi-Saif. when Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to power he reinstated it. Morever he levied on the people of al-Yaman a khardj which he gave the form of an assessed rate of land-tax. Al-Husain Sadakah on plants. 5 A plant used for dyeing the hands and feet. he misbehaved. hi una* and roses. s * plant with the leaves of which one tinges or dyes. Sufyan ath-Thauri and abu-Yusuf there is no zakat on zvars. " Though I may not get from al-Yaman more than a hand- to power. to abolish that assessed came ful of katam.* kirt* katam.II2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE tradition communicated to me by Ahmad ibn-Ibrahim adDauraki on the authority of 'Alkamah ibn-Wa'il alHadrami's father. . used for dyeing. 1 I of such a tax. the Prophet gave out as fief to the latter ['Alkamah's father] a piece of land in Hadramaut. the brother of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. ibn-Muhammad az-Za'farani from abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman Hisham ibn-Yusuf. from Maslamah ibn-Muharib —When a freedman of Muham- ibn-Yusuf. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz he wrote to his 'a/mil instructing him land-tax and take nothing more than the tithe saying. grains and vegetables. the kadi of San'a' The people of 74 Khufash presented a statement from abu-Bakr as-Siddik on a parchment ordering them to pay sadakah on a piece of : — land planted with zvarsr According to Malik. was the governor of al-Yaman. ibn-abi-Dhi'b." would rather have that than the passing However. : Kuraish. oppressed the people and took pieces of land from certain men without paying their prices. wasmah. kind of leek.

al-Basrah which was cultivated by the Moslems. then sadakah on it. he 1 exempt from the p. be it in great or small quantities. binding on these people to pay tax on their person and kharaj on their lands according to what their lands can is bear. 107. is however. ibn-al-' Abbas used to collect our sadakahs even from the bundles of leek. Whatever is received from them follows the course If. Yahya ibn-Adam. According to 'Ata' and Ibrahim an-Nakha'i. is Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-abi-Raja' al-'Utaridi " who said In al-Basrah. " If its price amounts to the lowest price for which five masks of dates. The same who it saffron. whatever the tithe-land produces.AL-YAMAN n^ Abu-Hanifah. there is 1 nothing on vegetables. of the money received as kharaj. subject to the tithe or half the tithe. Malik holds that the zakat on saffron is five dirhams." Al-Husain from Ta'us and 'Ikrimah The latter asserted that there is no zakat on wars and cotton. The following is the view of abu-Hanifah and Bishr In case of the dhimmis who are : — : — : — in possession of lands included in the tithe-land. The same view is held by ash-Sha'bi. The tax on the dhimmis. wheat. however. corn or any other kind of grains there is sell. and other lands given out as fiefs by the caliphs to which no it Moslem or " man of the covenant " has claim. Abuis reported by others to have said. . barley. holds that there is zakat on these. whether in large or small quantities. if its price is amounts to 200 dirhams and Zinad if it is sold. the view of abu-az" Yusuf and Muhammad ibn-al-Hasan claim. any one of poll-tax but them becomes Moslem. like for instance al-Yaman whose people accepted Islam and made terms on their lands." According to ibn-abi-Laila." sakat on Nothing on According to abu-Hanifah and Zufar there is whether it is in large or small quantities.

. is taken from them should follow the course of the money In case a dhimmi becomes Moslem received as kharaj. and Sharik ibn-'Abdallah. whose people became Moslem while they were still in the land. if not to be taken into consideration. Didst thou not from him \ claim that there is no tithe on the land of a dhimmi if he That said Malik. ibn-abi-Sabrah. and the possessor is According to al-Auza'i they are dhimmis like the Jews of al-Yaman. once asked Malik about the case of a Jew from al-Hijaz who buys land in al-Jurf and plants it. Laila. The same view al-Hasan. Sharik ibn'Abdallah an-Nakha'i. but no kharaj or tithe on their land. then it becomes tithe-land. and you should not possess it. tax is on their heads. which would be a fifth or This they said on the analogy of the case of the Abu-Yusuf added that whatever 75 a tenth. because they are not included in those on whom sakdt is binding. According to Sufyan ath-Thauri and Muhammad ibn-alHasan. let the dhimmi buy tithe-land. and they should pay double what the Moslems pay on their lands. nor is their The same opinion is held by al-Hasan land a khardj-land. The then replied. there is tithe on them but not in a doubled form. then nothing is taken but the poll-tax. Malik said.II4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE remains always subject to the kharaj on his land. there is tax on their heads. Christian banu-Taghlib. is reported to have been held by 'Ata' and According to ibn-abi-Dhi'b. or his land goes to a Moslem. holds acquires it from the tithe-land ?' tithe is taken ' J ' '. levied According to ibn-Shubrumah and abu-Yusuf. and ash-Shafi'i. as it is The same view is held by ibn-abithe case in as-Sawad. the tithe-land or The " I case of a Jew who holds Al-Wakidi ' said. ibn-Salih ibn-Hai-1-Mamdani. because that which counts is the land.

sultan] take he begins again to pay. 1 Cf. Abu- az-Zinad. — — Malik. but in case he leaves his " 1 country.' A man of the banu.Taghlib who uses a tithe-land. ibn-abi-Dhi'b. According to abu-Hanifah. AbuHanifah. then the authorities [Ar.AL-YAMAN XI ^ true. 69. abu-Yusuf. ath-Thauri. and Zufar shares the same view. because it is justly due to them. if he stays in his own country. If he rents a tithe. however. ath-Thauri. abuHanifah and Ya'kub said regarding the case of one of the banu-Taghlib who plants a piece of the tithe-land that he should pay a double-tithe. But abu-Shimr holds that the authorities take the arrears. then that becomes a question of trade. Malik ibn-Anas. ibn-abi-Dhi'b and Ya'kub The case of one who is behind in payment of the tithe. .farm then according to the one who plants the farms should pay the tithe. The same is true of the khardj-land. p. maintains that the owner of the land should pay it. in case a man fails to pay the tithe for two only one tithe as years.

" If al-Julanda. 'Amr will be the commander and abu-Zaid teach the will officiate in prayer. 5 4 133 : 'Ab- Ya'kubi. ii. iii. according to was Kais ibn-Sakan ibn-Zaid 3 ibn-Haram acal-Kalbi. p. they Suhar on the sea-coast. 85. the two sons of 5 The Prophet said. p. In the early part of the year the Prophet delegated to them abu-Zaid al-Ansari of alKhazraj. 504. cf. 'Uman. 116 ii. who was one of those who compiled the Koran in the time of the Prophet. calling them to Islam. 971 'Iyadh" adh-Dhahabi." On They 1 the arrival of abu-Zaid and at found that 'Abd and Jaifar were carried the letter vol. The in ascendency in 'Uman. " p. iii. of the Prophet to them. 2 many other peoples. p. Hisham.CHAPTER XVI 'Uman The Prophet sends abu-Zaid al-Ansdri to 'Uman. vol. 98. p. . p. his name was 'Amr ibnAkhtab. and they at 'Amr Yakut. the grandfather of 'Urwah ibn-Thabit ibn-'Amr ibn- Akhtab. Sprenger. : gives " "Kais ibn-Za'ura" . vol. 177. p. bad". these people accept the witness of truth and pledge obedi- ence to Allah and his Prophet. vol. Athir. cording to some Basrah philologists. see MFO. . 2 s Ar. 382. and according to Sa'id ibn-Aus al-Ansari. it was Thabit ibn-Zaid. vol. al-Mushtabih. The Prophet also sent 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi 4 as-Sahmi with a letter to 'Abd and Jaifar. His [full] name. Hisham. for Zaid. badiyah . iv. 717. p. propagate Islam. although it had in 1 alits 76 Azd were deserts 8. and Koran and the institutes of the Prophet.

1981 : Daba ". p. Abu-Bakr assigned HuHudhaifah made governor. The latter left for 'Uman with some troops from al-Basrah. al-Azd apostatized from Islam under the leadership of Lakit ibn-Malik dhu-at-Taj and left for Dabba (some say for Damma in Dabba). apostatized and yy went as far as ash-Shihr.'UMAN 117 both accepted Islam and invited the Arabs to it. Haidan ibn-'Amr ibn al-Hafi ibn-Kuda'ah massed a body of men. but they offered no and paid sadakah. however. When abuBakr died. These 'Ikrimah followed and overpowered. The Arabs 'Amr then responded and showed special interest in it. resistance The state of 'Uman 'Isa ibn-] a jar abuses the people. . to al-Madinah before that. however. Hudhaifah was still over it. Makhzumi. that abu-Zaid returned tribes apostatise. continued in a fair way. against whom 'Ikrimah came. At this. but he was later dismissed and sent to al-Yaman. Abu-Bakr. carrying away a large booty and killing many Then some of the tribe of Mahrah ibnof their number. " i. and rob 1 Tabari. and poll-tax being taken from those among them who were dhimmis until the caliphate of ar-Rashid who made 'Isa ibn-Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas its ruler. vol. who began to violate women. who in a battle with Lakit and his companions 1 killed him and took from the people of Dabba many captives whom they sent to abu-Bakr. It is said by some. Al-Azd and other Consequent upon the death of the Prophet. dhaifah ibn-Mihsan as governor over 'Uman. its people paying sadakah on their property. theredispatched against them Hudhaifah ibn-Mihsan alupon. and abu-Zaid stayed in 'Uman until the death of the Prophet. al-Azd returned to Islam. Other clans from 'Uman.

2: is : The word used sultan. that tr. Imams and Seyyids Kliawarij. 716-717. take poll-tax. they succeeded in killing and entering the city. From the Moslems. he wrote to me that having asked thy representative who came before him to whom 'Uman about 1 those articles of food and dates. his 'amil in al-Basrah " I have previously written to Greetings : ! : — The to 'Adi ibnin Abu-1- 'Amr its it Wbdallah asking him to distribute whatever he received the poor of 'Uman those as date or grain tithes among in- habitants. the nomadic people who may descend on and need. The people of 'Uman. which took place. 4 Hisham. and make public use of musical instruments. but e from the Magians. who were mostly Shurat." The letter of Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to 'Adi. 2 having learned that. Regarding this. Badger. him homage. 2 Schismatics commonly their known 203. Then they broke with the caliph 3 and crucifying him. or obstruction of the way may compel to stay in it. of Oman. fought against him and held him back from Finally. 'Amr had come from *Abd and Jaifar. a short time after his conversion to Islam. in the year 6. 11. making one of their own their Some letter to assert that the Prophet sent abu-Zaid carrying his two sons of al-Julanda of aland sent 'Amr in the year 8.! j8 the origins of the islamic state 1 the people. as They say they owe • name to Koran. poverty. take sadakah. . he was told 78 Cf. " 4 The Prophet said to abu-Zaid. Abyssinia to the Prophet. refused to do ruler. Salil ibn-Razik. together with the conversion of Khalid ibn-al-Walid and 'Uthman ibn-Talhah-l-'Abdi in Safar. pp. year 8. Hasan al-Mada'ini from al-Mubarak ibn-Fudalah following is what 'Umar ibn-' Abd-al-' Aziz wrote ibn-Artat al-Fazari. the Azd. History of p.

what thy representative in 'Uman had carried to thee as the price of dates and grains. May this be the will of Allah. and peace be unto thee!" \ . therefore.'UMAN that thy representative ng had sold them and delivered the price Return to 'Amr. and to thee. spend it as I told him. that 'Amr may invest it where I instructed him.

Others claim that he was named after the al-Asbadhi people. At the beginning of the year 8. cf. the one who ruled the Arabs in it in the name of the Persians was al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa * one of the sons of 'Abdallah ibn-Zaid ibn-' Abdallah ibn-Darim ibn-Malik ibn-Hanzalah. however. 'Another name vol. Ibn-Hajar. p. p. together with them. The land of al-Bahrain formed a part of the Persian kingdom.CHAPTER XVII Al-Bahrain Al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa. p. They both were converted and. i. < his name thus: " Usaikhit 15 . ii. who were worshippers of horses in al-Bahrain. In its desert lived a great many Arabs from the tribes of 'Abd-al-Kais. Yakut. 213. Bakr ibn-Wail and Tamim. 508. At the time of the Prophet. 043. the Prophet sent a letter ibn-Sawa and Sibukht the satrap ' of Hajar/ giving them the choice between following Islam or paying tax. giving its people the choice between following Islam or paying tax. vol. 120 . vol. With him. governor of al-Bahrain. the Prophet delegated al-'Ala ibn-' Abdallah ibnTmad al-Hadrami. p. an ally of the banu-'Abd. p. 1 marzubdn. 1 Jews and rjajar. including Magians. This 'Abdallah ibn-Zaid was surnamed al- Asbadhi after a village in Hajar called al-Asbadh. Ibn-Sa'd in Wellhausen. vol. in quoting al-Baladhuri gives Usaikhib) ". vol. i. for Bahrain. all the Arabs living there and a few Persians.Shams. Skiz3en. hence the Greek: Gerrha: Caetani. to alBahrain. The rest to al-Mundhir :he population. iii. Al-Ala delegated by the Prophet. iv. 194.

the hypocrites am ng the Arabs re- The Prophe: preten ted that he would accept pollnone ootside the 'People the Book'. The-r irr the terms agreed upon between al-*Ala' ibn-airTadrami and the people of al-Bahraim It is a. ye refuse. refused Islam and preferred the payment : .x." isses -ed one ever.-::. however. he he is iccej ting H from the Mag ajar who are :: Or. pay the time :f - . .'.•:: - The :' letter ibn-' Abbas: of —This : the Prop?. and the world : r the al-'Ala' poll-: . this xcasion the text was 'People ::' the ---: ye that have believed! take heed to yourselves who erreth shall not hurt v a when ye have the raid:r ' m :' - : — at According la .AL-BA&RAIA Christians ' 2. M d yen. val the dates and half the tithe the grains. tc xrtain rec its the Prophe: : sent the the time he sent his em jys the kings in year ' 6 " 5 : -- '' .ame dem the agreed upon when e of the hre-temple thai is :: be deliverei :: Allah and r If. the angels. the compassionate. Upon this. mat me Moslems] the :r:uble of work. and Ac not bring up your ch will i treated according t die ter agians I - .-. made terms with al-'Ala' and this is a copy of the statement written between the two parti es In the name : Allah. and wb soever : them fails to keep this may the corse : As altogether be upon him. however. Allah. the merciful.adult. then tax will be incumbent phet : .." The Magions and Jews : - : The Magians and Jews. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from is what the Prophe: wrote :: the people so f al-Bahrain I "Greetings [f ye observe prayer g Allah and his Pr phet.gr-zi. but.-::. and they wiD save as fc with os the lates. ra .

I would expel you from Hajar. and did nothing for them but what was pleasing to them. 15-16. have been conwould take the tithe. for whosoever among you does the good deed. vol. '-' Wellhausen. Then I admonish you by Allah and by there is no god. and from the polytheist' kharaj. iii. although if I were to enforce all my right on you. 509. vol. When my commanders among you who come 80 to you obey them. Thus did I accept intercession for the absent among you. e. and now the offense of the guilty shall not be charged to him behaves himself. vol. Hajar. and bestow favor on the present.Had rami said : The Prophet sent ' Hajar [i.122 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE as Al-'Ala " ' a wall between them. i. his deed shall not be lost before Allah or before I Your delegation has come to me. the compassionate. 202. Skissen. What ye have done has reached me." The tax imposed on al-Bahrain. vol. . the merciful. iv. iii. p. : from Katadah — In the time of the Prophet. 943. nor be misled after having the right pointed out to you." The Prophet's letter. ) and I to al-Bahrain (or perhaps he said used to come as a wall between brothers me try to create discord] From the Moslem verted. me. p. Caetani. beside whom are in peace. Muhammad who ibn- Musaffa al-Himsi from al-'Ala' ibn-al. Remember the grace of Allah upon you. reinforce them and help them in carrying out Allah's plan and his cause. the Prophet to the people of Hajar ye : I praise Allah on your behalf. ' some of whom I 1 among them. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from 'Urwah : ibn-az-Zubair as follows " In the — : —The Prophet wrote to the people of Hajar 2 name From Muhammad of Allah. for 1 some of the people accepted Islam. pp. yourselves that ye do not go astray after having been guided. Yakut. no Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad fight took place in al-Bahrain. p.

and we will not eat what they slaughter nor marry their women. but the Magians and Jews accepted they the tax and it was exacted from them. The Prophet wrote to the from al-Hasan ibn-Muhammad Magians of Hajar. kiblah as we do [in prayer] and eats what we slaughter. and its con- 81 pay tax. they will have the rights we have. 123 agreeing to give half the grains : — The : Prophet took poll-tax from the Magians of Hajar. it A similar tradition was communicated by al-Husain on the The Prophet 'Amr an-Nakid from Musa ibn-'Ukbah wrote to Mundhir ibn-Sawa as follows " From Muhammad the Prophet to Mundhir ibn-Sawa : — : — : —thou art at peace. and Uthman from the Berbers. faces the tents I heard. Al-Husain Prophet wr ote to the Magians.000 dirhams. 62 Musaiyab ". but whosoever refuses will have to there is : whom praise Allah in thy behalf. and be under the obligations we are under. authority of az-Zuhri. some — As for the Arabs. such one is a Moslem. p. beside Thy letter I received. inviting them to Islam and providing that What the — if they are converted. 'Umar exacted from those of Persia. . I no god. accepted and others did not. of whom Al-Ala' sends 80. Al-Husain from az-Zuhri al-'Ala'." The 'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from ibn-' Abbas written to al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa. became Moslems.AL-BAHRAIN and others made terms with and dates. the latter Prophet having accepted Islam and called the people of Hajar to it. " : Shaiban ibn-Farrukh sent from Humaid ibn-Hilal :— Al-'Ala' ibn-al-Hadrami 1 Duraid. * The Prophet Al-Husain from Sa'id ibn-al-Musaiyib : — exacted tax from the Magians of Hajar. but those who refuse Islam will have to pay the tax. Whosoever repeats our prayer.

according to this re- Aban left al-Bahrain and came to al-Madinah. thereupon. al-'Ala' held the governorship of al-Bahrain until he died in the year 20. iurairah ad-Dausi. left Tauwaj in Persia. in 82 . he was assigned by 'Umar to the governorship of al-Basrah. This he did. ban ibn-Sa'id made governor and succeeded by abuThe Prophet dismissed al-'Ala' and assigned to al-Bahrain Aban ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. from al-Bahrain part of it to his uncle al-'Abbas. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote Abu-Mikhnaf to al-'Ala' ibn- al-Hadrami. and assigned 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi to al-Bahrain and 'Uman. . he returned to al-Bahrain where he died. port. "After we buried al-'Ala'. asked abu-Bakr to send al-'Ala' back to them. The former report.000 [dirhams]. ! Then 'Umar assigned to his place abuOthers say that 'Umar assigned abual-'Ala'. al-'Ala' was assigned to one district of al-Bahrain. Hurairah before the death of for who. Ac- cording to other reports. —The man. however.124 THE 0RIGINS 0F THE ISLAMIC STATE to the Prophet a sum of money amounting to 80. Thus." howAbu- asserted that 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-Asi made governor. more than which sum the Prophet The Prophet gave a never received either before or after. On lifting it we found al-'Ala' missing from the coffin. The people of al-Bahrain. Hurairah often repeated. one dinar on every I Hurairah. thereupon. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-'Ubaidallah : Prophet communicated with those in Ha jar whom Kisra had settled there as hostages [wadai']. and Aban to another in which lay al-Khatt. is the more authentic. On the arrival of al-'Ala' in al-Madinah. intending to settle in Later. we wanted to lift a brick from the tomb. a part of which was al-Katif. On the death of the Prophet. ever. but they refused Islam and tax was laid on them. it. his 'dmil in al-Bahrain. calling him back.

This took place in the year 14. ibn-Maz'un al-Jumahi for the collection of taxes from alBahrain. military guard and charged him with the conduct of prayer. Shaiban ibn" Farrukh from abu-Hurairah who said 'Umar made me his 'amil over al-Bahrain. Mughirah ibn-abi-l-'Asi. Later 'Umar dismissed him. When 'Uthman was in Persia. abu-'Umar Hafs ibn-'Umar ad-Duri. AlAbu-Hurairah made governor after Kudamah. 1 and 'Uman. thou hast stolen the money hams] 1 . others say Hafs ibn-abi- 'Umar confiscates abu-Hurairah' s wealth. . At last. The latter gave witness against Kudamah. he dismissed abu-Hurairah and confiscated a part Then he assigned Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi of his wealth. l-'Asi. This he refused to do. . : O ' of Allah 1 !' To ' this I replied. who still held the office at the death of 'Umar. rived there. as- signed 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi as governor. and 'Umar assigned him to al-Bahrain : — to al-Bahrain after Kudamah.. 'Umar. confiscated a part of what he possessed and ordered him to return.AL-BAHRAIN 125 No sooner had he arthe place of 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan. There I gathered 12. Neither am I the enemy of Flogging with 80 stripes i. 357. missed Kudamah. Later he disinflicted on him the legal punishment for and gave abu-Hurairah authority over the drinking wine.000 [dir: — On my return to 'Umar. see Mnwatta. thereupon. and gave abu-Hurairah authority over the military guard and charge of the conduct of prayer. his substitute over 'Uman and al-Bahrain was his brother. he addressed me saying thou the enemy of Allah and of the Moslems (he may have said and of his Book '). p. 7 e. than he died. 2 Kudamah ibn-Maz'un had from al-Haitham 'Umari of tax-collecting and the military guard. Then 'Umar assigned Kudamah or the beginning of 15. and abucharge Hurairah acted as leader of prayer and kadi.

Lord forgive 'Umar. . "the enemy of Allah." said 'Umar.' 'And why.. replied stolen the money of Allah?" abu-Hurairah.' prayer I repeated. thou not say five ?' ' ' defame my honor. nor of his Book. 'And 'amils. " O thou enemy of Allah and Bahrain.' 83 Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam and Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from When abu-Hurairah returned from alabu-Hurairah 'Umar said to him. In my morning up. multiplied in ' ' ' replied No.' After this. didst I fear that thou dost whip my back. Wouldst thou not act as 'amil. 1 2 Kor.000 dirhams come t<> thee?" am 'Through horses" said abu-Hurairah. and I am afraid of three things and of two things that I replied.' to which he answered. (he may have said nor of his Book') rather am I the enemy of him who has enmity . : — enemy of "Neither his Book. and take my money . hast thou I".000. and I hate to speak without meekness and to rule without knowledge. "that reproduced and stipends that came in successions and shares that mounted up. "did 10.I2 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ' Allah." 'How then. abu-Hurairah ?' and I against them. why not? Better 1 men than thou were made who said. instance Joseph. To granaries of the land. rather am I the enemy of him who has I did not steal the enmity against them. " Set me over the ' this Joseph was whereas I am abu-Hurairah." a prophet and the son of a for thou mayest bring upon me. The money. At last 'Umar asked me. money of Allah.' said 'Umar. I have got from horses that number and from different shares that mounted 'Umar then took from me 12." 'Umar took the money from him. nor of the Moslems. 12:55. 'Umar used to take from the people of al-Bahrain and give them back more than what he would take. The rest of the tradition is similar to what is reported by abuHilal. prophet. son of Umaimah. * One final authority of the intermediate authorities of the preceding tradition whose i^ abu-Hurairah himself.

" 3 At last al-'Ala' made a sally with the Moslems and fell upon in which al-Hutam was 1 the Rabi'ah during the night. al-'Ala' ibn-al-Hadrami marched was the head of the Moslems until he came to Juwatha. As Rabi'ah advanced towards him. Al-Hutam followed the Rabi'ah and joined them with his men. i. 173. vol. one of the sons of Kais ibn-Tha'labah. * 3 Hamasah. Having received this information. Hisham. he set out towards them with his Arabs and at the non. which fortification of al-Bahrain. e. 944. Tabari. a little after the death of the Prophet. vol. A fierce battle ensued Tabrizi. This al-Hutam was Shuraih ibn-Dubai'ah ibn-'Amr ibn-Marthad. Duraid. 186 and 197. Bishr ibn-'Amr al-'Abdi and those of his people who followed him. those in al-Bahrain descended from Kais ibn-Tha'labah ibn-'Ukabah apostatized under al-Hutam from Islam. p. named al-Mundhir. i. i. who are invested as captives in Juwatha. pp. p. killed. He was nicknamed Hutam for saying.AL-BAIiRAIN 12 y The apostasy of al-Hutam.Arabs and led a heavy fight against them. * who does not Together with these there apostatized from Islam in Bahrain all the Rabi'ah tribe with the exception of 2 alal- Jarud. . p. Then the Moslems took refuge in the fortification where they were It was in reference to this occasion besieged by the enemy. For a leader. hutam] ". that 'Abdallah ibn-Hadhaf al-Kilabi said : " to Wilt thou carry this message abu-Bakr and all the youths of al-Madinah? 84 Hasten to the aid of some young men of your number. they chose a son of anNu'man ibn-al-Mundhir. 1962. ' The night found her in the company of a strong driver drive gently [Ar. On the death of al-Mundhir ibn-Sawa.

" This al-Mundhir went with the remnant of Rabi'ah as far as al-Khatt. killing al-Hutam. Al-'Ala' having written to abu-Bakr for reinforcement. making it impossible to be Finally he made terms. It was we that left Misma' prostrate on the ground. p. 1 e let in the reached. persed the crowd. al-Mundhir escaped. vol. i. : " Shuraih with the blood covering him fringe of a spotted Yamanite garment. but " when the Moslems won the victory he said. and broke our lance in Ilabtar's eye." left We like the It is reported that alAl-Mundhir ibn-an-Nu mdn. Al-Hutam took up his abode with them. Malik ibn-Tha'labah-l-'Abdi says According in Juwatha. however. 385. the former is more authentic. did. Ilisham. 945. Al-'Ala' pressed the siege until he reduced Juwatha and disOf the two reports. iii. agreeing to leave the city. p. which al-'Ala' moved against and conquered. Tabari. p.j 28 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to other authorities. and had chosen for leader al-Mundhir ibn-an-Nu'man. others that he surrendered and then away but was pursued and put to death. Al-Hutam. ii. It was we that deprived unum-Ghadban of her son. . Hajar. I am not alGharur [the deceitful] but al-Maghrur [the deceited]. at the mercy of hyenas and eagles that will attack him. 1970. water around him. vol. killAccording to ing al-Mundhir and those in his company. the latter wrote to Khalid ibn-al-Walid Yamamah 1 ordering him to hasten from alto the reinforcement of al-'Ala'. al-Hutam came to the whose inhabitants had Rabi'ah as they were all forsaken Islam. p. Athir. Describing the death of al-Hutam. which he He was killed. 281. Mundhir ibn-an-Nu'man was nicknamed al-Gharur. Some then joined Musailimah with whom he claim that al-Mundhir was killed in the fled battle of Juwatha. entered al-Mushakkar and others. vol.

as-Sdbun and Darin. 2 Al- Muka'bar al-Farisi. ii. p. said. whose 85 surname was abu-Suhail and whose mother was Fakhitah daughter of 'Amir ibn-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf. the " news of his remuneration for his loss. 48. 2 Noldeke. Per- . 256. fortified himself in az-Zarah. Khalid from abu-Bakr ordering him to leave for which he started from al-Bahrain. p. pp. many Aghani. no. According dom took place during the battle of al-Yamamah. he was 38 years of age. vol. and Suhail " I am informed that the Prophet said. vi. On the receipt of I expect Allah's a pilgrimage to Makkah Suhail was met by abu-Bakr who consoled him. his martyr- ibn-Ubai. to 'Abdallah ibn-Suhail suffers martyrdom. who was the friend of Kisra and was once sent by him to annihilate the banu-Tamim for interfering with his camels (and whose full name was Fairuz ibn3 Jushaish 1 ). "According to our companions. Another 'Abdallah ibn-' Abdallah suffers martyrdom. Later." When 'Abdallah suffered martyrdom. can intercede for seventy of his relatives.' and it is my hope death. Perhaps Jushnas. suffered This 'Abdallah was one of martyrdom at Juwatha. 'Abdallah ibnSuhail ibn-'Amr of the banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. however. Al-Wakidi says." received a letter al-Trak. his father. Athir. There. p. battle of Badr. Geschichte der Perser und Araber. 33. Al-'Ala' reduces az-Zdrah. vol. in the year 12. 259 seq. note 2. see Skizzen. 3 ser. Noldeke. xiv. 'A martyr replied. whence he started for al-'Irak. vol. note 3." On that my son will begin with no one before me. was killed Khalid with al-'Ala' laid siege to al-Khatt. Khalid came first to al-Madinah. martyr of the battle of Juwatha was 'Abdallah ibn-Abdallah to others than al-Wakidi. but then he joined the Moslem side and emHe took part with the Prophet in the braced Islam. Suhail ibn-'Amr.AL-BAHRAIN 1 129 So before the arrival of Khalid. p. those who came with the ' infidels " to the battle of Badr.

as-Sabiir . iv. They have not made terms regarding their children who al-'Ala' the ford Karraz an-Nukri pointed out to which he could cross over to them. ' Yakut gives vol. p. The people seeing that. In the early part it in the caliphate of abu-Bakr. "Allah is great!" The people of Darin sallied forth and attacked them from three sides. by Thus did al-'Ala' with a band of Moslems plunge into the sea and the first thing the people of Darin knew of was the exclamation. ". course of the caliphate of 'Umar. agreeing to offer him one-third of the city and one-third of the gold and silver 86 in it. Then came al-Akhnas al-'Amiri to al-'Ala' and issues " said. Thence he moved to a duel. certain villages in as-Sabun and reduced them. now killed their fighters 1 and gained possession of the children Yakut.000 [dirhams] Under safe con. taking spoils from him which amounted to 40. together with one-half of what they owned outside the city. came to terms. According to Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna. This spring al-'Ala' filled up. " 143. in the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-alas Khattab. al-'Ala' conquered by to reduce force as-Sabun 2 and Darin where there is [today] a spot known Khandak al-'Ala' [the trench of al-'Ala']. al-'Ala' with 'Abd-al-Kais invaded. and besieged him.13 o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 Magians who had assembled in al-Katif and had refused Al-'Ala' invested az-Zarah but failed to pay tax joined him. and showed al-'Ala' the spring that from az-Zarah. The satrap of az- Zarah challenged him and Bara' ibn-Malik ac- cepted the challenge and killed him. he reduced it. duct. however. but the Moslems are in Darin." . one of the people of az-Zarah came forth to point out the drinking water. to az-Zarah in which al-Muka'bar stayed. He then invaded the city of al-Ghabah and killed those in it who were Persians. In the of the caliphate of 'Umar.

On " this occasion Karraz said : but Al-'Ala' feared the basin of the sea as he plunged into it. it. and he fell dead." ' ' —In the Khalaf al-Bazzar and 'Affan from Muhammad ibn-Sirin duel between Bara' ibn-Malik and the satrap of : az-Zarah. I have of old crossed it over to the unbelievers of Darin. 'Umar took one-fifth belt. Then Bara' went down and cut off his a hands and took his bracelets. and This booty.AL-BAHRAIN and captives. being so large. of It was the first booty in Islam of which the fifth was taken. a furred coat he had on. the former stabbed the latter above his spine. al-Muka'bar became Moslem. . I ^1 Seeing that.

971. to the Prophet their delegation. 045. Nawawi. p. ity in be thy will. Hisham. one of whom was Mujja'ah ibn-Murarah. with the understanding that after thee. 554. who was cruciAllah knows whether this is true. quest. daughter of Murr [from the tribe] of Jadi. Among the delegates was one. sent al-Khazraji). The envoys to the Prophet. 46. iii. p. He. vol. 132 p.CHAPTER XVIII Al-Yamamah The origin of the name. . see ibn-Sa'd in Skizzen. Bukhari. 209. iv. Musailimah. Al-Yamamah was first called Jau but was later named after a woman. 167. the false Prophet. vol. 2 Rahhal. p. all will return to us [Musaili1 Cf. fied at its gate. p. 3 p. he wrote to Haudhah ibn-'Ali-l-Hanafi and the people of al- Yamamah summoning them to Islam. 4 who said to the Prophet. When the Prophet wrote to the kings of the world in the year 7 (or 6 as it is said). thereupon. apostatized from Islam after a time. we will leave all author- thy hand and swear allegiance to thee. 2 Another delegate was ar-Rajjal ibn-'Unfuwah who be" came Moslem and read the " Siirah of the Cow and other Surahs of the Koran. the 87 To Mujja'ah and fief in accordance with his re- Prophet gave out as a piece of unutilized land. 4 Ibn-Duraid. however. al-Yamamah." Thumamah " If it ibn-Kabir ibn-Habib. Hisham. His letter to this effect 1 he forwarded with Salit ibn-Kais ibn-'Amr al-Ansari (later The people of al-Yamamah.

He then wrote the following message to the Prophet and forwarded it through 'Ubadah ibn-al-Harith of the banu-'Amir ibn3 Hanifah. . the authority might be delegated to himself. the false Prophet. 4 * Nawawi. Haudhah ibn-'Ali-l- Hanafi had written to the Prophet asking that after the Prophet. to Muhammad. Hanifah and others in al-Yamamah followed him. p. and aribn-'Unfuwah testified that the Prophet gave him Rajjal 2 Banu[Musailimah] a share in the authority with him. the Messenger of Allah. whose surname was ibn-an-Nauwahah." said the Prophet.. of his servants as he pleaseth doth he give it as a heritage' 4 : . but Kuraish do not act equitably." " ^3 by no means. Musailimah. and promising to become Moslem and come to the reinforce" ment of the Prophet. and may No. Musailimah. Kor. When the delegation of the banu-Hanifah returned to al-Yamamah. Written by 'Amr ibn-al-Jarud al-Hanafi. the Messenger of Allah." this the To ' Prophet replied : In the From of Allah. 2 p. and who was [later] killed in al-Kufah by 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud who false Prophet. nor anything else. al-Kadhdhab.AL-YAMAMAH mah]. 7 : 125. the Prophet. and peace be unto thee. to Musailimah. 1 Ar. and to Kuraish the other half. No. the compassionate. ii. Muhammad. 1 heard that he and his companions believed in the false claims of Musailimah ' : From Musailimah. 175. the merciful." answered the Prophet. Previous to " Allah smite thee!" this. the asserted his claim as a prophet. Greetings! To us half the land belongs. vol. 374. the false ' ! name For the earth is Allah's to such Greetings Prophet. Diyarbakri. "and may Allah let me get rid of him!" Before long Haudhah was dead. the impostor.

vol. for fear of being broken. Khalid. p. abu-Bakr was proclaimed caliph and. but martyrs. Athir. hold up to the sun in order to render the blades flexible. nicknamed the Mukakkim al-Yamamah. Khalid put up his camp one mile from al-Yamamah. Many of the distin" " Koran-readers among the Moslems fell guished men and The Moslems then returned and went back. ii. Cf. destroyed those of the people of Najd and its environs who apostatized from Islam. When. not see how they have drawn the swords one against the other? I suppose there " is discord among them. 146. vol. vol. 13-14. turned to his men and said. Cf. Mujja'ah. who was immediately killed by Allah's help. 2 and spared Mujja'ah whom he carried off in chains. 8 1 iv. and among them were ar-Rajjal and Muhakkim ibn-at-Tufail ibn-Subai'. fettered in No. Ibn-Duraid." his chains." Khalid ibn-al-W alid goes against Musailimah. seeing something glittering them. vol. Sprenger. 306. "Know ye Moslems among false Prophet." to They then met. Allah favored them with a victory and made the people of al-Yamamah take to flight. at 88 the death of the Prophet. he Do ye that Allah has spared you the trouble of your enemy. abu-Bakr sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi to alYamamah giving him orders to fight against Musailimah. pp. in a few months. ii. met a group of the banu-Hanifah among whom He killed them was Mujja'ah ibn-Murarah ibn-Sulmi. and their force will be used on themselves. The Moslems pursued them. The first meet the Moslems was ar-Rajjal ibn-'Unfuwah. pp. 23. iii. Banu-Hanifah came out to him. the As Khalid came within sight of al-Yamamah. 228-229. these are Indian swords which they. Ya'kubi. p. ibn-Sa'd in Skizzen. shouted. .I3 4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and peace be to those who follow the true guidance! * Written by Ubai ibn-Ka'b. p.

" " He was By killed ". to which the latter replied. a brother of Habib ibn-Zaid of the 89 banu-Mabdhul of the banu-an-Najjar." 2 Hisham. thou hast decided the question of his killing in favor of Mu'awiyah. and he fell dead. Among those who claimed having Musailimah. claimed was the one who I Musailimah." Some believe that all those mentioned above took part in that he " killing killed Musailimah. was Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan and the it." 1 In al-Hadikah. Wahshi ibn- Harb al-Habashi. but certain Ansdr say that he was killed by 'Abdallah ibnZaid ibn-Tha'labah of the banu-1-Harith ibn-al-Khazraj. day called Musailimah was " Hadikat al-Maut. Banu-'Amr ibnLu'ai ibn-Ghalib said that he was killed by Khidash ibnBashir ibn-al-Asamm of the banu-Ma'is ibn-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai killed . The " infidels " took refuge in al-Hadikah which was since that by Allah's help. killed the best of all people and the worst of all people. and used to say. 268-269. when the false Prophet was seized 1 " The park p. banu-Umaiyah credited him for Abu-Haf s ad-Dimashki quotes from one who was present when 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan asked a man of the banuHanifah who witnessed the battle of al-Yamamah as to who was the one who killed Musailimah." According to a report. pp. who 2 Still others was shown a vision of the call for prayer. ibn-Duraid. 308 .AL-YAMAMAH ^5 Muhakkim was hit by inflicting horrible death on them. by one whose description " is as follows : — " Allah exclaimed 'Abd-al-Malik. This Habib had his hands and feet once cut off by Musailimah. the brother of 'A'ishah through her father. . an arrow shot by 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-Bakr as-Siddik. the murderer of killed Hamzah. and others. assert that he was killed by abu-Dujanah Simak ibnKharashah who later fell as martyr. of death. by 'Abdallah ibn-Zaid ibn-'Asim.

Moslems were An Arabic . O people." until come face to face with Musailimah!" Consequently. met." and Musailimah was killed. \Abd-al. he shouted. 1 By this time." Allah. we would be the Thus they returned and joined cause of their defeat. repeated the following verse when Muhakkim was killed " : If 1 escape from it. If our friends win the victory. the former took to flight until they got to their place of abode where as-Sa'ib ibn-al-'Auwam stood up and addressed " them saying. By ' — The I from Hisham ibn-'Urwah's come face to face with The Ansar objected saying.Wahid ibn-Ghiyath father : Arabs forsook the true faith. They then said to themselves. the proverb. " word on that occasion was O people of the 'Surah of the Cow ' ! " I was told by one of the inhabitants of al-Yamamah that some one. your place of abode and after his own place of abode. this that we have done? we will be reviled and if they are defeated. shall never cease until I Musailimah!" " L I shall. and abu-Bakr sent Khalid ibn-al-\Valid who met them and said." repeated Khalid. fight for your by the throat. "This idea is of your own and was not given out by abu-Bakr: take us back to al-Madinah that we may give rest to our horses. otherwise out of the same vessel I shall drink. never cease. who was under the protection of the banuHanifah. relatives !" which he repeated until Allah brought about his death. the " What is Ansar left him." 90 Mujja'ah makes terms. and polythesists . by Allah." " " The Moslems and the Khalid. 36 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STA TE " banu-Hanifah. I escape from that which is a calamity. Allah caused the defeat of the Their watchpolytheists. man has no place : to ' flee to!" Finally.. Ye have reached.

But Mujja'ah " said to Khalid. gold. was short. coats of mail and horses. coats of mail and horses. Most of the people of al-Yamamah did not out to fight you. A description of Musailimah. Accordingly. Khalid turned to Mujja'ah and said. on the authority of certain sheikhs from alYamamah. . Khalid received the message cheated me. I was told by abu-Rabah al-Yamami. The people refused the terms which fications of al-Trd I kept fourth of the captives and one-half of the gold. Khalid sent him back to his men. Having trusted him. he started for al-Bahrain and left in his place over al-Yamamah Samurah ibn-'Amr al-'Anbari. agreeing to give one-half of the captives. Thou hast The people of al-Yamamah at last Islam. accepted Khalid reinforces al-'Ala. made with you. with a camois and flat nose. that Musailimah." of abu-Bakr directing him to reinforce al-'AIa' ibn-alHadrami. Seeing those left " in it. But them until they agreed to make terms on oneurging I and Khalid accepted them and signed his name. The conquest of al-Yamamah was effected in the year 12." Then Mujja'ah came " out to the Moslems' camp and said. He was exceedingly pale. and what ye have killed is only the go In spite of that they have exhausted your small minority. silver. As soon as he entered al-Yamamah he ordered the boys. they entertained no doubt that they were fighters. women and aged men of al-Yamamah to put on their arms and hold the forts." Both parties agreed on these terms.AL-YAMAMAH j^y worn out by war and entirely exhausted. the false Prophet." Accordingly. utmost effort as I see. and the sadakah was taken from them. he made terms with Khalid. silver. Nevertheless I am ready to make terms with you on their behalf. and they said. and there are the fortimanned to their fullest capacity. As Khalid and the Moslems looked toward them. Mujja'ah. Mujja'ah then came with Khalid to al-Yamamah. "Mujja'ah has told us the truth.

ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. and according to others. 322. who. Hujair has since become a proverb. some one " has expressed it eloquently. Yazid ibn-Rukaish al-Asadi. . an ally of the banu-Umaiyah. who in calling " I testify that Musailimah claims to prayer used to chant. " Thou art the sacks " ( his name. a brother of 'Umar ibnal-Khattab. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. according to others. e. i. 422 and 486. according to some. T-abid. p. an ally of the banu-Umaiyah Makhramah ibn-Shuraih al-Hadrami. Hisham. as-Sa'ib ibn-al-'Auwam." Remarking on this.. an ally of the banu: Umaiyah. as-Sa'ib ibn-'Uthman ibn-Maz'un al-Jumahi and Zaid ibn-al-Khattab ibn-Nufail. who later came to 'Umar and . . 'Umar 1 said to him.. Hujair. and some say Mihsham 2 Salim. in Among those al-Yamamah were abu-Humartyrdom dhaifah ibn-'Utbah ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-'Abd-Shams. Ibid. p. abuThumalah. Those who fell martyrs in al-Yamdmah. a brother of az-Zubair ibn-al-' Auwam al-Walid ibn-'Abd-Shams ibn-al-Mughirah1-Makhzumi.138 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE nicknamed abu-Thumamah. The chanter who Hisham. a who suffered . 'Abdallah. calls to prayer from the minaret. was killed in the battle of Mu'tah. 2 3 * pp. to be the Prophet of Allah. Zaid was killed by Labid ibn-Burghuth al-'Ijli. . whose first name was Hushaim. Khalid ibn-Asid ibn-abi-l-'Is ibn-Umaiyah. who. was killed by abuMaryam al-Hanafi whose proper name was Subaih ibnMuliarrish. freedman of abu-Hudhaifah surnamed abu-Abdallah. whose sur- Al-Hakam name was abu-Wahb at-Tuf ail ibn-'Amr ad-Dausi of al-Azd . and who was a freedman 3 of Thubaitah daughter of Ya'ar 4 of 91 the Ansdr (and others say Nubaithah who was a woman) . Shuja' ibn-Wahb al-Asadi. His muezzin 1 was one." which phrase said. 165.

surnamed abu-arRabi'. ibn-'Amr of the banu- 'Amr ibn-Lu'ai and Iyas ibn-al-Bukair al-Kinani. and he was the senior of 'Umar. According to some. Other martyrs were abu-Kais ibn-al-Harith ibn-'Adi ibn-Sahm. of the banu-Mazin ibn-an-Najjar. and an ally of the Ansar.AL-YAMAMAH I39 meaning sacks). ibn-Kharashah ibn-Laudhan as-Sa'idi of al- Khazraj abu-Usaid Malik ibn-Rabi'ah as-Sa'idi (others say he died in al-Madinah. abu-'Akil ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Baihan al-Balawi. an ally of the Ansar. ibn-'Adi ibn-al-Jadd ibn-al-'Ajlan al-Balawi of the Kuda'ah. Thabit ibn-Kais ibn- Ma'n Shammas ibn-abi-Zuhair the khatib of the Prophet and who was of the banu-1-Harith ibn-al-Khazraj (whose surname was abu-Muhammad. . and whose proper name was 'Abd-al-'Uzza. The surname of Zaid was abu-'Abd-arRahman. abu-Dujanah Simak ibn-Aus . Malik ibn-Aus ibn-'Atik al-Ashhali . and according to others. 'Abbad : ibn-Bishr ibn-Waksh al-Ashhali of al-Aus. an ally of the banu-Jahjaba. but who was called 92 by the Prophet 'Abd-ar-Rahman the enemy of the idols Surakah ibn-Ka'b ibn-' Abd-al-'Uzza an-Najjari of alKhazraj 'Umarah ibn-Hazm ibn-Zaid ibn-Laudhan anNajjari (who is supposed by others to have died in the time of Mu'awiyah) Habib ibn-'Amr ibn-Mihsan an-Najjari . He died in Sanbil which lies in al-Ahwaz. . year 60) 'Abdallah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Ubai ibn-Malik (whose first name was al-Hubab but who was given by the Prophet his father's name. the following suffered martyrdom 'Abbad ibnal-Harith ibn-'Adi of the banu-Jahjaba of al-Aus. . and who at that time was the commander of the Ansar) abu-Hannah ibn-Ghuzaiyah ibn-'Amr one . Among the Ansar. 'Abdallah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kais. abu-Bishr. " " . Salit ibn-'Amr. His . a brother of Suhail . the proper name of abu-Maryam was Iyas ibn-Subaih and he was the first in the time of 'Umar to hold the position of kadi in al-Basrah. al-'Asi ibn-Tha'labah adDausi of al-Azd.

but cut off the hands and feet of Habib. daughter of Ka'b. the two men company 'Amr and [sent by the Prophet] came from 'Uman in the of 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. with the excepwere captured. 312 seq. Musailimah drove them back. In the battle of al- company a number of wounds inflicted on her. vol. all those in his two who Yamamah. note 2. The minimum estimate mentioned is 700. Hajar. His father was Malik ibn-al-Harith of suffered the banu-1-Khazraj (others say he . part in the fight and returned with She is the mother of Habib and 'Abdallah. According to al-Wakidi.200. i.700. in the battle of Nusaibah. and was one of the two women who 03 " " swore allegiance in the day of al-'Akabah. vol. the sons of Zaid. 372.\ Ibn-Khallikan. the maximum 1.sham. pp.140 THE 0RIG1XS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE father played the hypocrite in religion. there is no agreement. 1 a brother of Zaid ibn-Thabit. while others assert that they were 1. . 1 p. The Prophet had sent Habib ibn-Zaid ibn-Asim of the banu-Mabdhul ibn-'Amr ibn-Ghanm ibn-Mazin ibn-anNajjar. The mother of Habib was martyrdom . 1 I Ii. She also took part in the battle of Uhud. the authority on " The Laws of Heritage. Juwatha at al-Bahrain) 'I'kbah ibn-'Amir ibn-Nabi' of the banu-Salimah of alKhazraj and al-Harith ibn-Ka'b ibn-'Amr of the banu-anNajjar. Wafayat al-A'yan. Musailimah did not molest 'Abdallah." J Regarding the number of those that fell as martyrs in al-Yamamah. pp. Nusaibah took tion of these escaped. 40 scq. He is the one called ibn-Ubai ibn-Salul. together with 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb al-Aslami to Musailimah. Other of the battle of al-Yamamah were 'A'idh ibn-Ma'is martyrs az-Zuraki of al-Khazraj and Yazid ibn-Thabit al-Khazraji. ii. Salul being the mother of Ubai and of [the clan of] Khuza'ah. and he bears her name.

AL-YAMAMAH 14I AlMujjaah is assigned al-Ghiirah and other fiefs." The Hadikah was called Yamami from certain sheikhs Hadikat al-Maut [the park of death] because of the great number of people that were slain in it. a f reedman of Kais. e. . who as" the name of which.. vol." (Al-Ghurah is the chief village of alGhurabat and is close to Karat). one of the intermediary reporters of this tra- dition." Harith. In the time of alMa'mun. Ghurabah. emancipator] because of " p. After that he came to 'Uthman. Marasid. the Kasr al-Ward was named after al-Ward ibn-as-Samin ibn-'Ubaid alHanafi. built in it a cathedral mosque. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam Furdt ibn-Haiydn gets a fief. the merciful. indicat- 94 Bakri. to the : by Muhammad. the Messenger of Allah. Muhammad ibn-Thumal alThe ''park of death. The Prophet assigned to Furat ibnfrom 'Adi ibn-Hatim Haiyan al-Tjli a piece of land in al-Yamamah. and al-Hubal. I give thee as fief alGhurah. reis written 1 fer him to me. him ar-Raiya. Mujja'ah came to abu-Bakr. According to another. ii. the fortification was called to : — : — :: Mu'tik 1 [i. If any one objects. ' Yakut. According to Muhammad ibn-Thumal. Ishak ibn-abi-Khamisah." says alsigned to him another fief 2 " I do not remember. under Ward. The Hadikah before that time was known as Ubad. to Mujja'ah ibn-Murarah ibn-Sulmi. who assigned fief al-Khidrimah. 3 Ibn-Murrah-1-Hanafi. its strength. the compassionate. 703 : 'Awanah ". There came Kasim ibn-Sallam from Hisham ibn-Isma'il : — Prophet Mujja'ah-1-Yamami to whom the Prophet " In the name gave a fief and wrote the following statement This statement of Allah. who assigned him as Later he came to 'Umar. After the death of the Prophet.

607.142 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who takes refuge in it is ing thereby that he safe from his enemy. whose name was Sa'fuk. Ar-Raiya was a spring from which spring. . as well as al-Khuyaibah and al-Khidrimah. p. the as-Sa'fukah. Ar-Raiya got their drinking water. as-Sa'fukah being a crown-land thus called after one of the agents over it. 1 1 Bakri.

and that our property that fell into their hands should be returned to us . zakat. Some of shall observe prayer but not pay them." Allah gave orders to abu-Bakr to fight them." 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-'Ijli from ash-Sha'bi :— 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud said." In reference to that abu-Bakr said. Ar. 143 . 1 Yahya ibn-Adam. p. by Allah. vol. p. abu- Bakr was not liating plan. 657. and the evacuating war was 1 that they leave their homes. however. 1 I shall surely fight against them. By the consensus of opinion. it satisfied a humiliating plan or an evacuating war. by anything but one of two As for the humi: — was that they acknowledge that those of their number who were killed went to hell. 122. see an-Nasa'i." " If they refuse me a According to other reports he said. certain Arab tribes apostatized from Islam and withheld the sadakah. but appropriate for ourselves we the income of til Kura 'Arabiyah 2 and worship Allah un- the right course is revealed unto us. When abu-Bakr was proclaimed caliph.CHAPTER XIX The Apostasy of the Arabs in the Caliphate of ABU-BAKR AS-SlDDlK • • • Abu-Bakr threatens those who withhold sad akah. 335. " If they refuse " We me a one-year sadakah. Bakri. 'ikal. agreed not to fight on a female camel that had entered on its second year or a male camel that had entered on its third year. Then. ourselves in a state in which "After the death of the Prophet we found we would have perished had not Allah favored us with abu-Bakr. said. p. two-year sadakah. i. Sunan.

" Ibu-Bakr dispatches an army." Shuja' ibn-Mukhallad al-Fallas from 'A'ishah the "mother " The latter said. vol. and abu-Bakr sent Talhah ibn- Talhah fell upon 'Ubaidallah at-Taimi in their pursuit. " that we of us who were slain and consider those of you who were slain to be in hell-fire. iii 1870: 1 . father did not cause to disappear as something without which Islam could do [ ?].I44 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The delegation of Buzakhah. the Moslems were Kharijah ibn-Hisn ibn-Hudhaifah ibnBadr al-Fazari 8 and Manzur ibn-Zabban ibn-Saiyar aldirect the armies Fazari of the banu-l-'Ushara'. It is. "After the death of the of the Believers : — Prophet.Muhammad 95 ' ' deprive you of the coats of mail and horses. had befallen them. " The evacuating war we have known this they replied." • Ibn-Sa'd. what is then the humiliating peace?' ' ' —A Ibrahim ibn. The fight raged fiercely but the poly" theists were put to flight. 37. them at the lower part of Thanaya 'Ausajah where he killed 1 Abu-Bakr. and keep the booty we took from you. what befell firm mountains if it my father * would have softened the Madinah exalted faith. " i. 2 p. dhu-1-Kassah. who were joined with the " tribe of Ghatafan. Tabari. . which my By itself. He was Those who went against accompanied by the Moslems. Hypocrisy in aland the Arabs apostatized from their Allah." what it is. not a point they disagreed upon. Abu-Bakr set out to alKassah 2 in the land which belongs to Muharib in order to marching against the apostates. and that ye return the booty ye took from us. fr'-m Tarik ibn-Shihab: delegation from Buzakhah came to abu-Bakr and he gave them their choice between To "the evacuating war" or "the humiliating peace". p. pay blood wit for those said abu-Bakr. vol.

and he could not catch up with them. Regarding this event Tulaihah sang " : 96 As I saw their faces I thought of my brother Hibal and was sure that I was going to avenge his death. . he set Khalid ibn-alWalid ibn-al-Mughirah al-Makhzumi in command over the 1 and sent over the Ansdr Thabit ibn-Kais ibnpeople. al-Asadi. This made Kharijah ibn-Hisn " repeat. Woe to the Arabs because of ibn-abi-Kuhafah [i. by composing saj' or rhyming prose. them and was slain by them.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS I4 q only one of them. an ally of the banu-'Abd-Shams. With Tulaihah at last in the fight met and a fierce was 'Uyainah ibn-Hisn ibn-Hudhaifah ibn-Badr at the head of 700 men of the banu-Fazarah. vol. and Goldziher. banu-Asad ibn-Khuzaimah." in his grave. 453. all the rest having fled away. 145. imitated i. p. e. Tulaihah with his brother. 3 1738. p. vol. Salamah. vol. p. Muhammedanische Studien. ii. Hisham. was subordinate to Khalid. abu-Bakr]. 2 He ii. Abu-Bakr ordered however. see Tabari. battle The Moslems and their enemy was fought. slew them both. sent before him 'Ukkashah ibn-Mihsan al-Asadi. Shammas al-Ansari. meeting 'Ukkashah and Thabit. Khalid to direct his course towards Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid who had claimed to be a prophet 2 and was then at This Buzakhah a spring belonging to the Khalid set out against him and is Buzakhah. Having heard the news. who was one of those that [later] suffered martyrdom in the battle of al-Yamamah." While abu-Bakr was at al-Kassah. When 'Uyainah saw the swords of the 1 Ya'kubi. together with Thabit ibn-Akram alHibal ibn-Khuwailid 3 met Balawi. Muhammad p. set out and. by the battlefield. Thabit. It was on the evening of that day that I left ibn-Akram together with 'Ukkashah al-Ghanmi. an ally of the Ansdr. 4001.

i. p. vol. 'Umar said conquest of al-Trak and Nihawand. Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid took to and entered a tent of his." cried 'Uyainah. " Didst thou kill I have been the means of he replied. Later. and a day that thou " 2 " " wilt never forget By Allah." Da'ud ibn-Hibal al-Asadi told certain me on the authority of sheikhs among Khattab said to Tulaihah. Thou didst lie before Allah when thou didst claim that he revealed to thee the text. vol. then to al-Madinah professing Islam." Saying this. 1898. . 1807. Kutaibah. he came to Syria. p. have a grinding stone as he has. he distinguished himself in the One day. captive to him. this Tulaihah's left is a false prophet. I believe that thou wilt have a day which thou wilt never forget. and ibn- * Tabari. 90. 224. Kitab al-Ma'drif. ii. 'Uyainah ibn-Hisn was taken and brought to al-Madinah." he came to Tulaihah thou not see what the army of abu-1-Fasil * Canst ' Moslems butchering the asking. was taken hold of by those of the Moslems who were on a campaign. p. p.I4 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " polytheists. Then he rode on his horse. wilt !' O banu-Fazarah. and came to Makkah. where he became Moslem. vol. see Nawawi. Allah has nothing to do with the dust on your faces and ' his people " that 'Umar ibn-al- 97 Khalid's surname was abu-Sulaiman. The army Moslems were victorious. and did not Gabriel bring thee any message?" " " Gabriel came to me and said Thou said Tulaihah. According to others. intending to visit the sacred places. and sent to abu-Bakr in al-Madinah. 3 Cf. Tabari. about the welfare of 'Ukkashah ibn-Mihsan and bringing I he has been the means of bringing about 8 my misery. 1 p. where he took a bath and flight went out. Abu-Bakr spared his life and set him free. beg Allah's pardon upon me. ibn-Mihsan?" And the faithful servant 'Ukkashah " . i. is " " Yes doing. Athir. he which was soon after defeated. 264.

Khalid ibn-alWalid sent Hisham ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Wa'il as-Sahmi. and he corroborated the statement. was taken by Hisham ibn-al-'Asi to Khalid. Kurrah's life spared. Consequently. i." 'Umar remained 2 silent. having refused to pay sadakah and reinforced Tulaihah. 1 ^y ye therefore mention Allah. practised the call to prayer. 815 . p. 412. 731. They refrained from fighting him and swore allegiance before him to abu-Bakr.' Commander ' When " this is one of the ". no. Yakut. replied Tulaihah. a brother of 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. vol. . to the banu-'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah. . p." 'Amr was questioned by abu-Bakr regarding that. to be scolded for holding a of the Believers ' part of it. 63. I am not. vol. took Kurrah captive and sent him to abu-Bakr. The battle of al-Ghamr Then Khalid ibn-al-Walid ad. and p. Kurrah ibn-Hubairah-1-Kushairi. p. As my 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi on his way back from 'Uman passed by me. Khdlid in came to Ramman and Abdnain. Bakri. against B ami-'Amir ibn-Sasaah embrace Islam. ii. Khalid ibn-al-Walid Ramman and Abanain where the remnant of the 3 Buzakhah stood. The latter carried I him to abu-Bakr to whom Kurrah " said. verily. no.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS the ugliness of your hinder parts. be abstemious and stand upright. I treated him hospitably and was loyal to him. or vol. for. therefore. 63. Banu-'Amir did not resist him and professed Islam and So he left them. . p. " * " froth is on the surface of what is pure. Abanan Yakut. of unbelief which has altogether been destroyed corruptions by Islam. abu-Bakr spared never forsook faith since I Kurrah's life. 174. Prov. Others assert that Khalid advanced to the land of the banu-'Amir. 80. By Allah became a believer.. one of the early Moslems and one of the army of Emigrants to Abyssinia. * 3 i. p. 75 Bakri. 1 Freytag.

he " said. p. 'Umar asked him. and each party leader drawn from its own ranks. Yakut. 1007. With re- had its own ference to the battle of al-Ghamr says al-Hutai'ah-l-'Absi " in : Yea. so he begged for some. . According to others. note 1. may all short and humble lances be sacrificed. When abuthat Allah shall not sheathe a sword had unsheathed against the unbelievers. he lashed him with the whip. has blotted 1 all this Skizsen.' out. * * Cf. They fought Khalid and the Moslems. vi. 161. "Art thou not the one who said Sulami whose mother was al-Khansa'. and one of the Moslems fell a martyr. By Allah's " " at last. vol. " Commander " Islam. " 2 favor of the horsemen's lances at al-Ghamr ! Khalid meets abu-Shajarah. line 12. p. Bakr was told about it. p. they had on different days different leaders. and I hope after this that my life will be prolonged'?" 4 1 Saying * this.I4 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 vanced to al-Ghamr where a band of the banu-Asad. There Jau Kurakir. I ' : : I quenched my lance's thirst on Khalid' s troops. Tabari. the were dispersed. p. p.' AbuIslam. with the result that some against of them were killed and the others took to flight. Bakri. 718. i. and help polytheists' troops Khalid had on that day the apostates burned. " O replied abu-Shajarah. of the Believers. vol. a crowd was gathered by the banu-Sulaim and put under the leadership of abu-Shajarah 'Amr ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza as- 98 They fought against Khalid. vol. lines 12-13. Thence Khalid moved to 3 Others say he moved to an-Nukrah. Ghatafan and others had gathered under the leadership of Kharijah ibn-Hisn ibn-Hudhaifah." n. 1 and ii. and coming to 'Umar found him Shajarah accepted distributing alms among the poor. 606.

This. Tabari. whose proper name was Bujair ibn-Iyas " Give me horse ibn-'Abdallah as-Sulami." and arms that Bakr gave him horse and arms. but he sent detachments among the banu-Tamim. i. . 2 i. iii. ibn-Hajizah did and captured him. 1325). (Cairo. ordering him to go against him. abu-1-Fida. and al-Ba'udah. Keep your was in his keeping and own money. Khalid set x out against those of the banu-Tamim who were in al-Butah and al-Ba'udah. and Ma'n directed against him his brother. vol. Dirar took Malik and captive.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS Al-Fuja'ah put i^g There came to abu-Bakr to death by fire. Khdlid in al-Butah who Later. 3 In accordance with Khalid's orders. 1924. gathered Turaifah ibn-Hajizah." Malik beheaded. one of which was under Dirar ibn-al-Azwar al-Asadi. 661. Acresult of the conflict some others 1 Yakut. This Malik was the Prophet's 'amil for the sadakahs of the banu-Hanzalah. vol. 158. Hajar. AbuI may fight against the apostates. p. captured him. their heads were cut off. and said to him. al-Fuja'ah. Turaifah. who ordered him burned in the neighborhood of al-Musalla [place one. Abu-Bakr wrote to over. vol. Al-Fuja'ah began to molest the people. He then sent him to abu-Bakr. When the Prophet died Malik held whatever " said to banu-Hanzalah. morea large body of men. as a which ensued. Dirar met Malik and. He. al-Mukhtasar. 3 Cf. i. p. vol. 722. and brought them before Khalid. a brother of Ma'n ibn-Hajizah. Khalid in either al-Butah or al-Ba'udah. They fought against him. of prayer] . met nobody According to other reports. but he dis2 killing Malik ibn-Nuwairah. Others say that abu-Bakr wrote to Ma'n con- cerning al-Fuja'ah. p. a brother of persed them Mutammam ibn-Nuwairah. p. Dirar with his own hand cutting off that of Malik. killing both Moslems and apostates.

camel. carry thee?" " until over him for one year. pp. * Aghani. had my brother met the same death that thy brother has met. " Mutammam. Malik said to Khalid. I would " It is not a have written an elegy on my brother. "I wept my sound fire kill eye envied the one that had gone." the elegy in which he said : And Mutammam repeated " For a long time we were boon companions ers of like the " !' two fellow-drink- Jadhimah. because he always left his fire burning till the morning. " 99 Thou hast sent a man who to kills Moslems and tortures by fire!" It is reported that Mutammam who ibn-Nuwairah once came " 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab asked him." said Mutammam. lest a guest should come and fail to locate his place. Zaid. Ibn-Khallikan. They will never be separated 2 good poetry remarked 'Umar. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab said to abu-Bakr. while he would be between two water bags exuding water in the chilly night. And abu-Katadah-1-Ansari Allah. His face was a fragment of a " moon. wrapped up in a loose garment. and never did I see without feeling as if my grief was strong enough to me. vol. 'Umar then asked " and armed with a long lance." Commander of the Believers ". Thus would he go through the night until the morn. pp. I would not have mourned over him." If I could write ' ' " " " 1 Cf.15° THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ' By cording to certain reports. xiv." * " Sing me." said 'Umar. 70-71." for a description of him. answered parallel case. De Slane. ' that people said. vol. Malik. How far did thy sorrow over they brother. iii. . 651-652. and Muttamam He used to ride a restive steed and lead a slow-paced said. some of what thou hast composed regarding him. I did not apostatize!" gave witness that the banu-Hanzalah had laid down their arms and made the public call to prayer. Hearing this.

1 Ibn-Kutaibah. 137. Hammad an-Narsi heard it said by certain sheikhs of alBasrah that Samurah ibn-Jundab al-Fazari led her funeral service as he was the governor of al-Basrah under Mu'awiyah before the arrival of 'Abdallah ibn-Ziyad from Khurasan to assume the office of governor of al-Basrah. they being the only ones who fought 4 She then came to Musailimah-1-Kadhdhab against her. see Skissen. p. 130. i. vol. Goldziher. Tamim and some : of her uncles on her mother's side of the banu-Taghlib. Zaidan. Duraid. 16-18. 107-108. Umm-Sadir Sajah. p. p. she returned 100 According to ibn-alIslam and emigrated to Kalbi. xii. p. tribes of Tai. 1 as well as thou didst. vol. Ibn-al-Kalbi added that the muezzin of Sajah was al6 ibn-Tarik ibn-'Amr ibn-Haut ar-Riyahi. p. 4 5 Skizsen. abu-1-Fida. Frazer. The confederate Aghdni. however. iii. and Janabah 7 others say it was Shabath ibn-Rib'i ar-Riyahi. daughter of al-Harith ibn-'Ukfan ibnSuwaid ibn-Khalid ibn-Usamah). [the false Prophet] at religion one with his. 1325)7 6 Dhahabi. daughter of Aus ibn-Hikk ibn-Usamah ibn-al-Ghaniz ibn-Yarbu' ibn- Hanzalah ibn-Malik ibn-Zaid Manat ibn-Tamim (others say she was Sajah. vol. i. Mushtabih. 157. pp. 157 (Cairo. pp. vol. i. 14. claimed to be a prophetess 2 She was followed by some of the banuand a soothsayer." Sajah the Prophetess. 230. 5 Hajar and married him. vi. making her When he was killed. ." She invaded them but was defeated by them. 141. pp. vol. Golden Bough. Sajah accepted 'Abd-al-A'la ibnal-Basrah and remained a good Moslem. kahin. iii. J. p. p. vol. vol." said 'Umar.THE APOSTASY OF THE ARABS " 151 " Nobody did ever console me. 193-194. Abhandlungen zur Arabischen Philologie. One day " The Lord sentences against ar-Ribab 3 she composed the following rhyming of heavens orders you to carry out invasions. Kitab ash-Shi'r. to her brethren and there she died. 'Adi and 'Ukl. 8 3 G. Ar.

Khaulan in al-Yaman having apostatized. an ally of thebanu-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf) who won a great victory over them and carried away booty and captives. 'Umar sent against them Ya'la ibn-Munyah (Munyah. .152 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The insurrection of Khaulan. met no resistance. was of the banu-Mazin ibn-Mansur ibn-'Ikrimah ibn-Khasafah ibn-Kais ibn-'Ailan ibn-Mudar. one of the sons of Malik ibn-Hanzalah ibn-Aialik. and his father was Umaiyah ibn-abi-'Ubaidah. According to others. his mother. and all of them returned to however. he Islam.

and took young she-camels as sadakah from a certain man of the banu-Kindah. Labid was approached by al-Ash'ath " Never will I return a ibn-Kais.CHAPTER XX The Apostasy of the banu-Wali'ah and al-Ash'ath ibn-Ma'dikarib ibn-Mu'awiyah-l-Kindi the insurrection of The cause of Hadramaut." This caused an uprising of all Kindah against him with the exception of as-Sakun who still adhered to his side. but still he refused saying. thing that has been branded with the mark. at the head of the Moslems. Labid refused his request. Mishrah. among whom were Mikhwas. The Prophet sent Ziyad ibn-Labid al-Bayacli of the later Ansar extending his power According to others. it was abu-Bakr as-Siddik who extended his power over the Kindah. and the piety of Allah was our best provision. attacked them during the night time and killed many. Jamad and Abda'ah the sons of Ma'dikarib ibn-Wali'ah ibn-Shurahbil ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-Hujr iS3 . but having marked them with the sadakah brand. Kindah man asked him to return them and take something else. The as governor to over the Kindah. Kindah. Against Labid were assembled the banu-'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Harith al-Kindi. Labid. the right claim of al-Bayadi we sought not to deviate. when our people miserably went astray and we supported ibn-umm- IOI Ziyad." From Banu-'Amr gathered against Labid. This Ziyad ibn-Labid was a resolute and sturdy man. Hence the verse of their poet " : It was we that came to the rescue of the faith.

. Tabari. p. vol. siege was pressed The an-Nujair. al-'Amarradah. Tabari. and set cry upon Ziyad and his companions. made a fearful slaughter among them. and all the great men of Kindah rallied out with a band of his men. 2005. Ziyad Abu-Bakr for reinforcement. and attacking his companions. his people. until they were exhausted and al-Ash'ath He did not sought safety for a certain number of his men. 5 Jafshish in Fairuzabadi. Cf. The Moslems were then defeated. ordering him to reinforce Ziyad. ii. vol. p. Ziyad fights against al-Ash'ath. 2 Ya'kubi. vol." Previous to this. vol. the women and children began to x which made al-Ash'ath burn with indignation. Thence al-Ash'ath's men took refuge in a fortification of theirs. that they were called the had presented themselves before the Prophet. p. was by one who mistook her for a man. * p. 1 Al-Ash'ath presented himself before Ziyad ibni. 4 Thus al-Ash'ath excluded himself in favor of alber. i. Seeing him. 276. Ziyad and al-Muhajir." Jifshish. Their sister. 149. whose name was Ma'dan ibn-al-Aswad ibn-Ma'dikarib. but later they on they apostatized. killed As Ziyad returned with he passed by al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais and captives and booty. These four brothers were in possession of so many valleys " four kings. fell 2 He to the support of al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais. 2009. and many Moslems were lost. " Include me in that numholding him by the waist. 3 include himself in that number because al-Jifshish al-Kindi. ii. met al-Ash'ath and dispelled his men. Seeing this. al-KCimus. at the head of the Moslems. where the Moslems besieged them. said. wrote to abu-Bakr asking wrote to al-Muhajir ibn-abi-Umaiyah.i.4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE (Karid in al-Karid their dialect means horse) ibn-al- Harith al-Walladah ibn-'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Harith.

Kuraibah. The insurrection of the banu-W all ah and al-Ash'ath. after his departure from 'Uman. he cut its two heel-tendons. Ziyad fell upon them in the night time and killed them. After living in al-Madinah. Hubabah and Ja'dah. who later gave birth to Muhammad. i. Abu-Bakr sent Tkrimah ibn-abi-Jahl. Al-Ash'ath apostatized and fortified himself in an-Nujair where he was besieged by Ziyad ibn-Labid and al-Muhajir who joined hands against him. Ishak. . after was conducted by al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibnreconciled with latter had been This al-Ash'ath was surnamed abu-MuhamMu'awiyah. abu-Bakr wrote ordering that their hands and feet be cut off. the Jewess. According to others. abu-Bakr gave him in mar- umm-Farwah. Ath-Thabja and Hind severely punished. death. It is reported an-Nujair having rejoiced at the death of the Prophet. 1 Cf.Wali'ah apostatized before When Ziyad ibn-Labid heard of his the Prophet's death. which they did. 2012. vol. he came to the market. to eat. Among these women were aththat certain at women Thabja' al-Hadramiyah. an-Nujair was already reduced. the banu. Abu-Bakr requested the Moslems to share the booty with him. Syria and abi-Talib. and every slaughtered camel he saw. 102 riage his sister Kuraibah and when he married her. he set out on a razzia to His death took place at al-Kufah where al-'Irak.Wall 'ah. but on his arrival. which they all did vith the exception of the banu. paid its price and gave it to the people . he called the people to swear allegiance to abu-Bakr. The favored him by giving to him in marriage his sister 1 daughter of abu-Kuhafah. Tabari. to reinforce them. Achis funeral service the cording to other reports. " mad and nicknamed " 'Urf an-Nar [the fire-crest]. daughter of Yamin.THE APOSTASY OF THE BANU-WALVAH Labid and al-Muhajir latter 155 who sent him to abu-Bakr. and Hind. p.

and that they should get the help of the Believers against the Unbelievers and of the obedient against the disobedient and transgressors. 595-506." Sadif. 1 Khallikin. The Prophet assigns governors to Saria Kindah. He asked them to Al-Muhajir allowed it. Murratti' said. he assigned al-Muhajir ibn-abi-Umaiyah over Hadramaut and : — . change it for another. that he was told by certain sheikhs The 'Abd-ar-Razzak said from al-Yaman that 103 abu-Bakr wrote to Ziyad ibn-Labid and to al-Muhajir ibnabi-Umaiyah-1-Makhzumi who was then over Kindah. a decided that Murratti' should send her back to her people. " Malik turned away [Ar. Hence the name as- insurrection of the banu-'Amr. Malik. . vol. HadraBakr ibn-al-Haitham from certain maut and as-Sadif. 1 They were called Sadif because Muratti' married woman from Hadramaut and made it a condition that she would take up her abode with him.-sadafa] from me. Ziyad ibn-Labid al-Ansari. ordering them to come together and work hand in hand and with one accord in order to secure for him the caliphate and fight against him who refrains from paying sadakah. but he was driven out of it by al-'Ansi. iv. and the judge people's home. descendants of Malik ibn-Muratti' ibn-Mu'awiyah ibnKindah. pp. the banu-'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah gathered a large body of men.I5 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE . but Ziyad " insisted on keeping the camel saying. the false Prophet. and in case she bore a child he would not force her to remain away from her She did bear a child. As-Sadif were the as-Sadif. Once they took as sadakah from a Kindah man a youthful she-camel. Never will I return it after being stamped with the sadakah brand. The Prophet made Khalid ibnsheikhs of al-Yaman Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi governor of San'a'. When Malik left him with her. Over the Kindah." Therefore.

At last Ziyad and al-Muhajir met accompanied by the captives and prisoners. Kindis fortified themselves in an-Nujair. The apostasy of Khauldn. treme limit of al-Hijaz and the extreme limit of Najran was assigned to abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb. Al-Ash'ath secured safety for 70 of He was therefore include himself among them. He went against the banu'Amr and. The story of al-Ash'ath. under the cover of the night." Ziyad was resolute and sturdy. The land between the exgive sadakah.THE APOSTASY OF THE BANU-WAWAH Then " ^7 this Thou dost see said Ziyad ibn-Labid to al-Muhajir. Now Khaulan apostatized. At last the Some and greatly damaged and al-Ash'ath surrendered. to- gether with some of the Kindah tribe. p. where the siege was pressed against them until they were exhausted ing men of Kindah. and abu-Bakr directed against them Ya'la ibn-Munyah who fought against them until they yielded and agreed to Then al-Muhajir received abu-Bakr's letter conferring on him the governorship of San'a and its adjoining districts. fell upon them and some of them began to kill the others. vol. " We shall cer- Caetani. Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from Ibrahim an-Nakha'i : — Al-Ash'ath who ibn-Kais al-Kindi. I will attack these ' unbelievers ' in their homes at night. ii. thyself with a band of men main army. did not 104 brought before abu-Bakr 1 said to him. . They were intercepted by al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais and the lead- who fought a fierce battle against them. Kindah say that the Hadramaut had come to reinforce the but were met by Ziyad and al-Muhajir who defeated them. It is not wise to have us all leave our position. Then crowd. therefore. making his province border on what Ziyad 1 Thus was al-Yaman divided among three: already held. Ziyad and Ya'la. al-Muhajir. 804. apostatized and were his men but besieged. from the Separate. and that will keep our plans concealed.

line 14. ii. 155-156. successor of the Messenger of Allah. who was one of the delegates to the Prophet and who " later apostatized. . After paying the ransom of the captives. iv. There is no wonder except when they divide their captives.I5 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE tainly kill thee. and the world after them is not safe for me. in the battle of — an-Nujair : Yazid ibn-Amanat and those slain life and life is not an insignificant thing to me had the greatest right to hold tenaciously to those who fell dead. By my I — — Let the tears of my eyes. al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais : — had to borrow from the merchants of al-Madinah. vol." answered al" Thou. therefore. giving him his own sister in Three things abu-Bakr wished he had done. 184-185." The captives of an-Nujair ransomed. 1 am like the camel that lost her young and her milk flows. when she longs for them and comes to the bag. stuffed with straw." Bakri. he returned the loan. . 'Abdallah ibn- " — : I I . Al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais wrote the following elegy for Bashir ibn-al-Audah. 1 1 pp. 747. Ya'kiibi. Salih al-Tjli from ash-Sha'bi Abu-Bakr returned the of an-Nujair by ransom receiving 400 dirhams for captives each head. vol. and thus would have extended both my 2 right and left arms in the cause of Allah. Al-Kasim 1 from abu-Bakr as-Siddik The ibn-Sallam abu-'Ubaid : — latter said. flow for the loss of the noble ibn-Amanat and the generous Bashir. because it seemed to me there was no sort of evil to be done which he would not attempt to do or help to bring about I wish I had killed rather than burnt al-Fuja'ah when he was brought before me and I wish I had directed 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab to al-Trak as I had directed Khalid to Syria. In order to pay for them. rather favor me with a wife. Mas'udi. wilt Ash'ath. as thou art under no safe conduct. p." Nay. having " excluded thyself from that group. This abu-Bakr did. pp. I wish I had done three things that I did not do had cut off the head of al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais when wish he was brought before me." marriage.

173. p. Al-Aswad took for himself the name of 2 " Rahman taken Musailimah had [the merciful of] al-Yaman.CHAPTER XXI Al-Aswad al-'Ansi and those in al-Yaman who apostatized with him Al-Aswad ibn-Ka'b al-'Ansi claims to be a p rophet. who was the ibn-'Arib x ibn-Zaid ibn-Kahlan ibnibn-Malik. 2 Hishani. his proper name being veil 'Aihalah. 105 He was followed by kdhin] and claimed to be a prophet. 276-277. together with others outside the 'Ans tribe. In the year in which the Prophet died. 159 . Register. al-Aswad was called "dhu-1-Himar 3 [he of the donkey]. pp." He had Bow always appeared with a and turban. Diyarbakri. 3 4 Mas'udi." as " the name of Rahman al- would bow on before thy Lord. at-Tanbih. Al-Aswad ibn-'Auf al-'Ansi played the soothsayer [Ar. 86. Others say he was called " dhu-1-Khimar " [the veiled one] because he hearing his injunction. 4 I was told by others from al-Yaman that he was called al-Aswad because the color of his face was black." and that would kneel on hearing " Kneel ". p. Therefore. the 'Ans tribe which was named after Zaid ibn-Malik ibnUdad ibn-Yashjub Saba. Khalid brother of Murad ibn-Malik and Sa'd al-'Ashirah ibn-Malik. line 3. p. 200. The Prophet inv ites him to Islam. a trained donkey that " Yamamah. ii. 1 who Wiistenfeld. he sent Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. vol.

he married al-Marzuthings against their will. same year accepted Islam. was haughty and he oppressed al-Abna'. When the work of Ziyad and al-Aswad was done. then " He " Barvviz in Caetani. p. driving Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibnOthers say he rather drove al-Muhajir ibnal-'Asi from it. than the news of the death of the Prophet reached them.!6o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE in that had viting deny that the Prophet sent Jarir to al-Yaman. the descendants of the Persians who were originally sent to al-Yaman by Kisra in the company Alof ibn-dhi-Yazan and under the leadership of Wahriz. abuBakr conferred on the latter the governorship of San'a' and its provinces. Kais entered San'a' with a group of 106 men including among others men of [the clan of] Madhhij and some from Hamdan. e. who was their governor under Abarwiz. Al-Aswad. the wife of Badham their king. however. But al-Aswad refused. Aswad made them serve him and compelled them to do Moreover. and took quarters with Ziyad ibn-Labid alBayadi. Kais left on al-Aswad the impression that he concorded with his opinion. abi-Umaiyah. of al-Abna'. who had accepted Islam. i. No sooner had they arrived at alYaman. vol.. 400. With al-Makshuh. . banah. Fairuz Kais and Fairuz then brought the chief of al-Abna' (whose 1 won over to his side one ibn-ad-Dailami. 1 This made the Prophet direct al-Muradi against him Kais ibn-Hubairah-1-Makshuh (called al-Makshuh because he was cauterized on his side on account of a disease) instructing him to win over to his side al-Abna'. iv. and so he got his consent to enter San'a'. against al-Aswad. the Prophet sent Farwah ibnMusaik al-Muradi. Other reports Al-Aswad as governor of San'a'. Al-Aswad moved against San'a' and reduced it. inhim to Islam. Accordingly. with whom he remained until he received a message from abu-Bakr ordering him to go to the aid of Ziyad.

vol. i. . 1 Certain scholars assert that " Dadhuwaih i. Al-Aswad slain. p. vol. " is upon him. Nawawi. and. Dadhawaih accepted Islam. vol." answered his wife. They 3 through the wall of his house. early in the morning. vol. 173. pointed Through this Some say they dug a hole they entered before daybreak. climbed the city wall and shouted. however. Kais severed his head. 232. is the enemy of Allah !" is gathered. and she out a gutter leading to his place. "Bab ibn-dhi-1-Jirrah". Kais cast the head to them and they dispersed with the exception of a few. so much so that his guard " scared by the noise asked. ii. " in p. At this the men of Kais opened the door and put the rest of the followers of al-'Ansi to the sword. "Allah is great! I Allah is great! that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad testify the Prophet of Allah. Kais only giving the last stroke and severing his head. and that al-Aswad. p.AL-ASWAD AL-'ANSI name according to ifa some was Badham. Tabari. and none escaped except those who accepted Islam. 345: p. 2 3 Hajar. vol. 1 The latter view is more authentic). 155. Diyarbakri. the false ProAs the followers of al-Aswad phet. p. Fida. Caetani. 683. it was Fairuz ibnad-Dailami who killed al-Aswad. i. and found him sleeping under the influence of drink. and according to others. plotted with his wife who hated him. Badham was dead by this time and his successor was one Dadhawaih. Many missionaries were sent by Dadhawaih among al-Abna' who accepted Islam and conspired to take al-Aswad unawares and slay him. What is the matter with Rahman al-Yaman?' "The inspiration." Thus they were quieted. through a crack. Kais met That ibn-dhi-1-Hirrah 2 -l- Himyari and won him over to his side. Kais slew him and he began to bellow like a bull. 1865. According to some reports. p. ii.

who directed him to Syria with those of the Moslems summoned for the invasion of the Greeks. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from an-Nu'man ibn-Burzuj. instructing him to When Kais was brought before bring Kais before him. ii. When who killed al-Aswad was Fairuz ibn-ad-Dailami. and abu-Bakr received the information that he was intent on expelling al-Abna' Abu-Bakr's anger was thereby aroused. ar-Rum = the East Romans. both Kais and Fairuz at al-Madinah claimed having killed " It was this lion who him. 'Umar pointed to Fairuz saying. one The Prophet's 'dmil. and he wrote to al-Muhajir ibn-abi-Umaiyah at from San'a'. abu-Bakr. 1 killed him!" .1&2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the death of Kais took place five days before the expiration of the Prophet. 1 2 2 Mirkhondi. p. Ar. the Byzantines. . who on his death-bed said: "Allah has brought about the death of al-Aswad al-'Ansi through the righteous man Fairuz ibn-ad-Dailami." and that the news of the conquest came to abu-Bakr ten days after 107 he had been proclaimed caliph. Raudat as-Safa. vol. and was consequently set free by abu-Bakr. Kais was Kais suspected of the mur der of Dadhawaih charged with having killed Dadhawaih. he was requested by him to swear fifty oaths near This the Prophet's pulpit that he did not kill Dadhawaih. he did. his entry to San'a' as abu-Bakr's 'dmil. 679. was Aban ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi and the one : — . whom al-Aswad drove of al-Abna' out of San'a'.



Shurahbil ibnHasanah. vol. 149. Abu-Bakr gave three banners 2 [appointed them commanders] namely : Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. hastened to abu-Bakr and flocked to al-Madinah. 165 ." done with the case of those who apostatized. i. an ally of the banu-Jumah and 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Wa'il as-Sahmi. according to al-Wakidi. vol. al-Ghauth ibn-Murr ibn-Udd 3 ibn-Tabikhah.CHAPTER The Conquest The " I of Syria When abu-Bakr was tying of the three banners. including those actuated by greed as well as those actuated by the hope of divine remuneration. Tabari. ) The tying of these banners took place on of Safar. mother and a freedmaid of Ma'mar ibn-Habib ibn-Wahb ibn-Hudhafah ibn-Jumah. Accordingly. pp. But according to alShurahbil was the son of Rabi'ah ibn-al-Muta' descended from Sufah. and all the " " Arabs in Najd and al-Hijaz calling them for a holy war and arousing their desire in it and in the obtainable booty from the Greeks.. Hasanah being his Kalbi. Abu1 Cf. was the son of 'Abdallah ibn-al-Muta' al-Kindi. 135-136. al-Yaman. year 13. i. p. he saw fit * to direct his troops against Syria. e. vol. after the troops Thursday had camped at al-Jurf throughout the month of Muharram first 108 the with abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah leading their prayers. p. Ya'kubi. at-Ta'if. 2079. people. 2 ' Zaidan. to three men from all quarters. To this effect he wrote to the people of Makkah. ii. (Shurahbil. i.

Abu-'Ubaidah commander-in-chief Abu-Mikhnaf states " If ye altogether are that 'Umar said to the commanders. T352-I353» Skizzcn. Khalid Bakr handed it to 3 went with the army of muneration. when 'Umar became ernorship of all caliph. Khalid ibn-Sa'id by abu-Bakr to the leadership displeased 'Umar who approached abu-Bakr with a view to dismissing Abu-Bakr him. but that report is not confirmed. with his brother Mu'awiyah carrying the banner before him. Hajar. Others claim that he did give one The fact is that to him. pp. ii. vi. vol. vol. 149. he conferred on him the gov." dismissed Khalid and directed abucordingly abu-Bakr Arwa ad-Dausi to take the banner from his hand. p. vol. pp." only as a 'reinforcement for the Moslems and commanded only those who joined him. charging him with being tries to " a vain-seeking man who 2 Acway through dispute and bigotry.!66 the origins of the islamic state to give a Bakr wanted banner to abu-'Ubaidah but the . * As a volunteer. 4 Shurahbil for the divine re- Abu-B akr Bakr instructed 'Amr 1 Abugives instructions to the commanders. iii. ibn-al-'Asi to follow the way of Ailah p. 62. vol. otherwise Yazid ibnx Others assert that 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi acted abi-Sufyan. latter begged to be relieved. note 5. Others say that the banner was delivered to Yazid at dhu-1-Marwah whence he started at the head of Khalid's army. Syria. p. 1 . iv. Abu-Isma'il al-Basri. Yaktibi. AbuArwa met him at dhu-1-Marwah where he received the banner from him and carried it back to abu-Bakr. to lead a fight. s Mas'udi. . The assignment of replaces Khalid by Arwa. 186-187. Abu- make his Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan who left. Futfth ash-Shav:. your commander will be abu-'Ubaidah 'Amir ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Jarrah al-Fihri.

i. and to have each commander lead the prayer of his own army 109 the when the armies are separate. Tabari. and some say ad-Dathin " .500. thereupon. one of the Moslems and the enemy 1 Ar. cf. p." tions to lead the prayers in case the armies are united. Bakr. iii. Yakut. the wide exAbutent of their land and the enthusiasm of their troops. pp. too. 2 a description of these provinces see al-Ya'kubi 325 seq. the way of Tabuk. The first conflict between the The battle of Ddthin. Abu-Bakr 'Asi sent a directs K halid his arrival in the first On ibn-al-Walid to Syria. he wrote to follow At the outset each one of the com- Bakr assigned 'Amr to Palestine. Philastin. It is reported on the authority of al-Wakidi that abu- Yazid he instructed to folTo Shurahbil. 2108: " ad-Dathinah. " and Yazid to Damascus saying. For Kitdb al-Buldan. vol. your commander is the one in whose province ye are fightIt is also reported that to 'Amr he gave oral instrucing.000. p. their great armament. low the way of Tabuk. vol. Shurahbil to the Jordan. . district of Palestine. 1138-1139. When ye all fight together. manders had three thousand men under his leadership. 913. ii. the commanders would choose him as their chief for his valor — — and strategy and the auspiciousness of his counsel. manders to see that each tribe Abu-Bakr ordered flies com- a banner of its own. but whenever the Moslems met for a battle. Khalid only commanded his men who accompanied him. vol. but abu-Bakr kept on sending reinforcements until each one had Later the total was increased to 24. According to others. 7. 2 took place in Dathin.. wrote to Khalid ibn-al-Walid ibn-al- Mughirah-1-Makhzumi who was at that time in al-'Irak directing him to go to Syria. Caetani. According to some. he thereby made him a commander over the commanders in the war. 'Amr ibn-al- message to abu-Bakr informing him of the great number of the enemy.THE CONQUEST OF SYRIA with Palestine x 167 for objective. p.

!68 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Ghazzah. which lay in Palestine. but hearing that a large host of Greeks were gathered in al-'Arabah. he directed against them abu-Umamah as-Sudai ibn-'Ajlan al-Bahili. leaders. them to the sword and went his way. falling upon them. la De Goeje. e. killing one of their Thence he pursued them to ad-Dubbiyah (i. communicated by abu-Haf s ashAccording Shami on the authority of certain sheikhs from Syria. Thence Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan went in quest of the partrician.Walid in Syria.000 men camped at al'Arabah when abu-Umamah with a body of Moslems advanced against them and defeated them. . put most of battle of al-'Arabah. Here the battle raged furiously. Memoxre sur la Conquete de Syrie. who. they pass without establishing their authority and taking to a tradition possession of 1 2 it without resistance. 31. ibn-al. The battle of al-'Arabah. 2 where he inflicted another defeat on them. ad-Dabiyah) and the Moslems carried off a large booty. which lay on the villages of way between 1 the Moslems and the residence of the patrician of Ghazzah. the first conflict of the Moslems was the Battle of al-'Arabah before which no fighting at all took place since they left In no place between al-Hijaz and al-'Arabah did al-Hijaz. " A leader of an army. p. from the Latin patricius". but at last Allah gave victory to his friends and defeat to his enemies whom he All this took place before the arrival of Khalid dispersed. Regarding this abu-Mikhnaf reports that six of the Greek leaders at the head of 3.

he passed (Accordthrough 'Ain at-Tamr and reduced it by force. seq. 10 1 vol. to others. Stud. Khalid crosses the desert to Suwa. They fought against him. tives he sent to abu-Bakr. 169 . year 13.) Khalid made his way to Sandauda' after From x 'Ain at-Tamr lived in which some of the Kindah and Iyad tribes and non-Arabs. p. he left in his place al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ashShaibani over the district of al-Kufah. Tabari. having learnt that a of the banu-Taghlib ibn-Wa'il at al-Mudaiyah and albody Husaid had apostatized and were led by Rabi'ah ibn-Bujair. 'A jam . descendants made his way to them. daughter of Habib ibn-Bujair. and [later] the mother of 'Umar ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. p. When Khalid ibn-al-Walid received abu-Bakr's letter at al- Hirah.CHAPTER The Advance II of Khalid ibn-al-Walid on Syria and iio the Places he reduced on his Way ( Khalid takes Ain at-Tamr and Sandaudd' by force. Then Khalid made an incursion on Kurakir which was a spring belonging to the ^•Basri. Khalid. still live in it. (Some give 600 and others 500 as the number of men. i.) On his way. p. and set out at the head of 800 men in Rabi' II. but he The capput them to flight and took captives and booty. 2109. Muh. 59: 3 Ar. 2 These him but Khalid won the victory and people fought against left in the city Sa'd ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram al-Ansari whose .. he received abu-Bakr's message in 'Ain ating Tamr having subdued it. see "Sandawa". and among them was umm- Habib as-Sahba'.

vol. As the Moslems killed him. Basri. 2 Tabari. 63 : Shuwa p. too. p. p. 46. It is 1 " Basri. claimed by others. succeeded in finding the way from Kurakir to Suwa. bakri. and thence crossed the desert also a spring held conjointly by the the Bahra'. So Khalid had to slay the camels one after the other and drink with his men the water from their bellies. p. and so Diyarii. his blood flowed into the basin from which he had been drinking. Diyarbakri. 2123: "He muzzled their mouths". though was exhausted on big. 3 4 p. 25. ." 3 is on. Caetani. p. When Khalid wanted to cross the desert. i. which he left for them to drag. 62 seq. and some report that his fell head. was saying : Hurkus Hurkus himself "Again give me our death may to drink before abu-Bakr's army be at hand while we are unaware. i. ii. p. ". the way. Cf. 4 however.I jo THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Suwa which was Kalb and some men of to 1 Kalb tribe. lest The quantity they should ruminate and get thirsty again. vol. of water he carried along. p. 2124. to the water from which the coward who attempts to reach turns before attaining it. Mcmoire. ii. Here Khalid killed Hurkus ibn-an-Nu'man al-Bahrani of the Kuda'ah tribe and swept off all their possessions. vol. Tabari. therein. vol. 257. he gave the camels all the water they could drink and then thrust into 2 the camels' lips spears. being before thee ever did that!" How I I I it re- No human When the Moslems arrived in Suwa they found and a band of men drinking and singing. 1196. that the one who sang this verse was one of those of the banuTaghlib whom Khalid had attacked with Rabi'ah ibn-Bujair. vol. the poet " Khalid had a guide named Ran' ibn-'Umair at-Ta'i meant when he said : whom who wonderful has Rifi' been.

Diimat al-Jandal. Arak) whose people he attacked and besieged. having Sanir and made a raid on its cattle. Jews and Sabians with whom a covenant has been made. offering a certain sum for the Moslems. e. Christians. whose people resisted him but were defeated. Tadmur's inhabitants held last out they sought to surrender and he wrote them a statement guaranteeing their safety on condition that they be considered against him and took to their fortifications. . Khalid from Suwa to al-Kawathil thence to Karkisiya whose chief met him with a large host. Huwarin reduced. 21. chap. 1 Basri. Arakah makes terms. Khalid wrote them a promise of security and advanced to Tadmur a [Palmyra]. The city surrendered and made terms. started Y yi According to al-Wakidi. 540-542. i. Guy Le Strange. 2 s Baladhuri. Khalid proceeded to Huwarin 5 in Its inhabitants. who pay a poll tax and for whose security Moslems are responsible. Yakut. XIII. Khalid left him alone. Tabari. 67. vol. Then he came to Kusam in which the banu-Mashja'ah ibn-at- Taim ibn-an-Namir ibn-Wabarah ibn-Taghlib ibn-Hulwan ibn-Tmran ibn-al-Hafi ibn-Kuda'ah came to terms with him. taken. i. Another place to which Khalid came was Arakah x (i. p. 2109. pp. Tadmur and al-Karyatain Dumat al-Jandal 2 he then reached and conquered. Kusam. The victory was won by Khalid who took some as captives and killed others. vol. losing a large 4 112 booty. * 5 Basri. p. 68. submit to them. Palestine under the Moslems. p. been reinforced by the inhabitants of Ba'labakk and of Busra (the capital of Hauran) stood out against him. turned to the mainland and went his way. At dhimmah people. p. part I.THE ADVANCE OF KHALI D ON SYRIA Khalid in Karkisiya. that they entertain Moslems and that they Khalid then pushed to al-Karyatain.

Cf. vol. This tradition may have been confused with one that comes later and speaks of the agreement be. Le Strange. 33. Khalid then directed Busr ibn-abiArtat al-'Amiri of the Kuraish and Habib ibn-Maslamah-1x Fihri to the Ghutah of Damascus where they attacked many villages. " Keep this covenant 2 for me. Thence he came to Marj Rahit and led an incursion against Ghassan on their Easter day they He took some captive and killed others. where abuHere they met and went together 1 to Busra. Caetani." the Thaniyat was known since as Thaniyat Others say that it was thus called because a vulit ture [Ar. 1204-1205. Khalid meets abu-Ubaidah. This banner was the one the Prophet spreading his banner. A tween Khalid and the bishop. The bishop of Damascus offered him gifts and homage and said to Khalid. 'ukab. Khalid arrived at Thaniyat in Damascus. Khalid camped at the East [Sharki] gate of Damascus. p. According to others. used. and stood there for one hour. however. pp. p. at the Jabiyah gate. ibn-Jubair.1 72 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Ghassdn attacked. 2 What covenant is meant is not clear. he came to the Jabiyah 'Ubaidah was with a band of Moslems. Thaniyat al-'Ukab. being Christians. and according to others. Rihlah." Khalid promised to do so. . and because the Arabs call a banner " al-'Ukab. I heard it said by some But that at that place stood a stone there is no truth in that statement. ii. image of a vulture. 261 place in Damascus noted for its orchards. the — Thaniyat al-'Ukab of to-day. Then Khalid went until he met the Moslems who were at Kanat Busra. 'ukab] happened to descend on But the first explanation is more reliable. at that time. and was black in color.

173 . similar to those made by According to others. a measure of wheat that varies in different localities. Palestine and Syria. Still Ma'ab was others assert that abu-'Ubaidah conquered Ma'ab when he was the com- mander of 'Umar. According to some reporters. the district of Damascus and. Baedeker. When Moslems arrived in Busra. 1 all the Moslem forces in Syria in the days of Eski-Sham or Old Damascus. 2 It is also Mawardi. to pay for each adult one dinar Moslems conquered all the region of Hauran and subdued it.CHAPTER The Conquest Busra comes the head of the to III of Busra Khalid ibn-al-Walid at 113 terms. it was he who held the chief command. the inhabitants of last its Busra made terms agreeing 2 and one jarib of wheat. however. the conquest of effected before that of Busra. Thus the Ma'ab surrendered and made terms Busra. 201 (ed. and agreeing to pay the polltax. Abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. property and children be safe. p. They drew close to it and fought its patrician until he was Others assert driven with his armed men inside the town. [Auranitis] Ma'db surrenders. 1894). at the head of a heavy detachment composed of the commanders' troops that had joined him. led the way to Ma'ab [Moab] in the district of al-Balka' where the enemy was massed. 265. that since Busra lay within consequently under the rule and commandership of Yazid At ibn-abi-Sufyan. people came to terms stipulating that their lives. says that al-jarib is a measure of land 10 x 10 rods. p. 1 all the Moslems gathered against it and put Khalid in chief command.

his brother Aban ibn-Sa'id (according to the most authentic reOthers. by Allah's help. Accord- Other ing to others. Salamah was killed at Marj as-Suffar. according to others. Skiesen. and Salamah ibn-Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah. the Moslems fought a violent battle. 54. Against this army. At last. The battle of Ajnadin * ensued. a great many being slaughtered. Those who suffered martyrdom on that day were 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib ibnHashim. vi. His mother Arwa. p.CHAPTER The Battle The enemy this battle IV of Ajnadin (or Ajnadain) routed. daughter of 'Abd-alHis surname was abuMuttalib. . was the Prophet's aunt.000 Greeks took part. 50 seq. were: 'Ikrimah ibn-abi-Jahl ibn-Hisham al-Makhmartyrs zumi. The martyrs. 'Adi). vol. In whom tricts. p. and Khalid ibn-al-Walid particularly distinguished himself. 'Amr ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. 174 . the majority of were massed one band after the other by Heraclius [Hirakl]. the enemies of Allah were routed and shattered into pieces. the rest having come from the neighboring disOn that day. however. that severed his right hand making his sword fall the palm. Tulaib ibn-'Umair ibn-Wahb ibn-'Abd ibn-Kusai (who " " unbeliever who gave him a blow fought a duel with an port. Habbar ibn-Sufyan ibn-'Abd-al-Asad al-Makhzumi (who. claim that Aban died in the year 29). was killed in the battle of 1 Memoire. Heraclius was in Hims [Emesa]. about 100. In this condition he was surrounded down with and killed 114 by the Greeks.

dispelled them and put them to flight After that. in Ajnadin. however. When the news of this battle came to Heraclius. 64. Consequently. his brother. Tamim ibn-al-Harith. year 13. Hisham ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Wa'il as-Sahmi (who is by others to have been slain in the battle of al-Yarmuk). Some. in the battle of Ajnadin. 1 Mimoire. Sa'id ibn-alHarith.Yakusah. Their remnants fled to the cities of The death of abu-Bakr took place in Jumada II. his heart was filled with cowardice and he was confounded. It was mentioned by someone that his flight from Hims to Antioch coincided with the advance of the Moslems to Syria. There the Moslems met them. This battle of took place on Monday twelve days before the end Ajnadin of Jumada I. and the Moslems received the news in 1 al. Jundub ibn-'Amr ad-Dausi. According to Hisham also supposed ibn-Muhammad of Mu'tah. the with a great slaughter. year 13. Greeks massed an army at Yakusah which was a valley with al-Fauwarah at its mouth. and others two days before its end. and al-Harith ibn-Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah. he took to flight to Antioch [Antakiyah] from Hims [Emesa]. p.THE BATTLE OF AJNAD1N Mu'tah). was killed in the battle of alYarmuk). Syria. Heraclius flees to Antioch. . al-Harith ibn-al-Harith. say two days after the beginning of Jumada II. an-Nahham was was killed in the battle Sa'id ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kais slain in the battle of al- Yarmuk. al-Kalbi. 'Ubaidallah ibn 'Abd-al-Asad. and al-Hajjaj ibn-alHarith ibn-Kais ibn-'Adi as-Sahmi. ^ al-'Adawi Nu'aim ibn-'Abdallah an-Nahham (who. according to others. in al-Yarmuk.

" Terms made after the victory. 3 106. . in the victory of the Moslems. The way this battle came about was that when Heraclius came to Antioch he sum- moned the Greeks and the inhabitants of Mesopotamia to go forth to war. ancient Pella. 1 The Greek patrician with about Fahl or Fihl. said.. in-chief was abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. of war. putting them under the command of one These met the Moslems at of his men in whom he trusted. 5 Tabari. 176 pp. conferring on him the governorship of 2 Syria and the chief command. Some say that the appointment of abu-'Ubaidah to the sent a letter with governorship of Syria was received when Damascus was Khalid being the chief commander in time under siege. J bid. p. a brother of Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. Fihl in the province of the Jordan and a most fierce and bloody battle ensued.CHAPTER V The Battle of Fihl in the Province of the Jordan 1 . When " I abu-'Ubaidah asked by Khalid for the reason. 73. hated to dishearten thee and weaken thy position as thou stoodst facing an enemy. which ended. p. Mimoire. i. abu-'Ubaidah concealed the appointment from him for many 3 days. 115 The battle of Fihl Abu-'Ubaidah commander-in-chief in the province of the Jordan was fought two days before the end of dhu-1-Ka'dah and five months after the proclamaThe commandertion of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab as caliph. to whom 'Umar had 'Amir ibn-abi-Wakkas. by Allah's help. 2146 and 2147. vol.

and property. . by Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah. agreeing not to demolish their The contract was made by abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al- Jarrah.THE BATTLE OF FIHL ! 77 10. The inhabitants of Fihl took to the forti- where they were besieged by the Moslems until they sought to surrender. The Moslems promised them the fications security of life walls. and the rest of the army distributed themselves in the cities of Syria. agreeing to pay tax on their heads and kharaj on their lands. some of them joining Heraclius. but according to others.000 men was slaughtered.

The Province


of the Jordan



al-Haitham ibn-'Adi

all the province of the Jordan [al-Urdunn] by force, with the exception of Tiberias, whose inhabitants came to terms, agreeing to give 1 up one-half of their homes and churches.

— Shurahbil conquered

Hafs ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from


'Amr ibn-al-Asi and then abu-'Ubaidah in chief command. Abu-Haf s ad-Dimashki from abu-Bishr the muezzin of the mosque at Damascus and others When the Moslems arrived in Damascus, each commander used to direct his forces to a special region which he would make the Thus 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi used to go object of his incursions.


— —

against Palestine, Shurahbil against the Jordan province and Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan against the province of Damascus. In case the enemy was massed in one group, they would all

combine against him, each [commander] hastening to the In the early support and the reinforcement of the other.
days of abu-Bakr, when they would join forces, the commander-in-chief would be 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. This was the

who became AbuMoslems in every battle. 'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah later assumed the chief command in the whole of Syria, and the commanders acknowledged him as their chief for war and peace in behalf of 'Umar ibnThis was brought about when 'Umar was al-Khattab.
case until the arrival of Khalid ibn-al-\\'alid.



of the











proclaimed caliph and wrote to Khalid dismissing him and assigning abu-'Ubaidah.

Shurahbil and then 'Amr seizes Tiberias.


ibn-Hasanah took Tiberias [Tabaraiyah] by capitulation
after a siege of some days. He guaranteed for the inhabitants the safety of their lives, possessions, children, churches and houses with the exception of what they should evacuate


a special spot for a Moslem mosque. 'Umar, the people of Tiberias violated the covenant and were joined by many Greeks and
desert, setting aside

Later, in the caliphate of

them, so he

Abu-'Ubaidah ordered 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi to attack marched against them at the head of 4,000 men.
the city by capitulation, the terms being similar

'Amr took

to those of Shurahbil.

According to others, however,



Shurahbil also

who conquered

the second time.

Shurahbil subdues


Jordan province.

In addition to

Shurahbil took easy possession of

the cities of the

Jordan with their fortifications, which, with no resistance, Thus did capitulated on terms similar to those of Tiberias.
he take possession of Baisan,
[Bethshean, Scythopolis] Susiyah, Afik, Jarash, Bait-Ras, Kadas, and al-Jaulan, and subdue the district of the Jordan and all its land.

According to abu-Hafs on the authority of al-Wadin ibn-'Ata', Shurahbil conquered Acre, Tyre and Saffuriyah.

The sea-coasts reduced. It is stated by abu-Bishr, the muezzin, that abu-'Ubaidah directed 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi to the sea-coasts of the province of the Jordan. There the Greeks became too numerous for him being recruited by men
from the


under Heraclius

who was

then at Constan-

tinople. 'Amr, therefore, wrote to abu-'Ubaidah asking for reinforcements. The latter sent Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan who



having his brother, Mu'awiyah, in the van of the

army. The littoral of the Jordan was conquered by Yazid and 'Amr to whom abu-'Ubaidah wrote regarding its con-



In that campaign Mu'awiyah distinguished himself and left a great impression.

Abu-Alyasa' al-Antaki Mu'awiyah transplants people. from certain sheikhs from Antioch and the Jordan: A body of Persians were transplanted in the year 42 by Mu'awiyah from Ba'labakk, Hims and Antioch to the seacoasts of the Jordan, i. e., Tyre, Acre and other places; and he transplanted in the same year, or one year before or after, certain Asawirah from al-Basrah and al-Kufah and certain One of Persians from Ba'labakk and Hims to Antioch. the Persian leaders was Muslim ibn-'Abdallah, grandfather of 'Abdallah ibn-Habib ibn-an-Nu'man ibn-Muslim al-An-



Mu'awiyah makes repairs in Acre and Tyre. According to a tradition communicated to me by Muhammad ibnSa'd on the authority of al-Wakidi, and by Hisham ibnal-Laith as-Suri on the authority of certain sheikhs from Syria, when Mu'awiyah came to sail from Acre to Cyprus Later he made repairs in Acre ['Akka] and in Tyre [Sur]





by 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan, after


fallen into ruins.

from our sheikhs who said, When we took up our abode in Tyre and the littoral, there were Arab troops and many Greeks already there. Later, people from other regions came and settled with us, and that was



the case with


the sea-coast of Syria."


Muhammad ibnArtisans settled along the sea-coast. In the al-Antaki from contemporaneous sheikhs

Industry at that year 49 the Greeks left for the sea-coast. time was confined to Egypt. Consequently, and in accord-

Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan's orders, certain and carpenters were gathered and settled along As for the industry of the Jordan province it was the coast.

confined to Acre.

Persian armed cavalry.




Hishdm moves the in dustry to Tyre. Abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi mentioned the case of a descendant of abu-Mu'ait


lived in

Acre and ran


ibn-'Abd-al-Malik wanted him to

and workshops. Hisham sell them to him but the






the industry



Tyre where he ran an inn and a workshop. Tyre a naval base. According to al-Wakidi, the ships used to be in Acre until the time of the banu-Marwan who moved them to Tyre, where they are until to-day. 2 In the
year 247, al-Mutawakkil gave orders that the ships be
stationed in


Acre and


along the coast, and he manned

them with


Ar. sina'ah Ya'ktibi, p. 327 " dar as-sind'ah " which means arsenal. The reference may be to the industry of making ships. Cf. Le Strange, p. 342 seq.
; :


Ibn-Jubair, p. 305.

The Battle



Marj as-Suffar

The Greeks met in put to flight. The great numbers and were reinforced by Heraclius. Moslems encountered them at Marj as-Suffar on their way


Damascus on the first of Muharram, year 14. 1 The battle that ensued was so violent that blood flowed along with water and turned the wheels of the mill. Of the Moslems about 4,000 were wounded. At last the " unbelievers " took

to flight

and were dispersed, disregarding everything until On that day, they came to Damascus and Jerusalem. Khalid ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah (surnamed abuIn the evening previous to the day Sa'id) fell a martyr. in the morning of which the battle was fought, he was

married to umm-Hakim, the daughter of al-Harith ibnHisham al-Makhzumi. and the wife of Tkrimah ibn-abi-

Hearing the news of his death, umm-Hakim pulled out the post of the tent and fought with it. On that day, to some report, she killed seven and had her face according


covered with the ointment perfumed with saffron a [with which women anointed themselves on the first night

of matrimony].

According to the report of abu-Mikhnaf, this battle of Marj took place twenty days after the battle of Ajnadin;


pp. 79-80.
p. 71.


Ibn-Sa'd, vol. iv\

abari, vol.



3169; Aghani, vol.

pp. 6-7; Caetani, vol.


p. 322.





the conquest of Damascus followed it, and after the conThe report quest of Damascus the battle of Fihl took place.

of al-Wakidi, however,




was regarding the

battle of


that Khalid ibn-Sa'id

ibn-al-'Asi said

Isn't there a horseman who, tired of stabbing, would lend me his lance for the battle of Marj as-Suffar?"

Referring to this battle, 'Abdallah ibn-Kamil ibn-Habib ibn'Amirah ibn-Khufaf ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Buhthah ibn-

Sulaim said



tribes of

Malik took

part, but

'Amirah disappeared



sight in the battle of

Marj as-Suffar,"

meaning Malik ibn-Khufaf. The story of the Samsamah


Sa'id suffered

al-Kalbi, in the battle

According to Hisham of Marj, Khalid ibn-

martyrdom with
his neck.


sword as-Samsamah

The Prophet had sent him as 'amil to al-Yaman, and on his way he passed by the kindred of 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi of Madhhij and attacked them, taking as captives the wife of 'Amr and other kinsmen. 'Amr proposed that Khalid grants them
their liberty

hanging down from


offered Khalid his

and they would accept Islam. And so it was. own sword, as-Samsamah, 1 saying:

friend whom I offered as present not because of any hatred but because presents are for those of noble birth. friend whom I did not betray and who did not betray me, and so my qualities and fellow-drinkers did not. I bestowed it on a nobleman of Kuraish



who was

pleased with


and by which he was protected against the


This sword Mu'awiyah took from the neck of Khalid when


vol. xiv, pp. 27. 31, 32.


in the battle of


Mu'awiyah kept



possession was

later disputed

by Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-

Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. in favor of the latter, who kept

'Uthman decided the case

it until the battle of ad-Dar which Marwan was struck on the nape of the neck and A Juhainah man took the Sa'id fell unconscious by a blow. Samsamah. The Juhainah man kept it, and one day he

gave it to a polisher to polish it. The polisher could not believe that one of the Juhainah could possess such a sword,
so he took


Marwan, from me, and ad-Dar, my so was that of Sa'id ibn-ai-'Asi." Then came Sa'id and recognizing his sword took it, carved his name on it, and sent it to 'Amr ibn-Sa'id al-Ashdak, the governor of Makkah. Sa'id perished, and the sword was left with 'Amr ibn-Sa'id. When 'Amr ibn-Sa'id was killed at Damascus and his belongings were stolen, his brother on the father's side, Muhammad ibn-Sa'id, took the sword, which later passed
story. "

Madinah, who and he told its

ibn-al-Hakam, the governor of alasked the Juhainah man for an explanation,



Allah," exclaimed

in the battle of

sword was


Yahya ibn-Sa'id. At the death of Yahya, it passed to 'Anbasah ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi and then to Sa'id ibn-'Amr




the last perished,

the sword went to


ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Sa'id whose descendants live

now in Barik. Then it went to Aban ibn- Yahya ibn-Sa'id who decked it with an ornament of gold and kept it with
the mother of a child [concubine] of his. At last Aiyub ibn-Sa'id sold it to al-Mahdi the "Commander ibn-abi-Aiyub

of the Believers" for over 80,000 [dirhams]. Al-Mahdi the ornament of gold back on it. When it came finally put into the possession of Musa-1-Hadi, the "Commander of the
Believers," he admired
to describe


and ordered the poet abu-1-Haul
latter said

upon which the



He who

acquired the


the best of


— Musa-1-Amin.




It is

the sword of

'Amr which

we know

the best that a scabbard ever sheathed.


in color between the edges of which of poison in which death is clad. If one unsheathes it, its brilliancy dazzles

a garment

that of the sun, so that the sun would scarcely be seen. the one to be smitten is at hand, it does not matter whether the left or the right hand applies it. What a good sword it is for him, who wants to defend his honor, " x to smite with in the battle, and what a good companion



Later on, al-Wathik-Billah, the Commander of the BeOn lievers," called a polisher and ordered him to temper it.




the sword

was changed.



Slane, ibn-Khallikan, vol.



The Conquest


of Damascus and its Province

The positions taken by the different generals. When the Moslems were done with the fight against those who were
gathered at al-Marj, they stayed there for fifteen days at the end of which they returned [sic] to Damascus [Dimashk]. This took place fourteen days before the end
of Muharram, year 14. Al-Ghutah and its churches Moslems took by force. The inhabitants of Damascus

took themselves to the fortifications and closed the gate of the city. Khalid ibn-al-Walid at the head of some 5,000 put under his command, ash-Sharki [the east gate]. Some assert camped that Khalid was the chief commander but was dismissed
at al-Bab

men whom abu-'Ubaidah had


when Damascus was under
at the


Khalid camped was called Dair Khalid. 1

The convent by which 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi


gate; Shurahbil, at the Faradis gate,

abu-'Ubaidah at the Jabiyah gate, and Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan from the Saghir gate to the one known as Kaisan gate. 2 Abu-ad-Darda' appointed 'Uwaimir ibn-'Amir al-Khazraji

at Barzah.

of a frontier garrison settled in the fortification


The statement written by Khalid.

The bishop


who had

Diyarbakri, vol.


p. 259.

H. Lammens, MFO, vol. iii 1 maskus, the chart next to page



256; Kremer, Topographic von



p. 90.

Jubair, p. 274; Yakut, vol.

p. 2.



Caetani, vol. 186


p. 364,




provided Khalid with food at the beginning of the siege was wont to stand on the wall. Once Khalid called him, and when he came, Khalid greeted him and talked with him.

The bishop one day

said to him, "Abu-Sulaiman, thy case

prospering and thou hast a promise to fulfil for me; let us make terms for this city." Thereupon, Khalid called for

an inkhorn and parchment and wrote

In the


of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.

what Khalid would grant to the inhabitants of Damascus, if he enters therein: he promises to give them security for their lives, property and churches. Their cityThis
wall shall not be demolished; neither shall any Moslem be quartered in their houses. Thereunto we give to them the pact of Allah and the protection of his Prophet, the caliphs and the Believers '. So long as they pay the poll-tax, nothing but good shall befall them."

The Moslems enter the city. One night, a friend of the bishop came to Khalid and informed him of the fact that 1 it was the night of a feast for the inhabitants of the city, that they were all busy and that they had blocked the Sharki
gate with stones and left it unguarded. that Khalid should procure a ladder.


then suggested Certain occupants

of the convent, by which Khalid's army camped, brought him two ladders on which some Moslems climbed to the
highest part of the wall, and descended to the gate which was guarded only by one or two men. The Moslems co-

This took place at sunrise. operated and opened the door. In the meantime, abu-'Ubaidah had managed to open
the Jabiyah gate and sent certain Moslems over its wall. This made the Greek fighters pour to his side and lead a
violent fight against the Moslems.

Greeks took to


At last, however, the Then abu-'Ubaidah at the head of

Tabari, vol.



He then opened the Sharki gate and entered with Khalid. p. ^50. How could his terms then Even the be binding?" To this. 17. thus taking advantage of the Moslems' state of unmindfulness. not taking into account the fact that a part of 2 Thus all Damascus was conthe city was taken by force. iii 1 . certain Moslems remarked. 3 159. with the statement which Khalid had written him unfolded in his hand. abu-'Ubaidah replied. The same spot is mentioned in a poem by Hassan ibn-Thabit under the name of al-Baris : 122 " He who [is calls at al-Baris for a drink. half. MFO. . Regarding that. But entering until their the Greek comrades should Moslems knew of them and fought with them at the gate a most fierce and bloody conflict which ended in the opening of the gate by the Moslems at sunrise." According to other reports.iSS the THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE their entrance through Moslems opened the Jabiyah gate by force and made it. Seeing that abu-'Ubaidah was on the point of entering the city. vol. Then Hassan. one night the Greeks carried number of their out through the Jabiyah gate a corpse. lowest of the Moslems can make binding terms on their besanctioning the capitulation made by Khalid. the bishop hurried to Khalid and capitulated. ii. Ya'kubi. Abu-'Ubaidah and Khalid ibnal-Walid met at al-Maksalat which was the quarter of the coppersmiths in Damascus. Khalid is not the commander. The rest brave and armed men accompanied the funeral. he signed it. Abu-'Ubaidah wrote to sidered as having capitulated. p. of them stood at the gate to prevent the it A Moslems from and opening have returned from the burial of the dead man. p. Diwdn. I. vol.ammens. By Allah." " " And 'Umar regarding 1 that and forwarded the message. l given the water of Barada mixed with dainty wine].

the one in which the statement 1 The date he put was was renewed. Shurahbil Moslems. Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd reported that abu-'Abdal" I have read the statement issued lah al-Wakidi said. year 14. and they both met at the Zaiyatin The former report however. whereas abu-'Ubaidah entered by capitulation. The explanation is that Khalid wrote the statement with no date. the x conquest of Damascus was effected in Rajab. Some one . leaving many vacant dwellings behind that were later occupied by the Moslems. According to al-Wakidi. a great number of its inhabitants fled to Heraclius who was then at Antioch." reported that it was abu-'Ubaidah who had his quarters at the Sharki gate. but the date which Khalid's statement of capitulation bears was Rabi' II. Ya'kubi. vol. The fact is that when Damascus was taken possession of. ibn-Hasanah and others as witnesses. p. it 123 more authentic. Khalid entered the city by assault. is [market of oil-dealers]. the bishop came to Khalid asking him to renew the statement and add as witnesses abu-'Ubaidah and the Khalid granted the request and inserted the names of abu-'Ubaidah. and Khalid at the Jabiyah gate but this view is erroneous. ii.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS the gates of the city were opened and within. year 15. The date of the conquest.Walid to the people of Damascus and found no mention in it of 'half the homes and churches'. 159- . Al-Haitham ibn-'Adi claimed capitulated agreeing to give up churches. all jgn the Moslems met According to the report of abu-Mikhnaf and others. but when the Moslems were preparing to set out against those gathered for their fight in alYarmuk. by that the people of Damascus one-half of their homes and Khalid ibn-al. I do not know where the one who reported it got his information.

gold and forty dirJiams on those arranging them in ranks according to the poverty of the poor and the medium middle class. Regarding that. the Ya'kubi." The following was stated by Damrah on the authority of The non-Arabs of Damascus disibn-abi-Hamalah. The siege conducted for four months. "If it is included in the fifteen churches mentioned in their covenant. " p. puted with us the right to a church at Damascus that was 'Ali " assigned by someone as fief to the banu-Nasr. Salamah : —Hassan ibn-Malik presented Abu-'Ubaid from Raja' ibn-abito al-'Aziz the case of a church that one of 'Umar ibn-'Abdthe commanders had bestowed on him as fief. Al-Kasim from abu-1-Ash'ath as-San'ani or abu-'Uthman as-San'ani 1 Abu-'Ubaidah spent at the Jabiyah gate four months con- The ibn-Sallam : — 124 : — ducting the siege. thou hast no claim on it. and the case was presented to 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who took the church from us and returned it to the Christians. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab made it four dinars on those — who had who had silver. came to power he gave it back to the banu-Nasr. and the possession of which was contested by the non-Arabs of Damascus. Abu-'Ubaid from al-Auza'i who said "At the outset. The case of a church.igo THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE city considered as Al-Kasim having capitulated. When Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz at-Tanukhi Yazid entered Damascus by capitulation through the Sharki At al-Maksalat the two Moslem commanders met. gate. however. ." possessions of the Hisham heard it said by our sheikhs that the Jews were wealth of the rich. 325 : one year ".dan. the poll-tax in Syria consisted of one jar'ib and one dhidr per head. and the whole city was considered as having capitulated. Bu'. 'Umar said." : The poll-tax.

is 17 sa's. Morever. p. lems with wheat and in Syria oil. and for every Moslem in Egypt per month one 1 irdabb [of wheat]. they have to give every Moslem 1 and Mesopotamia [Ar. vol. clothing. . It is reported that when came to power. i. mudi. in addition to offering the — and forty dirhams on those who possessed silMoslems a subsistence tribute and providing them with three-days' entertainment. According to certain reports. John. 'Amr an-Nakid from Aslam. one of the terms imposed by Khalid ibn-al-Walid on the inhabitants of Damascus. 1 Ar. therefore. he desired to add Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan the church of St. : 'Amr ibn-Hammad ibn-abi-Hanifah from Aslam 'Umar assessed as poll-tax four dinars on those who possessed gold. A similar tradition was communicated to me by Mus'ab on the authority of Aslam. when they capitulated. He also assessed on them grease and honey. John to the mosque 2 in Damascus but the . the freedman of 'Umar ibn'Umar wrote to the commanders of the proval-Khattab inces of Syria [Ar. and included in the capitulation. al-Jazirah] two modii of wheat and three kists x of oil per month. ver. a kist is half a sa' . and four dinars on those who possessed gold. The cathedral of St. the quantity of which I do not know. Latin modius. were. he ordered that in the way of providing the Mos- on every >. ajndd] instructing them to levy a tax : — 125 adult. 368. making it forty dirhams on those who possessed silver. Nafh at-Tib. an irdabb is 24 * Al-Makkari. sa's. was that every man should give as polltax one dinar and one jarlb of wheat. together with vinegar *y and oil for feeding the Moslems.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS for the Christians as igi dhimmis paying kharaj to them. and the right of being entertained as guest for three days.

when they not agree. 'Umar wrote to his 'amil ordering him to return to the Christians that part which he had added to the mosque from their church. " refused." To this someone '. " He. They then came Christians and proposed to turn over to them all the churches of al-Ghutah that had been taken by force and were in the hands of the Moslems. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph. while he had a robe of yellow silk on him. when 'Abd- al-Malik ibn-Marwan was in power. the mosque. down a church Commander of the Believers who tears and be affected with some Al-Walid. and in . 'Umar's 'amil communicated the news to 'Umar 126 who was Next to the pleased and signed the agreement. replied. Shall we destroy our we have called to prayer and held service in it mosque ? after And can a Christian church be returned [to its Among the Moslems were at that time former owners] ?" Sulaiman ibn-Habib to the al-Muharibi and other canonists. being angered at what was said. John and cease to assert their claim on it. He then called workmen and house-razers and Thus it was included in the they pulled the church down. al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik called the Christians and offered them large sums for the church. If ye do down. Later. provided they give up the church of St. he made the same request for the enlargement of the mosque offering them money to him. Christians refused.ig 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE So he refrained. Christians complained of what al-Walid had down for their church." dered that a spade be brought and began demolishing the walls with his own hand. exchange but they refused to deliver the church In his turn. tower of the Mosque of Damascus at the southern porch stands an inscription on marble near the roof which was . The people of Damascus diswill lose his wits " liked the idea saying. he threatened I will ' surely tear it them saying. orblight. The Christians rather seemed to favor the proposition and consented to it.

and standing until : — Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan entered the city and made a covenant with its people. During the governorship of abu-'Ubaidah. . Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from the muezzin of the Damascus At the arrival of Khalid. al-Bathaniyah and other places reduced. They then were dispersed throughout all Hauran which The chief of Adhri'at came to them offering they subdued. ash-Sharat and the sea-coast reduced. 2 The 150. but the terms of capitulation were made by Khalid. At the conquest of Damascus." Busra. Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan went and took possession of 'Arandal 1 2 by capitulation. making terms of capitulation similar to those of Busra. and it capitulated. When abu'Ubaidah came to power. wall around the city of Damascus re- was demolished by 'Abdallah ibnmained 'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-' Abbas after the question between Marwan and the banu-Umaiyah had been settled. invading what had not yet been reduced. the MosMosque and other men lems gathered their forces against Busra. Baedeker. p. The it I myself heard Hisham ibn- 'Ammar " say. Commander of the Believers The wall of D amascus. The request was granted. he effected the complete conquest of the province of al-Balka'. Thus the two districts of Hauran and alBathaniyah came under the full control of the Moslems. all that was already conquered. Adhri'dt. Thence they came to Palestine and the Jordan. correct form 326. Buldan. to capitulate on the same terms on which the people of Busra had capitulated and agreeing to make all the land of l al-Bathaniyah a khardj land. p. He Modern Nukrah in is Hauran. abu-'Ubaidah concurring. 'Arandal. Ya'kubi. abu-'Ubaidah was the commander-in-chief .THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS 193 the order of al-Walid the part of that which was built by " " in the year 86. Gharandal. Besides. Yazid marched against 'Amman and made an easy conquest of it.

801. Jubail. It is stated by Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz on the au- thority of al-Wadin that after the [second] conquest of 1 to Sidon. He then made repairs in them and stationed garrisons in them among whom he distributed the fiefs. i. . vol. Accordingly. p. the siege was pressed hard against them. the inhabitants of Tripoli met in one of the three fortifications and wrote to Tripoli captured. expelling many of their inhabitants. leading the van of the army. p. These cities he conquered with Damascus Yazid came great facility. and Mu'awiyah again marched against those towns and conquered them. Correggi 1 : 'Arqaq Journal Asiatique. the Greeks restored some of these coasttowns. 1859. 'Irkah. When Sufyan arose in the morning he having been accustomed to sleep — 1< "Arkah" in " Hamadhani. p. the king of the Greeks asking for relief through reinforce- ment or ships on which they might escape and flee to him. ". s As its Greek name designates. Toward the close of the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab or the beginning of the caliphate of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. and Bierut 2 (which lie on the sea-coast) with his brother. Buldan. Mu'awiyah. 105. 120. the latter directed Mu'awiyah Sufyan ibn-Mujib al-Azdi to Tripoli [Atrabulus] which was 3 a combination of three cities. Caetani. Sufyan erected on a plain a few miles from the city a fort which was called Hisn Sufyan [Sufyan fort]. note 1. iii.194 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE also subdued the province of ash-Sharat with its mountains. intercepted the recruits from the sea When as well as from the land and laid siege to the city. the king sent them many ships which they boarded in the night time and fled away. When 'Uthman was made caliph and became governor of Syria. conquest of 'Irkah was effected by Mu'awiyah himself The when 127 Yazid was governor. vol.

Immediately he entered it and sent the news of — the conquest to Mu'awiyah. He then made his way together with his followers to the land of the Greeks [Asia Minor]. In the days of the latter. . which the harbor of the city is to-day. This state of affairs lasted until 'Abd-al-Malik began to rule. built it and made it stronger. the 'a/mil with a small band would stay and the rest would return. agreeing to settle therein and pay khardj. IQ ^ and fortify the Moslems in it.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS every night in his fort. I heard someone say that 'Abd-al-Malik sent someone who besieged him in Tripoli until he surrendered and was carried before 'Abd-al-Malik who killed and crucified him. shut its gate and killed the 'dmil. Later the Moslems him on the sea going to a Moslem coast-town with caught a large number of ships. and killed him. but in case the sea was closed. Some of his followers took to flight and got as far as the land of the Greeks. Mu'awiyah made it a dwellingIt is this fortification in place for a large body of Jews. taking his soldiers and many Jews as captives. His He had not been there two years or request was granted. that its inhabitants violated the covenant in the days of 'Abd-al-Malik and that it was reduced by al-Walid 128 ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in his reign. Later 'Abd-al-Malik Mu'awiyah used to send every year to Tripoli a large body of troops to guard the city and used to assign it to a different 'dmil. one of the Greek patricians with a large body of men came to the city and asked for a promise of safety. 'AH ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini related on the authority of 'Attab ibn-Ibrahim that Tripoli was conquered by Sufyan ibn-Mujib. and to rise up in the morning against the enemy he discovered that the fortification in which the people of Tripoli were was vacant. two years and a few months when he took advantage of the absence of the troops from the city. Others say they took him captive and sent him to 'Abd-al-Malik who killed and crucified him.

Mu'awiyah wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab describing the condition of the coast-towns. He also instructed to give the garrison lands and distribute ever houses had been evacuated. 'Umar gave no permission to carry out a naval campaign. that watchmen be posted on their towers and that means be taken for lighting the fire on the towers to announce the approach of the enemy. fort a Mu'awiyah sometimes spent on the reduction of the few days two or more in the course of which he — — was it." . that garrisons be stationed in them. But when 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph he wrote to Mu'awiyah instructing him to fortify the coast-cities and man them. and to give When the Moslems conquered a as to overlook a fiefs to those whom he settled in them. resisted either slightly or strongly before he could take city. and him them whatamong to establish new mosques and enlarge those that had been established before his caliphate.IO/ 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The Mediterranean Shami from al-Wadin rected : —At littoral reduced. " I Abu-Hafs from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who said heard it said by some that after the death of his brother Yazid. Mu'awiyah But Mu'awiyah insisted so much that 'Uthman allowed him to carry out a sea expedition and instructed him to keep ready in the coast-cities troops in addition to those already in them. they would station in it whatever number of Moslems was necessary. whether he wanted to set out on the campaign in person or send some one else on it. and if the enemy in it should start a revolt the Moslems would flock to it for reinforcement. Abu-Hafs ashdi- first Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan Mu'awiyah against the littoral of the province of Damascus excluding Tripoli whose possession he did not covet. whether so situated wide territory or on the coast. 'Umar wrote back order- — ing that their fortifications be repaired. Mu'awiyah did : accordingly.

death he heard that al-Hutai'ah-l-'Absi was Before his him so 'Alkamah bequeathed .THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS According to al-Wadin. vol. it Then passed into the The Prophet gives fief to Tamim and Nu'aim. 30. xlvi. after that. with his brother Nu'aim ibn-Aus.Ja'far ibn-Kilab was assigned by 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab to the governorship of Hauran and he was made responsible to Mu'a: — 129 wiyah. 2 Ibn-Duraid. tai'ah " x : coming to visit him in his will a share equal Hence the poem of al-Huonly reached thee. 'Alkamah nominated governor of Haurdn. "Commander of the Believoil-sellers hands of certain of al-Kufah known as the banu-Nu'aim. to to one of his sons' shares. : — Bait-'Ainun 1 2 and Mas j id Ibrahim." Kubbash farm. 226. I was told by certain learned men whom was a neighbor of Hisham ibn-'Ammar that among abu-Sufyan ibn-Harb possessed in the pre-Islamic period. This position he held until his death. ^y all men from quarters moved to the coast cities. and Der Diwan des Garwal b. to that end he wrote in Goldziher: " Aus al-Hutej'a" ZDMG. surnamed abu-Rukaiyah. the ers." Balka' called Kubbash. p. . and at the beginning of Mu'awiyah the [Abbasid] dynasty. in which he carried on trade with Syria. Between wert me and becoming still living — rich —had I when thou there would have been an interval of only a few nights. to the Prophet who gave them as fief Hibra. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from his grandfather Once came Tamim ibnAus of the banu-ad-Dar ibn-Hani' ibn-Habib of [the tribe of] Lakhm. a village in alThis village passed into the posand his son. it was confiscated and possessed by session of certain sons of al-Mahdi. p. A1-' Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from Ja'far ibn-Kilab al-Kilabi 'Alkamah ibn-'Ulathah ibn-'Auf ibn-al-Ahwas ibn.

he advanced to Hims. ibn-'Ammar that on his told me he heard it said by certain sheikhs way to al-Jabiyah in the province of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab passed by certain Christians smitten with elephentiasis * and he ordered that they be given something out of the sadakahs and that food stipends be assigned to them. Taj iii. when occupants offered him a ladder to climb to the city wall. possessions and that end he wrote the following statement name of Allah. the merciful. : 130 churches. al- Arus and Nihdyah. The terms with Ba'labakk. The inside and outside the city and also for their mills." 'Umar gives stipends to diseased Christians. Hisham Damascus. churches and houses. — — space of 15 miles. Persians and Arabs for their lives. Dair Khalid. Greeks are entitled to give pasture to their cattle within a This so. On his way. Hisham reported that he heard it said by al-Walid ibn-Muslim that Khalid ibn-al-Walid made a condition in favor of the convent its known as Dair Khalid. The condition to the effect that their kharaj be reduced. possessions. near this When Syria was subdued. vol. " In the To is a statement of security to so and so. After Rabi' and Jumada I shall have passed. Abu-'Ubaidah made terms guaranteeing the safety of their lives. they are at 1 Ar. he passed through Ba'labakk whose inhabitants sought to secure safety and capitulate. mujadhdhamln. the curse of the Prophet will follow me. When abu-'Ubaidah was done with Damascus. 933. yet are not to abide in any inhabited town. all that was restored When Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik used to pass " I am afraid land he would not stop in it saying. see Kamus. p. . to them.198 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE a statement. Caetani. translates " : mutilati ". the compassionate. son of so and and to the inhabitants of Ba'labakk Greeks. was enforced by abu-'Ubaidah.

ness and his witness 1 is sufficient. Whosoever of them adopts have the same rights as we and be bound by the same obligations and their merchants are entitled to go whither they will in the countries that have become ours Those of them who do not adopt through capitulation. vol. p. 1 Islam are bound to pay poll-tax and kharaj. shall 199 where they will." Cf. Margoliouth's translation. 122. . Zaidan. Allah is wit. iv.THE CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS liberty to go Islam.

they submitted and hastened to seek the 131 promise of security. p. 170. as the They capitulated to abu-'Ubai2 dinars. The people of Hims saw the Moslems and. 200 160. ii. vol. 60. valor and victory. 335 p. dah agreeing to pay As-Simt captures Hims. being scared because Heraclius had run away from them and because of what they heard regarding the Moslems' power. ii. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from abu-Mikhnaf When abu-'Ubaidah was through with Damascus.CHAPTER HlMS IX The inhabitants capitulate. . vi. vol. The people of Hims offered them food for their animals and for themselves and the Moslems camped on the Orontes [al-Urunt. The Moslems guaranteed their safety and refrained from killing them. 1 the people of the city : — resisted them.000 According to al-Wakidi and at the gates of Moslems stood Damascus there appeared a dense band of the enemy's horsemen. vol. ' Ya'kubi. but finally sought refuge in the city and asked for safety and capitulation. The enemy was defeated and took to of Hims via Kara. Skizzen. . The troops of the Moslems set out and met them between Bait-Lihya and ath-Thaniyah. or alUrund] (the river which empties its water in the sea near flight in the direction 1 Yakut. The Moslems them to Hims but found that they had turned away pursued from it. When they met in Hims [Emesa]. others. he sent ahead of him Khalid ibn-al-Walid and Milhan ibn-Zaiyar at-Ta'i and then he followed them. p.

and encamped at the Rastan gate. he left Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan. 1863. p. Shaizar. Noldeke. He made terms with them. 76 seq. kaffara. ZDMG. 432. city-wall. As-Simt divided the city into lots. i. p. 2 Ar. vol. came to Hims via Ba'labakk. possessions. see GGA. Hims al-Kindi According to certain reports. and over the province of the Jordan. John's Church which was to be turned into a mosque. Leaving over Hims 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit al-Ansari. xxix. When abu-'Ubaidah arrived. The people of Shaizar proceeded [Larissa] went out to meet 1 him bowing 2 before him and iii. in He also made them every place whose occupants had evacuated it and in every yard that was deserted. and he guaranteed the safety of their churches. p. 1348. over the province of Palestine. p. each marked for settle one Moslem to build his house.HIMS 2QI Antioch). Shurahbil. it was as-Simt ibn-al-Aswad who made the terms with the people of Hims. over of abu-'Ubaidah was through with Damascus. Fdmiyah and other Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-alplaces. 'Aziz : —When abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah effected the con- quest of Damascus. stipulating that they pay tax on their heads and khardj on their land. He then advanced to Hims whose people capitulated on the same terms as those of Ba'labakk. and wells excluding one-fourth of St. The terms with Hanidh. 22. The people it When in his place lives. vol. he pushed towards Hamah [Epiphania] whose people met him offering their submission. Caetani. . The commander of the Moslems at that time was as-Simt ibn-al-Aswad al-Kindi. vol. He made it a condition on those of them who would not embrace Islam to pay khardj} capitulated. Thence he towards Shaizar. Kashshaf. note 2. he caused the terms to take ef- fect. he left over it as his lieutenant Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan. 'Amr ibnal-'Asi.

and Hims and Kinnasrin be- came parts of one whole. commonly used for troops ". vol. line 7.202 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE accompanied by players on the tambourines and singers." Kinnasrin and its districts were included in the province of Hims. 'Abd-al-Malik was asked to do so by Muhammad ibnMarwan. Thus was the question of Hims brought to an end. " those that give 153. i. al-Mushtarik." When ar-Rashid Ha- run ibn-al-Mahdi was made caliph. " but 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan made it a separate Jund. Antioch. Ra'ban. 790. Cf. Jordan. each district which had an army that received its monthly allowance in it was 132 Thus Mesopotamia belonged to Kinnasrin. According to some. Abu-'Ubaidah's horsemen reached as far as az-Zarra'ah and al-Kastal. Tizin and called them 1 " al-' Awasim " * because these were Yakut." that is. Hims and Kinnasrin. 8 p. and so was each of Damascus. he set Kinnasrin apart " He also and made of it and its districts one Jund. 2 " " " The Junds and 'Awasim. is p. p. arrat 1 He then passed through Ma'after Hims [Ma'arrat an-Nu'man] which was named an-Nu'man ibn-Bashir. 401." . but Yazid and constituted Kinnasrin. Its people came out playing on tamThence he came to bourines and singing before him. Manbij " their districts as one Jund. iii. vol. made its army take its allowance from its kharaj. They agreed to terms similar to those made with the people of Hamah. 3 4 The same word Zaidan. the word means " protection. Kurus. Down to the time of Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. whose people met him in the same way and conFamiyah sented to pay poll-tax and kharaj. called "Jund." Duluk. According to others. Antioch and separated Manbij. Caetani. Palestine was called " " Jund by the Moslems because it was a collection of many provinces." There is a disagreement " 3 " [as applied to the military Jund regarding the name districts of Syria].

La Propriete Territoriale. 2 They were assigned to lands. Early in the morning. 133 them enter through the gate! Thus was the city taken by force. and where they were vasion " " The chief city of al-'Awasim he safe and protected. Their church was left for 1 Laodicea. . Seeing how difficult it was to reduce the city. than they returned to their camp and trenches. and Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from Musa : from certain sheikhs of Hims 1 —Abu-'Ubaidah appointed ibn-as-Samit al-Ansari ibn-Ibrahim at-Tanukhi in his place over Hims 'Ubadah who left for al-Ladhikiyah. . The Moslems made and got the work They then pretended to be returning to Hims but no sooner had the night fallen with its darkness. done. 338. and the Moslems and see later sought to surrender. Certain Christians of al-Ladhikiyah fled to al-Yusaiyid. Its people resisted him and the had a massive gate that could be opened only by a city number of men. Yakut. 'Ubadah encamped at a distance from it and ordered that trenches like canals be dug.HIMS the cities to which the 203 Moslems resorted after making an inand leaving the frontier cities. p. 2 Khardj mukata'ah. iv. See Berchem. ibn-Salih ibn-'Ali lived in the year 173 and erected many Al-Lddhikiyah entered. In this city 'Abd-al-Malik [Hierapolis]. made Manbij buildings. Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. while the people of al-Ladhikiyah were negligent of them being under the impression that the Moslems had left them. p. each one large enough to conceal a special effort man with his horse. vol. 'Ubadah entered the fort and " " then climbed its wall and called Allah is great etc. they opened their gate and drove forth their cattle but how terrified they were to meet . agreeing to return to their lands. and a fixed khardj was assessed to be paid by them every year whether they should increase or decrease in number. 45.

its Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from and Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman al-Himsi 'Ubadah with the Moslems appeared at the coast and took by assault a city called Baldah lying two parasangs from The city was later destroyed and its inhabitants Jabalah. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz fortified the city and its work before he died. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The Moslems. which was a fortification for the Greeks and was deserted by them when the Moslems conquered Hims. Bahrani from certain : — exercises. made a descent by sea on the coast of al-Ladhikiyah. Baldah taken by assault. pp. According to a tradition communicated by one from finished Ladhikiyah. evacuated it. 1 Ar. or Zibel . an appellation of the Byzantine emperor used by the Arabian writers. following the order of that 'Ubadah. Le Strange. Jabalah. All what Yazid ibn'Abd-al-Malik did was to repair the city and increase garrison. They destroyed the 'Umar ordered city and took its inhabitants prisoners. The city was completed and garrisoned by the order al- of Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. when 'Abd-al-'Aziz was caliph.204 them. taghiyah. was established by Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan and guarded by a garrison. tyrant But this was not carried out till after his death in the year 101. that :i it be rebuilt and " 1 fortified and asked the [Greek] to accept ransom for the Moslem prisoners. the Greeks In the year ioo. . Gibellus Major. 459-460. 2 Gabala. Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz : — Sufyan ibn-Muhammad alsheikhs Mu'awiyah erected for a fort outside the older Greek fort which was Jabalah now inhabited by monks and others devoted to religious fort The of Jabalah . Al-Ladhikiyah destroyed and rebuilt. erected in al-Ladhikiyah a cathedral mosque was later enlarged.

Guards stationed in the littoral towns. fortified and still lived their have ibn-Sahm al-Antaki. 2 Ihe guard was posted i. and treated them as the other littoral towns. he put garrisons in. Abu-Hafs adDimashki from his sheikhs Abu-'Ubaidah effected the conquest of al-Ladhikiyah. too. he passed by the Yakut. father and sheikhs : 20 5 Moslems conquered Antartus [Tortosa] which was a fortified town and which was evacuated by its holders. until winter time. " The safety of one hundred. Later there came to this place Salih ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas. Salamyah is an ancient Greek name. Jabalah and Antartus through 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit and used to put them in charge of a 2 When guard until the time in which the sea was closed. The survivors erected one hundred houses and lived in them. Many of his descendants to abode Muhammad ibn-Musaffa-1-Himsi that the wall of Hims in his was destroyed by Marwan ibn-Muhammad. and fortified these cities. It was reported to me by a sheikh from Salamyah. howAccording ever. Mu'awiyah built Antartus the Sufyan —'Ubadah with ibn-Muhammad from his and fortified l it giving the fiefs to the holders of the fort. The same thing he did with Marakiyah and Bulunyas. Marwdn destroys the wall of Hints.HIMS Antartus reduced." . s e. : — 134 Hims that close to Salamyah [Salaminias] lay a city called Mu'takifah which one day was completely destroyed by an earthquake and only one hundred of its inhabitants survived. because retreat before the people of 1 Khurasan. I was told by with his sons. in them so long as the sea was open for navi- gation. in it. i.. This new settlement was called Sihn Mi ah 3 which name it was corrupted in it into Salamyah. p. vol. 388. Mu'awiyah stationed garrisons in the coast cities and fortified them.

They rebelled again. fought against him. 88. 1 Cf. it After a fearful slaughter. the people rose against his 'dmil over them. robbing him of his money and wives. Ahmad ibn-Muhammad ibn-abi-Ishak al-Mu'tasim- Billah. p. days of The city of Hims had as governors of In the stones for pavement. This took place in the year 250. property and Al-Fadl ibn-Karin and Musa ibn-Bugha Hims. pursued them to the city and entered by force. from their allegiance. al-Fadl 1 ibn-Karin at-Tabari. they put him to death and crucified him. vol. vii. his baggage.206 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who had broken away some of off people of Hims. Al-Mu'tasim directed against them Musa ibn-Bugha-1-Kabir [the Elder] his freedman. repaved the city and fought After against al-Fadl ibn-Karin until they worsted him. Hims is the seat of a large granary that receives wheat and oil from the cities of the coast and other places that were given out as fiefs for their holders and recorded for them as such in special record books. . a brother of Mayazdiyar ibn-Karin. and the inhabitants including a large number of Christians and Jews. Athir. and in accordance with his orders the pavement was removed. and they carried armories. Musa put the survivors to flight.

' Antioch. 130 seq.Wakidi. . vol. p. e. Al-Yarmuk [Hieromax] is a river. 107. The Moslems gathered together and the Greek army marched against them. Pseudo. In the battle of al-Yarmuk certain Moslem women took part and fought violently. pp. vol. 9 Asia Minor. Goeje. ii. * Al-Basri.000/ This army he put under the command of one of his choice men 2 and sent as a vanguard Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham al-Ghassani at the head of the " naturalized Arabs [musta'ribah] of Syria of the tribes of Lakhm. Mesopotamia and Armenia. bodies of Greeks.000 of them were put to death.. Hind. ar-Rum.000 Moslems took part. reaching as far as Palestine. Futuh ash-Sham. p. 2 Tabari. Mesopotamians and Armenians A numbering about 200. some 70. Syrians. 1 Among them was Memoire sur i. Judham and others. daughter of 'Utbah and la De i. 2347. la Conquete de Syrie. Futuh ash207 Sham. By Allah's help. The Greeks and their followers in this battle tied themselves to each other by chains. . resolving to fight the Moslems so that he might either win or withdraw to the land 3 of the Greeks and live in Constantinople. 32-35. Aleppo. The battle they fought at al-Yarmuk was of the 4 fiercest and bloodiest kind.CHAPTER X The Battle of 135 al-Yarmuk Heraclius gathered large description of the battle. so that no one might set his hope on flight. In this battle 24. Arabic —Bildd p. and their remnants took to flight.

she waited until the third day on which she or- the news of his death was carried dered some yellow paint and covered with it her arms and " I would not have done that. p. "Ye are our brethren and the sons of our 1 Athir. year 31. In the battle of al-Yarmuk. an fell eye. and so he brought his wife with him. When ' to his daughter. He then returned to al-Madinah where he died.2o8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ' mother of Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. 'Ubaidah put Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri at the head of a cavalry detachment charged with pursuing the fugitive enemy. ummHabibah. 'Amir who once carried the letter of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assigning abu-'Ubaidah to the govOthers say he was a victim of the ernorship of Syria. The story of Jabalah. each lost In this battle 'Amir ibn-abi-\Yakkas az-Zuhri It is this a martyr. of her brother Yazid's death. vol. still martyrdom in the : Abuibn-Maslamah pursues th e fugitives. al-Mirkal) and Kais ibn-Makshuh. however. 'A woman should not be in mourning for more than three days over anyone except her husband. and Habib set out killing every man whom he could Hab'ib 1 reach. 179- . al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais. who repeatedly ex" Cut the arms of these uncircumcised with your claimed. i. had I not heard face saying. But Allah knows AbuThose who lost an eye or suffered martyrdom. e. plague others report that he suffered battle of Ajnadin but all that is not true. swords !" Her husband abu-Sufyan had come to Syria as a volunteer desiring to see his sons. Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham sided with the Ansar saying.' It is stated that she did likewise when she received the news best. . He had lost his eye in the Sufyan battle of at-Ta'if. the Prophet say. Others say he died in Syria. Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abi-YYakkas 136 az-Zuhri (i. ibn-Harb was one-eyed. at the age of 88.

" I shall keep my faith and pay sadakah. when Jabalah came to 'Umar was still a Christian." " and 'Umar added. We have only three : alternatives for thee Islam. 'Umar instructed him to treat Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham very kindly and to try and appeal to him through the blood relationship between them. 'Umair marched until he came to the land of the Greeks and proposed to 1 lichen 2 N61deke: "Die Ghassanischen Fiirsten" in Abhandlungen der KonigAkademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin). 'Umar asked him to accept Islam and pay sadakah. 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit gently reproved 'Umar saying. he " was. " Is his eye like mine? Never. 259. he would have become Moslem. Zaidan. thou hast to pay poll-tax. by Allah.THE BATTLE OF AL-YARMOK fathers." He then apostatized and went to the land of the Greeks. . Jabalah had a dispute with one of the Muzainah and knocked out his eye. in ibn-Khur- . This Jabalah was the king x of Ghassan and the successor of al-Harith ibn-abi-Shimr. year 17. Jabalah left with 30. 'Umar or- dered that he be punished. i." In the year 21. shall I abide in a town where I am under authority. 1887. and put him in command of the summer expedition which was the first of its kind. "If thou hadst accepted sadakah from him and treated him in a friendly way. If thou keepest thy refused. Kitab al-Khardj p. The man est. but he refused saying. upon which Jabalah said. 'Umar directed 'Umair ibn-Sa'd al- Ansari at the head of a great army against the land of the 2 Greeks.000 men to the land of the Greeks [Asia Minor]. Kudamah. According to another report. 45 seq. p. No. vol. Kitab al-Masdlik. 209 After the arrival of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in Syria. tax or going whither thou wiliAccordingly. II." 'Umar's answer ibn-al-Khattab. p." faith." and professed Islam. so that he should come back to the land of the Moslems with the understanding that he would keep his own faith and pay the amount of sadakah he had agreed to pay. 155 dadhbih.

p. 231. 315. and as he passed ad-Darb he turned and said. he fled from Antioch to Con2 stantinople. see Athir. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi.2io THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Jabalah what he was ordered by 'Umar to propose. 254. vol. 5 Christians and Jews prefer Moslem rule. 66. 4 Hubdsh loses his leg. " Peace unto thee. vol. s Tabari pp. Freytag. Proverbia." —referring to dhu-1-Rukaibah. with that of Ajnadin. valley tants to the sword. vol. ii. but Jabalah refused the offer and insisted on staying in the land Himar— a state of the Greeks. i." he destroyed putting its inhabi" In a more ruined 137 Heraclius' adieu to Syria. Abu-Hafs ad-Dimashki from Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz When Heraclius massed his troops against the Moslems and the Mos: — 1 Bakri. and what an excellent country 3 this is for the enemy!" referring to the numerous pas- — tures in Syria. 1 than the hollow of Himar. When Heraclius received the news about the troops in al-Yarmuk and the destruction of his army by the Moslems. 6 Jumada ii. i. no. The battle of al-Yarmuk took place in Rajab. . year 15. and among us was one who offered protection to the quarter. lost his leg it. vol. 2395 and 2396. is * date of the Yarmuk confused by some Arabian historians 13. year Kamiis: "his name was Malik". —which 'Umair then came into a place called al- Hence the proverb. among those who witnessed the battle of al-Yarmuk was Hubash ibn-Kais circumcised " al-Kushairi. p. p. At Sauwar ibn- Aufa: "Among us were ibn-'Attab and the one who went seeking his leg. who killed many of the ' unlast and without feeling the verse of he began to look for Hence it. a The The pass of Taurus. O Syria. i.

81. swear by the Thorah. Shurahbil transferred to Hims. Abu-'Ubaidah reduces Kinnasnn and Antioch. repulse from the city. with your 'amil's help. 274. did the same. Chron. . Eccles. If Heraclius and his followers win over the Moslems we would return to our previous condition. It was he : — 138 who divided the houses of Hims among its people. AX. vol. p. 2 far better than the state of oppression and tyranny justice We in which we were. His son Shurahbil was in al-Kufah disputing the leadership over the Kindah tribe with al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi. " The army of Heraclius we shall indeed. i. Now. they opened the gates of their cities. the Moslems refunded to the inhabitants of Hims the khardj x they had taken from them saying. otherwise we shall retain our present When state so long as numbers are with the Moslems." " like your rule and But the people of Hims replied. a Barhebraeus. went out with the singers and music players who began to play. no governor of Heraclius shall enter the city of Hims unless we are first We vanquished and exhausted!" Saying gates of the city and guarded them.. 1 Yusuf. and paid the khardj.THE BATTLE OF AL-YARMOK 2II lems heard that they were coming to meet them at alYarmuk. Abu'Ubaidah marched against the province of Kinnasrin and Antioch and reduced it." unbelievers were defeated and the by Allah's help the Moslems won. Take care of yourselves. "We are too busy to support and protect you.Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi " " from his grandfather As-Simt ibn-al-Aswad alKindi distinguished himself as a fighter in the battle of al-Yarmuk and particularly in Syria and Hims. the other cities this." The Jews rose and said. — Christian and Jew—that had capitulated to The they closed the inhabitants of " the Moslems. saying. p.

if thou pleasest. yet thou hast separated me from my son." said 'Umar. or mine to al" " I shall change his Kufah. to Syria." Well. . position to Syria.212 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " ' Commander of as-Simt appeared before 'Umar saying. I see thou dost not separate even captives the Believers '." Accordingly. Change his position. Shurahbil took up his abode in Hims with his father. from one another.

and according to a report. 3 Yakut. 'Amawas [Emmaus] and Bait3 Jabrin tate [Eleutheropolis] where he took for himself an eswhich he named 'Ajlan after a freedman of his.. its abu-'Ubaidah after environs. 213 . : Dimashki from learned sheikhs Moslems and Greeks took place in the province of Palestine. 'Amr also conquered Rafah and made similar terms with it. Samaria ii. sent him from Jerusalem to Antioch whose people had violated the covenant. vol. i. He Yubna [Jabneh 2 then conquered Ludd [Lydda] and its district. 300. vol. then Sabastiyah and Nabulus [Neapolis] with the l the stipulation that he guaranteed to the inhabitants the safety of their lives. 160. 2 Athir. :g. their possessions and their houses on condition that they pay poll-tax. in the year 16. e. p.. i. abu-1-Fida. As 'Amr was besieging e. came to him. Jerusalem reducing Kinnasrin and Iliya'. 'Amr reduced the 1 i. The conquest of Jerusalem. Later on in the caliphate of abu-Bakr. and then or Jabneel]. line 12. 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi effected the conquest of Ghazzah. i. p. . the —The one Abu-Hafs adbetween over first conflict in the caliphate of in chief abu-Bakr command Moslems being 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. He then conquered Yafa [Jaffa] which according to others was conquered by Mu'awiyah.CHAPTER XI Palestine Places conquered by 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. and kharaj on their land. p. vol.

who was at that time in al-Jabiyah. with the stipulation that 'Umar would come in person. the inhabitants of Jerusalem asked to capitulate to abu-'Ubaidah on the same terms as those of the cities of Syria as regards tax and kharaj. and to deliver to the Moslems all what was 'Umar came and concurred. He made The conquest A of Jerusalem took place in the year 17. : 'Umar welcomed by ibn-'Ammar from 'Abdallah ibn-Kais The latter said. put the terms into effect and write a statement of them to the people. . and to have after his 139 the same treatment as their equals elsewhere. which he did in the year 1 7. fortified city After fighting with the inhabitants. vol. at the head of : — an army to Jerusalem. whose people asked him to make terms with them. provided the one to make the contract be 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in person. 2360. the terms of capitulation with the people of Jerusalem to take effect and gave them a written statement. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib Khalid ibn-Thabit al-Fahmi was sent by 'Umar ibn-alKhattab. Only two or three days return. they agreed to pay something on what was within their outside. Abu-'Ubaidah communicated this in writing to 'Umar who came first to al-Jabiyah in Damascus and then to Jerusalem. the people of Adhri'at. different account has been reported regarding the con- quest of Jerusalem. after districts in the which he came to Palestine and camped in Jerusalem. — Hisham p. As 'Umar was passing. Tabari. " I was one of those who went with abu-'Ubaidah to meet 'Umar as he was coming to Syria. i. 1 Hisham ibn-'Ammar from reduced Kinnasrin and its : — Abu-'Ubaidah year 16.214 city THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and returned [to Jerusalem]. after which he real-Auza'i turned to al-Madinah.

fell a to martyr in the battle of Ajnadin). According to others he appointed Tyad ibn-Ghanm al-Fihri.PALESTINE 215 he was met by the singers and tambourine players of the inx habitants of Adhri'at with swords and myrtle.' " The plague of 'Amawas [Emmaus] occurred Moslems al-Jarrah victim. let fell ' on. according others. in the year 18. he wrote to Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan appointing him in his place as governor of Syria. but the fact is that he was a victim to the plague at 'Amawas. Some others say he 140 appointed 'Amr ibn-al-Asi who appointed his own son as successor and departed for Egypt.' then. and ordering him to 1 Edrei of Numbers xxi : 33. 'Umar shouted Keep Stop ' ' ! ! 'Ubaidah ' replied. fell. aged 38. indicating thy intention to violate their covenant. This is their word like it)." and if thou ' shouldst stop them from doing it. . Seeing still them But abuthat. Yazxd ibn-abi-Sufydn governor of Syria. Other victims were Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah. " Commander custom (or some other of the Believers. To it a great many among whom was abu-'Ubaidah ibn- (who was 58 years old and a commander in the army) and Mu'adh ibn-Jabal of the banu-Salimah of alKhazraj who was surnamed abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman and who died in the district of al-Ukhuwanah in the province of the Jordan. surnamed abu-Muhammad. surnamed abu-Yazid. When 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab received the news of the death of abu'Ubaidah. they would take that as Well. and al-Harith ibn- Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Makhzumi (who. Al-Fadl ibn-al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. This Muadh. . ac- cording to some. as martyr in Ajnadin. surnamed abu-'Abdallah (who died 69 years old) Suhail ibn-'Amr of the banu- 'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. said them go The plague of 'Amawas. 'Umar. abu-'Ubaidah on his deathbed had appointed as his successor.

al-Marj. and he appointed his brother to press the siege. 'Amr ibnand appointed his son 'Abdallah to Egypt The truth in all that. Its people resisted. After abu-'Ubaidah. Smitten by the plague. on which scholars agree.216 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Yazid was appointed by 'Umar According to others. howas governor of the ever. 172. others. . he fell ill 141 in his place at Kaisariyah. p. Jordan and Palestine. to lay siege to the city that the first was 'Amr I. Damascus and al-Yarmuk. 1 and departed for Damascus leaving his brother Mu'awiyah 1 Mu'awiyah reduced the city Ya'kubi. He then Ajnadin. laid the siege. Tyad ibn-Ghanm. abu-ad-Darda'. vol. is According to some. and 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit. al-'Asi left for succeed him. ii. and whenever the Moslem forces wanted to combine against their enemy. Some say Mu'awiyah subdued it. Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan became governor of Syria. and still others 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. after the death of abu-'Ubaidah whose successor he was. Yazid returned to Damascus where he died. he Thus he witnessed the battles of would go to them. ibn-al- 'Asi who made his descent on it in Jumada year 13. The conquest from al-Wakidi : —of Kaisariyah. and In the last part of the year 18. 'Amr would camp around it as long as he could. returned to Palestine and after taking Jerusalem laid siege to Kaisariyah. of Damascus. From Kaisariyah he left for Egypt. invade Kaisariyah [Caesarea]. of Hims. There is Muhammad ibn-Sa'd difference of opinion regarding the conquest of Kaisariyah [Caesarea]. Yazid went against he it with 17. Fihl. Other than al-Wakidi state that 'Umar appointed Yazid Palestine together ibn-abi-Sufyan to the governorship of with the other provinces of Syria and ordered him to invade Kaisariyah which had already been besieged.000 men.

When Mu'awiyah at last by storm. and appointed with him two men of the Prophet's be — Companions for conducting prayer and performing the abu-ad-Darda' to act as kadi and to conduct at Damascus and the Jordan. At the death 'Umar wrote to Mu'awiyah makhim governor in his [Yazid's] place. May the tie of relationship made stronger by thy kind behavior !" Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Tamim ibn-'Atiyah: 'Umar made Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan governor of Syria after Yazid. and 'Ubadah to act as prayer kadi and conduct prayer at Hims and Kinnasrin. It was guarded every night by 100. he found in it 700. Its Muhammad ducing it. 2l y latter and the communi- Mu'awiyah nominated governor of Syria. all in good shape. — in its wall. conquest took place in Shauwal.000 men stationed on : The city was reduced in the following way A Jew named Yusuf came to the Moslems at night and pointed out to them a road through a tunnel the water reach a man's waist . year 19. effect. from al-Wakidi When 'Umar : — Muhammad ibn-Sa'd ibn-al-Khattab made Mu'awiyah governor of Syria. 30. the city lost all hope of rehad been besieged by 'Amr took ibn-al-'Asi it and his son. He found in the city 300 markets.000 Jews. safety was guaranteed him and his relatives.000 [sic!] soldiers with fixed stipends. the latter besieged Kaisariyah until he reduced it. of Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan. duties of kadi : Mu'awiyah besieges Kaisdriyah. ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir : — Mu'awiyah besieged Kaisariyah Previous to until he this.000 Samaritans and 20. calling "Allah is great !" . yah sanctioned the conditions [made to Yusuf] and the in consideration for Moslems entered the city by night. the city having been under siege for seven years.PALESTINE and wrote to Yazid to that cated the news to 'Umar. upon which abuing " Sufyan thanked 'Umar saying. which would which informaMu'awition.

2 Tabari. al-Kamil. Many Arabs were in One of them was a woman. whom Hassan ibn-Thabit referred to when he Shakra'. al-Mubarrad. them to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab the latter gave orders that They were then distributed they be settled in al-Jurf. p. . 2397. Mu'awiyah forwarded two men of the Judham to carry the news of the conquest to 'Umar. Dhvart. The prisoners from Kaisariyah from al-Wakidi When Mu'awiyah sent [Caesarea] amounted to 4. and some were used as among The daughclerks and manual laborers for the Moslems. he forwarded a man of the Khath'am who exerted all effort in walking by day and by night repeating " : The two brothers of Judham have brought insomnia on me. How can I sleep so long as they are ahead of me? They are going along and the midday heat is becoming vehement. 61 . Fearing that they might not hasten enough. he got ahead of them and presented himself before p. Hassan ibn-Thabit. the city [as prisoners?]. 148.' " Others say her name was Sha'tha'. having been given abu-Bakr two servants from the prisoners of 'Ain atby Tamr who were now dead. : — abu-Umamah As'ad ibn-Zurarah. If thou shouldst relinquish wine. 1 thou wouldst become rich in number. p. 'Umar assigned to the daughters ters of two of the captives of Kaisariyah to take the place of the two dead servants. i. the brother of Hishm and the brother of Haram. Mu'awiyah with his men went in. 142 Muhammad ibn-Sa'd The captives from Kaisariyah.000. vol.2i8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to flee through the tunnel The Greeks seeking found it oc- The Moslems opened the city gate and cupied by Moslems."*' At 1 last Cf. the orphans of the Ansdr. said: " Shakra ' says.

hearing "Allah is 219 the news of the conquest.PALESTINE 'Umar who. The death of Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan took place at the end of the year 18. Hearing the news of its capture. he rebuilt the city and its fortified it. The city is great!" and so did was besieged for seven years and was finally reduced by Mu'awiyah. According to others. exclaimed great!" Hisham ibn-'Ammar from one whose name I do not remember Kaisariyah was taken by storm in the year 19. : — " Kaisariyah is taken by storm. the city the early part of the year 20. Allah the rest of the Moslems. Kaisariyah and Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from certain sheikhs other places. 'Abd-al-Malik makes repairs in Askalan. Muhammad ibn-Musaffa from abu-Sulaiman ar-Ramli's . the latter is the tenable one. It was then that Mu'awiyah reduced it. was reduced in 'Askalan reduced. of 'Askalan The Greeks destroyed 'Askalan and expelled violated the covenant ' : 143 — When 'Abdinhabitants in the days of ibn-az-Zubair. 'Umar exclaimed. The date of the conquest of Kaisariyah. Accordingly. al-Malik ibn-Marwan became ruler. however. Those who claim that Mu'awiyah reduced Kaisariyah in the days of his brother believe that it was not reduced before the end of the year 18. it was 'Amr ibnal-'Asi who first conquered the city. but those who claim that it was reduced while he was governor of Syria believe that it was reduced in the year 19. settled garrisons of cavalry in it and put it in charge of a guard. Of the two views. According to still other reports. its inhabitants and were reinforced by the Greeks. too. and made repairs in Kaisariyah. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to Mu'awiyah instructing him to follow up the conquest of what was left in Palestine. Later. Mu'awiyah conquered 'Askalan [Ascalon] which capitulated after some resistance. in Damascus.

which they did. with the size thereof to which I have reduced it. a certain Christian of 1 Ludd named a city a al-Batrik ibn-an-Naka. He dug for the inhabitants of ar-Ramlah their canal which is called Baradah.220 father: THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE — In the clays of ibn-az-Zubair the Greeks it against Kaisariyah and devastated to the ground. but he became caliph before its completion. and he dug also wells. The one he appointed to oversee the expenses of his palace in ar-Ramlah and of the cathedral mosque 2 was one of his clerks. Sulaiman took up his abode in Ludd and then founded the city of ar-Ramlah and The first thing he built in it was his palace and the house known as Dar as-Sabbaghin [the house of the dyers] in the middle of which he made a cistern. He then planned the mosque and began its construction. its made mosque and left a garrison in it. he built Tyre and outer Acre which had shared the same fate as Sulaiman ibn. restored settled in his rule. Bulddn. " to make boundary between two things . line s Ar.Abd-al-Malik Kaisariyah." ' After having erected a house for himself. The following tradition was communicated to me by certain men well versed in the conditions of Syria Al-Walid ibn: — 'Abd-al-Malik made Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik governor of the province of Palestine. 1 by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who reduced the original plan. p. . 303. 164. Sulaiman permitted the people to build their houses. When he went out and razed its mosque 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan was repairs in Kaisariyah. After becoming he continued its construction which was completed caliph. 102. translates: "made it his capital." see an-Nihayah. fortified it. massara — p. p. 2 Le Strange." Mukaddasi. The inhabitants of ar-Ramlah should be satisfied saying. builds ar-Ramlah. " 1 Ibn-Baka" in Hamadhani. Moreover.

were storations to whom the " re- The following tradition was related Fiefs in 'Askalan. were met by the banu-Umaiyah. they paid the expenses.PALESTINE Before Sulaiman there was no such its site 221 city as ar-Ramlah. after the time of Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. and was sand [Ar. The order for these exwas issued yearly by every caliph but when al-Mu'penses tasim became caliph. There are in Palestine special places containing documents from the caliphs. — ar-Rashid sent Harthamah ibn-A'yan to cultivate them. But when the banu-1-Abbas assumed the caliphate. " I met a man of the me by Bakr ibn-al-Haitham : — Arabs in 'Askalan who said that his grandfather was one of those settled in 'Askalan by 'Abd-al-Malik and was given . because was confiscated with the possessions of the banu-Umaiyah. Others came after that and their old lands were These are the ones to restored to them. It became thereafter a current expense which the 'dmils paid and kept an ac- count " of. thereby doing away with the necessity of issuing an order every time by the caliph. to the The Dar as-Sabbaghin passed hands of the heirs of it Salih ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Abbas. rami]. the explanation of which is the Certain estates having been abandoned in the following: caliphate of ar-Rashid and deserted by their occupants. " made. Harthamah asked some of their old tenants and farmers to go back to them with the understanding that he would reduce their kharaj and would deal with them more leniently. he gave a permanent decree for these . set aside from the records of the kharaj of the " common people and containing a statement of the reduc" " tion and restoration ". The expenses of the wells and canal of ar-Ramlah. Reduction " and " restoration " in the kharaj. 144 expenses. " " Those who went back are those to whom the reductions were made.

vol. is fief in it were 'This one of the fiefs heard Muhammad I fiefs given by 'Uthman ibn-'Afran'. iii.' 1 Firyabi " in Tabari. assigned. saying. p. 1 ibn-Yusuf al-Faryabi say Here in : — ' which were given out by the orders of 'Umar and 'Uthman. and it matters not who takes possession 'Askalan are " " of them. .222 a THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE as one of the garrison of cavalry to whom fiefs He also showed me a piece of land. 2557.

pp. iv. 2393. 4 Cf. Futilh." T. 223 . Kinnasrin after being through with al-Yarmuk. ibn-Tmran ibn-al-Hafi ibn-Kuda'ah remained Christian. 700. The Hadir 3 Kinnasrin had been settled by the Tanukh tribe since they came to Syria and pitched their tents in it. then they sought refuge in their stronghold and asked to capitulate. Wakidi. vol. translates " : rinovo con gli abitanti 8 s primitive trattato. Abu-'Ubaidah made terms with them similar to those of Hims. 4 Certain sons of Yazid ibn-Hunain at-Ta'i-1-Antaki from their sheikhs: A group of men from this Hadir Kinnasrin embraced Islam in the caliphate of al-Mahdi who inscribed on their hands in green color the word " Kin- — • • • nasrin. vol. p. 'A. p. 145 houses in Some These. Thus the Moslems effected the conquest of the land of Kinnasrin with its villages. istakraha. Yakut. but the banu-Salih ibn-Hulwan it. source of water. 35-39. A place where people alight and take up their abode by a constant ii.CHAPTER The Province XII of Kinnasrin and the cities called al-'Awasim Abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. went to the province of Hims and passed from one place to the other examining 1 it. Cf. 2 The inhabitants of the city of Kinnasrin resisted at first. vol. of them accepted it. 184. Then he went to Kinnasrin [Chalcis] with Khalid ibn-al-Walid commanding the van of his army. vol. il iii." i. abu-'Ubaidah summoned to Islam." 1 Ar. " p. Caetani. They later built their capitulates. Tabari.

Abu-'Ubaidah made which they agreed to pay poll-tax. p. some became Moslems and many made terms agreeing to pay poll-tax. e. us and the remaining part was treated according to the laws governing the spoils [Ar. The inhabitants of this Hadir once fought against the people of Arab tribes including in 1 Mawardi. departed bent upon Aleppo [Halab]. The Hadir of Aleppo. Aja and Salma]. 240 seq. he carried off cows and ibn-Ghanm — " We One part of the booty he distributed among sheep as booty.. a little after which they all accepted Islam with the exception of a few. maghnam 1 ]." by Muhammad ibn-at-Taiyib al-Fasi. Taiyi'. he directed against them as-Simt ibn-al-Aswad al-Kindi who reduced the city after besieging them. country When abu-'Ubaidah came to them. i. 118. 3 al-Fasad which tore up the tribe of Taiyi' some of whom then came and established themselves on the two mountains Under these circum[al-Jabalain. In which p. 8 many atrocities were committed by both parties. perhaps he said Shurahbil ibn-as-Simt) as our leader. . When he reduced the city. 2 Mushtarik." 2 was of old war termed Harb origin. but hearing that the people of Kinnasrin had violated the covenant and proved perfidious.224 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Thence abu-'Ubaidah Kinnasrin violates the covenant. Close by the city of Aleppo stood a settlement called the Hadir Halab in which different stances a large terms with them Tanukh lived. Hisham ibn-'Ammar ad-Dimashki from 'Abd-ar-Rahman : kept our post against Kinnasrin with as-Simt (or. Later they embraced Islam and lived with their descendants in the same place until a little after the death of ar-Rashid. See " An- notations on al-Kamus. The Hadir It The Hadir Taiyi' dates back to the disastrous body of the Taiyi' were dispersed over the and some came and settled [near Kinnasrin].

p. The first to come to their support and aid was al-' Abbas ibn-Zufar ibn-'Asim al-Hilali (according to his maternal pedigree. There is no danger. " known town In it was the stopping of al-Mundhir ibn-Ma' as-Sama' al-Lakhmi. . It was also settled by the banu-1-Ka'ka' ibnin pre-Islamic time. Hadir could not resist They were therefore expelled . than they attempted to subjugate it and were therecity. who chose it for their abode and whom it was thus called. ibn-ar-Rashid Muhammad wakkil that he heard a sheikh of the banu-Salih ibn-'Ali ibn'Abdallah ibn-' Abbas which the latter say to al-Mu'tasim. 730. . because umm-'Abdallah ibn-al-' Abbas was Lubabah. from of their Hadir. 1 Mushtarik. and that at the time of the insurrection and their Hadir was deThey moved to Kinnasrin whose people met them stroyed. Khulaid after . Thus they were dispersed over the land. ibn-Baghid. " Our hope. is in Allah and in thee !" To this al'Abbas answered. Hi. . some settling in Takrit (whom I myself have seen) and others in Armenia and various other regions. . if I should disappoint you !" Hiydr bani-l-Ka' ka Hiyar bani-1-Ka'ka' was a well. No sooner had they entered the with food and clothing.KINNASRTN AND AL-'AWASIM the city of Aleppo 225 and tried to drive them out of their city. I was told by al-MutaAl-'Abbas ibn-Zufar in Aleppo. fore driven out. 317. Yakut. this al-'Abbas The people and his of that men. uncle. the king place of al-Hirah. if it be the will of Allah may Allah disappoint me. in the year in invaded Ammuriyah '/ that when al' 'Abbas ibn-Zufar al-Hilali arrived in Aleppo for the support of the Hashimites. vol. daughter of al-Harith 146 ibn-Hazn ibn-Bujair ibn-al-Huzam of the Hilal tribe). some of their women called him saying. p. The Hashim tribe of the people of Aleppo wrote to all the Arab tribes of the vicinity asking for help.

J One of the pre-Islamic gods. The daughter of al-'Abbas.22 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan had given to al-Ka'ka' a part of this Hiyar as fief. Abu-'Ubaidah set out from Aleppo for Antioch [Antakiyah] in which a large body of men from the province of Kinnasrin had fortified themselves. than they capitulate and make terms regarding the safety city. their possessions. Some reporters claim that they capitulated. From there they agreed in writing with abu-'Ubaidah on the terms of peace. so he said. Abu-'Ubaidah set out for Aleppo sending before him Tyad ibn-Ghanm al-Fihri. . camped around the sought to of their no sooner had he done so. aughara. which lay about p. city wall. 'Ubaidah found nobody in Aleppo. were concluded. al-'Abbas ibn-Jaz' ibn-al-Harith other fiefs the kharaj also x and assessed died. Sulaiman. lived with 'Abd-al-Malik and brought forth al-Walid and Abu-' Ub aid ah reduces Aleppo. agreeing to share with the Moslems half of their homes and churches Others assert that abuprovided their lives be spared. 1 On his arrival at Mahrubah. ii. Walladah. he hated to be called 'Abd2 Ghanm. See Zaidan. All this ception of a site was granted them with the exfor the mosque. its inhabitants having moved to Antioch. it exempt after he which he exempted from on al-Yaman. vol. They were All or most of them were this waste land. The one to make the terms was Tyad. churches. Abu'Ubaidah. "I am Tyad ibn-Ghanm"). Ar. but when Tyad accepted Islam. homes and the fort. (The name of the latter's father was 'Abd-Ghanm. they returned to Aleppo. but 147 lives. and to al-Ka'ka's uncle. 133. When the terms Antioch reduced by abu-'Ubaidah. finding the people in a fortified position. and abu-'Ubaidah sanctioned them.

that they violated the contract after abu'Ubaidah's return to Palestine. however. When it was therefore reduced. most of the army being at the Bab Faris and Bab al-Bahr . al-Antaki from certain sheikhs of the frontier cities : A — Antioch was highly esteemed by 'Umar and 'Uthman. last At others remained. al-Urunt] I heard an aged man of Antioch say. agreeing to pay polltax or evacuate the place. they capitulated. It was allotted them in the time in which Mu'a- wiyah nor of Syria/ was. tract." effect. who reduced the city and made terms identical with the previous ones. which made abu-'Ubaidah send against them 'Iyad ibn-Ghanm and Habib ibn-Maslamah. As a child.KINNASRIN AND AL-'AWASIM 2 2J two parasangs from Antioch. Let them be its garriWhen he made son. Some of them did leave. and to the latter abu-'Ubaidah guaranteed safety. assessing one dinar and one jarib [of Later. but [sea gate]. which Mu'awiyah did. Mu'awiyah governor. according to 'Uthman's assignment. So he sent from Jerusalem 'Amr whose ibn-al-'Asi who reduced it and returned to Jerusalem people. Muhammad ibn-Sahm garrison stationed in Antioch. The following was said by abu" Sahm. while I was standing on the bridge of Antioch spanning the Orontes [Ar. Abu-'Ubaidah invested the city at all its gates. they violated the conwheat] on every adult. after a short time. "Station in Antioch Moslems of strong determination and good management. 'Umar wrote to him something to that Later 'Uthman instructed Mu'awiyah to station in it troops that would never leave and to assign them fiefs. and never stop their allowances. Some say. the troops of the enemy met him and he dispersed them and forced them to seek refuge in the city. This piece of land is a fief from 'Uthman to certain men that were in the army sent by abu' 148 'Ubaidah. the gover" . sought to capitulate and make peace. 'Umar wrote to abu'Ubaidah saying.

to be inherited by his [al-Mahdi] sons Mansur and Ibrahim. and killed him. among whom was ibn-Burd al-Fakih. 31. jarib) one dinar and one modius 2 of wheat. His death was brought about when the Greeks started from the coast and set up their camp against " Antioch and one of the uncircumcised threw a stone on Muslim. he fixed the tax on a filthur (i. into effect. and lastly to al-Mutawakkil. This Muslim was killed at one of the gates of Antioch which is known to-day as Bab Muslim. Hims. According to a tradition communi- from Antioch. later to Ibrahim ibn- The same and al-Iskandariyah passed as fief into the hands of its lake Sa'id al-Jauhari." 1 " Misran " used for the last two localities. 2 3 pp. vol. " Seleucia given as cated to fief. then by purchase to Ahmad ibn-abi-Duwad " the Commander of al-Iyadi. The land Maslamah 3 ibn-'Abd-al-Malik of Baghras [Pagrae] belonged to who gave it as an unalienable legacy to be used in the cause of righteousness. Muslim Mu'awiyah ibn-abi- Antioch in the year 42 some PerSufyan others from Ba'labakk. man owned 'Ain as-Sallaur with [Alexandria] which latter Raja'. He also built the fort of Seleucia. gloss. Moreover. al-Basrah and alsians and One of those transplanted was Muslim ibnKufah. who was then on the city wall. Salukiyah] lying at the sea-coast. Papyri Schott-Reinhardt.22 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ibn-'Abdallah loses his life. iv. the Believers. 1 Abdallah. Ar.. vol. wakf. were carried Baghras. . al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik gave as fief to some of the troops of Antioch the land of me by certain sheikhs Seleucia [Ar. C. a freedman of al-Mahdi. e. i. De Goeje. 352-353. H. p. They cultivated the land and the terms . Arab. the grandfather of 'Abdallah ibn-Habib ibntransplanted to ' an-Nu'man ibn-Muslim al-Antaki.. to Biblio. Becker. Geog.

later confiscated. 5742 s Ibid. 907. iii. His cavalry roamed about until they to Buka and reduced the villages of al-Jumah. 242 . fall ' Thus did all the land of Kinnasrin and Antioch I learnt from alAbbas ibn-Hisham on the authority of his father that the Khunasirah were thus called after one. 83. vol. Yakut. vol. p. Yakut. or Tuzin. 5 No diacritical points.. The Khunasirah Christians. Jv. p. dispersing the terms. iv. agreeing to entertain whomever of the Moslems passed by them. — — chief. Abu-'Ubaidah reduces Ma'arrat Misrin and other places. Khunasir ibn-'Amr ibn-al-Harith al-Kalbi later al-Kinani who was their into the hands of abu-'Ubaidah. i. certain men of the Rabi'ah tribe were assigned fiefs by Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. which were passed to al-Ma'mun and put in charge of Salih al-Khazin.KINNASRIN AND AL-'AWASIM Maslamah tion 22 g gives fiefs to Rabl'ah. came to abu-'Ubaidah and made killed and many patricians. to communicated me by According to a tradiibn-Burd al-Antaki and others. met them 149 whole army and and booty. p. ? MFO. " the proprietor of the Dar [-Salih]" in Antioch. where he reduced a fort that later bore his name. Sarmin. too. vol. . 487. Butnan Habib was so called after Habib ibn-Maslamah-1who was sent from Aleppo either by abu-'Ubaidah or Iyad ibn-Ghanm to Butnan. 4 The occupants of the convents 5 of Tabaya and al-Fasilah capitulated. 2 got Martahwan 3 and Tizin. Lammens. i. vol. vol. * Yakut. Fihri 1 Known also as Ma'arrat Kinnasrin and Ma'arrat Nasrin. hearing that a large body of Greeks were assembled between Ma'arrat Misrin * and Aleppo. p. Thus he effected the carrying away captives conquest of Ma'arrat Misrin and made terms similar to the terms of Aleppo. p. Abu-'Ubaidah.

granting them the same rights granted to the people of Antioch. 107. Abu-'Ubaidah set out bent upon Kurus [Cyrrhus]. and proceeded to Kurus where he signed a covenant with its people. Jibrin or Jibrin Kurastaya. He then returned from Syria." 8 MFO. s Yakut. 6 Zaidan. distributed his cavalry and subdued all the province of Kurus to the end of the frontier of Nikabulus (Nicepholis). one of the four divisions into which the army of Antioch was divided c was moved to it. iii. The latter was met by one of the monks of Kurus. he wrote a special statement re4 He then garding a village that he owned called Sharkina. ii. i. 19. Kurus was for frontier garrison for Antioch. vol. To it came every year a detachment Antioch army to act as garrison. p. sending at the head of the vanguard Tyad. uncertain. together with others. . Surkanya in " in Lammens. 667. 363. who was now between Jabrin 3 Abu-'Ubaidah accepted the capitulation and Tall A'zaz. tali' ah. 382.230 * THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The treaty with Kurus. To the monk. p. " is " cf. 3 or Tall 'Aziz. to reinforce Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas in al-'Irak. Villages Yezidis. Salman fort. Yakut. Buldan.000 men who came spring and returned in winter. This Salman occupied a fort in [fort] Kurus which was called after him Hisn 150 Salman. 1. Later. together with abu-Umamah as-Sudai Companion of the Prophet.500-2. Salman ibn-Rabi'ah had led an invasion 1 Ya'kubi. 4 The word Ar. 'Iyad sent 2 the monk to abu-'Ubaidah. vol. Antioch the seat of a garrison that kept watch on the Kurus a 5 from the enemy. Sorqanie. a of abu-'Ubaidah. p. who asked to capitulate on behalf of its people. According to others. ii. vol. p. 120. Salman ibn-Rabi'ah-1-Bahili was in the army ibn-'Ajlan. p. Rustah. vol. p. and the periodical detachments were no more sent there.

ii. i. he assigned a 'amil and sent with him some Moslems. was named Yakut. 142. p. he encamped near this fort and it was called after him. On setting out from the district of Mar'ash. One condition on them was that they search for news regarding imposed the Greeks and forward it in writing to the Moslems. p. 'Iyad. Balis and Kasirin captured. Balis and Kasirin 2 belonged to two brothers of the Greek nobility to whom were given as fiefs the adjacent villages and who were made guardians of the Greek towns of Syria that lay between Balis and Kasirin. places he posted garrisons. pp. 315. 240. This Salman together with Ziyad 1 were among the Slavs whom Marwan ibn-Muhammad 2 stationed in the frontier fortresses. p. vol. Abu-'Ubaidah carried the terms into effect and sent 'Iyad ibn-Ghanm to the region of Duluk and Ra'ban. until he got to 'Arajin. But in the dangerous Abu-'Ubaidah proceeded of the army he sent to Balis [Barbalissus] and to Kasirin he sent an army under Habib ibn-Maslamah. i. 276. vol. p. these towns. iv. note 3. I Manbij. their inhabi. 2 s 4 The one after whom Ar thughur. . Duluk and Ra'ban make terms. whose inhabitants capitulated on terms similar to those of Manbij. 153-155. Abu-'Ubaidah advanced to Halab as-Sajur 3 and sent before him Tyad to When abu-'Ubaidah came up to Manbij [Hierapolis]. Zaidan. Mushtarik. Lammens. 4 The van When 1 the Moslem armies reached Plisn Ziyad vol. . he found that the people of Manbij had capitulated on terms similar to those of Antioch. MFO. p.KINNASR1N AND AL-'AWASIM 23 1 against the Greeks after the conquest of al-Trak and before he started for Armenia. . 5 16. vol. vol. heard someone say that this Salman was a Slav and that the fort was named after him. Sometimes 'Arshin Yakut. To every district abu-'Ubaidah conquered. i. Yakut.

after taking Maslamah conaway the usual tithe for the government. either themselves or their descendants. together with the inhabitants of the all asked him to dig for them a from the Euphrates to irrigate their land. who were in Syria and who. Maslamah himself started the idea 1 and proposed the terms. Others claim that it is of ancient origin.232 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE pay poll-tax or evacuate the for the tants capitulated. According to others. he settled and belonged to the Kais tribe. Maslamah repaired and strengthened the city wall. middle. and lower extremities were tithe-lands watered only by rain. Maslamah Balis and the ibn-Marwan side of the an expedition against the Greeks from the Mesopotamian frontier fortresses. Abu-'Ubaidah stationed in Balis a body of fighting men and settled in the city some Arabs. agreeing to places. . together with those of Buwailis. agreeing to canal offer him one-third of the produce of the land. When Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik canal. Moreover. and Siffin (which were villages attached came to him. an-Najm]. but who had emigrated from the deserts In Kasirin. and they 1 : people lived up to their promise. together with others who were not among the forces sent to the frontiers. village of Jisr Manbij [or Kal'at At this time there was no bridge [Ar. jisr}. refused to stay in it. Most of them left Byzantine Empire. Sultan. Ar. he camped at Balis whose inhabitants. and then returned to 151 villages attached to it on its upper. sented and dug the canal called Nahr Maslamah and the upper extremity. had accepted Islam. 'Abidin. It was first put up for the summer expeditions in the days Mesopotamia and the of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. after the advent of the Moslems to Syria. led to Balis) Kasirin. others who. Abu-'Ubaidah reached as far as the Euphrates Palestine.

the result will cerThe great part will be in the hands tainly be unfavorable. after Mu'ddh : — 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab came divide the land among force. if of these people. its villages as fief to Sulaiman ibn-'Ali they passed to his ibn-' Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas. These ar-Rashid ordered preserved. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from 'Abdallah ibn-Kais al-Hamdani When as fief to al-Ma'mun. its held them villages passed into the hands of his heirs. 1 away." stating that he many times the income of the possessions and domains he held. Athir. " mad died. Ja'far's letters were brought out and used as an argument against him. the "Commander of the Believers. Muhammad's brother. At the death of Maslamah. repeatedly calumniated his brother to arRashid. 152 The caliphate. and upon the slaves and other dependents he kept. who " " until the appearance of the blessed dynasty [Abbasid]. . By Allah." villages. Ja'far ibn-Sulaiman.KINNASRIN AND AL-'AWASIM Balis and Balis with its villages 233 as fief. at which time 'Abdallah ibn-'Ali confiscated the possessions of the banu-Umaiyah. for the purpose of attaining his [crown-] 1 ambition. from whom Muhammad ibn-Sulaiman. advises against the division of the land. and so the posknowledged sessions passed to ar-Rashid. Muhammad had no other brother from his father and mother than Ja'far. who gave Balis and its villages whom they passed to his son. who will pass become the possession of one man. thou dividest the land. He added that it was legal for the " Commander of the Believers letters used to spend to appropriate the money of his brother. p. vol. including Balis and its " Commander of the Believers. 82. when MuhamNow. and the whole will Others will come after vi. The latter acthat they were his letters. to al-Jabiyah and wanted to the Moslems. on the ground that it was taken by ' Mu'adh ibn-Jabal objected saying. Abu-l-'Abbas the assigned Balis and son.

terms by which certain things should be sent to the winter quarters of the Moslems." Then 'Umar decreed that a polltax be assessed graded according to the various classes. Memoire." who come first who come 'Umar acted according Mu'adh. De Goeje. and that kharaj be imposed upon the land. oil and capitulated vinegar.234 them. it ors. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who will bravely defend Islam. cultivated who. AlThe chief of Busy a tells a lie regarding the tax. 'Umar asked that a statement be written down to that effect but abu-'Ubaidah showed that the chief of Busra " was telling an untruth and said. by the permission of the governafter it had lain as waste land claimed by no 1 one. Abu-Hafs ash-Shami from The tithe-lands of Syria. 1 'Umar fixes man of 'Umar : —'Umar wrote the tax. The fact is that we made : — . Al-Husain from Aslam. 935- . but find nothing left. and the right to be entertained as a guest for three days. agreeing to offer food. and he fixed it at four dinars on those who possessed gold. 2 Hajar. ibn-al-Aswad al-'Ijli from Salamah-1Husain ibn-'Ali The chief of Busra recounted that he had Juhani's uncle to the Moslems. " " 2 in Syria is one Makhul tithe-land Every piece of whose people had evacuated it. p. He also assessed on them a subsistence tax by which each Moslem in Syria and Mesopotamia would receive two modii of wheat. 150. vol. iii. and which had been given as : — fief to the Moslems. a f reed- to the tax-collectors instruct- ing them to levy poll-tax only on those who were adult. p. and three kists of oil. Seek therefore some as well as those to the suggestion of plan that suits those last.

235 . 2 Duraid. 55. This took place in the year 28. accompanied by wife Fakhitah daughter of Karazah 2 ibn-'Abd-'Amr ibn-Naufal ibn-'Abd-Manaf ibn-Kusai. Mu'awiyah wrote again asking permission to invade Cyprus. When the Moslems arrived in Cyprus and landed on its shore (Cyprus being an island 80x80 parasangs). I have seen the answer 'Umar gave when thou madest the request from him to lead a sea-expedition. p. According to al-Wakidi and others. in the year 29. Mu'awiyah again wrote to 'Uthman. it. 2820-2821. not. but 'Umar refused. we allow thee to do so. This was the first time the Moslems sailed in the Mediterranean. 1 When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph. i. 'Uthman wrote." from Acre with a his Accordingly. pp. referring to the ease with which the sea 153 could be crossed to Cyprus. the first expedition against Cyprus was led in sea by Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. "If thou sailest with thy wife. 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit took his wife umm-Haram of the Ansdr. the cessation of the rainy season others say. informing him about its proximity and the ease of acquiring " In answer to this. otherwise. vol. Mu'awiyah had asked 'Umar's permission to lead a naval expedition. after .CHAPTER Cyprus XIII The first conquest of Cyprus. daughter of Milhan." In the year 27. 'Uthman wrote back this time saying. Likewise. Mu'awiyah embarked large number of ships. its 1 Tabari.

74. fn>m alWalid: — Yazid the troops. In the year 32. and sent to the island 12. however. and that the Cyprians would keep the Moslems informed regarding the movement of their enemy the Greeks.236 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Archon [Urkun] demanded to make terms of capitulation.Iimsi Athir. Thus when the Moslems used to un- — dertake an expedition by sea. 8 And theretore received stipends. Why 1 Yazid withdrew Musaffa-1-.I. them by the Greeks.200 dinars to be Similar terms had been made with paid annually by them. According to other reports.000 men of those whose names were 2 recorded in the register [Ar. the troops back and ordered the city destroyed. diwdn] and erected mosques in it. Thus the people of Cyprus pay two It was made a condition that the Moslems would tributes. p. sent of Mu'awiyah. slaughtering and taking prisoners. iii. which was considered unavoidable by the people. the Cyprians offered ships as an aid to the Greeks in an expedition in the sea. Consequently. on the other hand the Moslems made it a condition that 1 those who may come after them to they would not right subjugate the Cyprians. Mu'awiyah made terms with them on 7. they did not molest the They were not supported by the Cyprians. who succeeded him. Muhammad ibn- ibn-Mu'awiyah p. vol. the second invasion of Cyprus by Mu'awiyah was carried out in the year 35. He then confirmed them in the terms that were previously made. 187. al-Mutarrizi. Mu'awiyah transplanted from Ba'labakk a group of men. al-Mughrib. The second invasion by Mu'awiyah. nor did the Cyprians support any one against them. Moreover. and erected a city on the island. He took Cyprus by force. whose inhabitants were assigned special stipends until the death His son Yazid. . not prevent them from paying the tribute to the Greeks. Mu'awiyah invaded them in the year 33 with 500 ships. Cyprians.

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd When Cyprus was : — umm-Haram. al-Mikdad. This or something like effect that it 1 was agreed upon. she disembarked and was offered a mule to ride upon. sailed with her husband. Shaddad ibn-Aus ibn-Thabit (a nephew of Hassan ibn-Thabit). abu-ad-Darda. Hisham ibnMu'awiyah makes permanent peace. and that was 237 154 and considerable sum of money as why he withdrew the troops from Cyprus. effected by Allah. 1897. was complete. As she was riding. and the booty he brought to the Moslems was peated until great. Kitab al-Ma'arif. 215.000 dinars and give advice and warnings to the Moslems regarding their enemy. Ka'b al- and Jubair ibn-Nufair al-Hadrami. The raids of the Moslems were re- Mu'awiyah in his caliphate concluded permanent terms with the Cyprians to the they pay 7. 'Ubadah ibn-as-Samit. 81-101. Fadalah ibn-'Ubaid al-Ansari. ibn-Kutaibah. 'Abdallah ibn-Bishr al-Mazini. 2 Nawawi. Her tomb in Cyprus is called " the Tomb of the Righteous Some of those those Woman.CYPRUS offered a large bribe. from 'Abd-as-Salam ibn-Musa's father invaded for the first time. . and she was killed. 523. JRAS. 'Ubadah ibnas-Samit. daughter of Milhan. abu-Dharr al-Ghifari. Among who : following Ansari. the Greeks." who took part * in the campaign. Its conquest. upon which the Cyprians destroyed their city and Mosques. p. the mule stumbled. 'Umair ibn-Sa'd — joined the campaign with Mu'awiyah were the Abu-Aiyub Khalid ibn-Zaid ibn-Kulaib al- ibn-'Ubaid al-Ansari. Wathilah ibn-al-Aska' al-Kinani. 'Ammar ad-Dimashki from Safwan ibn-'Amr Mu'awiyah ibn-Mati' : Habr 2 — ibn-abi-Sufyan personally carried out the invasion of Cyprus and was accompanied by his wife. p. was Umm-Hardm dies in Cyprus. PP. On their arrival in Cyprus.

by ar-Rashid's orders. desired to break the covenant made with them. he restored the terms made by Mu'awiyah.238 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Al-Walid ibn- The Cyprians expelled and returned. The tax increased. The canonists were numerous. the Cyprians started a rebellion and he. cancelled the addition. Malik ibn-Anas. : whom Musa ibn-A'yan. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from alWakidi The terms between Mu'awiyah and the Cyprians : — were kept in force until the time of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn- Marwan who added 1. : — of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas [Ar. Yazid them." Accordingly. lems. therefore.000 dinars to their tax. and Makhlad ibn-al-Husain. ibn-al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik returned them to their home. and many were carried off as Later they behaved properly towards the Mosprisoners. That was the 155 case until the caliphate of 'Uraar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who When Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. ' Abd-al-M alik wants to annul the treaty. because of a charge of suspicion brought against When the Moslems disapproved of the act. who expressed him" self as follows: We shall. above everyone else. their prisoners were returned. thughur]. and not enrich ourselves by oppressing them. Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik expelled many of the Cyprians to Syria. came to power. They all answered him. Sufyan ibn-'Uyainah. . abu-Ishak al-Fazari. Yahya ibn-Hamzah. do justice . over the frontier were the following whose opinions he sought alLaith ibn-Sa'd. an invasion was led against them by Humaid ibn-Ma'yuf al-Hamdani because of a rebellion they had started. Isma'il ibn-'Aiyash. among cities . however. The following was communicated to me by certain Syrian scholars and abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam During the governorship to them. In the caliphate of ar-Rashid. he restored it and it was kept until the caliphate of abu-Ja'far al-Mansur. and.

paying the khardj. consider it best to hesitate in breaking their covenant and casting off their treaty until the evidence [of disloyalty] is well estab2 lished against them. and thou art convinced of their perfidy. do so and those who desire desire to emigrate to the land of the Greeks may to remain in Cyprus.. ' : the engagement with them through the whole time of their treaty. after that. therefore. may do so and be considered an enemy to be fought and attacked. : " written by Malik ibn-Anas Our peace with the Cyprians is of old standing and carefully observed [ ? Ar.. consider it best that thou castest off their treaty and givest them a respite of one year for enforcing the law. the Greeks. mutasahar] — by the governors placed over them. 8:60. 'cast not off their treaty until thou art sure of their treachery. for Allah says Observe. with the understanding they are hostile.CYPRUS 239 The opinion of al-Laith. Yet I know of no governor who broke their terms or expelled them from their city. they do not behave properly and abandon their deceit. those who . 9:4. I. Those of them who desire to go and settle in a Moslem land and become dhimmis. . therefore. Allah himself x has said Or if thou fear treachery from any people.' I. * Kor. therefore.' If. because they considered the terms a humiliation and belittlement to the Cyprians. 1 156 Kor. and to prove our loyalty to the covenant. The following is a quotation " The Cyprians are from the letter of al-Laith ibn-Sa'd being constantly charged by us with infidelity to Moslems and loyalty to Allah's enemies.' He did not say. cast : ' : off their treaty in like manner. To give them a respite of one year would be enough to refute any protest they may make. may do so. in view of the tax paid to them and the chance they had of attacking their enemy." The following statement was The opinion of Malik. and a source of strength to the Moslems.

240 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In that case. consider it best to abide thereof. therefore. I have heard al-Auza'i say regarding the case of some." This is what The opinion of Sufyan ibn-Uyainah. 12 : 52. and they would suffer humiliation and disgrace. ijmd']. conveyed information about and pointed them out to the 'unbelievers' dhimmis. if he so desires. I. Kor. consensus of opinion [Ar. " We know of no one who wrote Sufyan ibn-'Uyainah : the Prophet and violated it. made a covenant with dering aid to their allies. making it right their secret things ' : If they are for the governor to kill or crucify them. . who. they have thereby violated their covenant and forfeited their claim on security. none of the early men ever broke a covenant . the Prophet's of the terms stipulated against the people of allies ' Najran was not to practise usury. One against the Khuza'ah. the attack then thou mayest attack them. in spite of by the covenant and fulfil the conditions what they have done. >r would cast deceivers. but in each case the governors would grant a period of respite and so far as I know. Their violation consisted in renthe part of the Prophet. Musa ibn-A'yan with the Cyprians or any other people. having the Prophet Their case was a favor on except the people of Makkah." ' The wrote : cases took place in the past.' off their treaty. would be justified and would be crowned with success. —opinion of Similar " Musa ibn-A'yan. after making terms with the Moslems. It may be that the common people and the mass among the Cyprians had no hand in what their leaders did. then the govern. 'Umar decreed that they be expelled. but when they did pracThus by the tise it. by Allah's will. without consider it legal to put him to death. he who violates a covenant forfeits the right of being entitled to security. but if they had been taken by capitulation and are not entitled to the Moslem's security. for * " Allah loveth not the machinations of the 1 Cf..

In the covenant of the people of In case something Taflis. consider it best that they be left on their covenant and the security promised them. and its people refused the Yakut. vol. This is the case of 'Arbassus 'Umair ibn-Sa'd once came to 'Umar ibnal-Khattab saying. two.' 'Umar parallel to that of 'Arbassus 1 157 : ' When thou goest there. whose people disclose to our enemy our secrets. iii. for for If they consent.CYPRUS Ismail ibn-Aiydsh's opinion. together with by the Greeks. . therefore. : in which it has a Cyprus good example and a precedent to be followed. p. liated their wives. everything. and the canonists disapproved of it. two. but do not disclose to us our enemy's. the Moslems considered the act outrageous. so long as ye keep loyal to the Moslems. expel them from the city and raze it to the ground. But if they refuse. then cast off their treaty to them and give them one year at the expiration of which thou mayest destroy the city. propose to give them ewe they possess two. There lies between us and the Greeks a city called 'Arbassus. give that to them. especially because when al-Walid ibn-Yazid expelled them to Syria. It is therefore proper for us to defend and protect them." statement issued by is The following was the Yahya ibn-Hamzatis opinion " ibn-Hamzah The case of Yahya . so much so that when Yazid ibn-al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to power. and every ' replied. The following is " Isma'il ibn-'Aiyash wrote The people of Cyprus are : 24I what humi- and oppressed and they are subjugated. Habib ibn-MasIamah wrote. which act was approved of by the Moslems and considered just. he restored them to Cyprus. that would not be a violation of your covenant.' I. for every cow. ' should arise to divert the attention of the Moslems from you and some enemy should subjugate you. 633.' 'Umair went to the 1 city.

for the sake of whom the Moslems are not supposed to fight and on whom the Moslem regulations are not binding." The opinion of abu-Ishdk and Makhlad. own laws and pay someIstilahat al- thing to be I'liiu'ni. gave them one year at the expiration of which he destroyed it. to be treated according to the covenant so long as they abide by it and consent to it. sition.000 should go to the Moslems and 7. and terms were made on 14. . therefore. and to be forgiven so long as they pay their dues.000 din of which 7. fid yah. It is reported that ibn-Jabal always hated to have the enemy capitulate nite Mu'adh on defi- terms unless the Moslems were by the force of circumstances compelled to make terms. gave them two alternatives to choose from a double fold of what they possessed : and the evacuation of the casting off their treaty. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE He.242 offer. and 1 it was who 1 stipulated that the Cyprian are governed by their lid not Ar. the status quo of the people was kept. To leave the Cyprians on the terms made with them and to have the Moslems use in their own cause what they receive [as tax] from the Cyprians is preferable. are not dhimmis but people of tribute l to be spared so long as ' ' they are worthy. alone. let ii. ah! vol. Abu-Ishak Fazari and Makhlad ibn-al-Husain wrote as follows " al: — We can find nothing more similar to the case of Cyprus than the case of 'Arbassus and the decision of 'Umar ibn'I mar al-Khattab regarding it. they were given one year at the end of which the Al-Auza'i repeated a tradition to the city was destroyed. Kashf 157. effect that when Cyprus was conquered.000 to the Greeks. p. All holders of covenant. The people of 'Arbassus had a covenant similar to that of the people of Cyprus. because no one could tell whether such capitulation would be of value and strength for the Moslems. For fidyah see at-Tahanawi. or a respite of one year after Having rejected the former propocity.

" The negative particle "la" Evidently there a mistake in the text.CYPRUS disclose to the Greeks the condition of the ' 2 43 Moslems. The Cyprians did not abide by the terms they made with us.' But we consider them as ' people bound to us by covenant. is superfluous. and the violation of 158 which is legal only if they do some thing that shows 1 their perfidy is and treachery. .' whose terms of peace involve rights to them and obligations on them. 1 Al- Auza'i used to say.

however. When Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. sea. . and levied on every man two dinars as poll-tax. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Saf wan ibn-'Amr Abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah : — the Samaritans in the provinces of the and Palestine. al-Khitaf. J. . 2$?. He also assessed kharaj on their lands in Palestine and levied five dinars on every man. vol. Ar-Rashid put and [by it in charge of some who culti- vated into 1 it it. History of the Samaritans. Cf. 371 A. Al-Makrizi. s. in the early part of the caliphate There was in Palestine of ar-Rashid a devastating which in some cases would attack all the members of plague a household. one is called ad-Dustan [Dositheans] and the made terms with other al-Kushan. 30?. iv. p. vol. stipulating that they pay tax on their persons but nothing on their lands. their land was rendered waste and useless.. I was informed by certain men well versed in the conditions of the Jordan and Palestine that Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah assessed kharaj on the lands of the Samaritans in the Jordan. v. gifts] attracted the farmers and tenants In these places the thus making it crown domains. 341-344. The Jewish Encyclopaedia. The tax imposed by Yazid. Sects. who acted as spies and guides for the Jordan Moslems. As a result. 1 Their lands become crown-land.: De Sacy.CHAPTER XIV The Samaritans The terms made by abu-'Ubaidah. The Samaritans are Jews and are divided into two classes. "Samaritans". i. Montgomery. assumed power he assessed kharaj on their lands. 244 p. Chrestom. pp.

: — 1 59 The Greeks proved perfidious to Mu'awiyah. but still the Moslems did not consider it legal to put the hostages in their hands to death. upon which al-Mutawakkil gave orders that it be reduced again to three. 245 called One of those villages Baitin- Mama. Mu'awiyah spares the hostages. Mu'awiyah took hostages from them and held them in Ba'labakk. among other aufidy. made a complaint in the year 246 to the effect that they were poor and unable to pay the five-dinar kharaj. and so they set them free. is better than perfidy against perto Hisham. al-Auza'i. saying. Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Saf wan ibn-' Amr and Sa'id ibn-' Abd-al-' Aziz The Greeks made peace with Mu'awiyah with the stipulation that he pay them a certain sum of money. which lay in the district of Nabulus and whose habitants were Samaritans.THE SAMARITANS Samaritans lived. maintains the same view." According thorities. ' Loyalty against perfidy .

. whose people did not resist but immediately sought for peace and capitulation. came and reduced Antioch. * p. in their anxiety to save their lives. they tried to go and join the Greeks. frontier garrison in Mount al-Lukam. Terms were made providing would it act as helpers to the Moslems. after which he made Habib ibn-Maslamah-1Fihri its governor. i. They i. MFO. vol. Djaradjima ". " Ummens. are identical with the Mardaites. 80. nor did any one call their attention to them. Habib attacked al-Jurjumah. stipulated that they pay no tax. and Antioch. Encyclopaedia of Islam. they confined themselves to their Zaj [vitriol city and. nafl. I am informed by certain sheikhs from Antioch that al-Jarajimah were the inhabi2 tants of a town called al-Jurjumah lying between Baiyas and Buka on mount al-Lukam [Amanus] near Ma'din az' While the Greeks held the authority over pit]. 1 In these term^ were in- Less correctly Jurajimah. v. j.CHAPTER XV Al-Jarajimah The treaty with al-Jarajimah. abu-'Ubaidah sent and conquered Antioch once more. p. The Moslems took no note of them. 17. the Jarajimah were under the rule of the Syria When abu-'Ubaidah patrician and governor of Antioch. vol. 3 for themselves the booty they take that al-Jarajimah and as spies and was On the other hand and that they keep from the enemy in case they fight with the Moslems. 8 See Mutarrizi. 246 . When later the people of Antioch violated their covenant and acted treacherously. Ar.

and because he feared that in case " came to Syria. and runaway slaves once possessed by the MosUnder these conditions. certain Greek horsemen went forth to Mt. he followed the precedent of Mu'awiyah who. In the when Marwan ibn-al-Hakam died and 'Abd-al-Malik. together with the inhabitants of the villages. because 'Abd-al-Malik was too busy to fight against him. as well as the merchants. and took hostages from them. 'Abd-al-Malik had to make terms with them." agreeing to pay him a sum of money. to pay them a certain sum. al. they deviated from 160 the right path and held friendly communications with the Greeks.Jarajimah. dependents. he held in Ba'labakk. agreed to pay something to them [the Greeks]. 'Abd-al-Malik agrees days of ibn-az-Zubair. made by 'Amr All this synchronized with the attempt ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi to secure the caliphate 1 Followers. being engaged in the fight in al-'Irak. These were were included in the of their number. Nabateans. employees and dependents. he might overpower him. the tyrant ' . after having been joined lems. " He also made terms with the Greek tyrant. because they terms with the Jarajimah though not Others say they were so called because called " " x ar-Rawadif they came riding behind sented themselves in the sions. but on others. by a large body of al.000 dinars per week. who was appointed by Marwan as heirapparent. . On certain occaproperly acted with respect to the [Moslem] governors. alLukam under a Greek leader and started for the Lebanon. whom In this.Jarajimah al. wished to succeed Marwan in the caliphate and was ready to leave for al-'Irak to fight against al-Mus'ab ibn-az-Zubair.Jarajimah when the latter preMoslem camp. whether Nabateans or not.AL-JARAJIMAH 247 eluded besides the Jarajimah all those who lived in their city. agreeing to pay 1.

Abd-al-Malik 1 led an invasion to at-Tuwanah. 'Abd-al-Malik asked his master^ He was then put by Abdto set him free. the leader put full confidence in Suhaim and At the favorable moment. Maimun al-Hakam (umm-al-Hakam being the ibn-abi-Sufyan) Mu'awiyah The slave was named after al. Abd-algeneral. succeeded in Suhaim played the act of a friend and won reaching him. which they did. in disguise and through gentle behavior. was wholly Suhaim fell upon him with a band of troops and freedmen of 'Abd-alMalik. which made Abd-al-Malik After that. 554. 1 Yakut. iii. like manner. nounced publicly a promise of security to those who had Accordingly. who belonged to the banu-ummal-Jurjumani. cursing him and dwelling on his weak points. a Greek slave. however. 161 al-Malik at the head of a regiment of troops and stationed at Antioch. he and Masla- mah ibn. With 1.248 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE his closing the gates of and still Damascus immediately ( after 'Abd-al-Malik had left the city. partly scattered among the villages of Hims and Damascus In but the majority returned to their city on al-Lukam. p. deceived. so much so that more busy.Jarajimah. . and : the slaves to their masters. sister of who were of the tribe of Thakif. This took Suhaim slays the Greek place in the year 70. vol. Lebanon. Hearing of his strength and valor. the Nabateans returned to their villages. and killed him together with Suhaim thereupon anthe Greeks who were with him. the Jarajimah were joined the Greek leader. who had been previously prepared for the attack and stationed in a convenient place. the favor of the leader by censuring 'Abd-al-Malik.000 men from Antioch. Malik sent to the Greek leader Suhaim ibn-al-Muhajir who. because he mixed with them and rebelled with them in Mt. One of these slaves was Maimun al-Jurjumani.

Consequently. When a certain 'amil held al-Jarajimah of Antioch responsible for poll-tax. al-Huwar. their children or women. who fell upon them with a host of Moslems and reduced their city on the following terms Al-Jarajimah may settle wherever they wished in Syria. they should take part in the Moslem campaigns and be allowed to keep for themselves the booty from those whom they kill in a same amount taken from the possession of Moslems should be taken [as tax] from their articles of trade and from the possessions of the wealthy among them. 1 it cancelled. 840. . each one of them receiving eight dinars. . and he ordered Al-Mutawakkil levies tax. neither they nor any of their children or women should be compelled to leave Christianity they may put on Moslem dress. vol. they brought their case before al-Wathik-Billah at the time of his caliphate. Then Maslamah destroyed their city and settled them in Mt. On the other hand. and each family receiving the fixed provisions of wheat and oil. In the year 89. a writer Yakut. althem. two modii of wheat and two kists : Al-WaUd makes terms with of oil. Some of them left for Hims. al-Walid ibn-'Abdal-Malik sent against them Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. i. Al-Wathik cancels the poll-tax. after taking up his abode in Anduel. p. This so much grieved 'Abd-al-Malik that he sent a large army against the Greeks to avenge his death.. and the the tioch fled to the Byzantine Empire. themselves into their city and were Jarajimah gathered joined by a host of Greeks from Alexandretta [Iskan1 darunah] and Rusis. The patrician of al-Jurjumah accompanied by a body of men.AL-JARAJIMAH 249 After fighting valiantly and standing gallantly. Sunh al-Lulun [ ?] and 'Amk Tizin. he fell a martyr. I was informed by ii. and no poll-tax may be assessed on them. e.

and made some of them settle in Antioch. signed.. ' as- : — Mu'awiyah transplanted in the year 49 or 50 to the seacoast some of the Zutt and Sayabijah of al-Basrah. because. 41. who sent them to Syria. and whenever the summer expedition was carried out. . line 3. by 'Abd-al-Malik's who whom orders. p. Abu-Hafs ash-Shami from Makhul followers. p. p. According to abuHafs. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : — Kami!. line 17. of the Zutt of as-Sind 2 were carried by Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim to al-Hajjaj. placed as garrisons and set behind the armies of the summer expeditions in order to repel al- Jarajimah from the rear. and were Some later transplanted Lebanon 1 rebels. 226.250 in THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE I whom have full confidence that al-Mutawakkil ordered that poll-tax be levied on these Jarajimah and that the regular allowance for food be given them. is in Some Antioch a quarter known by the name of of their descendants are in Buka in the pro- vince of Antioch and are known by the name of az-Zutt. 2 Haukal. and to every one of them eight dinars were The former account is more authentic. by al-YValid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik to Antioch.!. i. Az-Zutt. certain people from Antioch and some Nabateans were given stipends. 82. the people of al-Jurjumah used to make razzias against the villages of Antioch and al-'Amk. e.Jarajimah would cut off those 162 lagged behind or followed. they were of value in the frontier garrisons. 86-'. 1-32. al. De Goeje. Al-Jarajimah molest the summer expeditious. It is claimed by abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi that in the days of 'Abdal-Malik. Therefore those set behind the armies of the summer expedition were called rawadif. any they They went so far against the Moslems that. Mcmoircs sur les Mi- grations des Tsiganes. among other things. there az-Zutt. together with could cut off at the rear of the army. pp.

retain their [Christian] faith.. and they used to station the ships for the invasion and to post the guard on the coast. Tf one oppresses a man bound to us by covenant and charges him with more than he can do. giving up or delaying the invasion at the : — 163 time in which the enemy was strong and wide awake [ ?] When abu-Ja'far al-Mansur began his rule. 270. How didst thou then make them homes and possessions in spite of Allah's de1 cree Nor shall any sinning one bear the burden of another. and of whom many were killed by thee : " and the rest returned to their villages.' which is the most rightful thing to abide by and follow The command worthy of the strictest observance and obedience is that of the Prophet who says. of which the following extract has been Thou hast heard of the expulsion of the dhimpreserved mis from Mt. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam related to me on the authority of Mu- hammad ibn-Kathir that Salih received a long communication from al-Auza'i. he examined the . - As-Suyuti.AL-JARAJIMAH 2 cj Some people in Lebanon rebelled. complaining of the collector of the kharaj of Ba'labakk. I. 6 : 164. Muhammad ibn-Sahm al-Antaki from abu-Ishak al-Fazari The banuused to direct their summer and winter campaigns Umaiyah against the Greeks beyond the frontier cities of Syria and Mesopotamia by means of Syrians and Mesopotamians. although they did not side with those who rebelled. The frontier and littoral towns fortified. This made Salih ibn- 'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-' Abbas destroyed their fighting power. their villages send against them troops who and the rest were allowed to Salih sent the latter back to and expelled some of the natives of Lebanon. I am the one to overcome him by argupunish the ' many for the fault of the few and leave their : ! ments. Lebanon. Kanz al-'Ummal. . 1 Kor.' " 2 To this he added other citations.

he carried cities When al- the work in the remaining and forts to completion states. frontier cities. peopled and fortified them. He distributed possessions in the frontier and coast cities. The industries he established holy were not established heretofore. The same thing he did with the Mahdi became caliph. . " What we saw of the efforts of the Believers ' Harun the ' Commander in conducting and of his penetrating insight in carrying on the war was really great. Mu'awiyah ibn-'Amr of and strengthened the garrisons. He brought distress on the Greeks and humiliated them. and them that were in need of being rebuilt.252 forts THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and cities rebuilt those of of the coast. invasions." Caliph al-Mutawakkil ordered in the year 247 that ships be stationed on all the seacoast and that garrisons be posted on it.

he joined to himself the peoable to ple of these towns. ? 2 Lacking in diacritical points. see Istakhri. pp." heavy troops 1 Ar. thughur. Greek forts and frontier garrisons. In certain cases the Greeks would make an ambush by these forts and take by surprise those of the army who were held back or cut off. beyond these cities as Between Alexandretta and Tarsus lay is beyond Tarsus. they found them vacant. so that the Moslems might not be go between Antioch and the land of the Byzantines through a cultivated land. the frontier cities of Syria included Antioch called later and other cities al-'Awasim by ar-Rashid. leave them and flee to the to lead their raids The Moslems used they now raid what Byzantine Empire. similar to those through which the Moslems now pass. Ibn-Taibun ter said. and the inhabitants of which would sometimes. would leave in these forts until their return. certain sheikhs from Antioch and by others that in the by days of 'Umar and 'Uthman. moved the 164 men from these forts. Byzantine fighters would be brought and stationed in them. which he shattered. because of fear. and sometimes. Thus the leaders of the summer and winter " al-Baghrasi from certain sheikhs What is known to us is that Heraclius 2 : —The lat- campaigns. So. It is said that when Heraclius left Antioch. 55-56. and after their time.CHAPTER XVI The Frontier Moslem Fortresses x of Syria I was informed razzias beyond the frontiers. when the Moslems made their raids. on entering the Greek land. 253 .

He was later joined by Malik al-Ashtar anNakha'i sent as a reinforcement by abu-'Ubaidah from Antioch. al-Hurr al-'Absi at the head of the summer expedition and Gr. e. Derbc near the Cilician gates which were the chief mountain pass from the direction of the countries occupied by the Arabs into the Lane.. i. According to abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi. trying to follow Heraclius [in Asia Minor]. had evacuated self led the their places. when he was sent in connection with the case of Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham. who reached as far as Zandah. See Caetani. Mu'awiyah vacant. abu-'Ubaidah him- summer expedition passing through al-Massisah and then through Tarsus whose people. he sent Yazid ibnhis expedition. iii. According to others. . According to others. He therefore left in those forts some men from Syria.^54 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The first to pass through ad-Darb. Abu-Salih al-Farra' from one When supposed by him to have been 'Ubadah ibn-Nusai : — in the year 25 invaded 'Ammuriyah [Amohe found the forts between Antioch and Tarsus all rium]. Mesopotamia and Kinnasrin until he had finished One or two years later. Maisarah fell upon them and wrought a bloody massacre among them. Regarding the first 1 one to cross ad-Darb. but sent Maisarah ibn-Masruk. vol. 805. the first to cross ad-Darb was 'Umar ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari. abu-'Ubaidah did not himself go. Mu'dwiyah and the forts. together with those of the fortified cities lying beyond. Some assert that the first was Maisarah ibn- Masruk al-'Absi who was despatched by abu-'Ubaidah ibn- al-Jarrah and who met a host of Greeks accompanied by the " " naturalized [musta'ribah] Arabs of the Ghassan. Darb Baghras ~ there is a disagreement. p. Thus abu-'Ubaidah entered the land of the [Greek] enemy and carried his campaign as far as Zandah. territory of the Greeks" 1 " — 2 Perhaps Bailan pass of to-day. Ta- nukh and Iyad.

at the end of which they would leave. which Yazid <l All the governors used to do the same. The same ghazi authority says. where he rebuilt the fort on its old foundations. from those known to be among whom were 300 chosen among the most valorous and strong. I read in the book of that Mu'dwiyah [Mu'awiyah's campaigns] 'awiyah in the year 31 led an invasion setting out from near al-Massisah and penetrating as far as Darauliyah. army to the invasion of Sinan which he reduced. . in the year 85. p. T12. Al-Massisah. him to do the same thing.000. On his return. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi and others : — in the year led the 84. numbering 1.500-2. tawdli] from Antioch. He then sent Yazid ibn-Hunain at-Ta'i-1-Antaki who of led an incursion and returned. he caused troops to settle. he destroyed all the fortresses [belonging to the MaMu- 165 Greeks] between the latter place and Antioch. He also built a mosque in it over Tall al-Hisn [the hill of the fort]. The troops [Ar. his son 'Abdallah in the year Its building and manning were completed In this fortified town stood a church which was converted into a granary. used to go up to it every year and spend the winter in it.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA instructed 255 did. he wanted to destroy the town together with " I hate the forts that lay between it and Antioch saying. 1 Hainadhani. The Moslems had never lived in this town before. In this city. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz came to the granary of al-Massisah. 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn- entered through the Darb Antakiyah and reached al-Massisah [Mopsuestia]. and then led his fort. first Abu-1-Khattab al-Azdi holds that the build the fort Moslem 84 on to al-Massisah 1 was 'Abd-al-Malik ibnits Marwan through old foundation. Marwan summer campaign.

In the year 139. the the year 140. Christian — of whom —gave them Khusus by Marwan Nabateans all who were in it Persians. which was called Masjid al-Hisn [the fort mosque].256 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to see the Greeks besieging its people. Moreover. however. learned that the town was built to check the Greek ad- vance on Antioch. 1 abu-l-'Abbas became caliph. around which he erected a wall with a wooden gate. Besides. al-Khusus [wood houses]. he assigned stipends for 400 men to be added to the garrison at al-Massisah. al-Mansur ordered that the city of When 166 wall of which had become shattered and whose population within the walls had by earthquakes become few in number. Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik built the part outside the city wall [Ar." When he. Slavs and were settled in allots marked for dwell- 1 Pyramus river. of its inhabitants. When al-Mansur became caliph. al- Mansur erected a cathedral mosque in it on the site of a the the heathen temple. . he transplanted [into it] the inhabitants of al-Khusus. In the mosque. the mosque. his tern whereon name was inscribed. made its inhabitants settle in it and called it al-Ma'murah. made it many times the size of Al-Ma'mun enlarged the mosque in governorship of 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir ibn-al-Husain over alAl-Mansur assigned stipends for 1. he built the wall of the city. in case ing would he desisted in the remain to stop the was destroyed. Accordingly. nothenemy from taking Antioch. east of Jaihan. to the . and dug a moat. and distributed fiefs among them. and erected for its people a cathedral mosque it Kafarbaiya quarter. and mosque of 'Umar. rabad] and Marwan ibn-Muhammad built. be well populated. and that. he assigned stipends for 400 men at al-Massisah. fell into ruins.000 men Maghrib. in al-Massisah. he made a cisIn the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim-Billah.

pulled down their old dwellings and helped them to build the new ones. e. 1 Al-Muthakkab 4 was fortified by Hisham Read maudi'aha Mas'udi. because the city was already manned with troops and volunteers. inhabitants complained to alMa'mun concerning the rent 3 paid for the houses therein.. Al-Muthakkab. Al-Mu'tasim-Billah ordered that the wall be finished and raised to its proper height. After that Salih ibn-'Ali sent to it Jabril ibn- Yahya-1-Bajali it who peopled it and made Moslems - settle in Ar-Rashid built Kafarbaiya: but according to others it was begun in the caliphate of al-Mahdi. i. making a special rate of 10 dinars for each. IJaukal. 295. Muhammad ibn-Sahm from the sheikhs of the frontier " In the days of the blessed dynasty ". periodical contingents [tcrn/aW] used to come from until the city was governed by Salim * assigned in their place stipends for 500 Thus fighters. rent due for houses built on the state property. By order tified it with a moat. in place of maudi'ahu. the people of the city were multiplied and strengthened. Its of al-Ma'mun. s Ar ghallah. al-Mansur gave fiefs and dwellings. who received sti- pends. and ar-Rashid changed the plan of its construction and forin the year 140. vol. The Antioch every year al-Barallusi. . the Greeks region : — pressed the inhabitants of al-Massisah so hard that they left the city. 2 viii.000 men at al-Massisah but gave them no fiefs. a wall was commenced around the city and raised high. The houses were like inns. he assigned stipends for 2. 63. When al-Mahdi became caliph. 121. p. and he abolished it. who This took place when al-Mahdi held the caliphate. but not completed before his death. To these soldiers. p. 4 Istakhri.THE FRO X TIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA 2 $J ings in exchange for and of the same measure as their old homes. p.

men and In this fort. Katarghash Antaki. The banu-Umaiyah used to do that in order to infuse enthusiasm in the army ^s Maslamah by making them jealous for their harem. in Baghras [Pagraej. al-Hamid. he stationed forty a body of al-Jarajimah. was passing through 'Akabat Baghras on a narrow road that bordered on a valley. Hisham also had rah and Baghras. a fort was built on that littoral by Muhammad ibn-Yusuf al-Marwazi. which was recently renewed and repaired. After the Greeks had made a raid on the litt< »ral f the province of Antioch in the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim-Billah. Da'ud ibn-'Abdintends to destroy al-Massisah. he took his wives with him. surnamed abu-Sa'id. he established a garrison of fifty men and built a fort for it. built the Buka fort in the province of Antioch. fort built by 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-Haiyan alft M 167 had Murah fort erected by a man from was built because the Greeks had interfered with one of his messengers at i)arb al-Lukam also He Antioch. . moreover. Katarghash. a stretcher in which a woman was ' carried fell down to the foot 1 of the mountain. from a grandfather of his: 'Umar — 'Umar it. ibn-' Abd-al-'Aziz intended to destroy al-Mas- and move its inhabitants because they suffered much from the Greeks but he died before he could accomsisah .258 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who entrusted the ibnleg- work to Hassan Mahawaih al-Antaki. a bone of extraordinary length was found and sent to ibn-'Abd-al-Malik Hi- sham. This made \ place difficult of ascent. and other men in his army did the same. plish I was informed 'Akabat ai-Msa'. Hisham. the kadi of ar-Rakkah. As the moat was being dug. This last fort near al-'Akabah-l-Baida. by certain men from Antioch and Baghras that when Maslamah ibn-'Abd-alMalik invaded 'Ammuriyah.

Yakut. Jisr al-Walid.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA Maslamah order ' 2 $g So that all women should go on foot.000 buffaloes. they were first ones of Buka.000 of them. and the possessions of the banu-1-Muhallab were confiscated by Yazid ibn-'Abdal-Malik. the 'anvil of alover as-Sind. Marwan they be restored to al-Massisah. It was stated by abu-an-Nu'man al-Antaki that the road between Antioch and al-Massisah was frequented by lions which molested the passers-by. Yazid sent to al-Massisah together with az-Zutt sent there. vol. bat an-Nisa' [the women's 'Akabat]. 196. .000. 745. 1 When Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab was deposed and killed. which were These. Thus the buffaloes at al-Massisah were originally 8.000 buffaloes by which the required result was attained through Allah's help. 7. 2 p. " 'Akadid. the complaint was made to him. When al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to rule. Hamadhani. Muhammad 168 and left the rest in the jungles of Kaskar. At the time of the insurrection of Marwan ibn-Muhammad ibn- the people of Antioch and Kinnasrin brought under their control and took possession of many of these animals but when al-Mansur became caliph he ordered that . ibn-al-Kasim ath-Thakafi. Antioch. and that 'Akabat was. and he sent 4. and so were the According to abu-1-Khattab. therefore. and Kaskar. al-Mu'tasim had built on the edge of that road a low stone wall. too. called they Previous to this. p. the bridge on lay nine the road of 1 Adhanah [Adana] from al-Massisah p. had sent from as-Sind thousands of Hajjaj buffaloes to al-Hajjaj. ibn-Khurdadhhih. who gave al-Walid 4. Buldan. the latter carried in the districts of Dijlah 2 away 4. first As for the buffaloes of brought by az-Zutt. iii. The roads of Antioch cleared of lions by means of buffaloes.

ar-Rashid went forth and repaired al-Massisah and its mosque. was built in the year 125. Saihan castle. al-Mahdi sent his son expedition to the Greek Empire. vol. who was slain. increasing its garrison Harun ar-Rashid on an and arming its inhabitants. Daigham. line 19. Tarsus and al-Hadath. the Jordan and other places. ibn-Sa'd from al- " " 193 in Yakut. ' Abu-Sulaim rebuilds Adhanah. fortified it. 1 Muhammad i. vious to al-Mansur had sent Salih ibn-'Ali on an invasion to the Greek Empire. When ar-Rashid died in the year 193. and called Jisr al-Walid after al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. his 'amil for collecting tithes from the frontier fortresses was abu-Sulaim who was now confirmed in his position [ibn-ar-Rashid]. To this abuSulaim belonged the residence in Antioch [that bears his by Muhammad 169 name]. at the head of a group of men from Damascus. . He also built the castle which Prelay by Saihan [Sarus river] near Adhanah bridge. All that was done by the order of Muhammad ibn-ar-Rashid. and chose men from Khurasan and others to live in it. 179. He also made repairs in Kasr Saihan. According to abu-an-Nu'man al-Antaki and Adhanah was built in the year 141 or 142 as the Khurasan troops under Maslamah ibn-Yahya-1-Bajali. In the year 165. but the structure not being firm. and the latter sent Hilal ibnthis. others. p. who built this castle. After camping at al-Khalij. In the year 194 abuSulaim Faraj al-Khadim built Adhanah well and strong.2 6o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE was miles from the latter. and the Syrian troops under Malik ibn-Adham al-Bahili (all sent by Salih ibn-'Ali) were camping in it. Adhanah. giving them an increase of stipends. ar-Rashid dismantled the castle and rebuilt it.

al-Hasan distinguished himit. which he went around it to the city. p. which was immeAl-Mahdi then ordered that Tarsus be built. 113. . from which he rode After examining it it. and was therefore called ash-Shaitan [the devil]. vasion were Mandal al-'Anazi the traditionist of the school of al-Kufah and Mu'tamir ibn-Sulaiman al-Basri. He therefore sent in the year 171 Harthamah ibn-A'yan as commander of the summer campaign and ordered him to build Tarsus. and subdued the land of the Greeks. and start with al-Hadath. started near Tarsus and called the attention of al-Mahdi to the great troubles spared to Islam. settle people Hamadhani. Accordingly. 2 When could be inhabited by he appeared before al- Mahdi. fortifying it and stationing a garplans by building He rison in self In that campaign. and the good chance it afforded to frustrate and avert the enemies' intrigues and Tarsus. and Syria. Mausil. In the year 171. ar-Rashid heard that the Greeks had enjoined one another to set forth to Tarsus in order to fortify it and station troops in it. al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah at-Ta'i invaded the land of the Greeks at the head of an army of the 1 people of Khurasan. in all directions and estimated that one hundred thousand. 26-27.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA Wakidi: — In the year 2 6l 162. pp. al-Mahdi ordered him to build Tarsus diately built. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Sa'd ibn-al-Hasan When al-Hasan left the land of the Greeks. he camped at Marj — Among — his men in the in- : — was then [plain of] Tarsus in ruins. if the city were rebuilt and manned with a garrison. Buldan. and to the anger and disappointment that will ensue to the enemy. He also told al-Mahdi something about al-Hadath that encouraged him to build it. 128. he described the condition of the city and referred to the strength that Islam and the Moslems would acquire.. a Ibid. reinforced by men from al-Yaman and volunteers from al-'Irak and al-Hijaz.

the inhabitants of Sisiyah [or Sis. In Rabi' II. in accordance with ar-Rashid's orders. misr.Jihad. Madinat as-Salam 3. The second garrison camped with the first 170 at al-Mada'in near in the Bab al. putting the work. and drove him from the city. two garrisons settled in the city. appointed abu-1-Fawaris to succeed him and 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih confirmed abu-1-Fawaris in his position. until the construction of the city of fortification Tarsus with and mosque was completed. This took place in the year 173. numbering he chose from among the people of Khurasan. gives the date 93 or 94 and reads a'ali ar-Ruin Yakut. whom Faraj put someone in charge. Baghdad. He then sent the second garrison that numbered 2. instead of 8 p. 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih appointed Yazid ibn-Makhlad al-Fazari as amil over Tarsus. : — In the year 194 or 193.000 from Antioch. i.000 of whom were from al-Massisah and 1. City of peace.262 in it THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and make it a fortified boundary town l between the two countries. vol. later Little Armenia] evacuated their homes and went as far as the 1 mountainous region of the Greeks. 1. each lot being twenty dhiras square. 3 This Sisiyah was Ar. Yazxd ibn-Makhlad governor of Tarsus. a'la iii. Those of the inhabitants who came from Khurasan were afraid of him. went to and sent the first garrison. 172. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-\Yakidi Sisiyah.000 men. from the beginning of Muharram year its 172.000. gave as the fiefs to the inhabitants of Tarsus. promising each man an increment of ten dinars on his original stipend.. because he belonged to the He clan of al-Hubairiyah.000 These lots he lots. Harthamah did so. 2 The garrison came to Tarsus. . 217. ar-Rurn. I^araj measured the land between the two rivers and found it to be 4. in charge of Faraj ibn- Sulaim al-Khadim. ' e.

Buldan. and four of the cities of fire: Antioch. Its separated from one another. "Four cities are of the of Paradise. p. they made their headquarters. Tall Jubair. 3 Their quarter Hamadhani. Kanisat as-Sulh ." cities 2 1 Ar. 2 Ar-Rashid consented.al-Malik. was so called because Kanisat as-Sulh [the church of peace] when the Greeks came to ar-Rashid it to capitulate. 255-256. vol. al-Mahdi sent on a campaign his son. Marj Husain feated the enemy. Therefore they were settled in Baghdadh near Bab ash-Shammasiyah. Makkah. Iliya' [Jerusalem] and Damascus. p. Kila' is battle in The The name of the fort known as dhu-1- really a corruption of dhu-1-Kila' [the fort of the which name was given to it because it was made up of three castles. who laid siege to Damalu (collo- people asked a promise of security for ten of their nobility including the Comes. Dhu-l-Kilfr. from Antioch who fought a than 10 miles from Tarsus. Baghdad. Marj Husain was named after Husain ibn-Muslim al-Antaki who fought a battle in it and de. Harun ar-Rashid. ." tongue is castles]. 37: Said Makhul. Constantinople and San'a'. i. 118. as it The one who burnt Antioch l was to burning — —condemned Tall lies less in the land of the Greeks was 'Ab- bas ibn-al-Walid ibn-'Abd. Kudamah. One of their terms stipulated that they be never quial Samalu). p. al-Madinah.THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA 263 the city of Tall 'Ain-Zarbah and was rebuilt in the caliphate of al-Mutawakkil by 'Ali ibn-Yahya-1-Armani [the ArIt was later ruined menian] by the Greeks. pp. 202. at-Tuwanah. Damalu. The explanation of its name in the Greek " the fortress with the stars. In the year 163. 3 Le Strange. Antioch burnt. al-Kumis = a leader of two hundred: Zaidan. . Tall Jubair was so called after a Persian it.

For this purpose some of az-Zutt. he ordered al-Haruniyah built. was crucified on one of the towers of the fort. In the year It was accordingly 183. built and manned with a garrison and with volunteers that emigrated to it. make repairs in it and increase its garrison. but completed it in his own caliphate. who saved all that had been rebuilt — — away and killed many of the Greeks. 'Ain Zarbah and al-Hariiniyah. He summoned to it a regiment from Khurasan and others.ent some one to fortify the city. and had an old fort that was destroyed in the general havoc. which lay between Wasil and alBasrah. previously transplanted by al-Mu'tasim to 'Ain Zarbah and its environs from al-Bataih. Ar-Rashid ordered that this city be and fortified. were available. One Abyssinian. The city was named after him. one of the inhabitants of the frontier region. to whom he gave houses as fiefs. The city of Kanisat as-Sauda' [black church] had been built by the Greeks of black stone since the earliest of days. Others say that they surrendered to al-Mahdi who spared their lives and gathered them in that place. Others : 171 — say that Harun started its erection in the caliphate of alMahdi. alI was told by 'Azzun ibning them larger stipends. who was heard cursing ar-Rashid and the Moslems. that the Greeks once invaded it as al-Kasim ibn-ar-Rashid was and carried away its cattle and a numstaying in Dabik ber of prisoners. those who were left in the fort were sold publicly. sending the them back in distress and disorder. According to ar-Rashid's orders. carried rest of . He also summoned to it troops. They were pursued by the people of alMassisah and its volunteers. and it is still known as such. Then al-Kasim <. ordering that it be called Samalu. and which they had conquered. Sa'd. ar-Rashid oral-Wasiti from al-Wakidi dered that the city of 'Ain Zarbah [Anazarbus] be built and fortified. Ahmad ibn-al-Harith In the year 180.264 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE they called Samalu. Kanhat as-Sanda.

THE FRONTIER FORTRESSES OF SYRIA 265 I Abu-Ishdk al-Fazari's opinion on the land of ath-Thaghr. therefore. By al-Mutawakwil's orders. Thaghr. so many pieces of land were exempt from the tithe that the total income of tithes was diminished to such an extent that could not meet the expenses. and it later passed to others. all these exemptions were in the it year 243 abolished. . Thus it had been transmitted to others and attached to itself a suspicion that the wise man would do well to avoid." In athTithe-exemptions annulled by al-Mutawakkil. was informed by abu-Salih al-Antaki that abu-Ishak al- Fazari hated to buy land in the frontier region [ath-Thaghr] " Those who first wrested this land from because he said. the Greeks did not divide it among themselves.




Da/ud ibn-'Abd-al-Hamid the kadi of ar-Rakkah from Maimun ibn-Mihran All of Meso: — potamia was conquered by Tyad ibn-Ghanm who. i. and agreeing not to start a new church other than what they already had. Juillet-Aout. - 1 " Tabari. vol. Duval. 1891. p. Histoire d'Edesse. 'Umar then potamia. Similar terms to those of ar-Ruha were made by the people of Mesopotamia. modern Urfa]. after the death of abu-'Ubaidah. he stood at its gate riding on a brown horse. made its ruler by 'Umar ibnhis Abu-'Ubaidah had appointed Tyad to be 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab appointed first Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan then Mu'awiyah over Syria." in Journal Asiatique. successor over Syria. 2505. Mesopo- The terms with ar-Ruha. and to forfeit their right of protection in case they fail to keep any of these conditions. to give succor to the Moslems against their enemy. and : — the inhabitants their cathedral made terms stipulating that they should keep and the buildings around it. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Sulaiman ibn-'Ata' alKurashi Abu-'Ubaidah sent Tyad ibn-Ghanm to Mesoand died while Tyad was still there. 269 . reduced ar-Ruha [Edessa.CHAPTER The Conquest c I of Mesopotamia [al-Jazirah] 172 Iyad its governor. 106 seq. who was 2 sent by abu-'Ubaidah. was al-Khattab. but : — assigned 'Iyad after abu-'Ubaidah as governor of tamia. R. and * ordered Tyad to invade Mesopotamia. pp. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Sulaiman ibn-'Ata' When Tyad ibn-Ghanm.

after going round the city on 1 Hajar. In order to escape the enemy's stones and arrows. with his troops in military arone of the gates of the city. Khalid never marched under any man's flag but remained in Hims. 74-/5p. Gottingen. vol. he marched to Mesopotamia at the head of 5. Athir. . ernorship Thursday the middle of Sha'ban. rived in ar-Rakkah :i The van of Tyad's army arand made a raid on its environs. pp. handlungen 4 Ar. where he died in the year 21 after desigceived a letter of 173 nating in 'Umar 2 to execute his will. the right wing by Sa'id ibn-'Amir ibn-Hidhyam al-Jumahi and the left by Safwan ibn-al-Mu'attal as-Sulami. See Wustenfeld. 'Iyad re1 8. . The terms with ar-Rakkah. conferring upon him the govOn Hims. carrying off much booty. at Bab ar-Ruha an hour the Moslems were shot at. 439- 2 Yakut. Kinnasrin and Mesopotamia. in the year victim to the plague of Emmaus ['Amawas] after appointing 'Iyad as his successor [over Syria].000 men. 3 ii. 1 Some claim that he died the • al-Madinah but that he died in Hims is more authen- tic report. ta'bi'ah. For ray. Others assert that after Abu-'Ubaidah. where Beduin Arabs were encamped with a group of peasants. and. Khalid ibn-al-Walid was on the left wing. year 18. vol. "Die Taktik des Aelianus. i. the van of the army being led by Maisarah ibn-Masruk al-'Absi. 1880. 853-854." in Abdes Gcsellschaft der IVissenschaftcn. Tyad withdrew. 'Iyad advanced with his troops until 4 he arrived. vol. Those who escaped took to flight and entered the city of ar-Rakkah. ii. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd states on the authority of al-Wakidi that the most authentic report he heard regarding 'Iyad was that abu-' Ubaidah. fell from 'Umar. pp.270 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The version of al-Wakidi. and some of them were — wounded.

279. guaranteeing for the population the security of their lives. holding women and boys exempt. This condition having lasted for five or six days the patrician of the city asked for peace from Tyad. " The land is ours we have subdued and secured it ". cf. tax to the amount of one dinar per annum on every man. he laid that as a regular tax upon them. the compassionate. to the people of ar- the city. who made terms with him. 'Iyad assessed pollsions . 2 A measure of capacity consisting of ten makkuks. p. It is stipulated they build no new church or place of worship.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA 2 Jl horseback. so long as they pay the tax assessed on that 1 Rakkah when he entered them and enter in no intrigue. that go forth at night. according to al-Mas'udi. he left it in their hands on the kharaj basis. vine- gar and honey. That part of the land which was not wanted and rejected by the dhimmis. However. Moreover. the merciful. and some oil. He gave them security for their lives and possessions. The following is the statement issued by Tyad: In the is name This what Tyad ibn-Ghanm gave of Allah. he levied on them kafizes *• of wheat. he stationed horse-guards at its gates. Mawardi. posses- and city. Tyad said. he turned over to the Moslems on the tithe basis. children. p. When Mu'awiyah came to power. bringing back with them prisoners from the It was the proper villages and large quantities of food. In addition to the dinar. sardya who. 265. time for reaping the harvest. or pub- Ar. . Their churches shall not be destroyed or occupied. He then returned to the main army and sent bands of soldiers 1 who went around. The people then opened the city gates and established a market for the Moslems at the Ruha ' gate. were bands of soldiers varying between 3 and 500 persons. Kitab at-Tanbih.

Allah is witness is a sufficient witness. The fighters made a sally. or openly celebrate Easter Monday ' or show and Allah the cross in public. Thereunto. Yusuf. Signed by Tyad's own signature. his governor. as it was the case with those who possessed gold. ! Ar ba'uth." Others report that Tyad assessed four dinars on every adult of ar-Rakkah. nakus. defined by Kaviiis. the merciful. Cf. instructing him to assess four dinars on ever}' man. used to-day for the Christian is festival of Monday after Easter.272 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 licly strike clappers. city gates. Accordingly. Hearing that. consenting to what had been proposed and offered by al-Harnaniyah. p. the Christians sent him word. The terms with ar-Ruha. 1 'Ar. shutting the troops out. Taj a!-' Arils and Lisan al-'Arab as corresponding to the Moslem prayer in which a petition tor rain is offered. fered to capitulate and make peace. Tyad advanced to ar-Ruha whose people gathered against and shot at the Moslems for an hour. 277. To this. 'iyad then advanced against at Bajuddah. the compassionate. . Cf. 1 Die Aramaischen Fremdworter im Arabischen. Fraenkel. and leaving him free to negotiate with the Christians of Harran. but the fact is that 'Umar wrote after this to 174 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. promising to accept whatever terms he may make with it. the Harnaniyah from among its inhabitants sent him a word saying that they had under their control a part of the city and asking him to go to ar-Ruha. Tyad followed up the van and when he camped at Harran. 23. : Tyad con- sented and wrote them the following statement " In the name f Ulah. whence he sent forth Harran and encamped The people of Harran closed the the van of the army. p. but the Moslems put them to flight and forced them to seek refuge in No sooner had that taken place than they ofthe city. S.

possessions and those dependent on you. Tyad ibn-Ghanm and his accomMoslems to the inhabitants of ar-Ruha. after having reduced The people of Sumaisat terms similar to those of ar-Ruha. direct- ing their operations against villages and forts. and he is sufficient. Thereunto. Istakhri. ." Harran and Sumaisat capitulate. Its inhabitants opened the city gates for him. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from az-Zuhri In the days of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. possessions. He then came to Sumaisat and found Safwan of its ibn-al-Mu'attal and Habib ibn-Maslamah it. women. then I grant you safety for your persons. Allah is witness. and give good counsel to the Moslems. and This is a statement from guide those of us angels and the who go astray. so long as they give what they rightly owe. to many made make in- 175 from ar-Ruha and return All Mesopotamia reduced by 'Iyad. the merciful. and he assigned a governor over it. cursions Tyad used to it. city and mills. offspring. Tyad then came to Harran and directed Safwan ibn-al-Mu'attal and Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri to Sumaisat.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA This is 273 a statement If ye ar-Ruha. offer to from Tyad ibn-Ghanm to the bishop of open before me the city gate and agree to me for every man one dinar and two modii of wheat. I have panying granted them security for their lives." Da'ud ibn-'Abd-al-Hamid from a grandfather of his : —The statement of : as follows " In the — Tyad to the inhabitants of ar-Ruha ran name of Allah. p. With the people of 1 ITarran. to repair the bridges and roads. the compassionate. Thereunto. Allah and his Moslems are witnesses. 62. It is incumbent on you to guide the one who goes astray. he made terms similar to those of ar-Ruha. not : — 4 Samosata. They are bound to repair our bridges.

3002 and 2910. 354. Hamadhani. Raskifa :! and al-Ard al-Baida'. tants of The ar-Ruha had 1 >r< ken their covenant. Thesaurus Syriacus. cf. vol. he camped around the city. its inhabitants having moved to ar-Ruha. 5 4 Payne Smith. Muhammad [ibn-Sa'd] from Rashid ibn-Sa'd: 'Iyad effected the conquest of Mesopotamia and its towns by — by force. Harran. Saruj and other places subdued by 'Iyad. on hearing it.2/4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE a foot was left in Mesopotamia unsubdued by 'Iyad ibn- reduced Harran. Muhammad [ibn-Sa'd] from Thabit ibn-al-Hajjaj : Ghanm who — 'Iyad effected the conquest of ar-Rakkah. Kuroiyat or Karyat al-Furat. Mushtarik. then Harran. Someone reported that when 'Iyad came to Harran from ar-Rakkah. Thence he came x 1 to the villages of the Euphrates p. . and all the villages and towns of the Euphrates by capitulation. 206. Mushtabih. and made tih terms with the holders of their forts similar to of ar-Ruha. ar-Rakkah. Bafnan R. Thence he came to Saruj. serted. p. Karkisiya [Circesium] Nasibin [Nisibis] and Sinjar. ar-Ruha. ar-Ruha. see ZDMG. . upon which they opened their city gates. p. He entered the city and left in it his 'amil with a small band. but all the open fields by force. in it When made ar-Ruha was captured. eols. The terms with Harran. p. but its land. Nasibin. 225. subdued their land. then grandfather: — ar-Ruha. Karkisiya. Maiyafarikin. Abu-Aiyub ar-Rakki-1-Mu'addab from al-Hajjaj ibn-abi-Mani' ar1 Rusafi's 'iyad captured ar-Rakkah. 4 which are Dhahcibi. return and besiege the Having heard that the inhabicity until he reduced it. he found it decapitulation . Buldan. xxx. people of Sumaisat after that rebelled. the people of Harran terms regarding their city similar to those of ar-Ruha. and then Sumaisat on the same 2 terms of capitulation. 136. which made him.

He year 20. cit. year 20. its dependents. he made the chief of Badlis responsible for the khardj of Khilat with its poll-tax and what was due on its patrician. note 1778. The patrician of az-Zawazan came to Tyad and made terms reterms. op. On his way back.. op. in the year 19 All that took place and in a part of Muharram. 183. He to Arzan and took possession of it on terms then advanced similar to those of Nasibin. Tyad directed Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri who took the city 176 by a capitulation similar to that of ar-Rakkah. he died. Hoffman. so he left it. Tyad without fighting and on terms similar to captured of ar-Ruha. 3 After a he reduced Nasibin and the terms concluded were similar to those of ar-Ruha. 1 2 8 'Umar Hoffman. Against Karkisiya. cit. Payne Smith. He Darb into Badlis which he left for then passed through adKhilat with whose patri- made terms. col. 1451. Finally. p. * 6 R. Syrische Akten Persischer Mdrtyrer. 224. R.. 5 Tur 'Abdin.. who died after a short time. which he reduced on simix 'Ain al-Wardah or Ra's al-'Ain to which he came next held out against him. That took place in the year 19. Payne Smith. 46. cit. p. He captured Maiyafarikin on the same those terms. . he got to al-'Ain al-Hamidah in Armenia beyond which he did not go. agreeing to pay tax. cian he then proceeded to ar-Rakkah. p.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA Jisr 2 y$ Manbij and lar terms. He then came to Tall Mauzin 2 and took it on the same terms as arRuha. 4 Hisn Maridin Karda and Bazabda and Dara he took on the same he conquered on the same terms as those of Nasibin. 'Umar after that appointed Sa'id ibn- 'Amir ibn-Hidhyam. op. Hoffman. and on to Hims whose In the governorship had been entrusted to him by 'Umar. conflict. Amid He also reduced the fort of Kafartutha.. garding his lands. op. at. col. 1801.

Al-Wakidi from abu-Wahb al-Jaishani Dailam ibn-al-Muwassa' 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to Tyad instructing him to send 'Umair ibn-Sa'd to 'Ain al-Wardah. which ! \r. vol. 'arradah see Hamasah (ed. 'Never mind.276 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE in capturing 'Ain then appointed 'Umair ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari. Tanbih.Muhammad —Ra's al-'Ain er Mesopotamia. ent from what ye have met heretofore!" At last the city was taken by capitulation. p. See al-Mas'udi." It is claimed by al-Haitham ibn-'Adi that 'Umar ibn-alKhattab sent abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari to 'Ain al-Wardah. 54. . Many Moslems were killed bystones and arrows. 764. iii. who was 'Umar's governor Ghanm. 307. Their women and children were not taken as captives. assailed a group of peasants and carried away some of the enemy's cattle as booty. 'Ain al-Wardah or Ra's al-'Ain captured. Yakut. p. Kreytag). The van of the army went ahead. never mind: [come] to me! [come] to me!' and that constituted : i a guarantee of security for them. p. reduced it after a fierce resistance on . The Moslems entered by force but terms of capitulation were drawn up stipulating that the land be held by them and the tax be imposed on their persons to the amount of four dinars per head. lyy the part of its inhabitants. : — The the inhabitants of the city closed their gates and set up 1 mangonels on them. ibn-abi-Mani' from a grandfather of al-Hajjaj 2 held out against Tyad ibnbut 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. who succeeded al-Wardah after a severe conflict. : Amr ibn. The following statement was made by al-Hajjaj " heard it said by certain sheikhs from Ra's al-'Ain that when 'Umair entered the city he shouted. This he did. Then one of the patricians of the city " We are differappeared and cursed the Moslems saying. ' l Another name for 'Ain-al-Wardah.

but that is not confirmed. 158. . took the city by capitulation. is one of those who compiled Koran in the time of the Prophet. wanted to put to death one hundred Persians who were brought before him because of rebellion and disobedience. authority. Sa'd. he ordered them — [Chosroes] — known — sent to Sinjar. According to ibn-al-Kalbi. and settled it with Arabs. Khdlid dismissed. Muhammad ibn-al-Mufaddal alSinjdr captured. iii. Mansil. vol. The view of Haitham is not shared by any other poll-tax. Some reports claim that Tyad reduced one of the against the settled There they forts of Mausil. and 98 arrived there. 1 Al-Wakidi Yakut. a part of the inhabitants of Ra's al-'Ain having vacated it. Someone having interceded in their behalf. joined the troops who were encamped city. 1 Mausili from certain sheikhs of Sinjar: Sinjar was held Kisra as Abarwiz by the Greeks.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA 2 yy he invaded with the troops of Mesopotamia after the death of Tyad. the 'amil of 'Umar is identical with 'Umar ibn-Sa'd ibn-Shuhaid ibn'Amr one of al-Aus. The fact is that 'Umair captured it by force and He only imposed khardj and did not take any captives. which he was then attempting to reduce. According to al-Hajjaj ibn-abi-Mani'. was killed in the battle of al-Kadisiyah. states that some reports p. When 'Iyad capture it. the Moslems utilized their lands fief and cultivated them according to the system. 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. was through with Khilat and was going to Mesopotamia. Two of them died. This Sa'd. according to the the Kufite school. he sent an expedition to Sinjar. but according to al-Wakidi. he is 'Umair ibn-Sa'd ibn-'Ubaid whose father. and were the first to and multiplied.

oil and vinegar and food were taken for the benefit of the Moslems in Mesopotamia.278 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE name a claim that Khalid ibn-al-Walicl ruled in 'Umar's part of Mesopotamia. in al. he stationed the Rabi'ah in their cities 1 The same in charge of some. however. Diyar. Scorpions in Nasibin. the latter erected the mosque of ar-Rakkah and that of arRuha. and 12 dirhams. o Mosques erected. Ham Kudamah. at Amid [Diyarbakr]. Mazihin and al-Mudaibir. Mudar. 'Amr an-Nakid from Maimun For some time. thing he did in Diyar In like manner. he daubed himself 178 with a substance containing wine. The tax on Mesopotamia. I was informed by a number of the inhabitants of ar-Rakkah that when Tyad died and Sa'id ibn'Amir ibn-Jriidhyam became governor of Mesopotamia. 1 Abu-Hafs ash-Shami from p. . Mu'awiyah settles Arab tribes. he caused the banu-Tamim to settle at ar-Rabiyah and a promiscuous multitude of Kais and Asad and others. Accordingly. he was instructed by him to settle the Arabs in places far from the cities and villages. In addition to the poll-tax. The mosques in Diyar Mudar and Diyar Rabi'ah were erected by 'Umair ibn-Sa'd. and allow them to ibn-Mihran : — • • • • utilize the lands unpossessed by anyone. This. and whom he put there with his and villages The who 'Gmils. after which he died. When Mu'awiyah ruled over Syria and Mesopotamia in the name of 'Uthman ibn'Affan. which made 'Umar dismiss him. them and frontier garrisons he put received stipends in order to guard and protect them. is not confirmed. every one had to provide two mudds of wheat two kists of oil and two kists of vinegar. 24. and once as he was in a bath. which tax was later reduced through the sympathy of 'Umar and fixed at 48. or at some other place. 246.

Caetani. 3 * cit.. note 1162. Yakut. Alusah and Hit where he found out that 'Ammar ibn-Yasir. which he arranged with them. the 'amil of 'Umar ibnstones at him. p. . and he would order that they be killed. 137. 179 and then advanced against the forts along the course of the Euphrates one after the other. . i. of the city a fixed This he did. Abu-Aiyub al-Mu'addab ar-Rakki from abu-'Abdallah al- Karkasani's sheikhs : —When his 'Umair ibn-Sa'd captured Ra's al-'Ain he made bur to Karkisiya whose With them he made terms x way across and beyond al-Kha. 54. p. before him. kept on his way to ar-Rakkah. complaining that seme of the Moslems in his company fallen victim to the scorpions. op. 65. he came to an-Na'usah.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA mad ibn-'Amr an-Nasibi : 2 yg —The 'amil of Nasibin wrote to Mu'awiyah. under the leadership of Sa'd ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram al-Ansari. Tanbih. When 2 al-Khattab over al-Kuf ah. Mu'awiyah wrote back instructing him to demand of the inhabitants in each quarter number of scorpions to be brought every They used to bring the scorpions evening. * Vowels uncertain Hoffman. vol. vol. I learned from certain scholars that the one in who went against Hit and the forts beyond 1 al-Kufah was Midlaj A tributary of the Euphrates . which he reduced all on the same terms as Karkisiya. p. Karkisiya. 222. 'Uthman's governor over Syria and Mesopota- had mia. 'Umair. iv. The holders of these forts had come to Sa'd and demanded peace.people had violated the covenant. similar to those made before. had sent an army for the invasion of the region above al-Anbar. therefore. p. he was through with Talbas and 4 3 'Anat. the Euphrates forts and other places reduced. retaining one-half of the church of Hit. In none of them did he meet Some of them would sometimes throw severe resistance.

His descendants were at Hit. Al-Mansur stationed in it an army of the people of Khurasan and entrusted it to al-Mahdi. Rusafat means causeway. he these markets. Later. Yakut. ar-Rashid built its Between ar-Rakkah and ar-Rafikah lay a wide of sown land to which 'Ali ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali tract moved the markets of ar-Rakkah when he came as governor to Mesopotamia. whose inci is ime the confiscated towns. 1 it was its built As for Eat Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik wh by Hi 180 previous to 1 building. castles. In the place of Nahr Sa'id — the canal named Nahr Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan (who was named Sa'id al-Khair and who practised asceticism) — once Sa'id. 784. surnamed abuHarun. Previous to this. According to others. an ally of the banu-'Abd-Shams and one of the Companions. used to stop at az-Zaitunah. ii. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who gave it as fief. The memory of one of them. city. who was at that time the heir-apparent. There built is no It was " by al-Mansur the trace that ar-Rafikah " is an old of the Commander Believers in in the year 155. and he dug out the canal and erected the buildings that stand there. it was Ar-Rafikah. p. still c< Rusafat Hisham and al-Hani wa-l-Ma/ri. int< number of with that from gether creased the lected to-day. best.280 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ibn-'Amr as-Sulami. still lives there. ifisham. Others assert that Midlaj was sent by Sa'd ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram but Allah knows . vol. who effected their capture. . according to the plan of his city Baghdadh. after nick- stood a jungle frequented by lions. or ar-Ru?afat bi-ash-Sham . Al-\Yalid gave it to him [Sa'id] as fief. When ar-Rashid visited ar-Rakkah. This Midlaj built al-Hadithah on the Euphrates. the greatest market of ar-Rakkah was called Suk Hisham al-'Atik [the old market of Hisham].

which lies below Karkisiya. p. thus 2 8l making the crown-land known as al-Hani. Kafartutha it was an old fort that pied by the offspring of abu-Rimthah. 1 This same land was confounded in it Wasit ar-Rakkah. it having been built by 2 Malik ibn-Tauk ibn-'Attab at-Taghlabi in the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. " I algarding the tithes of Balad and Diyar Rabi'ah and 4 were the tithes of lands Barriyah and was told that they when they embraced Islam.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA sham dug out al-Hani wa-1-Mari [canals]. 'Ain arthe writers of ar-Rakkah and others sheikhs of held by the Arabs : — 1 Yakut. The desert part of Mesopotamia. vol. col. 566- . Adhramah in Diyar Rabi'ah was an old village took from tifying it. vol. Ar-Rahbah. p. ii. p. There is no trace that ar-Rahbah. Adhramah. 2 3 * Cf. Mahasin. given to the Arabs as fiefs. 889. is an old city. and settled more people in it. 34- R. and which have consequently become These lands were waste and covered with brushwood. thus for3 Kafartutha. which al-Hasan ibn-'Umar ibn-al-Khattab at-Taghlabi its chief and in which he built a castle. iv. his father — The : Mu'afa ibn-Ta'us from asked certain sheikhs re- latter said. vol. daughter of Ja'far ibn-al-Mansur. who built in it the fief house that bears her name. p. Bakri. He." Abu-'Affan ar-Rakki from certain 'Ain ar-Rumiyah. i. 001 . or reclaimed them from waste lands unpossessed by any one or given by up by the Christians.wa-1-Mari tillable land. at the beginning of the [Abbasid] dynasty and fiscated passed into the hands of umm-Ja'far Zubaidah. Yakut. who made a was occutown of and foritfied it. Payne Smith. 1801. Diyar Rabi'ah and al-Barrlyah.

owned a village called Sala'us and half of another called 181 Kafarjadda which lay in the province of ar-Ruha. but later confiscated and assigned as fief to Bishr ibn-Mai1 mun. 'A'ishah fief. together with 'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait spring belonged to al-Walid ibn- whom it ibn-Hamzah. 324. 1 Cf. 130. district of ar-Rakkah. the land 2 of Tall Madhaba. in the province of Saruj. The fief his daughter. at which was given by Hisham to Raskifa and which bore her name was also confiscated. p.282 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE its Rumiyah from who gave it to abu-Zubaid at-Ta'i " to abu-1-' Abbas the Commander of passed " Abu-l-'Abbas gave it as fief to Maimun the Believers. p. from whose heirs ar-Rashid bought it. . al-Musalla and Rabad Harrdn. . the Abbasid Caliphate. hiitio: 4 see Mawardi. reserved for the Moslems the Moslems could do without the Marj. and Ard al-Musalla [place of prayer]. Ghabat ibn-Hubairah [the forest of ibn-Hubairah] was first given as fief to ibn-Hubairah. Ar. together with the confiscated lands and the workshops in Rabad Harran. 'A'ishah. Baghdad during in diacritical points. Ghdbat ibn-Hubairah. were Before al-Hadath and Zibatrah 'Abd-al-Wahid was a pasturing place Marj * but when these two were built. 'Abd-al-Malik and Hisham Sala'us and Kafarjadda. In Harran. the freedman of 'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-' AbIt lies in the bas. J Lacking 8 The word means meadow. the builder of at-Takat [archways or arcades] at Baghdadh gate]. 3 built. in the vicinity of Bab ash-Sham [the Syrian It lies This Ghabat was later bought by ar-Rashid. which was peopled Marj 'Abd-al-Wahid. Le Strange. al-Ghamr ibn-Yazid owned Tall 'Afra'. Tall Madhaba. Tall'Afra'.

was Abd-al-Wahid ibn-al-Harith ibn-al-Hakam ibn-abi-l-'Asi. some people unjustly it and of its farms. added by al-Husain al-Khadim in the caliphate of After that. a cousin of 'Abd-al-Malik. after ' whom the Marj was the named. in which condition it took possession of remained until 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir came to Syria and returned it to the crown-lands. saying it : If fate let would overlook only 'Abd-al-Wahid." . not the case of all the other inhabitants of the city grieve thee. but turned Moslems. Abu-Aiyub ar-Rakki heard it said that 'Abd-al-Wahid. He owned Marj.THE CONQUEST OF MESOPOTAMIA and later 283 ar-Rashid to al-Ahwaz. " He is into a pasture land exclusively for the the one whom al-Katami lauded.

Therebe enriched by them to thy disadvantage. but severe in warfare. 284 . Yusuf. upon 'Umar on them. : 'Umar doubles as-Saffah ash-Shaibani —'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wanted Shaiban ibn-Farrukh from to : collect the poll-tax from the Christian tribe. called them back and doubled ' the sadakah laid Neither Moslems. 1 Cf.' " 'Umair consults ('mar. 68. nor of the Shaiban from ibn-' Abbas: The — people latter of said." fore. the Book" is "What slaughtered by the Christians of the banu-Taghlib be eaten. . banu-Taghlib but they took to flight and some of them went to a distant An-Nu'man ibn-Zur'ah (or Zur'ah ibn-an-Nu'man) " I plead in Allah's name for the addressed 'Umar saying: land. They are a body of Arabs too proud to pay Let not thy enemy. p. and their women shall not be taken as wives [by us].CHAPTER The II Christians of the banu-Taghlib ibn-Wa'il their sadakah. course of] the Euphrates and that when he wished to constrain the banu-Taghlib of that region to accept Islam. banu-Taghlib. therepoll-tax. they refused and were on the point of leaving for some Byzantine territory whom no one on the Syrian slope of the Euphrates he wished to constrain to Islam had before the banu. They are neither of us nor of the 'people of the shall not 182 Book. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from 'Awa'Umair ibn-Sa'd nah ibn-al-Hakam and abu-Mikhnaf wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab informing him that he had ' : — come and to the regions on the Syrian slope of the Euphrates along the captured 'An at and the other forts of [/.

p." poll-tax. 2 They accepted to pay a double sadakah accept Islam. 162. iii. pp. vol. the banu: — Taghlib made terms with 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. Zurah intercedes in their behalf. . 1 2 At last. p.THE CHRISTIANS OF THE BANU-TAGHLIB 285 grate. 8 MFO. vol. " So long as it is not the tax of the uncircumsaying. Cf.' we shall pay it and retain our faith. a cized. whose whole These pay twice what the possessions consist of cattle. ibn-Anas. 'Umar wrote back ordering him to double on all their pas1 turing cattle and land the amount of sadakah ordinarily taken from Moslems and if they should refuse to pay that. and to pay a double sadakah. 'Amr an-Nakid from Da'ud ibn-Kurdus After having crossed the Euphrates and decided to leave for the land of the Greeks. in their ritual — Only they pay double sadakah. al-Mudauwanah-l-Kubra." ' The terms with the banu-Taghlib. 'Umar made terms Cf. Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman : Sa'dawaih from Zur'ah ibn-an-Nu'man —The latter inter- ceded with 'Umar in favor of the Christians of the banuTaghlib. 42. Da'ud ibn-Kurdus used to repeat that they had no claim to security [dhimmah]. saying. agreeing not to immerse [baptize] a child or compel him to accept their faith. Taghlib showed such tenacity and asked permission to emi'Umair asked 'Umar's advice on this matter. or —he — Moslems pay. Yusuf. 159. They are Arabs too proud to pay the and are possessors of tillable land and cattle. he ought to war with them until he annihilates them or they . 'Umar had decided to take tax from them and they became dispersed in the whole country. 68. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from az-Zuhri None of the " people of the Book " pay sadakah on their cattle except the Christian banu-Taghlib : — perhaps said the Christian Arabs. because they used immersion referring to baptism. ii.

learned the fact that 'Umar took from them a double sadakah. ibn-abi-Dhi'b. however. abu-Hanifah and abu-Yusuf that from one of the banu-Taghlib is collected double what is collected fr." Muhammad ibn-Sa'd 'Uthman withdraws his word.>m a Moslem. Malik ibn-Anas. Having. 'Ali used to repeat. . because by christening their children they violated the covenant and are no more in our I trust [dhimmah]. 'Uthman from Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim ibn-al-Harith orders that nothing be accepted from the banu-Taghgave lib as tax except the tithe on gold and silver. on land. " I If I should have the time to deal with the banu- would have my own way with them. it is said by Sufyan ath-Thauri. 'Ali would do. he withdrew his word. to the Christians of the banu-Taghlib in order to col- from them half the tithe on their possessions." said. The tax on banu-Taghlib. stipulating that they pay double what the Moslems pay in the form of sadakah on the land and cattle. Their would surely put to death. because it is : — — — . ibnabi-Lailah.286 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 183 with them. and nothing to the school of al-Trak on his cattle and according to the school of al-Hijaz. a double sadakah according is taken on his land. They all. agree that what is taken from the banu-Taghlib should be spent in the same way as khardj. al-Auza'i. a double sadakah is taken on his cattle and his land. But if he is a child or idiot. cattle and possessions. : What Ziyad 'Umar lect ibn-Hudair al-Asadi —The Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from Ziyad " I was sent by latter said. or from a dhimmi that pays khardj. and was warned against collecting tithes from a Moslem. According to al-Wakidi. and their children I fighters would take as captives. What Taghlib. however. and that they do not christen their children. a substitute for tax. According to Mughirah.

When 'Uthman ibn-'Aftan became caliph. Armenia IV. 287 . After ernorship stopping in Malatyah in the year 133.. in the meantime ordering Mu'awiyah to invade or send someone to invade 1 Shimshat. Safwan took up his abode in Armenia until his death towards the end of Mu'awiyah's caliphate. iii. who lived in it until his death. he departed. i. and assigned 'Umair ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari as governor of Mesopotamia.CHAPTER The III Fortifications of the Mesopotamian Frontier Shimshat. 319. vol. putting it on the same level with the other frontier fortresses. Accordingly. Constantine the " " tyrant camped around Shimshat with hostile intentions. Mu'awiyah sent thereto Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri and Safwan ibnfortifications Mu'attal as-Sulami who. Later he dismissed the latter and combined both Syria and Mesopotamia. Kamkh. Habib ibn1 Yakut. but effected nothing. After making a raid on the surroundShimshat was included in the ing places. that he then conferred its govon Safwan. two kharaj-\dj\d until the time of al-Mutawakkil who changed it into a tithe-land. It is held by others that Mu'awiyah himself led the invasion with these in his company. e. reduced it and made terms similar to those of ar- Ruha. After the conquest of Shimshat. after a few days of camping around it. p. including their frontier 184 [thughur] under Mu'awiyah. he wrote to Mu'awiyah conferring on him the governorship of Syria.

p. vol. 633-634.Muhammad. \r. p. 1 Cf. 204: Duraid. but it was recaptured by Maslamah Thus the fort passed back and forth ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. it. 143. both until the year under the leadership of al-'Abbas ibn. Later. at which time Hubab " as-Sulami. however. The holders of the fort covered it with cypress w protect it against the mangonel stones. Vakut. and then camped around Kamkh. iv. 187.2 88 THE ORIGLXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE l Maslamah attacked Hisn Kamkh but failed to reduce it. Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath died at ' Amid/' and al-Hasan advanced to Malatyah from which they took provisions. vol. . and killed by the The Moslems stones they hurled two hundred Moslems. for the invasion of Kamkh. p. and in the year 177 an attack against 1 was by Muhammad ibn- Haukal. : pp. 130. dabbdbah Zaidan. Safwan too attacked it and failed. vol. i. 129. 1 Diyarbakr. Thus the reduction of Kamkh was due to 'Umair ibn-al-Hubab and was the thing in which he boasted — — and others boasted for him. the Greeks succeeded in taking it. who climbed the wall and kept struggling single-handed until the Greeks gave way and the Moslems climbed up. i. from the hands of the Moslems to the hands of the Greeks 149 in which al-Mansur left Baghdadh for Hadithat al-Mausil from which he sent al-Hasan ibnKahtabah and after him Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath. Among those in the Muhammad ibn-'Ali in this company of al-' Abbas ibncampaign was Matar al-YVar- Once more the Greeks took it Kamkh led fort. pp. In the year 59 the Safwan made another attempt on year in which he died he was accompanied by 'Umair ibn-alit. and fought severely until they then set their mantel ts 185 captured rak. Al-'' Abbas ordered that mangonels be set upon the A1-'Abbas fort. Mahasin.

The city was later lost to the Moslems. In the days of 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair. 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir reduced it. was entered on the 14th and was held by the Moslems until the time fort The civil time of it. vol. which resulted in its reduction. iv. the 'dmil of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Salih over Shimshat. its inhabitants having left it. pp. but they scon after evacuated it. its ibn-ar-Rashid. he sent again Habib ibn-Maslamah who took it by force and stationed in it a Moslem company of horsemen to keep post on the frontier and a 'dmil. he stationed in it a garrison from Syria. Kalikala together Christians desired because they held crown-lands in the province of Shimshat. saved his son who was held by them as prisoner. of Rabi' of the II.THE M ESQ POTAMIAN FRONTIER 289 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abi-'Amrah-l-Ansari. Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri was sent by x Tyad ibn-Ghanm from Shimshat to Malatyah whose conquest he effected. : — After its invasion by 'Abdallah ibn-' Abd-al-Malik 1 in the Yakut. and it was in the hands of the Moslems until certain Christians from Shimwith Bikrat ibn-Ashut. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi Turandah. When Mu'awiyah visited it on his way to the land of the Greeks. 633-634. In the caliphate of alMa'mun. the Greeks came and devastated it. thereby. Mesopotamia and other places. 177. and in this wise winning their favor which the shat. tions. . at which and the Greeks took possession away Some hold that the fort was delivered to the Greeks led war by Muhammad holders fled by 'Ubaidallah ibn-al-Akta' who. succeeded by subtle means in transferring it to the Greeks. It became one of the headquarters for the summer expediMalatyah. When Mu'awiyah became governor of Syria and Mesopotamia. and it was occupied by Armenian and Nabatean [Aramean] Christians. the patrician of Khilat.

Its inhabitants closed the gates. In summer. and the women appeared on the wall with turbans on their heads and took part in the fight. Hisham summoned the Moslems to the help of Malatyah. p. because he feared a raid of the enemy 186 upon them. The people of Malatyah then sent a messenger to appeal for help. The Greeks descend upon Malatyah. On led his way. their backs. but hearing that the Greeks had withdrawn from it. He rode on a post-mule and came to Hisham ibn'Abd-al-Malik who was then at ar-Rusafah. he communicated the news to the messenger and sent him with horsemen to remain at the frontier in readiness for the enemy. the Moslems settled in Turandah and built their houses in it. some 20. iii. evacuate it. leaving nothing behind they carried away everything on and breaking even the 'Umar settled them in Malatyah jars of oil and vinegar.000 Greeks made a descent on Malatyah. This was the first time in his rule in It is which he carried his sword. he made the inhabitants of Turandah. a detachment of troops from Mesopotamia would come and stay in it until the rain and snow began to fall. he passed through ar-Rakkah which he entered with his sword at his side. reported by al-Wakidi that in the year 133.290 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 year 83. against their will. making Ja'wanah ibn-al-Harith of the banu-'Amir ibn-Sa'sa'ah the governor of Malatyah. and destroyed Turandah. This Turandah is three days' journey from Malatyah and lies in the interior of the Byzantine Empire. 534- . Malatyah at this time was in ruins and inhabited by only a few Armenian dhimmis and others. after which he alighted in Malatyah where he lay encamped until it was built. In the year 123. vol. at which time they would return. When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph. Hisham an expedition in person. Constan' Yakut. As they left.

At this time. Malatyah rebuilt. 800 horsemen sallied forth from it to meet the Greeks. The people of Kamkh having sent was people of Malatyah for succor. . Therefore. Hisn Kaludhiyah was also destroyed by them. had I not realized your state and the fact that your you authorities [sultan] are too busy to help you. they carried every light could and threw what was too heavy into wells thing they places. I would not have come to saying. and its governor was banu-Sulaim. when the people of Malatyah sent a messenger soliciting aid. thus 187 making an arch. and Constantine camped around Malatyah and invested it. The Greeks saw them off until they got upon which they turned toward where they settled in various places. As and hiding of the line. al-Mansur wrote to Salih ibn-'Ali ordering him to rebuild and fortify Malatvah. As they made their way out. nobody came." The people did not comply with his deso he set the mangonels. In the year 139. He then deemed it best to send 'Abd-al-Wahhab ibnto their place of safety. Make peace therefore with me and leave the city that I may destroy it and go mand. way. Constantine addressed the people of Malatyah " O people of Malatyah. The siege was pressed so hard and the inhabitants were so exhausted that they my asked Constantine for safe-conduct.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER tine the " 2 gi " tyrant directed his in march to Malatyah. who left nothing but a granary of which only one side was damaged. all the Greeks stood in two rows from the city gates to the end with their swords unsheathed and the point of the one sword on the point of the one opposite to it. MalatMesopotamia yah was then razed to the ground by the Greeks. The Greek cavalry call to the defeated them after a battle. Mesopotamia was the scene of a civil war and its 'dmil Musa ibnKa'b was at Harran. Kamkh at that time one of the a Moslem hands. they prepared to leave. Hearing that. which request he accepted.

"Boy." In the " : Feed the people. He would also provide the workers with dinners and suppers at his own ex'Abd-al-Wahhab pense. but do announce to the workmen that he who. and thus was Malatyah with its mosque rebuilt in 6 months. For every group of ten to fifteen troops in the army. abu-Ja'far replied. Al-Mansur settled in Malatyah 4. What ignominy. opening his kitchens to the public. he built a frontier castle and another on a rivulet called Kubakib that empties its water into the Euphrates. in building a wall." This made them nut forth special effort to finish the work. Al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah himself would sometimes carry a stone and hand it over to the mason. he marched to the site of Malatyah. he built a house of two meantime.000 fighters from Mesopotamia. Accordingly. Malatyah being one of . he wrote to al-Hasan Al-Hasan used to rooms below and two rooms above and a stable. but al-Hasan many times more. got first to the crown of a cornice would receive so much. which they did to the number of 70. to spoil what he did. his aim being to contend with to disparage him for superiority in beneficence. With these. He ordered the people of Syria and Mesopotamia to furnish contingents of troops. al-Hasan feeds people on his own account: and thou feedest them on mine. 'Abd-al-Wahhab started in the year 140 at the head of troops from Khurasan and was accompanied by al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah.292 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Ibrahim al-Imam as governor over Mesopotamia and its frontier fortresses. gathered workmen from various places and started the construction.000." thou hast written was due to thy energy and base-mindedness. At a dis- tance of thirty miles from the city. and him by means of extravagance and hypocrisy and that al-Hasan had special heralds to go round calling : To this. people to his meals. was displeased at this and wrote to abu-Ja'far stating that distributed he ['Abd-al-Wahhab] gave food to the people. deficient not use a herald.

Haukal. Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim was sent to at In the invade Malatyah Khurasan. in addition to the pay allotted to the different tribes. Constantine desists 188 from Jaihan. adding to each man's stipend ten dinars. p. he desisted c : " Thou hadst on thy sides two Nasrs : Nasr ibn-Malik and Nasr !" ibn- Sa'd. Nasr ibn-Malik and Nasr ibn-Sa d accompany 'Abd-alWahhab. a freedman of al-Ansar. He stationed in the town the necessary garrison. but hearing of the great number of from it. at the head of an army of more than 100.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER the 293 Mesopotamian frontier towns. . Those of its the head of an army from the people of old inhabitants who survived returned to the it. Ar-Rashid led an invasion. Mas'iidi. I heard it said that 'Abd-al-Wahhab was accompanied in the expedition mentioned above by Nasr ibnMalik al-Khuza'i and Nasr ibn-Sa'd al-Katib. assigned farms to the troops as fief and built the Kaludhiyah fort.000 men. year 141. He posted a body of horsemen in Malatyah so that the enemy should not covet its possession. may thy victory [Ar. In the days of ar- Rashid. overcame and humiliated them. vol. nasr] be unparallelled Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim goes against Malatyah. p. Ar-Rashid humiliates Greeks. he sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid to the region of Mar'ash whose fort Khalid seized on the condition that its Mar' ash. ] When abu-'Ubaidah 1 Germanicia. viii. came to Jaihan. Constantine the "tyrant". Hence the poet's words the Arabs. the Greeks attempted the conquest of Malatyah but to no avail. 295 . and giving to each a bounty of one hundred dinars. ibn-al-Jarrah was in Manbij. 62. with al-Musaiyab ibn-Zuhair leading the choice men of the army.

i i came to Mar'. the city and so the inan. he d an expedition against the Greeks in the year 30. and after his claim upon the caliphate. after 'Abd-al-Malik ibn the death of his father. and routed them. in it it. nat. >\t into it and erected a cat' dral mosque. he started h and made a tour in the land of the Greeks.2 >4 .\ v. THE 0R1 >l- THE ISLAMIC STATE holders be allowed to emigrate to another place. tr- . and the Gt mada I It ar'ash to al-A'mak [valleys]. The Moslems marched bah a . and thus the peace was broken. Marwan year 74. • lie imposed upon the people of Kirm. it until its inhabitant e terms to ev familie ion uate for \ccordi ith their f tamia and the di Kin: which . from -'ash was built by Mu'awiyah and populated by him with I tps.\ ibn-al-Walid n against them under ibn-abi-Mu'ait accompanied by Dinar ibn-. Dinar -hra about ten miles from n. rwan ibn-Muhammad during his caliphate Hii came aj fighting t h and invested it. agreeing to pay them a certain sum. After the death of Yazid Greeks reiterated their attacks habitants had to desert it. In the year 7" Muhammad ibn more led vent forth in Juthe summer campaign. ' ibn- freedman of 'alik ibnit^ n and a gover: Kinnasrin and 1 distri< The two armies met fierce battle in valley iii I h where a the defeat of tin In • ar. on the ibn-Mu'awiyah. t of troops to be sent to Mar'ash. made terms with the :rting But in the Greeks. after which When Sufyan ibn-'Auf al-Ghamidi made ed it. Muhammad ibn-Marwan attacked the Greeks. ibn-al-IJakam. alik Later al-'Abilt ibn-al-Walid ibn-' it.

n '.i- vol p \thlr.reeks led an in . the i>c iple Mull. ' i - • Al iii 'I I. .i wall. "'i led the i who was thi summ< pedit - Uabil m.n Im M.I lmi„ I .i ithi allii w i the i inhabitant ot the it and theii " I d nil again arr< >w • him ih. fl i .ii I city iih al was at thai time " Kauthai " ibn-Zufai ibn-al oi Kilabi and iii<- tyrant was Constantine ion wiiii eon When Marwan was its through liims and had viar'ash it destroyed v\..ili 1 1 i- d ' and Vbsi. aftei hi ing the city. ii<- sent an s i arm) it) . 1. to rebuild ( rebuilt i and made into and dest h i but the . num.ii Man 1 ' in ! iAlih t< i ibn ettli i Mi in rebuilt it.. hi and who . depai in.in theii m< el and M hael M ichael ii and gavi iwered on I and the) rangi 1 followed him until thc> waj be were outside the . cit) i it which he turned upon < ii killing eight >l 1 eedmen and in iii\ • hai ing the • i s< bai 'i I to the cit) ii Ha invi i t in n( Ii H ed ii gat i and al h u I.r h in w hi< thei e i ibn w ho ' in that i \ eai was m an exp< ith diti< m Bhi I he < fre< I mi "i ii i . illing. i.lm i.ili.l. Mai iih and in- fortified reasi He it in\ ited i<- men wa pri al ling to theii itipends gai 1 1 su< ai eeded I b) Vlahdi u ho im reased m and \\ |] .* \ Mai a ih. topped faih&n \ n huml he • -I i al v . i ii ard ol that ot i pati hi - 'I again hi M ii ha< li I a 1 stri mg I d< ta< lun< nt i' all i in.. 'i 'i al in d( the eai . II III - Ol I If i . .ii - epai ation ed the angei il a an ibn ending il u - »ui 1 1 l\ .M.it -i v\ m • lost their pi his foi al Mahdi .ih pedition in the following year.nil .i// $OPOT i 11// (A / /u >\ /// R .in c( 1 • 1 ii >\ ed ii in the < aliphate oi 'at abu fa' fai it .ihi -.l |. vol p in .'.. bin ning i and <>\ ' i- lem ot as captivei vlai < hem ii <• he ad\ w • am I 1 the gate oj the cit) \ ii ii .| Michael | set out i fri i im ' >ai 1 1 » i b a! I ladath I at the head ot ooo men and I ami I. M\ nn IIii. :t) die Greeks destroyed the n \ II ual '•inn I "i Marwan ovei the l.|.i! v\ - Iv -n began . | 1 il. Ibfl '•' i .| \|.

\nv>ng the compan- — ions of al-Hasan in this campaign were Mandal al-'Anazi the Kufite traditionist. the governor of called 1 Mesopotamia and Kinnasrin. Marwan ibn-Muhamwent and destroyed the city of al-Hadath mad. the Greeks and drove its people out as they had done in the case of At the time of the insurrection of Malatyah. Al-Hasan' s hand lay so heavily the people that they put his picture in their churches. upon His entrance to the land of the Greeks [Asia Minor] was in the through Darb al-Hadath where he examined the site of its city [al-Hadath] which he was told was evacuated by Michael.Mi ibn-Sulaiman ibn-'Ali. pass of the youth. " The ''. In the year 161. that. . Darb al-Hadath was ominously called by the banu-Umaiyah After " 190 as-Salamah J. occurrence implied in the term currence]. and al-Mahdi directed al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah to make a tour Byzantine Empire." p. the Hadath [which means ocOthers assert that the Moslems met on the way a youth who fought against them with his companions. 1 hence the name Darb al-Hadath. calamity in it. 377- Dhahabi. [safety] because they suffered a great the calamity being. according to some. Mushtabih. and The death of al-Mahdi al-Muhammadiyah.296 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Hisn al-Hadath and Darb al-Hadath. 2 Al-Hadath was rebuilt by '. Mu'awiyah used to pay frequent attention to it. orders that al-Hadath be built first. and Mu'tamir ibn-Sulaiman alBasri. and when he departed he spoke to al-Mahdi regarding the reconstrucAl-Mahdi gave tion of this city as well as that of Tarsus. Michael went out to 'Amk Mar'ash. Hisn al-Hadath was one of the places reduced in the days of 'Umar by Habib ibn-Maslamah who was sent by 'Iyad ibn-Ghanm. Al-Hasan chose that site for his city.

Sumaisat. station a garrison in it and assign to It its fighters dwellings and lands as fiefs. ar-Rashid became caliph. Al-Mahdi was succeeded by his son Musa-1-Hadi who dismissed 'Ali ibn-Sulaiman and conferred the governorship of Mesopotamia and Kinnasrin upon Muhammad ibnIbrahim ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Ali. transferring 2.000 paid troops to al-Hadath and settled them in it. winter set in and rain and snow fell in The houses of the city. fortify it. To these he assigned the houses as fiefs. died before they were sent out. one of the great patricians of the Greeks . Mesopotamia and Khurasan. Musa conscripted a contingent of troops headed by al-Musaiyab [not al-Musaiyib] ibn-Zuhair. not being great quantities. According to abu-1-Khattab.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER 2 gy coincided with the completion of its building. their walls 191 had soon covered with cracks and it fell to pieces. After that. Kaisum. strongly built or provided with the necessary precautions. so it is really al-Mahdiyah as well as al-Muhammadiyah. Shimshat. another by Rauh ibnHatim and still another by Hamzah ibn-Malik. It was stated by al-Wakidi that when the building of alHadath was completed. 'Ali ibn-Sulaiman assigned 4. Hearing that. Since 'Ali ibn-Sulaiman had by this time completed the building of the city of alHadath. Musa. and bestowed three hundred dirhams on every one of The city was completed in 169. Duluk and Ra'ban. fixing forty dinars as the sti- pend of each soldier.000 men into it from Malatyah. and he gave orders to rebuild the city. The death of al-Mahdi the year 169. Muhammad assigned to it troops from Syria. Brick was the material used in fell in its construction. The Greeks then occupied however. them. was stated by others than al-Wakidi that when al-Hadath was built. and the troops together with the people that were in it were scattered.

he rebuilt it. without mortar intervening and which were damaged by the snow.'. note 1. 60. 1 Cactani. Therefore the place was called Rahwat Malik. In the year 46. ditions] and who was a Palestinian. It was then rebuilt. way back he stopped at a place called ar-Rahwat.298 the origins of the islamic state a descent upon it with a strong host. Malik ibn-'Abdallah alnicknamed Malik as-Sawa'if [summer expeKhath'ami. I was informed by one from Manbij that ar-Rashid the city mosque to flames. vol. but not so strongly. ture-land devoted alry. There he spent three days during which he sold the booty and divided its shares. Later. ibn-Ibrahim confirming him in the Thus the erection of the city of al- carried out by him on behalf Muhammad was dismissed by ar- Rashid. and the enemy entered putting its and carrying away people. destroying the movable possessions of the wrote to Muhammad work he was doing. When ar-Rashid became caliph. Marj 'Abd-al-Wahid was a pasMarj 'Abd-al . Hadath and its peopling were of ar-Rashid. p. The city was built with bricks. made The 'amil with all it. Zibatrah was an old Greek fort that was re* duced together with the old Hadath Maslamah-1-Fihri. fort it by Habib ibn- The fort stood until was destroyed by the Greeks in the flays of al-Walid ibn-Yazid. land. fifteen miles from Darb al-Hadath. On his Rahwat Malik. made an expedition to the Byzantine territory and returned with great booty. one placed on top of the other. . t<> the exclusive use of the Moslem cav- which after the erection of al-Hadath and Zibatrah was of no more use and therefore was changed into a sown Zibatrah. those in the city took to flight. therefore the Greeks made another attack on it at the time of the insurrection of Mariv.

the Greeks days of al-Mu'tasim-Billah abu-Ishak ibn-armade a sally against Zibatrah x in the course of which they killed the men. and fortifying " Greek tyrant " for repairing In the year 210. of Marwan 1 Yakut. One misfortune ibn- was the loss of the life of Yakzan ibn-'Abd-al-A'la Ahmad In ibn-Yazid ibn-Asid as-Sulami. It was then rebuilt by ar-Rashid under the supervision of 192 Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim who stationed a garrison in it. the Rashid. the deputies of the came asking for peace. and who occupied it in the days others the Mansur with a large host of the troops of Syria and Mesopotamia in order to repulse the enemy. The Greeks after that tried to reduce but failed. This greatly aroused the anger of al-Mu'tasim stroying who chased them as far as 'Ammuriyah. which al-Ma'- Al-Ma'mun gave orders mun refused. his 'dmils [lieuin the frontier fortresses made tours in Asia slaughter. According to abu-'Amr al-Bahili and fort was named after Mansur ibn-Ja'wanah ibn-al-Harith al-'Amiri of Kais who had charge of building and repairing it. tenants] In pursuance of his orders. the Greeks made another descent on it and tore it into pieces. it. 914- . muriyah he reduced against 'Amfighters to death and carrying off the built. subdued the Minor where they wrought heavy land and won many brilliant victories.THE MESOPOTAMIAN FRONTIER 299 wan ibn-Muhammad and destroyed it. captured the women and destroyed the city. He then and ordered that Zibatrah be redestroyed 'Ammuriyah. p. When al-Ma'mun became caliph. ii. vol. women and He also fortified and garrisoned it it. after its a raid on the pasturing cattle of which they made holders and carried away some cattle. Him Mansur. Al-Mansur built it again and it was once more torn into pieces by the Greeks. He camped putting its children as prisoners. de- many until forts on the way. it.

he sent someone who brought him. 946: Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate. who. 1 Man- Yakut.300 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE its This same Mansur was governor of ar-Ruha when inhabitants rebelled in the early part of the [Abbasid] dynasty and were besieged by al-Mansur. 'Abdallah made Mansur the chief of the guard in his dislater 'Abdallah fled to al-Basrah. According to others. Mansur took to flight. In the caliphate of al-Mahdi. iv. After this there were found letters to the Greeks and betraying Islam. ar-Rashid built the sur fort and stationed a garrison in it. Mansur disapbut was discovered in the year 141 and brought peared before al-Mansur. he appeared on the scene. 'Abdallah ibn-'Ali dismissed abu-Ja'far al-Mansur. given safe-conduct. . 5. Mansur was given safe-conduct and appeared after the flight of [Abdallah] ibn-'Ali. put When him to death at ar-Rakkah. When al-Mansur captured the city. and he was on him directed beheaded at ar-Rakkah. vol. but when he was When trict. Al-Mansur then departed for al- Hashimiyah x at al-Kufah. arrived at ar-Rakkah from Jerusalem. in the year 141. the 'amil of abu- l-'Abbas over Mesopotamia and Armenia. When al-Mansur. on his way from Jerusalem. p. p.

'Abd-al-Malik punished the orders to Sulaiman ibn-Sa'd to change the Sulaiman requested 'Abd-allanguage of the registers. Arabic made the Language of the State Registers the language of the state registers * until the reign of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. that of Palestine was 350. Hearing this. than the change of the language was and Sulaiman brought the registers to 'Abd-alMalik.000. ma'unah. dtwan which may also be used in the sense of office or bureau. Malik to give him as subsidy the khardj of the Jordan prov- man and gave ince for one year. Meeting certain Greek clerks.000. for God has off cording to others 700. 800. he Seek your livelihood in any other profession cut it from you.000. see Mubarrad. '-' Ar. 1 Ar. last line. Sarjun was greatly chagrined and left " 'Abd-al-Malik sorrowful." The total tax of the Jordan which was thus assigned as 2 subsidy was 180. who in the Greek remained it year 81 ordered changed. 76. and acthan this.000 dinars. 301 . Kamil. 'Abd-al-Malik granted his request and him to the governorship of the Jordan.000. p. that of Hims with Kinnasrin and the regions called to-day al-'Awasim. said to them. that of Damascus 400. The reason was that a Greek clerk desiring to write something and rinding no ink urined in the inkstand. No sooner assigned finished had the year ended.CHAPTER IV 193. to him The latter called Sarjun [Sergius] and presented the new plan.




Kubadh vol. Siraj Tair and Baghrawand constituted Armenia III.CHAPTER The Conquest of I Armenia Traditions have been communicated to me by Muhammad ibn-Isma'il of Bardha'ah and others on the authority of abu-Bara' 'Anbasah ibn-Bahr al. Kalikala. having pieced them up together into one whole. Dabil. and Taflis. i. e. and as-Sisajan. Khurdadhbih. Siraj Tair. the king. Arran [Albania]. These traditions I here- with transmit. 122-123. Baghrawand. Al-Khazar used from time to time to make raids and reach as far as adDinawar. He belonged to the Sassanian Dynasty. Shimshat alone constituted Armenia IV. 1 8 s *. 305 . Armenia III. Khilat Arjish — and Bajunais constituted Armenia IV. Armenia II. Jurzan [Georgia] constituted Armenia II. pp. Arjish and Bajunais.Armani. Because of it. by Muhammad ibn-Bishr al-Kali on the authority of his sheikhs. ibn-Fairuz al-Malik 3 The Encyclopaedia of Islam. the district of al. Muhammad ibn-al-Mu- khaiyis al-Khilati and others on the authority of some well versed in the affairs of Armenia. under the governorship of Kubddh ibn-Fairus builds many cities. Shimshat. 2 Jurzan and Arran were held by the Khazar.194 Busfurraja. Kalikala. 1 According to others. Dabil [Dwin].11 [Waspurakan]. while the rest of Armenia was held by the Greeks " the Lord of Armaniyakus ". p. as-Sisajan and Arran constituted Armenia I. and al-Busfurrajan.. Armenia I. by Barmak ibn-'Abdallah ad-Dabili. 444. Khilat. to wit: The four provinces.

pp. Martin. vol. kubadh. Kubadh was succeeded Anushirwan Kisra who built the cities of ashby Shabiran and Maskat. Yakut. p. Memoires sur VArmenie. ad-Durztikiyah . 189. St. 1 still Derbend. and later al-Bab wa-1. 207-214. ad-Durdhukiyah each one of which was a which consisted of twelve castle of stone. pp. whom Dudaniyah. " " " Shaka Haukal. cities. aHamadhani. he eshe called as-Siyasijun. Hamadhani.-06 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE despatched one of his great generals at the head of 12. pp. Next to the Greek lands it in the region of Jurzan. After that he erected Sudd al-Libn [brick dam] lying between the land of Sharwan and al-Lan gate.. and Abwab admountain. 3 tablished Abwab Shakkan. another called Bab Ladhikah. p. < "Shakka". 5 Hamadhani. 288.000 men. and the city of Kabalah. vol. p. i. e.Abwab 1 which was called Abwab because it was built on a road in the — Aniishinvan builds other his son He settled in the places he built a people 2 In the land of Arran. p. 254. 2 Cf. Along this Sudd. Haukal. 288. badh then followed him and built in Arran the city of alwhich is the capital of the Bailakan. 288. p. Sughdabil. which he populated with a body of as-Sughd [Sogdians] and Persians. St. 286-288. Martin. " . he built a castle and called Bab Fairuzianother Bab 68. 241-242. In the land of Jurzan he established a city. "Shakka". Ad-Dudaniyah are a tribe who claim to be descended from the banu-Dudan ibn-Asad ibn-Khuzaimah. al-Kamibaran. p. Hama- dhani. ii. he established 360 cities which fell into ruins after the erection of the city of al-Bab wa-1-Abwab. the city of Bardha'ah whole frontier region. 195 He also built 5 * gates. Dictionnaire de la Perse. i. making it a fortified town. who ravaged the land of Arran and conquered the Kuregion lying between ar-Rass river and Sharwan. Cf. . See Mcynard. alKhazar.

his daughter. ter to . Bab Samsakhi. fire was set in a corner of his own camp where nothing but cottages of straw and twigs stood. Anushirwan conquered fied the city Armenia held by the Greeks. the Turkish king complained to Anushirwan but the latter denied having ordered it or known that his men had done it. the fort of Wais and other castles all the forts of — castles. 238. . The two met at al-Barshaliyah where they caroused together for some days. upon which he was appeased. i. who was adopted by one of his wives. built and fortiof Dabil. Anushirwan grumbled to the Turk.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA Barikah which lies -p- on the Tarabazundah sea [Black Sea]. Histoire de la Georgie. The Turk grumbled so much at the act that Anushirwan had to show sympathy for him 196 and apologized to him. and each felt the other was friendly to him and expressed his loyalty. By order of Anushirwan. he sent him a maid of his. in In order to assure him of his friendliness. which they did. p. In the morning. He also erected Bab al-Lan. vol. 1 Brosset. built an-Nashawa the capital of the al-Busfurrajan district. In the morning. and his men did. saying. 1 al-Jardaman fort. and Samshulda fort. Anushirwan sought his daughter's hand and expressed a desire to be his son-in-law. the Turk presented his daughAnushirwan and came to see him. Meanwhile. Anushirwan then wrote to the king of the men Turks asking for reconciliation and peace and for action unison. Moreover. Anushirwan gave his orders to repeat the act. and said she was Consequently. Anushirwan builds a wall between his domain and that of the Turks. he stationed Siyasijiyah noted for valor and efficiency in warfare. Anushirwan ordered some of his friends in whom he confided to wait for nightfall and set fire to a part of the Turkish camp. in the land of as-Sisajan including al-Kilab and Sahyunis In the forts and castles. After a few nights.

so that when they appeared above the surface. to one hundred horsemen to guard Before took 50. Thy men were on the point of destroying my camp and thou rewardest me by throwing suspicion upon me The Turk swore that he knew no reason for the act." the proposal and left for his own land. upon which . because they have thereby lost the booty depending on razzias and wars that might be carried out between us. in different districts.000 troops to guard the place. cepted Anushirwan commenced building side of it Turk ac- the wall. dropped into the sea. He built the Its that faced the sea with rock and lead. I fear they un- " dertake things to corrupt our hearts after our mutual agreement of sincerity. and its height reached the mountain He ordered that stones be carried in boats and heights. "Anu- shirwan has deceived thee and given thee for wife one " is not his daughter and fortified himself against thee who . Brother. thy troops and mine look with disfavor on the peace we made. The Khakan was later told. The wall extended over a distance of three miles in the sea. them Anushirwan assigned kings.308 ' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE . On this wall x he also set a mantelet. kings. that thou allowest me to and build a wall between thee me with one gate through us. width he made 300 dhird's. When the construction was completed. saying. he trusted this. it it fixed on its entrance iron gates and enit. ex- which none from us will go to you and from you to The cept the ones thou wishest and we wish.: ! Anushirwan addressed him. . so that we may once more have recourse to enmity after our ship. he could build on them. but Khakan was no match Anushirwan assigns stationed for such wiles. I deem it new blood relationship and our friendwise. therefore. and conferred on each dis- one of them the governorship [made him Shah] of one 1 The Turkish king.

Tabari. note f St. vol. certain period. his wife succeeded him and her name was Kali. Another was the king of Filan surnamed Filan-shah. Mas'udi. 2 Martin. an annual Thus Armenia was in the hands of the Persians until the appearance of Islam. Armen. pp." The meaning She set of the word is " the benevolence her picture on one of the city gates. Meynard. ^09 " One of these was " Khakan " al-Jabal mountain] who bore the title Sahib as-Sarir [lord of the " 1 [holder of the throne] and was named Wahrarzan-shah. 76. When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan became caliph. He also made Bukh 2 its king. ". vol. the Greek princes were and some of them became like Muluk at4 After the Tawa'if. vol. p. " p. Sharwan called Sharwan-shah. 5 She built the city of Kalikala 6 which she named Kalikala. stipulating that they pay tribute. ii. his 'dmil over Syria and 1 Istakhri. Petty kings Alexander. the king of Liran — — — — the king of the chief of king. kingdom was divided after Hamadhani. At a scattered about Kalikalah. modern Erzerum. Others were Tabarsaran-shah. . p. 5 6 among whom i. 191. and the chief of Zirikiran its 197 The kings of Jabal al-Kabak 3 he left over their kingdoms and made terms with them.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA trict. 41-42. 3 * Cf. p. at which time many Siyasijun aban- doned their forts and cities which fell into ruins. of Kali. Qabq (Caucase) the Persian pp. . the king of al-Lakz surnamed Jarshan-shah the king of Maskat (whose kingship has been surnamed Liran-shah and abolished). he wrote to Mu'awiyah. 704-713. The Kalikala reduced. death of the latter. i. 437. 292. The Khazar and Greeks thus got possession of what was once in their hands. and one ruled over Armanivakus. Arabs arabicized Kalikalah into Kalikala. Karin.

ordering him to reinforce Habib with an army headed by Salman ibn-Rabi'ah-1-Bahili who bore the title "Salman al-Khail" [the Salman of horsemen] and who was generous. he fought them and drove them to the city. pp. .and. but according to another estimate. Afkhaz and from Samandar in alKhazar. Many of them left the city and went as far as Asia Minor. 'Uthman also wrote to Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi [98 ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah. he camped around it. 259-260. and when its people came out against him. The Greeks 1 Miiller. 8. Habib remained in the city with his men for a few months.310 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 Mesopotamia together with their frontier cities. The former view is more authentic. Habib had left a good impression in connection with the conquest of Syria and the invasion of the Greeks.000 Kufites. benevolent and of a warlike nature. This fact was fully realized by 'Umar. ordering him to send Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri into Armenia.000.und Abend'. Habib ordering him to make an expedition against Armenia. Mu'awiyah sent 2. Therefore. 'Uthman wrote to Mu'awiyah asking him to send to Habib a body of men from Syria and Mesopotamia interested in the "holy war" and booty. At the receipt of Habib's request. of the people of Syria and Mesopotamia. given fiefs and stationed as horsemen guard to keep post in it. Habib went against it at the head of 6. Arriving in Kalikala. Accordingly. by 'Uthman and by 'Uthman' s Others say that 'Uthman wrote [directly] to successor. Salman set out at the head of 6. He then learned that the patrician of Armaniyakus had massed a large army against the Moslems and was reinforced by troops from al-Lan. agreeing to evacuate the place and pay the tax.000. Der Islam in Morgen. his 'amil over al-Kufah. he wrote to 'Uthman asking for reinforcement.000 men who were settled in Kalikala. Accordingly. They then asked for peace.

Salman ibn-Rabi'ah went to Armenia.. 'Uthman informing him Al-Walid received a letter from that Mu'awiyah had written him to the effect that the Greeks were gathered against the Moslems in great numbers. before Habib received the reinforcement. umm-'Abdallah. and ordering him to send 8. the Moslems swept over them and That evening Habib's wife.000 1-Bahili. i. Habib re" x or in ParaEither at the tents of the tyrant '. and ye depart towards ibn-'Affan. Ibid. i. Mu'awiyah sent an equal number under Habib ibn-Maslamah-1-Fihri. 2807-2808. 'Uthman was communicated " with. ' dise When he got to those tents he found her there. . !" When the Moslems were done with their enemy. vol. returned. we would also depart. killed their chief. "Where shall I meet thee?" To this. regarding which the poet " said : If if ye kill Salman. made captives and plundered. which led into a verbal dispute Some Moslems threatened between Habib and Salman. pp." 2 and he wrote back. plied. * 3 pp.000 men. daughter of Yazid of the Kalb tribe. Tabari. we kill your Habib. asked Habib. vol." he wrote to Salman ordering him to invade x\rran. men under Salman ibn-Rabi'ahingly. al-Walid sent 8. The Meanwhile. and that the Moslems wanted rein3 Accordforcements. reported by others that in the caliphate of 'Uthman. Salman The Kufite troops wanted to have a share in the booty but were refused.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA and 311 their followers had already arrived and encamped on the Euphrates. 1 The two leaders reduced many Referring to the Greek general. Taking advantage of the night. 2893-2894. spoils belong wholly to the Syrians by right. Salman with death. returning in the year 25 to al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah It is at Hadithat al-Mausil.

is more authentic and was orally communicated to me by many from Kalikala and in writing by al-'Attaf ibn-Sufyan abu-1-Asbagh. Muhammad ibn-Bishr al-Kali and ibn-Warz al-Kali from the sheikhs of Kalikala Ever since its conquest. destroyed its the tyrant set out. fortifies Kalikala. whose inhabitants at that time were few and whose In the course of the siege. " the tyrant ". Kusan came and invested the city. The authorities of this tradition believe that Habib fell upon the Greek at Kalikala. The former report.312 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE away many prisoners and fell forts. two 'amil was abu-Karimah. went out to Kusan and brought him in to the city. wall and expelled the " " that were in it to Mesopotamia. Armenian brothers who lived in the city made a breach through a rampart in its wall. hence the verse quoted above. — 199 Kusan subdues Kalikala. Moslems tives he distributed among his companions. after which he encamped at Marj al-Hasa whence he directed Kusan alArmani against Kalikala. carried to dispute re- garding the general leadership. however. Salman then joined Habib. listed in Al-Mansur rebuilds and al-Mu'tasim 1 Patrician of Armaniyakus which province is De Goeje's edition of Baladhuri as a name of person. the city of Kalikala held out against : — attacks until the year 133 in which besieged Malatyah. Al-Mauriyan ar-Rumi came against him. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Wbd-al-Hamid ibn-Ja'far's father: Habib ibn-Maslamah besieged the inhabitants of Dabil and camped around the 1 city. but under the cover of the night. the kadi of Kalikala. . The capcarrying off what he plundered to . Habib killed him and plundered what was in his camp. took captives and razed it to the ground. Habib kills al-Mauriyan. Thus Kusan subdued the city killed [many]. The Syrians wanted to kill Salman.

The leading men of Habib and made a treaty agreeing to Ar. After having cap- tured Kalikala. 175. the Greek In the caliphate of al" came to Kalikala tyrant it. Martin. He then 2 occupied a house between al-Harak and Dasht al. who had guaranteed to the patrician the security of his life. sent a exchange man with him and wrote him a statement of peace and tricts 200 safety. To the villages of Arjish .THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA According to al-Wakidi. Original not clear. see Mawardi. 2 s * Martin. 82 and 232. i. and Bajunais. Habib made peace with him in for an annual tax to be paid for his land. St. fada bihim. 4 one of the disof al-Busfurrajan. i.Warak. Habib sent a body of men who subArjish dued them and these villages 1 laid poll-tax came to on them. Bajunais and at-Tirrikh. p. The patrician of Khilat brought him the money he owed and offered a present which Habib refused to accept. vol. 101. who sur- vived.000 city strong again. and he rebuilt Kalikala. dirhams to make the The patricians of Khilat and Muks. populated into He also invited to " it and returned from Mesopotroops tamia and other places to live in Mu'tasim-Billah. and threw of falling. pp. Habib marched to Mirbala where the patrician of Khilat brought him a statement written by Tyad ibn-Ghanm. St. in the year 139 313 al-Mansur gave ransom them 1 for those of the captives of Kalikala it. it. projectiles on its wall until it was on the point Thereupon al-Mu'tasim had to spend 500. . possessions and country and had concluded a treaty with him stipulating that the patrician should pay tax. Habib then visited Khilat and passed to as-Sababah [ ?] 3 where he was met by the chief of Muks. p. vol. Habib sanctioned the terms of the statement.

upon which he took possession of its fish and sold them. and it was used by the public until Muhammad ibn-Marwan ibn-al-Hakam became governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia. ' vol. . including those present This is have granted you safety for your lives." which is a clerical error. ye are safe and we are bound to fulfil our covenant. to be loyal to the Moslems. His cavalry wandered around. As for at-Tirrikh lake. making an income out of it. vol. He also despatched a force against Siraj Tair and against Baghrawand whose patrician came and made terms." Martin. This he granted them. posThus sessions. places of worship. 1 and was thus Muhammad. Yakut. 101 . Magians and Jews of Dabil. i. and city wall. as ye 1 fulfil yours and pay poll-tax and kharaj. crossed Nahr al-Akrad and encamped at Marj Dabil. 25.* 4 reached as far as Ashush. The set a 5 on him. 2 3 Baladhuri reads " Kirmiz. al-Jabal Kuntah and Wadi-1-Ahrar and subdued all the villages of Dabil. to entertain them.314 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE pay the kharaj on their lands. occupied Jurna. "Ardashat". Thereunto vol. Habib now came 2 Dabil and other towns sue for peace. agreeing to pay an annual tribute. The lake after that became the property of Marwan lost to ibn- Muhammad to Azdisat. " Aschdischad. he did not interfere with it. : a treaty of Habib ibn-Maslamah with the Christians. the chief village of al-Hurmuz. 1 )ri<nnal not clear. so long I and absent. the compassionate. i. p. Marasid. p. Thence he sent the cavalry against Dabil and marched until he reached its gate. the merciful. dhat-al-Lujum. 109. and to aid them against the enemy. Habib text of the treaty with Dabil ran as follows " In the name of Allah. St. p. The people took to the fortifications and threw projectiles mangonel against the city and used it until they sued for peace and capitulation. i. churches.

they left some of their horses and mules to graze. agree- ing to pay a certain tax every year. Later. leaving their bridles together in one place. he was met by a messenger of the patrician and the inhabitants of the town. Habib wrote to them : " — 1 Certain diacritical points missing. and made terms with the holders of the Sisajan to the effect that they pay tax. That is why this spot was called dhatDhat-al-Lujum. I ' : [the place of the bridles]. 2 Meynard. the Moslems returned to them. al-Lujum As Habib was advancing against the patrician of Jurzan. Habib after this proceeded to an-Nashawa and took possession of it on terms similar to those of Dabil. . massacred them and took back what has been carried " away from them. and it suffices to have him for witness. Signed by Habib ibn-Maslamah. who presented a written message and asked for a treaty of peace and security. The patrician of al-Busfurrajan came and made terms regarding all of his country together 1 with the land of Hasatiltah [ ?] and Afaristah [ ?]. He also conquered Wais. Habib then moved to as-Sisajan 2 whose As-Sisajan. Suddenly. p. people resisted him but were defeated.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA Allah is ^1$ witness. the uncircumcised drove the Moslems away and seized the bridles together with as many horses and mules as they could. a band of the "uncircumcised" fell upon them before they could bridle their animals. forts at as- 201 He then proceeded was informed by certain sheikhs from Dabil. When they got to dhat-al-Lujum. to Jurzan. 335. among whom was Barmak ibn-'Abdallah." An-Nashazva and al-Busfurrajdn. Accordingly. that Habib ibn-Maslamah marched with his men bent on Jurzan. In the fight " that ensued.

p. I have made a treaty of peace with you and inserted one condition in it. 245. i. pp. 2674. and are bound to entertain the needy Moslem for order to increase one night and provide him with that food used by the people of the Book and which it is legal for us to partake of. 2674- . religious services and faith. vol.316 " ' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Your messenger. came the Believers ' to me and my companon your behalf that we are a saying nation whom Allah has honored and given superiority. the compassionate. vol. : The — This is a statement from Habib ibn-Maslamah to the inhabi- tants of Taflis which lies in 3 Manjalis at Jurzan al-Hur- securing them safety for their lives. " and not " Kirmiz as Baladhuri has it. See Tabari. ' ' 1 Cf. Otherwise announce ye a war waged by Allah and his Prophet 2 Peace 1 ions ' '. Ye owe us counsel and support against the enemies of Allah and his Prophet to the utmost of your ability. Ye are not to combine more muz. Nukla. well and good. Tabari. I have estimated its value and considered it a part of your tax. p. 248. vol.. convents. the merciful." Habib thence protreaty with the people of Taflis. 2 : 279. be to those who follow the proper guidance. provided they acknowledge their humiliation and pay tax to the amount of one dinar on every household. churches. If ye accept the condition and live up to it. great praise be to Allah. As for your present. 4 than one household into one in order to reduce the tax. i. nor are we to divide the same household into more than one in it. and prayer and peace be on Muhammad his Prophet and noblest creature! Ye also stated that ye would like to make peace with us. i. which Allah did. 3 Kor. 8 4 Brosset. ceeded to Taflis [Tiflis] and made the following statement of peace to its people " In the name of Allah.

unless something stands in the way. vol. 2675 : become Moslem ". 1 2 Tabari. and obligations to which Allah The above and are your rights his angels are witness and it is sufficient to is have Allah for witness. This is a treaty made by al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah with the inhabitants of Taflis in the district of Manjalis and the " In the name province of Jurzan. Samsakhi. almills annum without . ye are bound to deliver him to the nearest body a is Moslem ' cut off of the If Believers '. These terms of peace and seI put into effect and ordered that the sum be never curity increased on them. Let no one. otherwise poll-tax is incumbent on you. and mills. In case an enemy of yours attacks and subjugates you while the Moslems are too busy to come to your aid. therefore. p. Written by—. vineyards. the Moslems are not held responsible. called jalis. 1 202 ye return to the obedience of Allah and observe prayer. Awara and Sabina in the district of Manand regarding Ta'am and Diduna in the district of in the province of Jurzan. Habib conquered 2 Hawarih. so Allah wills. They have shown me the treaty made with them by Habib ibn-Maslamah to the effect that they accept the humiliation of the tax. stipulating that they Kuhuwit pay on these and vineyards a tax of 100 dirhams per repeating it.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA If ^17 from his companions and falls into your hands. ye are our brethren in faith. the merciful. . and that he made terms with them regarding lands belonging to them. " i." a copy of the treaty made by al-Jarrah The following ibn-'Abdallah-l-Hakami with the people of Taflis : of Allah." Various places conquered by Habib. Lacking in diacritical points. nor is it a violation of the covenant with you. Kasf aryabs [ ?] Kisal. the compassionate. Khunan. to whom this my treaty is read increase the tax on them.

p. 1 al-Hur- Brosset. ii. Khukhit. Martin. Kastasji. 198. By order of 'Uthman. 5 Kakheth in Brosset. vol. 512. and Bab al-Lal 203 As-Sanariyah and ad-Dudaniyah made terms. Kazwini. "Odh. which capitulated on terms stiputhe city of al-Bailakan lating that he guarantee the safety of their lives." Brosset. line 20. which capitulated on the terms that the lives of the inhabitants be spared. Martin. Thrialeth. 4 5 6 The people of Kalarjit. cf. pp. vol. " " i. Brosset. ii. 8 "Kukhet. p. 45. lages. p. p. inhabitants closed their city gates against him and he made an attempt on it for many days. i. Bardha'ah and other places. /. 7 p. 227. Artahal. harvest. Text not . i. vol. vol. Thus he made his entrance and occuIt was the time for reaping the pied the city. 248. St. ii. vol. possessions and city walls.<5l8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 Jardaman. 8 7 also made terms with Habib. made terms similar to those of al-Bailakan and people opened their gates. Al-Bailakan. and that they pay poll-tax and khardj. Shaushit. Thence Salman advanced to 9 Bardha'ah and camped on ath-Thurthur river which flows The at a distance of less than one parasang from the city. its At last. 413. 9 10 St. 86. 8 Martin. i. and Bazalit. Salman ibn- Here he conquered Rabi'ah-1-Bahili proceeded to Arran. agreeing to pay an annual tax. 87. making raids on its vil. vol. clear. 39. 285. Khakhit. 315. i. /. that places of worship and their walls be not molested and that they 2 3 pay annual tribute on their lands and persons. vol. al-Misryan." Brosset. 3 * Brosset. p. . vol. i. al-Misfawan. " pp. 349. vol. St. Tharyalit. Salman then sent his cavalry which con10 quered Shifshin. 2 Martin: " Schauscheth" pp. St.

because of their interest in He also transplanted Islam came. I was informed by some people from Shamkiir. merchants to it from Bardha'ah and called it al-Mutawakkiliyah. Meynard. Bardha'ah that Shamkur was an ancient city to which Salman ibn-Rabi'ah sent someone who reduced it.000 Moslems who in that critical position were city of al-Bab heard shouting 3 " Allah and " is 3 great! p. i. Crossing al-Kurr he reduced Kabalah and the chief of Shakkan . ii. all of which are districts. vol. The Kurds of al-Balasajan he sum- moned to Islam . 175 seq. vol. Some were made but they fought against him and were subto pay tax and others sadakah.. well populated and flourishing until it was destroyed by who after the departure of Yazid ibn- Usaid from Armenia came together and became a source of trouble and misfortune. i.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA ^jg hilyan and Tabar. 194. the king of Sharwan and the other kings of al-Jibal. p. Mas'udi. ii. vol. vol. pp. agreeing to pay annual 2 tax. ii. and sought security. Kabalah and other places. The latter was killed with 4. Adharbaijan and Shimshat. vol. the freedman of al-Mu'tasim and the governor of Armenia. Yakut. but the latter were few. p. In like manner did the people of Khaizan. Salman thence advanced to the junction of ar-Rass and al-Kurr behind Bardij. 35°- Ya'kubi. 204 was closed after him. Martin. and al-Kamibaran capitulated. It was as-Sawardiyah. ash-Shabiran and the city of al-Bab capitulate. Yakut. Other places 1 in Arran were reduced. the city was rebuilt by Bugha. the people of MasThe kat. 507: "Khaizar". p. 173. 39-40. p. ii. 3 pp. Khakan with his cavalry met Salman beyond al-Balanjar river. In the year 240. 2 St. jugated. 780. He settled in it people from al-Khazar who. vol. .

He settled in Hims. 'Uthman conferred on Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman al-'Absi the governorship of the frontier fortresses of Armenia. He transmitted traditions on 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab's au- Says ibn-Jumanah-1-Bahili referring to Salman and Kutaibah ibn-Muslim thority. Salman at Balanjar was Karwas he who carried the news of Salman's death to 'Uthman. aged 35. 3 For an explanation see ibn-Kutaibah. because of his efficiency in doing what he intended to do. but Mu'awiyah moved him to Damascus. Among the companions of It zah ibn-Ka'b al-Ansari. . Habib reported his success to 'Uthman ibn-'AfTan who received his letter immediately after the news of Salman's death. : " have two tombs one at Balanjar and another at Sin-Istan [China] and what a tomb that is! The one who lies in China has brought about conquests in all places and the merits of the other cause abundant rain to fall. Habib returned to Syria and began his campaigns against the Greeks. and the latter left for Bardha'ah and sent his 'dmils to the places He that lay between it and Kalikala and up to Khaizan. Egyptian Cadis.320 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the first kadi of al-Kufah. where he spent forty days without hearing a case. Hudhaifah assigned Silah as his successor. where he died in the year 42. 'Uthman was on the point of assigning Habib over all Armenia but he then deemed it best to put him in charge of the campaigns on the frontiers of Syria and Mesopotamia. Habib put by 'Uthman in charge of the frontier fortresses. Having made these conquests in Armenia. This Salman ibnfirst to hold the position of kadi in al- Salman Rabi'ah was the 1 Kufah." 2 We . Kitab al-Ma'arif. p. Once . page VI. then received 'Uthman s message instructing him to depart and leave in his place Silah ibn-Zufar al-'Absi who was in his company. 1 Gottheil. 221.

and still others say that for 15 years after al-Mughirah. nia. ibn-an-Nu'man ibn-'Amr al-Bahili who ruled over it in the name of Mu'awiyah. 'Uthman appointed al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah governor of 2 Adharbaijan and Armenia. "Armenien unter der Arab Herrschaft. 'Abdallah died in it and was succeeded by his brother 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-Hatim ibn-an-Nu'man. but dismissed him later. Under 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. . ii. fortified it and enlarged its mosque. pp. to fall into ruins." Zeitschrift fur Philol. Al-Wakidi states that 'Abd-alMalik built Bardha'ah under the supervision of Hatim ibnan-Nu'man al-Bahili or his son. 2 Ghazarian. Having arrived in Wadi-1-Kura. Others say he appointed 'Amr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Muntafik al-'Ukaili governor of Armenia. 14-17. vol. and appointed al-Kasim ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-Umaiyah ibn-abi-asSalt ath-Thakafi governor of Armenia.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA when 'Uthman was at the head of ^2 l besieged. He also built the city of an-Nashawa and repaired the city of Bardha'ah. 1904). pp. He also rebuilt the These cities were dilapidated and city of al-Bailakan.Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait to the governorship of Armenia. Others say he rebuilt Bardha'ah and deepened the trenches around it. it was Muhammad ibn-Marwan who in the days of 'Abd-al-Malik ibnMarwan rebuilt Bardha'ah. 1 Various governors of Adharbaijan and Armenia. one of the banu-Kilab ruled over Arme- and that he was succeeded by al-'Ukaili. who built the city of Dabil.. Mu'awiyah sent this Habib an army to his relief. ready According to others. Meynard. Habib heard of the death of 'Uthman and 205 took his way back. 177-182 (Marburg. 1 Armen. This 'Abd-al-Malik appointed 'Uthman ibn-al. al-Ash'ath ibn Kais ruled over Armenia and He was followed by 'Abdallah ibn-Hatim Adharbaijan.

" vol. and then he frightened umm-Yazid ibn-Usaid was taken from as-Sisajan. land. he subdued the slaughtering and taking captives. Jashmadan." Istakhri. ahrar. who made an :: habitants of al-Lakz incursion against the inconquering the district of Hasma- Al-Jarrah as governor. firmed. she being the daughter of as-Sisacaptive them. In this campaign jan's patrician. Thus. 4 at-Ta'i.322 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Armenia rebels. iv. When Muhammad ibn-Marwan held under his brother 'Abd-al-Malik the governorship of Armenia. Armenia rose and its nobles with their followers threw off their allegiance. bled in churches in the province of Khilat where he locked them in and put guards on the door. vol. . made Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik 'Adi governor of Armenia. who had left He was later made the governor of Armenia by 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. 2 'Adi ibn-'Adi ibn-'Amirah -l-Kindi governor of Ar'Adi ibn-'Amirah was one of those settled in menia. the but that is 'aniil of 'Umar was Hatim ibn-an-Nu'man. 364. p. ii. pp. 187. When al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah 1 Ar. 'AH ibn-abi-Talib and ar-Rakkah. vol. but he later dismissed him and assigned al-Harith ibn-'Amr dan. 887 : 'Umairah ". i. the class that constituted the aristocracy of Armenia before the Persian rule. not con- 206 Yazid ibn-'Abd-alMi'lak and al-Harith as governors. p. This 'Adi was the one after whom the Xahr 'Adi at al- Bailakan was named. he led the fight against them and won the victory. During the insurrection of ibn-azx Zubair. He promised those who survived higher stipends than For that purpose they assemthe ordinary soldiers' pay. 222. Malik conferred the governorship on Mi'lak ibn-Saffar alBahrani. see Yakut. 438. Yakut. p. 2 1 * *' Tabari. According to others.

p. called al-Jarrahi. Yakut. Turning back. p. he stopped at Bardha'ah where his attention was called to the different measures and weights used by the people and which he fixed according to the standards of justice and honesty introducing a new measure. 21-22. Mas'udi. 318. 779- Meynard. p. 438. put at the head of the van of his [Maslamah's] army Sa'id ibn-'Amr ibn-Aswad al-Jurashi. 187." i. battle. cf. p. 4 He fought against them in troops Sahra' [desert] Warthan. vol. 185. 1 he marched until he went over the river known by the name of as-Samur and came to al-Khazar. spanning it also bore the same name. and his army spent the winter at Al-Khazar assembled their Bardha'ah and al-Bailakan. ii. among whom he wrought a great slaughter. " 2 Hamrin. vol. Hamzin Maslamah as governor. 4 5 Istakhri. and accompanied him by Ishak ibn-Muslim al-'Ukaili with his brothers. and when they withdrew to the 5 region of Ardabil he engaged them in battle at a distance After a three days' of four parasangs from Armenia. i. and crossed ar-Rass. 3 "Ghumik. with which they deal until to-day. p. 187." Mahasin. of the land of He also fought against the inhabitants 2 lating that they be transplanted to the district of and made terms with them stipuKhaizan where he gave them two villages.THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA 323 al-Hakami of Madhhij became governor of Armenia. 40. he suffered martyrdom together with his men. . vol. p. p. and A bridge therefore was the river called Nahr al-Jarrah. ii. pp. Ja'wanah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Khalid of the banu1 Istakhri. Istakhri. After crossing al-Kurr. vol. he came to Shakka. that appointed Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik after Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik to the gover- norship of Armenia. He then attacked the 3 people of Ghumik and captured some of them. '"Araik" in Yakut.



Rabi'ah ibn-'Amir ibn-Sa'sa'ah, Dhufafah and Khalid the two sons of 'Umair ibn-al-Hubab as-Sulami al-Furat ibn-Salman al-Bahili, and al-Walid ibn-al-Ka'ka' al-'Absi.

Sa'id engaged in conflict with al-Khazar

who were

at this

time besieging Warthan, and forced them to withdraw,

Al-Khazar came to Maimadh in flight. and as Sa'id was preparing for the conflict Adharbaijan; with them, he received a message from Maslamah ibn'Abd-al-Malik blaming him for attacking al-Khazar before his [Maslamah's] arrival, and informing him that he had assigned in his place over the army 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Muslim al-'Ukaili. As soon as Sa'id turned over the army to his successor, he was arrested by Maslamah's messenger who fettered him and carried him to Bardha'ah where he was thrown into its prison. Al-Khazar left and 207 Maslamah followed them. When Maslamah communicated the news to Hisham, Hisham wrote back

putting them to


Dost thou leave them at Maimadh where thou canst see them. and then seek them beyond the limit of soil [where sand begins]


Thereupon Hisham ordered that al-Jurashi be released from

Maslamah made peace with the people of Khaizan, and by his order, its fort was dismantled. He appropriated in it estates for himself. It is known to-day by the name of Hauz Khaizan. The kings of al-Jibal also made peace with him. The Shahs of Sharwan, Liran, Tabarsaran, Filan
and Jarshan presented themselves before him: and so did the chief of Maskat. Maslamah, thereupon, betook himself to the city of al-Bab, which he reduced. In its castle were a thousand families of al-Khazar whom he besieged and against whom he hurled stones and then pieces of iron shaped like stones. All that, however, was of no avail. He, therefore, resorted to the spring, the water of which Anu-



shirwan had conducted into their cistern, and slew on it cows and sheep throwing the contents of their stomachs and some assafoetida into the water. It did not take the water more than one night before it bred worms, became vitiated and corrupted. Therefore, the holders of the castle fled under the cover of the night and vacated the castle. In the city of al-Bab wa-1-Abwab, 24,000 Syrians were settled by Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik and assigned stipends. Accordingly, the inhabitants of al-Bab to-day do not allow any
'amil to enter their city unless he has


to distribute

them. He, moreover, built a granary for food, another for barley, and an armory. He ordered that the cistern be filled with earth, repaired the city, and provided it In the company of Maslamah was with embattlements.


Marwan ibn-Muhammad who took

part in the attack against

al-Khazar and distinguished himself in fighting.


Maslamah, Hisham appointed Sa'id al-Jurashi who spent two years in the frontier region. Marwan as governor. Marwan ibn-Muhammad x then became the ruler of the frontier and took up his abode at Kisal. Marwan was the one who built the city of Kisal. This city lies 40 parasangs from Bardha'ah and 20 from


next to Bab al-Lan and

then entered the country of al-Khazar made Asid 2 ibn-Zafir as-Sulami

abu-Yazid, accompanied by the kings of al-Jibal, enter it from the side of al-Bab wa-1-Abwab. Then Marwan made

an incursion on the Slavs who were in the land of al-Kha- 208 zar and captured 20,000 families whom he settled in Khakhit. When they later put their commander to death and
took to


Marwan pursued and slaughtered them. the chief of al-Khazar learned of the great numi,

Brosset, vol.

pp. 238 seq.



in Duraid, p. 187, line before last.

ber of

men with whom Marwan had swept

over his land and

of their equipment and strength, his heart was


cowardice and

When Marwan came

close to him,

he sent him a messenger inviting him to Islam or war ", " I have to which he replied, Islam. Send thereaccepted
fore someone to present







chief professed Islam and made a treaty with Marwan according to which Marwan confirmed him as ruler of his

with a host of al-Khazar accompanied the chief; and al-Khazar were made to settle in the plain of the province of al-Lakz between as-Samur and ash-Sha-




The land of




Marwan made


entrance to the land of as-Sarir, slaughtered its inhabitants, and reduced certain forts in it. Its king offered him sub-

mission and allegiance and made terms, agreeing to give every year 1,000 youths 500 lads and 500 maids with

black hair and eyebrows and with long eyelashes, together 1 with 100,000 modii to be poured in the granaries of al-


took from him a pledge. The people of Tuman made terms with Marwan, agree50 maids and 50 lads ing to give every year 100 youths


each 5 spans in height, with black hair and eyebrows and with long eyelashes, together with 20,000 modii for the

He then entered The land of Zirikirdn. whose king made terms, agreeing Zirikiran,"
youths, and

the land of
to offer fifty

10,000 modii for the granaries every year.

Thence he proceeded to the land of Hamzin which refused to make terms and whose fort, after an investment of one month, he reduced. He then set fire to the fort and de1

Wheat measure.
Original not clear.




that they give 500 once and not to be responsible for such a gift youths only any more, and that they carry 30,000 modii every year to the granaries of al-Bab. Then he advanced to Sindan, 1

The terms agreed upon were

which capitulated on condition that it offer 100 youths to be given by its chief only once and not to be responsible for such a gift in the future, together with 5,000 modii to be
carried every year to the granaries of al-Bab. On the followers of the Shah of Tabarsaran, Marwan assessed 10,000

modii to be carried per annum to the granaries of al-Bab; but on the Shah of Filan he did not assess anything, because
of his distinction in warfare, ability in conflict and the praiseworthiness of his cause.


Al-Lakz, Khirsh and other places. Marwan thence made a descent on al-Lakz castle [whose chief] had refused to pay anything of what was assessed, had set out to meet the
chief of al-Khazar

and was


by a shepherd who shot

an arrow

at him without knowing him. The people of alLakz then made terms, agreeing to give 20,000 modii to be

carried to the granaries. Having appointed Khashram asSulami as their ruler, Marwan came to the castle of the

Sharwan which was called Khirsh and which lay on the sea shore. The chief rendered submission and agreed 2 to leave the height. Marwan imposed 10,000 modii on the people of Sharwan per annum, and made it a condition on
chief of
their chief to be in the
start the attack against al-Khazar,

van of the army when the Moslems and in the rear when

they return and on the Shah of Filan that he should only take part in the attack on the Shah of Tabarsaran that he be in the rear when the Moslems start, and in the van when

they return.

Lacking in

diacritical points. d'Ohsson, p. 68;







Surrender the



Thdbit rebels. Marwan then advanced to ad-Dudaniyah and slaughtered its people. The news of the death of alWalid ibn-Yazid then came to him, and Thabit ibn-Nu'aim
1 Musafir al-Kassab, who al-Judhami rose against him. was one of those established in al-Bab by ad-Dahhak al-

Khariji [the rebel], now came to Thabit, espoused his cause and was made by him governor over Armenia and Musafir then came to Ardabil in disguise, Adharbaijan.

where he was joined by a group of the ash-Shurat and they came to Bajarwan 2 in which they found people with similar views and were joined by them. Thence they came to Warthan from whose inhabitants a large body of men,

who held similar views, joined them; and they all crossed over to al-Bailakan where they were joined by a large crowd holding similar views. Marwan then came to Yunan.

Ishak ibn-Muslim was

made governor


Armenia by


Marwan ibn-Muhammad and never ceased to fight who was at al-Kilab castle in as-Sisajan.




al-Mansur was

blessed dynasty appeared and abu-Ja'far made ruler of Mesopotamia and Armenia in


the caliphate of as-Saffah abu-1-' Abbas, he sent against Musafir and his followers a general from Khurasan, who

fought them until he overpowered them and slew Musafir. The inhabitants of al-Bailakan, who had fortified themselves in al-Kilab castle under the leadership of Kadad ibnAsfar al-Bailakani, surrendered. The governorship of Yazxd. When al-Mansur became caliph, he made Yazid ibn-Usaid as-Sulami governor of Armenia. The latter reduced Bab al-Lan and stationed in



fabari, vol.


pp. 1892 seq.

2 8


p. 74.

First syllable mutilated in the original; cf. Tstakhri,

192; Haukal,

p. 251.



a cavalry guard with stipends.



subdued as-SaIn compliance


whose inhabitants paid kharaj.

with al-Mansur's orders, he married the daughter of the king of al-Khazar. She gave birth to a child which did not
live; she herself died in child-birth.

the naphtha and salt levied tax on them.

Yazid sent someone to mines of the land of Sharwan and He put someone in charge of them.


also built the city of Arjil as-Sughra [the Less] and Arjil al-Kubra [the Great], and settled people from Palestine in them.

in the province of

Muhammad ibn-Isma'il from certain

sheikhs from Bardha'ah



which lay



Sharwan was thus called after ash-Shawho was the king of Sharwan during the

rule of Sa'id ibn-Salim

al-Bahili over


Al-Hasan suppresses the revolt. Muhammad ibn-Isma'il from certain sheikhs After the dismissal of ibn-Usaid and Bakkar ibn-Muslim al-'Ukaili, and during the governorship of al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah at-Ta'i, the Armenians

broke off their allegiance under their chief Musha'il alArmani. Al-Mansur sent reinforcements under 'Amir ibnIsma'il.


Al-Hasan engaged himself

in fight with Musha'il


killed him,

dispersing his troops.

Things went on
in al-Bailakan

well with al-Hasan.

The Nahr al-Hasan

and so are the Bagh 4 at Bardha'ah named Bagh al-Hasan, and the crown-lands known


after this al-Hasan

as al-Hasaniyah.

'Uthman ibn-'Umarah Different governors of Armenia. ibn-Khuraim succeeded al-Hasan ibn-Kahtabah, and then





Istakhri, p. 192







Salm," Tabari, vol.
Martin, vol.

p. 305.




342; Brosset, vol.









came Rauh ibn-Hatim al-Muhallabi, Khuzaimah ibn-Khazim, Yazid ibn-Mazyad ash-Shaibani, 'Ubaidallah ibnal-Mahdi, al-Fadl ibn-Yahya, Sa'id ibn-Salim, and Muhammad ibn- Yazid ibn-Mazyad. Of these rulers, Khuzaimah was the severest. It was he who introduced the system by which Dabil and an-Nashawa paid land tax according to The Armenian patricians did the area, not the produce.
not cease to hold their lands as usual, each trying to protect his own region and whenever a 'dmil came to the frontier

they would coax him; and if they found in him purity and severity, as well as force and equipment, they would give

and render submission, otherwise they would deem him weak and look down upon him.
the kharaj


of al-Ma'mun, the

The governorship of Khalid ibn-Yazid. In the caliphate Armenian patricians were under the rule

of Khalid ibn- Yazid ibn-Mazyad, who accepted their presents and associated personally with them. This corrupted

them and encouraged them against the

'a mils

of al-Ma'-

mun who came

after him.

Al-Hasan ibn-'Ali over the frontier region. Al-Mu'tasimBillah appointed to the governorship of the frontier region al-Hasan ibn-'Ali-l-Badhaghisi, better known as al-Ma'patricians and nobles go their way, and dealt so leniently with them that they became more disloyal to the Sultan and mure severe on the people who came





Jurzan was subdued by Ishak ibn-Isma'il Sahl ibnibn-Shu'aib. a freedman of the banu-Umaiyah.

under their



Sanbat, the patrician, rose against the 'dmil of Haidar ibnal-Afshin over Armenia and killed his secretary and

had a narrow escape by flight. Armenia after this was ruled by 'dmils who would remit to its people what was due from them, and accept whatever khardj could be offered.

The governorship of Yusuf ibn-Mnhammad.



after al-Mutawakkil

33 1

became caliph, he conferred the govof Armenia upon Yusuf ibn-Muhammad ibnernorship Yusuf al-Marwazi. As he passed through Khilat, Yusuf

patrician Bukrat ibn-Ashut

and carried him

off to

Surra-man-ra'a, which act greatly offended the patricians, nobles and feudal lords [Ar. mutaghallibah] Later a 'dmil of his, named al-'Ala ibn- Ahmad, went to a convent at as.

Sisajan, called Dair al-Akdah, which was highly respected and richly endowed with gifts by the Armenian Christians, and carried away all what was in it and oppressed its occupants. This act was too much for the patricians, who held communication with each other and urged each other to throw off their allegiance and rise in revolt. They insti" " 1 uncircumcised and gated al-Khuwaithiyah, who were were known by the name of al-Artan, to fall upon Yusuf, and urged them against him in revenge for the carrying-

away of their patrician Bukrat. Meanwhile, every one of the patricians and feudal lords sent them horses and men to help them bring that about. Accordingly, they fell upon

Tarun, after he had distributed his followers in

the villages, and slew him, carrying contained.



that his


The governorship of Bugha

the Elder.


assigned to the governorship of Armenia Bugha-1-Kabir [the Elder] who, arriving in Badlis, seized Musa ibn-Zura-

rah who, in revenge for Bukrat, had favored and taken part in killing Yusuf. Bugha warred against al-Khuwaithiyah,
slaughtering a great number, and carrying many away as He then invested Ashut ibn-Hamzah ibn-Jajik, captives.
the patrician of al-Busfurrajan, at al-Bak, 2 compelled him to surrender his castle and carried him as captive to Surra1


Martin, vol.






p. 123, line 11

Tabari, vol.


p. 1410, line 3.



then advanced to Jurzan and succeeded in laying hold on Ishak ibn-Isma'il, whom he kept in confinement until his death. Bugha reduced Jurzan, and carried



those Christians and non-Christians of Arran, of the

elevated region of Armenia, and of as-Sisajan, who belonged to the revolutionary party. Thus the political state

of affairs in that frontier region became so quiet as never In the year 241, he came to Surra-man-ra'a.

Text corrupt.



wrote to 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 2 p. . p. and ordering him to return home in case the message was received before his arrival in Egypt. 1325) " Rafh 77. ten hours' journey from al-'Arish.500 to Egypt. The advance of 'Amr place in the year 19. 63 (Cairo." Pelusium. After the battle of al-Yar'Amr ibn-al-'Asi laid siege to Caesarea [Kaisariyah]. . to al- Ai-Makrizi. which Sharik refused to accept. Mahasin. taking posses- sion of their camp. 8. modern Raf. Zaidan. vol. He first stopped at al-'Arish against Egypt took and then 2 proceeded to al-Farama'. 335 . an army of 3. all of his own accord. i. When Yazid ibn-abi-Sufyan assumed power. however. p. The one who delivered the message was Sharik ibn-'Abdah. i. received the It is asserted by others that 'Umar message in al-'Arish. rebuking and reprimanding him for following his own opinion. without consulting 'Umar. Caesarea. muk. vol. 'Amr fought and defeated them.CHAPTER The Conquest c I of Egypt and al-Maghrib [Mauritania] moves against Egypt. Al-Fustdt . 'Amr left his son in his place at Caesarea and led. al-Khitat. vol. : .000 dinars. 'Amr. to whom 'Amr gave 1 . in which were troops ready for the fight. Ta'rikh Misr al-Hadith. "Rafj". 1 Thence he advanced straight on ii. ordering him to proceed to 1 Amr 'Amr received the message as he was besieging Egypt. 'Amr asked him to conceal the matter and not disclose it to 'Umar. 'Umar was angry because of it and wrote to him.

'" a tent [also fustat] in it. but if I find him in With this underthe struggle. " but the Moslems called is it Fustat because they said. he looked " down upon the fort and exclaimed. fustat] of the people. imposed a poll-tax on their person and kharaj on their land. as the people of dug moats. to take all that was in it. The name of the city was Alyu- nah." ' : standing. If I find that 'Amr has already operate reduced it. " Allah is great! and so did the Moslems exclaim and follow him up. 75-76. with his sword unsheathed. wouldst thou like to take the governorship of care for To this az-Zubair replied. Thus he took the fort by assault. . 355.336 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 213 al-Fustat had 1 Fustat and camped at the myrtle gardens. but would like to go there on a holy war and cowith the Moslems. and 'Amr ibn-al- on the other. pp. Az-Zubair was on the point of leading an incursion and wanted to go to Antioch. and This Others say that 'Amr the place where they assemble. ibn-al-Asi was besieging al-Fustat. 2 Makrizi. pp. and communicated that to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab who enAz-Zubair marked certain lots in Misr [Old dorsed it. I shall fight on his side. I would not interfere with his affairs. he was az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam ibn-Khuwailid at the joined by head of 10. i. the meeting place [Ar. "I do not Egypt? it.000 others say 12. " Abu-'Abdallah. Finally az-Zubair brought a ladder and climbed on it until.000 men among whom were As 'Amr — — Kharijah ibn-Hudhafah-l-'Adawi and 'Umair ibn-Wahb alJumahi. but would go to some sea-coast and keep post at it. ii. but 'Umar said to him. 1 Yakut. and it bore its name from pitched 2 it. Az-Zubair led the attack on one side. he 'Asi left. vol. vol. 450. and the Moslems considered it legal 'Amr made its holders d hi'mm is.

72. 'Amr an-Nakid from Sufyan ibn-Wahb al-Khaulani hen we conquered Misr with: —W T out making a covenant with it. : 105. See Makrizi. The ladder which az-Zubair used is still in Misr. i. line 23 vol. . line 25 an-Nihdyah. p. pp. 'Amr. 3 Ar.500 men. 247. 3 the descendants may profit by it. Az'Affan ibn-Muslim from Hisham ibn-'Urwah Zubair was sent to Misr and when he was told there were : — . Al-Kasim 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi lam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib : — ibn-Sal- entered i. habal al-habalah. When 'Umar ibnal-Khattab heard about the situation in Egypt. khitat. ." A tradition to the same effect was communicated to me by 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb on the authority of Sufyan ibn- Wahb. p. Caetani.000 men. he replied. ii. . vol. so that the descendants of back. p. thou shouldst divide it as the Prophet divided Khaibar. See Mutarrizi. he was affected with solicitude and fear and despatched az-Zubair Az-Zubair at the head of 12. vol. By Allah. al-Bayan al-Mughrib. vol. p. in it warfare and pest. vol. Makrizi. 1 Africa = Tunis.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB 337 Cairo] for himself [ikJitatta] and built a well-known mansion in which 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair resided when he in- vaded Ifrikiyah x in the company of ibn-abi-Sarh. ii. 2 214 The division of the land. Ibn-'Adhari. " said. 2 Ar. 198. 73." 'Amr wrote that to 'Umar who wrote " Leave it as it is. p. saying. iv. 76 seq. took part in the conquest of Misr and marked out in it ceribn-al-'Auwam tain lots. az-Zubair rose and said to " " Then az-Zubair Divide it but 'Amr refused. 'Amr an-Nakid from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib al-'Asi entered : —'Amr ibn- Egypt with 3." The Moslems put climbed on them. " We have come here only ladders up and for warfare and pest. 'Amr and az-Zubair conquer Egypt. 3 seq. pp.

an upper cloak or turban. s. in addition to the two dinars. Instead of the woolen gown. it would do you more good than the sulted with the capture and expel us. Accordingly. two kists of oil.500 men. leaving the land in the hands of its owners to utilize it and pay its father. three irdabbs of wheat. jubbah. If ye treat us the same way. Az-Zubair took part with 'Amr in the conquest of Egypt and marked out for himself two lots in Misr and Alexandria. Just before that. with the exception of a few men who asked him to divide the land among them. He by force and led the Moslems climb its fort.000 men. 'amamah. and others by capitulation.338 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Egypt at the head of 3. Noms des Vctcments. 'Umar was affected with solicitude and fear and sent az-Zubair ibnal-'Auwam at the head of 12. and khuff. Ibrahim ibn-Muslim al-Khawarizmi from 'Abdallah ibnThe latter said. and the inhabitants of Misr were required to provide every one of the Moslems with a woolen upper gown. finally in. and gathered in the public house of provision [ddr-ar-rizk] where it is divided among them. census was taken of the Moslems. took posses- Az-Zubair was the first to ' The chief of Misr said to my of what ye did in Syria and how ye assessed poll-tax on the Christians and Jews. To this end. to kill. two kists of honey and two kists of vinegar.' My father conMoslems and they all advised him to accept terms. a Coptic robe would do. We have heard kharaj. and on every land-owner. two dinars as poll-tax. burnus. a state1 Dozy. The fact is that my father ['Amr ibn-al-'Asi] arrived in it and was : — : resisted sion of it by the people of Alyunah. to be given as a subsistence allow- J/ 215 ance to the Moslems. excepting the poor. 1 breeches and a pair of shoes per annum. "There is a disagree'Arar ibn-al-'Asi ment regarding the conquest of Misr some say it was conquered by force. sirwal . he assessed on every adult. A . v.

p." was assessed on the land of Egypt to the amount of Khardj one dinar and three irdabbs of wheat on every jarib. 508. two dinars per head. Hearing this. . vol. pp. 'Amr signed the contract and the statement. their women and children would neither be sold nor taken captives. 'Amr an-Nakid from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib Al-Mukaukis 3 made terms with 'Amr content ( : — ibn-al-'Asi. statement was submitted to 'Umar. pp. See Butler. how much more should we be who are weak and have no power of resistance. Casanova. 1606. The Arab Conquest of s — Mohammed Egypt. T. the whole land became ' k hard]'-land. 363. on certain conditions. in ^39 which it was stipulated that so long as they lived up to these terms. and were content with them. 26. The statement was submitted to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. 2 ii.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB ment was written." After the king of Alyunah had made arrangements for himself and for the people in his city. The terms made with Amr. and Semitic Studies. year 1903. the king of the Greeks was enraged and sent his 1 x^ " Gottheil. ii. Makrizi. " If those of us who are consented. p. and their posses1 The sions and treasures would be kept in their hands. saying. Ibn-Kurkub al-Yunani perhaps Cyrus. O. Bysant. some people thought that Misr was taken 2 by capitulation. Zeitschrift. Because. which he specified. and two dinars on every adult. Dhimmis and Moslems p. and that he would assess on the Copts. the viceroy and archbishop of Alexandria under Heraclius. the Commander of the Believers.' who endorsed it. vol. et la Fin du Monde. 72-74. stipulating that 'Amr should let those of the Greeks go who wanted to leave. 521. however. and keep those who wanted to stay. protected by fortifications have accepted such terms. Thus. he made terms on behalf of all The Egyptians the Egyptians similar to the terms of Alyunah. in Egypt ".

buried in a church at Alexandria 'Amr answered.000 dinars. Sultais : Coptic community. Al-Mukaukis presented 'Amr and said. 'Umar ibn-al. p. p. and Sultais. The following is the report of the conquest " Allah has given of Alexandria made by 'Amr to 'Umar : to us the possession of Alexandria will. p. Khattab sent them back and made them. i. In the year 21. 263. " i. ibn-Dukmak. " 'Uthman remarked to 'Amr. Certain villages in Egypt resisted the advance of the Moslems. and note. because ye have emaciated their young ". 159. Dukmak.000. because they have distrusted me. closing the gates of Alexandria. . do not violate the terms made with the Copts. 118 (Bulak. 118-119. vol. 1893). Abu-Aiyub ar-Rakki from Yazid ibn- abi-Habib : —The kJiaraj and poll-tax which 'Amr raised from Egypt amounted to 2. 2 Cf. * s Cf.000. p." and Alexandria. 289. vol. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to 1 5 'Amr ibn- Makrizi. The covenant they had. 5 Makrizi. " The last is the easiest (which he named). 'Amr replied. al-Khais. Balhib " in Yakut. the city was taken by capitulation. vol. for the violation was not started by them and when I die. v. These 4 2 8 Their were the following Bilhit. but that raised When by 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-Abi-Sarh. together with the Bilhit. they did not violate. however. The tax of Egypt. its without covenant or contract According to Yazid J ibn-abi-Habib. pp. announced their readiness for war. i.340 troops. p. and 'Amr carried away some of their inhabitants as prisoners. to THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE who.216 captives were carried away to al-Madinah." x for me.000. " I have three requests to himself before make do not offer to the Greeks the same terms thou hast 'Umar : offered me. After thee the milch " This is camels have yielded more milk ". saying. v. give orders that I be . 733- Butler. by force and against ". dhimmis. vol. vol. Kitab al-Intisar li-Wdsitat 'Ikd al-Amsar. al-Khais. 4.

In the days of Mu'awiyah and Yazid. 240. . they would — pay two dinars in addition to the other two dinars. vol. p. p. . al-Faiyum and other places reduced. i. Sa'd al-Jari mentioned in Dhahabi. oil. line 17 (ed. it was received by Sa'd al-Jar. : Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib After the first peace was made. some historians with Bab Alyunah (Baby- lon) 4 Butler. Hi 1 8 . it Later was kept in a special house at al-Madinah and dis- Moslems by measure. At the time of among the first insurrection. Makrizi. AbuThe latter said. Tkh- - Hamdani. al-Ushmunain. the food with the oil was carried there. Yakut. pp. honey and vinegar they offered. Then it was cut off until the time of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. 81 cj. or a little previous to that. note. who took possession of its land and made 217 terms with the inhabitants of its villages similar to those of al-Fustat. 6. 47. Midler).THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB al-'Asi ^l informing him of the straits in which the inhabi- tants of al-Madinah were. p. vol. p. ii. 402-403. 'Ain Shams. and 1 2 it reached al-Jar. and ordering him to transport by sea to al-Madinah all the food he had collected as kharaj. when Accordingly. the tax-payers in Egypt made new terms in the caliphate of 'Umar. ibn-Sa'd. 212. Sifat Jazirat al-'Arab. Heliopolis. stipulating that instead of the wheat. . " I Aiyub ar-Rakki from al-Jaishani heard it stated by a number of those who witnessed the conquest of Egypt that when 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi reduced al: — 'Abdallah ibn-Hudhafah as-Sahmi. p. the supply was cut off. al-Mushtabih. confused by . it was again carried to al-Madinah. he despatched to 'Ain Shams 3 Hudhafah al-'Adawi 1 Likewise 'Amr despatched Kharijah ibn4 to al-Faiyum. vol. Each one thus was bound to pay four dinars and they consented to that and preferred it. after which it was carried until the caliphate tributed the of abu-Ja'far. Fustat.

ordering him to increase the Wardan. 2 Damirah. from Aiyub ibn-abi-l-'Aliyah's father " I have I heard 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi say from the pulpit. Bana and Busir. 'Umair ibn-Wahb al-Jumahi to Tinnis. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam The latter said. Thus did 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi effect the conquest of all Egypt and make its land khardj'-land. Yakut. — Poll-tax of the Copts not to be increased. vol. Dikahlah. al-Basharudat and the villages of upper Egypt. Bakri. a from : — poll-tax of every Copt " can I increase by one it kirat. stating that Egypt was taken by force. and he did the same. with no covenant or contract. p. ii. Shata. Abu-'Ubaid 'Ubaidallah ibn-abi-Ja'far Mu'awiyah wrote to freedman of 'Amr. Abu-'Ubaid from as-Salt ibn-abi-'Asim. . i. if I want. his 'dmil over Egypt. The people of Antabulus are excluded because they have a covenant which must be kept '. 581. the secretary of : The latter said that he read the letter Haiyan ibn-Shuraih of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz to Haiyan." — Al-Maghrib and Egypt taken by force. 'Amr also sent which he reduced on the same terms." The Copts have no covenant. I can sell captives. p. 166. vol. Tunah. Al-Kasim ibnSallam from Musa ibn-'Ali ibn-Rabah al-Lakhmi's father: All al-Maghrib was taken by force. If I want. want. 'Amir al-Juhani after (others say 'Amr's freedman. Dimyat.342 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE * mim. which he re'Amr also sent 'Ukbah ibnduced on the same terms. How while stated in their covenant that their tax should not be increased ?" 2 1 Cf. it is but Wardan wrote back. I can take one-fifth of the possessions. I can kill. in Wardan named) whom Suk [market] Wardan Egypt is to the rest of the villages in the lower part of the country. this position and am bound to none of the Egypoccupied : — ' tian Copts if I by covenant or contract.

subdued Egypt. before consult 'Umar. 'Amr. " And I was a witness thereunto : ". covenant and something assessed on the inhabitants. made terms : Two — with 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. " At the conquest of Misr by us." 218 The statement of 'Amr.' as He it is.' 'By Allah. . 'Ukbah added. He imposed on them a khardj not to be increased. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Sufyan ibn. and the latter so that the descendants of the " wrote back. stipulating that each Copt pays two . agreeing to pay he imposed on them. 'Amr gave them a statement to the : — were secure with respect to their possessions. excluding women and boys. and that none of them would be sold as slaves. which was effected without covenant.000. divide ' it between us I !' 'Amr it replied. lives and children. ibn-Ja'far's " I father: — The Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdlatter heard 'Urwah quered by 'Amr through capitulation. accompanied by az-Zubair. the chief of Egypt. which was two dinars on something The khardj of every man. az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam rose and said. 'Leave descendants may profit by : Its khardj. The country was con- ibn-az-Zubair say. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from The Egyptians had a cove'Ukbah ibn-'Amir al-Juhani nant and a contract. and promised to expel all fear of attack by an eneffect that they emy. it. Usamah ibn-Zaid 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi.000. the people made terms.000 dinars but later it reached 4.Wahb al-Khaulani —The latter said. dinars on each Copt. being burdened with more than they could bear. When Egypt - was conquered.000. Muhammad ibn-Aslam's grandfather —In the year ibn-Sa'd from 20. I will not divide it wrote to 'Umar. I found its people exhausted. 343 al-Hamid spent seven years in Egypt and was married in it. Abu-'Ubaid from Yazid ibnabi-Habib Al-Mukaukis. The division of the land. Egypt during his governorship amounted to 2.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB Egyptians overtaxed.

" 'Umar confiscates ' Amr's possessions. He once wrote to It has become revealed that thou ownest commodities. i. : 'Ali ibn-al-Husain. cause they have dhimmah and blood-relationship. e. Therefore. the chief of the Greeks. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE — jj Hearing this. vases and animals which thou didst not possess when thou wert made governor of Egypt. Mariyah. was partly or wholly 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. The Prophet himself used to recommend .3 44 dinars. Ibn-al-Kattat. that the Copts be favorably treated. slaves. Our land is a land of agriculture and trade . " confiscated by him. or al-Husain himself. The Prophet recommends the Copts. 'Amr from Malik. Thy letter is the letter of one disturbed because justice has been meted out to him. : Mada'ini from 'Abdallah ibn-al-Mubarak —'Umar Abu-1-Hasan al- ibn-al- Khattab used to record the possessions of his 'aniils at the time of their appointment and whatsoever was later added . interceded with Mu'awiyah regarding the poll-tax of the fellow-villagers in 219 1 Egypt of the mother of Ibrahim. 853.. from ash-Sha'bi . and al-Laith from a son of Ka'b ibn-Malik The Prophet : — If ye conquer Egypt. abu-Mas'ud. and [have sent to thee Muhammad ibn-Maslamah with a view to my dividing with thee what thou hast. " I have had enough experience with the wicked 'amils. treat the Copts favorably. we." 'Amr " wrote back. the Copt. Nawawi. Heraclius." It is 2 stated by al-Laith that umm-Isma'il was a Copt. . therefore." To this. The poll-tax of the native village of umm-Ibrakim annulled. besaid. the Prophet's son and it was cancelled. was enraged with anger and sent the troops to Alexandria and closed its gates but 'Amr reduced the city by force. 'Umar replied. p. a The reference is to Hagar. suspicion has been aroused against thee. get as income more than what is necessary for our expenses. 1 Reveal to him thy secret.

conversation is always confidential." in the court-yard of thy house." Muhammad replied. An age in which the son of Han2 tamah treats us in this manner is certainly an evil age. 'Amr. Nawawi. : ibn-Hubairah — Egypt was taken by 'Amr from ibn-An'am's grandfather (who witnessed the — Egypt was taken by force without conquest of Egypt) force. Caetani. 447. . had it not been for this age of ! ' ibn-Hantamah which thou hatest. " " A So long as 'Umar lives. bending of milk would please thee and scarcity whose abundance " 3 I beg thee by Allah. What is concealed has been 1 Thus were 'Amr's possessions confiscated by revealed." exclaimed would displease thee." Egypt taken by force. ' : Al-Mada'ini from 'Isa ibn-Yazid : —When Muhammad ibn-Maslamah divided with 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi his possessions. 33. p. vol. vol. 'Umar. i. pp. thou wouldst be found a goat." said Muhammad. " 'Amr made this remark. at the feet of report not what I have just uttered to 'Umar. number . Prov. 618-619.THE CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND AL-MAGHRIB 345 and give out whatever he demands of thee. Al'Asi used to put on silk garments with brocade borders " " Hush. : 'Amr an-Nakid from 'Abdallah 220 covenant or contract. thereby thou wouldst be spared his severity. 2 3 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab's mother iv. p. 160. 1 Freytag. I shall not mention anything that took place between us..

Dukmak. Al-Mukaukis then or- dered that the women city. but 'Amr refused. Bilto their as- and support. and others sistance men from who came Sakha. so. When 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi conquered Misr. 'Amr kept his way until he arrived in Alexandria. 288-289. p. so 'Amr marched against it in the year 21. Butler. al-Khais and Sultais. those Greeks and Copts who lived below Alexandria had gathered and " said. 346 pp. stand on the wall with their faces turned towards the their 1 2 and that the men stand armed. In the meantime. Sifat al-Maghrib. as-Suduu. he settled in it and wrote to 'Umar ibn-alKhattab soliciting his orders to march against Alexandria 'Umar wrote and ordered him to do [al-Iskandariyah]. al-Idrisi. . thus hoping to scare them vol. 121. Chaereum. whose inhabitants he found ready to resist Al-Mukaukis him. 160. In their ranks were hit. Let us attack him in al-Fustat before he reaches here and makes an attempt on Alexandria. communicated with 'Amr and asked him for peace and a truce for a time.CHAPTER The Conquest The battle II of Alexandria of al-Kiryaun. Alexandria reduced." 'Amr met them at al-Kiryaun 2 and defeated them with a great slaughter. with faces towards the Moslems. Misr w-al-Andalus. leaving as his substitute [lieutenant] over Misr Kharijah ibn-Hudhafah ibn-Ghanim ibn-'Amir ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Ubaid ibn-'Awij 1 ibn-'Adi ibn-Ka'b ibn-Lu'ai ibn-Ghalib. v. but the Copts in it preferred peace. p.

The Mosspoke harshly lems fought fiercely against them and invested them for 1 three months. that those who prefer to leave Alexandria should leave. therefore. saying. 263 seq. He communicated the news of the victory to 'Umar through Mu'awiyah ibn-Hudaij al-Kindi (later as-Sakuni) and sent with him the [usual] fifth. 22. son of Heraclius. and those who prefer to stay should stay. hast done." " These people al-Mukaukis said to his followers. He reduced them to the position of dhimmis like the people of Alyunah. called 1 Manuwil Cf. however. . and how humiliating the Greeks' condition was. It 347 'Amr sent word. vol. They have chased our king from his kingdom as far as Constantinople. those we have Some state that al-Mukaukis made terms with 'Amr to the effect that he should pay 13.000 dinars. p." to him and insisted on fighting. ing this. and that two dinars be assessed on every adult Copt. i. and departed for al-Fustat. At last. pp. 'Amr reduced the city by the sword and plundered all that was in it.THE CONQUEST OF ALEXANDRIA [Moslems]. that we submit. It is much more preferHis followers. Ta'rikh Misr. telling him how few the Moslems in Alexandria were. 3 Makrizi. 'Amr wrote a statement. We have met your king HerHearaclius. To this end. ibn-Iyas. and there befell him what has befallen him. are telling the truth. sparing its inhabitants of 221 whom none was killed or taken captive. I. He then left in his place over Alexandria 'Abdallah ibn- Hudhafah ibn-Kais ibn-'Adi ibn-Sa'd ibn-Sahm ibn-'Amr ibn-Husais ibn-Ka'b ibn-Lu'ai at the head of a cavalry 2 guard of the Moslems. The Greeks wrote to captures Alexandria. " We see what thou was not by mere numbers that we conquered conquered. and how they had to pay poll-tax. vol. who was their king at that time. able. Constantine sent one of his men. Constantine.

during which they were covered by their shields. set the ballistae and destroyed the walls of the city. Manuwil. Al-Mukaukis. The Moslems Egyptian villages met them and for one hour were subjected to a shower of of 15. Some report that al-Mukaukis forsook the people of Alexandria when they violated the covenant. and on its peo. Others assert that he died before this invasion. poll-tax. 'Amr set out at the head in the the Greek fighters doing mischief next to Alexandria. was killed. of Alexandria in Moslems destroyed the wall pursuance of a vow that 'Amr had made the 'Amr and to that effect. Manuwil entered Alexandria and killed all the guard that was in it. with the exception of a few who by the use of subtle means took to flight and escaped. . They then advanced boldly and the battle raged with great " " were routed and nothing polytheists ferocity until the . with three hundred ships full of fighters. 'Amr made a heavy assault. 1 Muhammad ibn-Sa'd Butler. According to certain reports. This took place in the year 25. J ple. and Allah's enemy. Hearing the news. He pressed the fight so hard until he entered the city by assault. this invasion took place in the year 23 and according to others. but 'Amr reinstated him with his people on the terms of their first capitulation. Here they fortified themselves and set mangonels.000 men and found arrows. 'Amr 222 assessed on the land of Alexandria kharaj.348 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Manuwil x [Manuel]. in case he reduced the city. the insurrection took place in the years 23 and 25 but Allah knows best. could divert or stop them before they reached Alexandria. killed the fighters and carried away the children as captives. Alexandria taken by capitulation. pp. 468-475. . Some of its Greek inhabitants left to join the Greeks somewhere else.

which they would occupy until their withdrawal. ." " I am into ruins if different ones of afraid the dwellings would fall you should occupy them in Consequently. v. 269: "tribes". and some Moslems took up their abode in it as a Later. ' — Islam will be set free together with his possessions \" How the dwellings Yazid ibn-abi-Habib: 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi conquered Alexandria. 'Amr an-Nakid from made an assault and hastened to secure dwellings. the Greek eunuch. but 'Amr reduced it and destroyed 1 Makrizi. they withdrew. but they are dwelling-places for the Moslems during the time they hold their post as guard. The same house would thereby be in 1 the possession of two or three persons. he said. is his and his father's sons'. at which the Greeks would come and occupy it. i Dukmak. came. — were divided. vol. p. Kafartis and Sultais.THE CONQUEST OF ALEXANDRIA : 349 " The latter said. when the invasion was made and the " Moslems arrived in al-Kiryaun. Whosoever of the inhabitants of these places accepts say." Thus. Not a from 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz town in al-Maghrib did we take by capitulation except 'Umar used to three: Alexandria. Regarding this. . Some of them would come to the houses they once occupied and find them already held by a fellow Moslem." The second conflict. 'Amr remarked. 2 They can neither be sold nor bequeathed. vol. 118. During the second conflict with Alexandria. its when Manuwil. after which they cavalry guard. " No money from the Yazid ibn-abi-Habib used to say. then another would come and stand his lancet in the same house. i. the people closed the gates wall. turn. that house Whosoever of you sticks his lancet into a house. Go with Allah's blessing. rent of these houses is legal. the Moslem would enter a house and stick his lancet into some apartment of it. p.

ooo. the Egyptians asked : — 1 Nawavvi. ' p." At in last guard stationed 117. 345-347Makrizi. 'Amr from Yazid ibn-abi-JHLabib 'Uthman dismissed 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi from and assigned in his place 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd. No sooner had 'Amr returned to al-Fustat after assigning his freedman. Wardan. 'Amr was dismissed by 'Uthman. Your best coast. In the place of 'Amr. vol. to others. vol. pp. and change its volted times. and wrote him saying that Alexandria was taken once by force and re- guard that and ordering him to station in it a cavalry would never depart from it. 'Uthman's foster-brother. Alexandria.350 f THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Abdallah ibn-Sa'd replaces 'Amr. but when Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik became caliph. ibn-'Ali's father: —The Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Musa capitation tax from Alexandria was 18. a verbal dispute arose and 'Abdallah wrote and accused 'Amr. p. where he died in the year he The capitation tax. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi ibn-Hurmuz al-A'raj al-Kari [the lame " reader "] used to — " say. Ibn-Hurmus. than he was dismissed. from the standpoint of guard. 269. 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd was in charge of 223 the kharaj of Egypt in behalf of 'Uthman. 270. i. Between 'Abdallah and 'Amr. . i.000 dinars. it amounted to 36. s Makrizi. is left al-Madinah and joined the Alexandria. and to assign abundant subsistence allowances to the guard. But Egypt when the Greeks occupied Alexandria. According That took place in the year 25. who assigned 'Abdallah to both functions. : two 2 personnel once in every six months. 3 e Abdallah ibn-S a'd made governor. as governor of Alexandria. 'Uthman appointed 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd 1 ibn-abi-Sarh ibn-al-Harith of the banu-'Amr ibn-Lu'ai.

'Abdallah ibn-Wahb from Musa ibn-'Ali's father 'Amr conquered Alexandria : — for the second time by capitulation. 'Uthman did so. 1 Tabari. . p." but 'Amr My 'Uthman then appointed ibn-Sa'd Egypt. and 'Amr defeated the Greeks. vol. The Abyssinians of al-Bima. saying. the Abyssinians of al-Bima * kept up conquest their resistance. because he had special knowledge of warfare and inspired awe in the enemy. and could not be subjugated because of the water with which they flooded their thickets.THE CONQUEST OF ALEXANDRIA 'Uthman to keep ^1 'Amr until he was through with the fight against the Greeks. and 'Abdallah in charge of the " case is that of one refused. which conquest took place in the caliphate of 'Uthman after the death of 'Umar. khardj who holds the horns of the cow while the chief milks it. 1106. iii. . 'Uthman then wanted 'Amr to be in charge of the army. to the governorship of For seven years after the of Egypt. The second conquest of Alexandria.

vol. 91. poll-tax of 13. p.000 dinars to be raised as the price of those of their children whom they desired to ' 2 sell. p. price. Caetani. stipulating that they pay a poll-tax which might include the — = price of those of their children whom they desired to 'Amr wrote a statement to that effect. my possessions in aliv. Khurdadhbih. Barkah. nota. lah ibn-Hubairah al-'Asi led his rib : III of Barkah and Zawilah 224 —After reducing Alexandria. and it never saw an insurrection. 533. 429. the chief 1 whose inhabitants made terms on a city of Antabulus. 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi made terms with them. p.CHAPTER The Conquest Barkah makes terms. Muhammad Farwah : —The ibn-Sa'd from Ishak ibn-' Abdallah ibn-abiinhabitants of Barkah used to send their khardj to the governor of Egypt without having anyone come to urge them for it. 3 Barca. Pentapolis. Butler. 352 Husn al-Muhadarah. p. : Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Abdallah ibn-Hubairah After investing and fighting the people of Antabulus and 3 its city. . 'Abdallah ibn-'Amr ibn-al-'Asi Al-Wakidi used to say. vol. 534. Cf. 86. 4 As-Suyuti. 4 Their land was the most fertile land of al-Maghrib. iv. 'Amr intent Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdalibn- army upon the conquest of al-Magh- [Mauritania] until he arrived in Barkah. sell. 1 2 states that it " Had not been for p. i. which lay between Egypt and Ifrikiyah [Africa Tunis]. thinks it must have meant the right to offer to the Moslems their children as slaves according to a fixed Caetani in vol.

because it. In ancient times. that is I 353 would live in Barkah." The Berbers of Luwdtah. The origin of the Berbers. and from those who capitulated. and to raise from Moslem lands the tithe and half the tithe. He also informed him that peace prevailed among all between Zawilah * and Barkah. they came to al-Maghrib. Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi made 3 this a condition on the Berber inhabitants of Luwatah at Palestine. ! See article on Berbers Butler. p. where they multiplied'. In fact they are descended from the race of the giants [Philistines] against their whom David fought. and they were tent-dwellers. p. what had been agreed upon. but Kais had no son with the name.THE CONQUEST OF BARKAH AND ZAWlLAH Hijaz. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham once wilah. in the Encyclopedia of Islam. Barr. dered all his I asked 'Abdallah ibn-Salih me. 2646. 430. i. and he said. 3 . : Mu'awiyah ibn-Salih —'Amr Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from ibn-al-'Asi wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab informing him that he had appointed 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri governor of al-Maghrib and that the latter had reached as far as Zawilah. : home was — 1 Tabari. vol. 'Amr also wrote that he had assessed on the inhabitants of Zawilah and on those living in the region between his town and Zacovenant what he saw would be tolerated by them. and poll-tax from the dhimmis to be carried to 'Amr in Egypt. that their allegiance was strong and that the Mos" lems among them had paid sadakah and the people of the " acknowledged the poll-tax imposed. They claim to be the descendants of told " ' Barr ibn-Kais." I know of no place more safe or isolated than to 'Amr's report 'Umar. and or'dmils to collect sadakah from the rich to be 225 distributed among the poor. regarding the Ber2 bers. Later on.

. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE " Jl and wives in order to pay the poll-tax on you." Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz wrote regarding the " Whoever has a Luwatah woman. ibn-Khaldun. al-Laith " If they were slaves. pp. vol. that would not be a legal thing said. oo and 91 . him either be en- gaged to her through her father.3^4 Barkah. Aiyam al-'Arab w-al-'Ajam w-al-Barbar. 128 (Bulak. 1284). to sell your children Ye have for them to do. . Kitab al-'Ibar H2 ii p. let : —'Umar Luwatah women. 1 Cf." Commenting on this. Khurdadhbih. or return her to her peo1 is a village inhabited by Berbers who had ple." Luwatah a covenant.

He wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. 355 . p. who had made These terms with them. saying. away many loads of fine silk brocade If the ' Commander of the Believers " ' thinks it best to allow us to invade the latter. Bulddn. 309. met resistance but reduced the place by force. : year 23 ". facts were known to 'Umar. According to a tradition communicated to me by 'Amr an-Nakid on the authority of certain sheikhs. 3 This should not be called Ifrikiyah. Geschichte der Chalifen.CHAPTER The Conquest Bakr ibn-al-Haitham IV of Tripoli 'Ali from ibn-abi-Talhah 2 : — In the year 22/ 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi advanced to He Tripoli. but Mufarrikah. 3 Pun on words. made by him. them treacherously. Mufarrikah means causing deviation from the right course. vol. 226 ordering him not to go." 'Umar wrote back. 2 Yakut. " Weil. " We have arrived in Tripoli which lies nine days from Ifrikiyah. Tripoli was taken by 1 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi through a covenant i. carrying from its merchants. 124 note p. which is treacherous to others. Ya'kubi. while the king of treated al-Andalus. This booty he sold and divided its price among the Moslems. it will be well. 346. Ar. Atrabulus. p. i. vol." 'Umar wrote that because its the Greeks and often treated inhabitants used to pay something to the king of him treacherously. Tripolis. and to which others are treacherous.

and they plundered as far as the extremities of Ifrikiyah [modern Tunis]. In this campaign. a great host of the Arabs from the environs of al-Madinah took part. The magnates of Ifrikiyah make terms with 'Abdallah. ordering him with a large him to lead the attack. 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Umar. still inforced others 29). 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam. he made up his mind to do so. Abu-Dhu'aib died in this campaign and ibn-az-Zubair had charge of the burial. 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibnabi-Bakr. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. 'Asim ibn-'Umar.CHAPTER V The Conquest of Ifrikiyah 'Uthmdn reinforces ibn-Sa'd. 'Uthman ibn-'Affan first hesitated to attack Ifrikiyah. whose patrician exercised authority from Muhammad : — : — 356 . and abu-Dhu'aib Khuwailid ibn-Khfdid al-Hudhali. 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. When 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh was appointed governor over Egypt and alMaghrib. the poet. Marwan ibn-al-Hakam ibn-abi-l-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah and his brother al-Harith ibn28. in al-Hakam. and wrote to 'Abdallah in the year 27 (others say and rewhich were Ma'bad army ibn-al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. he sent out the Moslems in cavalry detachments. Busr ibn-Abi- Artah ibn-'Uwaimir al-'Amiri. but after consultation. al- Miswar ibn-Makhramah ibn-Naufal ibn-Uhaib ibn-'AbdManaf ibn-Zuhrah ibn-Kilab. ibn-Sa'd from 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair The " latter said 'Uthman ibn-'Affan sent us on an expedition 227 against Ifrikiyah. 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Zaid ibn-al-Khattab.

" Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from ibn-Ka'b: — 'Abdallah ibn- Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh made terms with the patrician of Ifriki- yah. which at that time town. gloss. vol. Makrizi. I was enabled to kill. It is now known as Kal'at Busr and lies near a city called Maj janah.. When had no meeting-place 2 or cen'Uthman was murdered and Muhammad ibn-abi-Hudhaifah ibn-'Utbah ibn-Rabi'ah ruled over he sent nobody to Ifrikiyah. 'Ukbah sent Busr ibn-abi-Artah 3 to a castle in al-Kairawan. which he reduced. Their request was granted. = " = 1. does not have in the name.'A. the great of Ifrikiyah met together and offered 'Abdallah ibnSa'd 300 quintals x of gold provided he would let them all the cattle they could. before them men Seeing that. 92-93. 'Ukbah invaded it and parceled it out into lots among the Moslems. ibn-abi-Sufyan came to power. but when Mu'awiyah Egypt. kintar 1. .200 dinars. he returned to without appointing anyone to the governorship of Ifrikiyah.000 dinars. 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd Sarh marched against him and occupied 'Akubah. by Allah's help. patrician. sent 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' ibn-'Abd-Kais ibn-Lakit al-Fihri to Ifrikiyah.THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH Tripoli to 357 ibn-abi- Tanjah [Tangiers]. in the year 20. After a few days' fight. killing and capturing many.000 2 s Ar. and in the language of Barbar mithkals of gold or silver". 'Ukbah ibn-Ndff. " abi " 272. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Musa ibn-Damrah-1-Mazini's father :— When 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd made terms with Egypt tral the patrician of Ifrikiyah. kairawan. 1 Ar. De Goeje's edition of Baladhuri. he assigned over Egypt Mu- 'awiyah ibn-Hudaij as-Sakuni who. stipulating that the latter should pay 2. the His army took to flight and was torn to pieces. alone and leave their land.500. Ibn-abi-Sarh sent detachments and scattered them all over the country and they carried away a large booty and drove . See p. i. T. pp. near the silver mine.

Khaldun. there 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri. It was stated by al-Wakidi that 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd held the governorship until Muhammad ibn- abi-Hudhaifah assumed authority over Egypt. who spent four years in Egypt at the close of which he made a razzia and plundered. i. 182. After that he returned to Egypt and . 116-117. He 3 and other 1 trees vol. 12. 228 Others than al-Wakidi claim that Busr was one of those transmitted traditions from the Prophet. 'Ali once more assigned Muhammad ibn-abi-Bakr as-Siddik. vol. Egypt on the feast of the breaking of the fast of Ramadan [al-fitr] in the year 42 (others say 43). . which he had made to rise in rebellion against 'Uthman. who knows Various governors. This Busr was born two years before the Prophet's death. . Mahasin. Ibid. vol. the site being a thicket covered with tamarisk reduced it. ii 2 . 1 p. 8 'Adhari. vol.000 Moslems and sent . but Allah better. and the latter reduced it. after which he dismissed him and chose Muham- mad The latter he also dismissed and assigned Malik al-Ashtar. ibn-abi-Bakr. and was succeeded by his son 'Abdallah whom Mudied in He 'awiyah dismissed. and which nobody could attempt because of pp. Later on. daij who was later killed by Mu'awiyah ibn-Hu2 and burned in a donkey's belly. i. i. 125 p. Others say that 'Ukbah was appointed by Mu'awiyah over al-Maghrib and so he invaded Ifrikiyah at the head of 10. Mu'awiyah assigned ibn-Hudaij. 'Ali assigned Kais ibn-Sa'd ibn-'Ubadah-l-Ansari as governor of Egypt. 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi ruled in the name of Mu'awiyah ibn- abi-Sufyan. who was then 82 years old.. p. who was taken sick x at al-Kulzum [Suez]. to this castle. parceled out its Kairawan in lots among the Moslems.358 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE I heard it said that Musa ibn-Nusair sent Busr.

vol. * Suyuti. 7. pp. 14. ibn-Mukhallad al-Ansari. of al-Maghrib. ibn-abi- who appointed his freedman. and resigned 'awiyah the caliphate. retired to his home where he died after 'Adhari. the nearer (= Dar'ah) in distinction from al-Aksa —the far- ther . p. Ya'kubi. He prayed Lord. There he went about without being molested or fought by anybody. however. and the latter invaded as-Sus al. which lay behind Tanjah. When Yazid ibnabu-1-Muhajir. and the Moslems at the same time built houses and dwelling-places. Who was it that built them? Nafi' And Musa replied. Others say he met natural death during the fell war. The first one was 'Ukbah ibnal-Fihri who marked out the plans for the buildings. even the ' beasts had to carry their young and run away. governor Mu'awiyah. came to power. vol. ITusn. but that he a martyr is the more authentic According Mu'awiyah x Sufyan dismissed Mu'awiyah ibn-Hudaij and conferred the governorship of Egypt and al-Maghrib on Maslamah others.229 3 Adna. Thou hast seen the buildings in Ifrikiyah that are connected together and that we still see to-day. who made the scorpions disappear. 2 At last he Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah died and his son Mu'awiyah ibn- MuYazid. He also built the cathedral It mosque that is in Ifrikiyah. 359-360.. This ibn-Nafi' was a righteous to his man whose prayer was answered. called a general public prayer meeting. surnamed abu-Laila. 3 e.' was in Ifrikiyah that Ma'bad " ibn-al-' Abbas fell a mar- tyr in the campaign of ibn-abi-Sarh during the caliphate of 'Uthman. was proclaimed caliph. 1 He i. ' ' himself built a home. " I once said to Musa ibn-'Ali. . ii. Al-Wakidi says. to al-Wakidi and report. snakes 359 and deadly scorpions.THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH the beasts. he reinstated 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' in his position. departed. Buldan. i.

the queen and many Berbers whom he sent to 'Abd- Regarding these captives. These castles were included within one whose roof was an arched structure upon which one could cross over. i. . Then Hassan ibn-an-Nu'man al-Ghassani became ruler. 21. abu-Mihjan " I have seen in 'Abd-al-' Aziz's home Nusaib. He assigned as 'dmil . left for Barkah. s Fern. 16. whose people rebelled and put him to death.360 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE two months. he went against them with a cavalry detachment. His tomb is still there. Ibnal-Kalbi also states that Ifrikiyah was subdued in pre1 'Adhari. He made an incursion against al-Kahinah. 3 the queen of the Berbers. p. i.. p. 4 'Adhari. He was defeated by her and came and occuL> pied certain castles within the territory of Barkah. Ibid. of kahin = soothsayer. used to say. vol. vol. Then came 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan to power and everything went smoothly with him. carried into captivity al-'Aziz. Since then. vol. Later came the rule of Marwan ibn-al-Hakam and the insurrection of ibn-az-Zubair. these castles were called Kusur Hassan. over Egypt his brother 'Abd-al-'Aziz who put over Ifrikiyah 1 Zuhair conquered Tunis and Zuhair ibn-Kais al-Balawi. he fell a martyr with his companions. 18 seq. i. 2 pp. 4 killed Hassan made another incursion. His and his companions' tombs are called Kubur ash-Sliuhada [the martyrs' tombs]." I According to ibn-al-Kalbi. the poet. Hisham assigned Kulthum ibn-Tyad ibn-Wahwah al-Kushairi to the governorship of Ifrikiyah. On meeting them. Hearing that a band of Greeks had landed from their ships and were doing mischief. Berber captives who have faces more beautiful than which never saw.

5-6. 'Adhari. He killed Jurjir [Gregory] its king and said regarding the Berbers. i. who assigned 'Umar ibnHafs Hizarmard 1 3 in his place. Berbers. and re- He was paired the city of al-Kairawan with its mosque.THE CONQUEST OF IFRIKIYAH l 36 r Islamic times by Ifrikis ibn-Kais ibn-Saifi-1-Himyari and was named after him." . to me by of their sheikhs. p. vol. 39-40. 64. after which he built the mosque. 3 'Adhari. he started to erect the boundary marks 230 where he had seen the man stand. "How barbarous they are!" Hence the name. 'Amr ibn-Hafs ibn-Kabisah. pp. " i. he began to think regarding the site of the mosque. When he awoke. i Istakhri. Cf. vol. certain inhabitants of Ifrikiyah on the authority when 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri wanted to 2 build al-Kairawan. pp. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : —Muhammad ibn- al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'fi ruled over Ifrikiyah in the name of " abu-1-' Abbas the Commander of the Believers ". and he saw in a dream as if a man called to prayer at a certain spot where he later erected the minaret. later dismissed by al-Mansur. Al-Kairawan According to a tradition communicated .

Later he assigned Tank ibnZiyad. 27. carrying many captives from the inhabitants and receiving homage. 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-Marwan made Musa ibn-Nusair. pp.CHAPTER The Conquest 1 VI of Tanjah [Tangiers] According to al-Wakidi. a branch of the Bali others Acsay. p. 2 as-Sus al-Adna. his freedman. He reduced Tanjah and occupied it. a freedman of the banu-Umaiyah and who came originally from 'Ain at-Tamr (some say he belonged to the clan of Arashah. vol.. Musa ruled over it in the time of al- Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. 24 seq. i. His 'dmil collected from them sadakah. vol. as-Sus al-Aksa [the farther as-Sus Thus he subjugated as-Sus al-Aksa. over it [Tanjah and environs] and departed to Kairawan Ifrikiyah. = 1 * 'Adhari. cording to others. in the year 89. . i. which was over twenty days' journey from modern Morocco]. Ibid. to the clan of Lakhm) governor over Ifrikiyah. he being the first to occupy and mark His horsemen went as far as it in lots for the Moslems. 362 .



365 .* The king of Andalusia. the commander of the Majaz 3 al-Andalus. 11 seq. Idrisi. 'Adhari." al-Mu'jib fi-Talkhis Akhbar al-Maghrib. first to I of Andalusia invade Andalusia * According to al-Wakidi. whom he promised safety provided he would transport him with his companions to Andalusia in his ships. Ya'kubi. was met by Ulyan. In the meantime. ii. 326-3276 7 See Mas'udi. pp. 235. Mukaddasi. Bulddn. When he arrived there. to this conclusion by ii. pp. 5 seq. 'Adhari. vol. "The straits separating Morocco from Andalusia. Khurdadhbih. vol. p. ii. 353-355. Spain. 5 Ispahan of Persia.CHAPTER The Conquest Tarik crosses the Straits. 6 Musa himself proceeded to Cordova in Andalusia. p. and that was in the year 92. 7 the capital of the kingdom 1 J Al-Andalus. and Tarik sought and was reinstated in his favor. pp. 89. 4 s al-Marakishi. pp. p. Sifat al-Maghrib. belonged to the Ashban 5 Musa [Spanish] people whose origin was from Isbahan. it is claimed. ibn-Nusair wrote Tarik a severe letter for risking the lives 231 of the Moslems and following his own opinion without consulting Musa as regards the campaign. the was Tarik ibn-Ziyad. Toledo. The Arabs were misled two names. vol. 2 the 'dmil Tarik ibn-Nusair. 208-214. the accidental similarity between the pp. but of Musa he effected the conquest of the land in the year 92. he ordered him not to go beyond Cordova [Ar. Tarik was resisted by the people. Tarik then reduced the city of Tulaitulah. Kurtubah]. 6.

over Ifrikiyah and al-Maghlatter arrived in Ifrikiyah in the year 102. .000 dinars from Musa ibn-Nusair. 8. When 'Umar ibn-'Abdal-'Aziz became caliph. Bishr beheaded 'Abdallah ibn-Musa ibnNusair in revenge for Yazid [ibn-abi-Muslim] on the ground that he was suspected of killing him and arousing people against him. he demanded 100. Yazid as governor. but when Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab interceded in Musa's behalf. a freed- man rib. off a wonderful table which Musa ibn- his return in the year 96. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al'Aziz also wrote them letters to that effect. he appointed Yazid ibn-abi-Muslim. Thus did Islam prevail over al-Maghrib. and they killed him in his Yazid then appointed Bishr ibn-Safplace of worship. who was sick at that When Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik came to power. 34. i. One evening. ". offered as a present to al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik in Damascus. which were read to them in the different districts by Isma'il. p. wan al-Kalbi. Faranjah]. he in- The scribed the word " Guard 2 ". 2 Ar. of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf.366 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE lies of Andalusia and which next to France [Ar. p. vol. harasi. who behaved according to the best standards and invited the Berbers to Islam. When Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik assumed power. " Once owned by king Solomon 'Adhari. On the hand of every guard. made them impatient with him. Ismail governor of al-Maghrib. which act displeased them and Some of them entered kill into a conspiracy and agreed to him. he went out for the sunset prayer. and had his guard of Berbers. a freedman of the banu-Makhzum. 1 Here he carried Nusair. he was spared. on time. Bishr and other governors. he appointed over al-Maghrib Isma'il ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abi-1-Muhajir. 1 Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik Marakishi.

These people are known by the name of Tar a j an. who and died there while he held al-Walid ibn-Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik assumed 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Habib al-Fihri rose against power. p. The victories won by 'Abd-ar-Rahman were unparalleled.. 35. 'Adhari. 7 fought against the Kharijites a brother of Bishr. subdued this region and Hanzalah departed. cf. Mahasin. leaving 'Abdbecause of the good deeds done in it . vol. c in the year 5 23 after Kulthum. vol. him. p. 319. * S Sifat al-Maghrib. 38: 'Ubaidallah p. . * Idrisi. Ibid. Guest). each with one bosom. Ibid. 'Abd-ar-Rahman Consequently. When and al-Maghby his grandfather 'Ukbah ibn-Nafi'. 2 after whom Hi- sham appointed 'Abdallah the banu-Salul. 3 i. pp. vol. Hisham appointed Kulthum ibn- Tyad al-Kushairi who arrived in Ifrikiyah and was killed in it. see i. al-Kalbi. Kitab al-Wulat w-al-Kudat.THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA again appointed Bishr ibn-Safwan. i. pp. " . Rebels led by the heretic 'Ukkashah as-Sufri. 7 Al-Khawarij. and 232 among the booty he carried away were two of the women slaves of that region. 45-47. a f reedman of 'Abdallah sent 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn- Habib ibn-abi-'Ubaidah ibn-'Ukbah ibn-Nafi' al-Fihri to 4 the invasion of as-Sus and the land of as-Sudan. 'Adhari. 41. 1 ^6y Kairawan in the year 109. 71-72. i. A1-Kindi. p. vol. ar-Rahman over 1 it. p. i. 36: " as-Sulami ". 80-82 (ed. After ibn-al-Habhab. vol. 3 The latter died in alHisham appointed in his place 'Ubaidah ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Kaisi. i. ibn-al-Habhab. 'Abd-ar-Rahman was in good favor with the inhabitants of this frontier region [northern Africa rib]. 'Adhari. 2 " p. Hisham appointed Hanzalah ibn-Safwan the governorship. vol. 165..

who had great admiration for him. retary. His rule lasted for four years. and others who owed him allegiance. he did When not send to al-Maghrib any 'amil. At last. p. Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'i came to Ifrikiyah as its ruler at this.000. was then made governor by al-Mansur. Marwan or any other name that is borne by anyone of the banu-Umaiyah. Then came Marwan ibn-Muhammad to power. Marwan confirmed 'Abd-ar-Rahman as governor of the region. known as Hizarmard. during which his followers from Khurasan. 100 (ed. Consequently.000 men. and after that. during which he repaired the city of al-Kairawan. I heard it reported that the inhabitants of the town and the troops that were in it rose against him and he held out against them in his castle for 40 days. and appointed after him Ilyas ibnHabib. came to his help. 'Umar ibn-Hafs ibn-'Uthman ibn-Kabisah ibn-abi-Sufrah-l-'Ataki. 'Umar entered Ifrikiyah and launched in it a campaign that carried • . the troops of the city rose against him together with others. Kitdb al-Milal w-on-Nihol. who was a special friend of 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Yahya and kept up a correspondence with him. After and the Berbers of the Kharijites had the upper hand. Habib ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman. sparing only those who had different names. the Ibadites * the head of 70. 'Abdar-Rahman ibn-Habib communicated with him and proMarwan had a secfessed homage and sent him presents. Sufyan. Cureton). . according to others. he succeeded in laying hold on those He then went over the names against him. 40. He was thereupon dismissed by al-Mansur. • • • 1 Ash-Shahrastani. who fought and put to death every one whose name was Mu'awiyah. Towards the end of abu-1-' Abbas' caliphate.368 THF ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Yazid ibn-al-Walid assumed the caliphate. Khalid ibn-Rabi'ah-1-Ifriki.

Harish. pp. Yazid ibn-Hatim was succeeded by Rauh ibn-Hatim. I was informed by Ahmad ibn-Nakid. The frontier region broke out in revolt. The partisans of the Abbasid dynasty. so called because they wore black clothes. Atrabulus]. and the latter suffered martyrdom together with some members of his family.000 men and was accompanied to Jerusalem by abu-Ja'far alMansur who spent large sums of money on him. Buldan. where he 233 Abu-Haal-'Abbasiyah. Al-Aghlab later made a sortie. When al-Aghlab to came the Kairawan army Ifrikiyah. Yazid adbisah ibn-al-Muhallab. 111-117. 1 he met abu-Hatim in Tripoli [Ar. and in the battle which followed was hit by an arrow and fell dead. gathered a body of men. 3 was among those who came from Khura- san with al-Musauwidah. . Neither his followers nor those of Harish 1 knew of it. 3 4 Hamadhani. him and made his entrance to Ifrikiyah. who was slain by the troops vanced until He killed that rose up against him. 2 of Maru ar-Rudh.THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA him built ^69 to the extremity of the land of the Berbers. Ibid. and the latter by al-Fadl ibn-Rauh. who was once in of the frontier region of Tunis. 4 Al-Aghlab was appointed by Musa-1-Hadi governor of al-Maghrib.. a freedman of the banu-1-Aghlab. where everything went smoothly with him. that al-Aghlab ibn-Salim at-Tamimi. and the city he had established was destroyed. p. tim as-Saddarati-1-Ibadi (one of the inhabitants of Saddaratah and a freedman of the Kindah) fought against city a which he called Hizarmard. Hizarmard was succeeded by Yazid ibn-Hatim ibn-Ka- who rebelled at the head of 50. 1 2 10. 319-322. At last Harish Kindi. with whom he marched against him and besieged him. pp.

he was succeeded 2 by ibn-al-'Akki. excused his fault and thought it wise to assign him to the governorship of al-Maghrib as cordingly. rahim ibn-al-Aghlab assumed the commandership of the troops that were in that region and offered presents to Harthamah. Ibrahim ibn-al-Aghlab. was Harthamah ibn-A'yan. arose one day with twelve men and carried away from the treasury the exact value of their subsistence allowances and no more. 136. vol. 80. i. lay at a distance of more than ten days from alThe 'dmil of this frontier region. . at that time 1 Ibunder ar-Rashid Harun.370 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE his was defeated with army and were pursued by the men of al-Aghlab for three days. but was rather forced Harthamah asto what he did by urgency and necessity. Acresignation When Harthamah's ar-Rashid wrote to Ibrahim. p. signed him to be governor of the region and intrusted to 234 him its affairs. 'Adhari. won over and appointed over the region. Ibrahim became ruler of the region and managed 1 its affairs thoroughly. an act of favor. ' Kindi. during which many were killed. and Harthamah advised him that Ibrahim be reconciled. one of the leading men of the Egyptian army. Ar-Rashid consulted Harthamah regarding a man whom he could assign to that post and intrust to him its management. whose rule was so bad that the people rose up against him. Al-Aghlab after this was called '' [ash-Shahid]. who fell in a place called Suk al" the martyr Ahad. including Harish himself. They ran away to a place called azZab which Kairawan. showing him kindness and telling him in writ- ing that he did not rebel or disobey. expecting to receive from him loyalty and good counsel. from the governorship of this region [Ifrikiyah] was accepted. stating that he had forgiven him his crime. p.

000 dirhams. There 3 in al-Maghrib a land known as al- Ard al-Kabirah [the big land]. Ibrahim built al-Kasr al-Abyad [the white citadel] two miles to the kiblah of al-Kairawan. who demanded that their subsistence allowances be given them.000. Muhammad stroyed by Aflah ibn-'Abd-al-Wahhab al-Ibadi. " in Athir. it 200 dhira's in length bought slaves to the number of 5. iii. Soon after that. p. p. The Umaiyad chief sent lies him 100. 370. 'Adhari. p. not Greeks. This city he called al-'Abbasiyah.THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA ^l One of the city troops named Tmran ibn-Mujalid rose in a revolt and was joined by the army of the region. * He ibn-al-Aghlab built in the and named to the it ibn-al-Aghlab ibn-Ibrahim 2 year 239 a city near Tahart This city was deal-'Abbasiyah. 107. and almost 200 dhird's in brick and marble columns. pated them and Al-'Abbasiyah. and laid siege to Ibrahim in al-Kairawan. who wrote Umaiyad act in order to win chief of Andalusia. and parceled out the land around it among the Moslems. vol. infcrming him of his his favor. 3 4 " Hayah Sifat al-Maghrib. Bdrah. 562. Thus did that section Ibrahim also built a cathedral become populated. but This city was invaded by Hablah. vol. which is still flourishing to-day. called Barah. and covered making width. p. vi. 4 the freedi. vol. Idrisi. In it lies a city on the whose inhabitants were Christians. 56. those who pay money allowances and stipends came bringing from the kharaj of Egypt. emancimade them settle around it. who established themselves and their residences there. situated at a distance of less. 15 days. they [the rebels] dispersed themselves. Tabari. mosque with gypsum and it with cedar wood. 1 * from Barkah. . too. and when the dues were given. more or coast.

him.372 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE of al-Aghlab. a freedman of the caliph. 1 Sahib al-barid. vol. its ruler. al-Fakhri." asking for a confirmation and a letter of appointment to a Al-Mutawakkil. so that he may not be included in the category of usurpers. however. "Dtamish. He then the situation to the Master of the post in Egypt. Al-Muntasir-Billah died after holding the caliphate for six months. 1513. iii. That region was after that governed by Wasif. pp. died before his governorship. 129. messenger departed with the message to Suran. ordered his " 'arnil over al- Commander of the Maghrib. senger started 2 from Surra-man-ra'a. Al-Mufarraj ibn-Sallam. After Khalfun there arose one called al-Mufarraj ibn-Sallam 235 who conquered and brought forwarded the news of x under his control 24 forts. It was later in- vaded by Khalfun al-Barbari (supposed to have been a freedman of the Rabi'ah) who reduced it in the early part of al-Mutawakkil's caliphate. Ibn-at-Tiktaka. He was followed by Suran " ger to al-Mutawakkil. the who sent his messenCommander of the Believers. a freedman of the to confirm Suran but no sooner had the mesBelievers ". Finally his men Al-Mufarraj erected a cathedral rose up against him and killed Suran. who confirmed Suran in his position. and told him that he and his followers could conduct no [public] prayer unless the imam confirms him over his district and makes him mosque. 1512. than Otamish was slain. Then came al-Musta'in-Billah Ahmad ibn-Mu- hammad ibn-al-Mu'tasim who . p. 'Tabari. . man who failed to reduce it.



60. 38. which he sent to Mu'agold It is stated Makhlad ad-Dizaki plundered wiyah. 27-30. p. caused Moslems to settle in it. and died in the abu-Bakr. Rhodes. 1 Ar. * 4 Cf. the year 52. "Kindi. Idrisi. 1878). Junadah was one of those on whose auHe had chance to meet thority traditions were reported. Mu'awiyah sent them to al-Basrah to be carried into India and sold there with a view to getting a higher price for them. Rhodes was a In pursuance of Mu'awiyah's order.236 sea and by land. which are still in the hands of the Moslems. Amari. in Nuzhat al-Mushtak fi-Ikhtirak al-Afak. See Kindi. This took place in Junadah thicket in the sea. 17-19. Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan sent expeditions by He sent to Rhodes * Junadah ibn-abi. 49. "Italy". 375 . by al-Wakidi that 'Abdallah ibn-Kais ibnSicily and carried off idols of and silver studded with pearls. " Idrisi. the caliphate of al-Mutawakkil. I of Certain Islands in the Sea l The first 2 Hudaij al-Kindi It to invade Sicily was Mu'awiyah ibnin the days of Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan. Junadah took Rhodes by force. p. Italy ". Ahmad ibn-Muhammad ibn3 al-Aghlab reduced in it the Yanah castle and Ghalyanah fortress. pp. Umaiyah-1-Azdi. Sikilliyah. year 80. The descendants of al-Aghlab ibn-Salim al-Ifriki conquered more than 20 In cities in it. p. Rudis. Bibliotheca Arabo-Sicula. was continually invaded after that. 'Umar and Mu'adh ibn-Jabal. 57-58 (Rome.CHAPTER The Conquest Sicily. pp.

part after another until none of the Greeks were also dismantled their forts. 236. and is about sixty miles in It is rich in olive trees. Arwad. "Italy". p. 6 Crete. Others say that he did it in Rhodes. p. 3 a son of Ka'b al-Ahbar's 4 wife. " Ikritiyah ". 5 * A time of 'Umar. 1 He Kindi. vineyards. It was jahid here that Mujahid taught Tubai' the Koran. reduced a part of it. At the death of Mu'awiyah. and fresh water. Idrisi. 85.376 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE is Rhodes fruits one of the most size. a part of which he conquered at the time of al-Walid. making them x live there in turns. Yazid wrote to Junadah ordering him to destroy the fort and return. 19. vol. p. p. In the caliphate of alwas invaded by abu-Hafs 'Umar ibn-'Isa-l-Anthe known by name it. 3 Tabari. Dhahabi. 2 Tabari. . who first reduced one fort and occupied Then he kept on reducing one left. fertile of all islands. ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi and others : Muhammad —The Moslems occupied Rhodes for seven years. note 1. 163. Annals. p. 39. ii. who Ma'mun. 2 and Mu'awiyah made the Moslems settle Among those who took part in conquering it was Muand Tubai'. Rustah. living in a fort made for them. Junadah led a razzia against Crete [Ikritish]. dalusi. In the caliphate of was invaded again by Humaid ibn-Ma'yuk it aral- Hamdani. This Arwad is an island lying in it. Mujahid ibn-Jabr lived in it and taught the Koran. Later. vol. 69. In the year 54. of al-Ikritishi. near Constantinople [al-Kustantiniyah]. p. p. in the Jewish rabbi of Himyar converted to Islam Muir. Mu'awiyah used to alternate its occupants. ii. the island Rashid it was lost to the Moslems. 163. Junadah ibn-abi-Umaiyah reduced Arwad.



The Nubians as archers. The Moslems subjected met Nubia determined They were to such severe showers of arrows until most of them were wounded and had to return with many wounds and blinded Therefore were the Nubians called the " archers of eyes.CHAPTER I Terms made with Nubia l Ukbah : 1-Khair —When the Moslems subdued Egypt. a detachment of cavalry under 'Ukbah ibnbeing a brother of al-Asi on his entered the land of Nubia x as Nafi' al-Fihri mother's side). ' I Where do you want me 1 heard one of them say to the Moslem. who granted their request. lent to the value of the slaves. 'Amr (Nafi' leads the attack. in order to overrun and pillage them. the terms being that they pay no tax but offer as a present three hundred slaves per annum and that the Moslems offer them as a present food equiva. 379 . The terms made. the eyes ". 19. Sifat al-Maghrib. This state of affairs continued until 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh ruled over Egypt. sheikh of the tribe of I have been to Nubia twice during the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-alKhattab. ibn-Sa'd from a " fare than they. p. An-Nubah. resistance. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from abuibn-al- 'Asi sent to the surrounding villages. to hit you with my arrow ?' and See Idrisi. and I never saw a people who are sharper in war: Himyar — The Muhammad latter said. the The cavalry 237 summer in expeditions of the Greeks do. The Nubians asked for peace and conciliation from 'Abdallah.

were fond of fighting with arrows. and they to give us slaves. numbered 150. Abu'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Yazid ibn-abi-Habib The latter said. One day. according to which we agreed to give them some wheat and lentils. to sell their wives or children. no treaty or covenant exists.380 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Moslem would ' in case the disdainfully say. asawid]. putting out our eyes. therefore. Abu-'Ubaid from al-Laith ibn-Sa'd " The terms we made with the Nubians stipulated only that we neither fight against them nor they against us. "Between us and the black tribes [Ar. . Only a truce was arranged between us. : — : — If they desire. The legality of selling their children as slaves. however. there no reason why they should not be bought. 'Amr." Mu'awiyah ibn-Hudaij al-Kindi lost his eye in Nubia and thus became one-eyed. it is stated that 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh made terms with the Nubians to the effect that they give four hundred slaves per is 1 i. they scarcely ever missed their aim." The latter said. refused to make peace with them and went on contending against them until he was dismissed and was succeeded by 'Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Sarh. that they 238 give slaves and we give them their value in terms of food. but their arrows would scarcely 1 ever hit on the ground. and their ability to inflict injury was great. We could carry very little booty away from them. It is all right to buy their slaves from them or from others. who concluded peace with them. e. We at last thought that the best thing to do with such a people was to make peace. . they arrayed themselves against us and we were desirous to carry the conflict with the sword but they were too quick for us and shot their arThe eyes that were put out rows. According to al-Wakidi. the Nubian would never miss They In such a spot '. it." In a report of abu-1-Bukhturi and others.

. that the tribute of one year be considered as if for three. 3 See Idrisi. The mine land. i. pp. . to use their own children and Al-Mahdi ordered that they be tolerated. dhani. and the furnishing of guides to the Egyptians sent and put in charge of al-Ma'din He when on holy veyed Bujah. Sifat al-Maghrib. Tanb'ih. vinegar. if they could not get enough slaves. 27. Memoires Geographiques et Historiques sur ii. bakt. he conto the land of al4 then proceeded to a sea-coast. and offer them. could be found in the registers 2 of al-Hadrah but it was found in the register in Egypt. where the ships met him. The Nubians recently claimed that the tribute * is not due on them every year. Mas'udi. the road of al-Hijaz. clothes and mattresses or the value thereof. 4 Idrisi. at which time they told the caliph that the tribute was a part of what they took as slaves from their enemies and therefore they had. put him in charge of al-Kulzum [Suez]. No Al-Kummi in al-Bujah. vol. and that it was demanded from them in the caliphate of al-Mahdi. 313. pp. 2 pp. in to be also Egypt. called 'Aidhab. provisions in ships from al-Kulzum Arriving in al-Ma'din. wine. 42. and that they be given wheat. Bulddn. p. Makrizi. known as 3 al-Kummi. p. 318. 53- Perhaps al-Khadra'. 79-80. Al-Kummi attacked him in 1 He Ar. Al-Mutawakkil ordered one. 84. 381 they shall whom they shall bring forth and for whom receive food in exchange. Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah. confirmation. however. Hamap. vol. 330.TERMS MADE WITH NUBIA year. With these provisions. Quatremere. I'Egypte. Sifat al-Maghrib. he and his followers were strengthened and fed until they came to the castle of the king of al-Bujah. The sible caliph al-Mahdi ordered that Nubia be held responevery year for 360 slaves and one giraffe. pilgrimage.

cf. i. 1 father of al-Bujah are in a state of truce in which they pay tax and do not prevent the Moslems from working in the gold 240 mine. op. they ran away with the al-Bujah men over hills and valleys. Al- brought bells and put them on his horses. the people killed was and was succeeded by his sister's son. ii. agreeing to pay tribute in money and slaves. p. Quatremere. and the king of al-Bujah made a sally with numerous men on camels fastened with girths.382 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE his small force. Thus. He sued for a truce. which al-Mutawakkil granted only on condition that 239 he [the chief] should tread on his [al-Mutawakkil's] carpet. He was then sent back with al-Kummi. 1 Makrizi. which terms are mentioned in the conditions im- posed upon their chief. he came to Surra-man-ra'a and made terms in the year 241. As soon as the camels heard the bell sounds. Accordingly. 136. 317: "his brother's son". vol. p. . cit. vol. The chief of al-Bujah Kummi whose was one of the kings of al-Bujah..



The Karatis

Greeks used to get the karatis from Egypt, 2 and the Arabs used to get the dinars from the Greeks. 'Abd-al-

Malik ibn-Marwan was the
part of these fabrics " one and others with the


to inscribe on the upper " such phrases as Declare Allah is

day, he re" ceived from the Byzantine king a message, saying, You have recently introduced upon your karatis some inscription


of Allah.



we hate.
shall see


If you leave that out, well and good otherwise, on the dinars the name of your Prophet asso;

ciated with things

you hate." This was too much for 'Abdal-Malik, who hated to abolish a worthy law that he had established.


" Mu'awiyah and said to him,

thereupon sent for Khalid ibn-Yazid ibnO abu-Hashim It is a



Khalid replied,


' ;


from your



of the Believers

declare the use of their

dinars illegal strike new coinage in place of them, and let not these infidels be free from what they hate to see on the " fabrics." Thou hast eased my mind," said 'Abd-al-Ma"


Allah give thee ease




then struck the


According to 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam, the Copts used to
1 Rolls of papyrus for writing; also, cloth of Egyptian fabric used for carrying vases or clothes. Zaidan, Ta'rikh at-Tamaddun, vol. i, p. 103;

Zeitschrift fur Assyrologie, pp. 187-190, yr. 1908.

A1-Kindi, Fada'il Misr,

p. 209, lines

9-10 (ed. Oestrup).


Ar. tawamir.

Fraenkel, op.

p. 251.




inscribe the



at the top part of the kardtis,

and to ascribe divinity to him (may Allah be highly exalted above that!) and they used to put the sign of the cross in

place of


In the


of Allah, the compassionate, the


and his Malik introduced.

That is why the Byzantine king was disgusted anger was aroused with the change that 'Abd-al-

According to al-Mada'ini, it was stated by Maslamah ibn-Muharib that Khalid ibn-Yazid advised 'Abd-al-Malik to declare the use of the Greek dinars illegal, to prohibit
their circulation


the Byzantine empire. there for some time.

to stop the sending of the kardtis to Accordingly, no kardtis were carried




The Conquest


of as-Sawad


the caliphate of abu-bakr
Al-Muthanna invades as-Sawad.
rithah ibn-Salamah

Al-Muthanna ibn-Hato lead

ibn-Damdam ash-Shaibani used

incursions with

some of


against as-Sawad.


abu-Bakr made inquiries regarding him and learned from Kais ibn-'Asim ibn-Sinan al-Minkari that that
ing heard of

was not a man with no reputation, or of unknown origin, or of no support; but it was al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ashShaibani. Later, al-Muthanna presented himself before
Caliph of the Prophet of Allah, make me your lieutenant over those of my people who have accepted Islam, that I may fight against those foreigners, the Persians." Abu-Bakr wrote him a covenant to that effect.

abu-Bakr and said to him,


Al-Muthanna proceeded


he came to Khaffan



inviting his people to Islam, they accepted it. ha lid in al-Ubullah. Abu-Bakr then wrote to Khalid


al-Makhzumi, ordering him to go against al'Irak. Others say that he sent him from al-Madinah. In the meantime, abu-Bakr wrote to al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ordering

ibn-al- Walid


to receive Khalid

Previous to



abu-Bakr presenting and asking to be put

and obey his word. ibn-'Adi-l-'Ijli had written to case and the case of his people,

campaign against the abu-Bakr wrote and ordered him to join Now, Khalid, stop with him when he stopped and move with him

in charge of the

'Irak, the region

west of the Tigris.







when he moved.


1 the arrival of Khalid in an-Nibaj,

he was met by al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. Thence Khalid proceeded to al-Basrah in which there was at this time

Suwaid ibn-Kutbah adh-Dhuhli (others than abu-Mikhnaf say that there was in it Kutbah ibn-Katadah adh-Dhuhli) of the tribe of Bakr ibn-Wa'il, accompanied by a band of Suwaid had designs regarding al-Basrah simifollowers. lar to those of al-Muthanna regarding al-Kufah, which at that time was not called al-Kufah but al-Hirah. Suwaid " The inhabitants of al-Ubullah had assemsaid to Khalid,
bled against


but failed to


of thy presence, as I believe." " Khalid the advisable thing for

the attack simply because If that is so," answered

me would be to leave alBasrah in the day time and return in the night, at which time my companions would enter thy camp and we will fight together." Accordingly, Khalid left in the direction 242 of al-Hirah and when darkness fell, he turned back until he got to the camp of Suwaid, which he entered with his men.
In the morning, the inhabitants of al-Ubullah, hearing that

Suwaid. were conarmy, they founded and turned back. Thereupon, Khalid shouted, "On them! I see in them the looks of a people whose hearts



advanced towards
in his

Seeing the great

number of men

filled with terror!" Then the Moslems charged them to flight, and by Allah's help, killed a great them, put number and caused others to drown in Dijlat al-Basrah. 2 Thence Khalid passed through al-Khuraibah, 3 reduced it and carried its inhabitants away into captivity. He left over

Allah has


in his place


it is

reported by al-Kalbi

— Shuraih



pp. 146, 147.

or Dijlat al-'Aura the united course of the Tigris and the Euphrates before they empty into the Persian Gulf. Yakut, vol. iii, p. 745.


Hamadhani, Buldan,



'Amir ibn-Kain


of the banu-Sa'd ibn-Bakr ibn-Hawazin.


city was a fortified frontier town for the Persians. Nahr al-Marah It is also reported that Khalid came


river, with whose people he made terms. He then fought against a body of men assembled at al-Madhar. 3

the river


as al-Mar'ah


Khalid proceeds to al-Hirah Khalid then proceeded to 4 and left Suwaid ibn-Kutbah to rule over his disWe have crushed the Persians in thy district, saying,




a way that will humiliate them before thee." Others report that when Khalid was in the district of alYamamah, he wrote to abu-Bakr for reinforcements; and
trict in

abu-Bakr sent him Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. Jarir met Khalid as the latter was on his way out of al-Yamamah,
joined him and attacked the al-Madhar's chief by Khalid's orders. Allah knows if that is so.

Al- Wakidi states,



that Khalid left for al-Trak, passing by Faid 6 after which he came to al-Hirah. Tha'labiyah,

friends in al-Hijaz maintain 5 and ath-

Zandaward, Duma and other places reduced by Khalid. Khalid ibn-al- Walid passed through Zandaward in Kaskar and reduced it; he also reduced Durna and its territory,
which capitulated after one hour's shooting by the people of Zandaward on the Moslems.


of which he

then proceeded to Hurmuzjarad, to the inhabitants made a promise of security. The city itself

Khalid then came to Ullais.



the chief

Tabari, vol.

p. 2382.







Tabari, vol.




8 *


vol. iv, p. 468;


p. 211.

Irlaukal, p. 163.



in central

Najd. Mukaddasi,

p. 254.



the west bank of the Euphrates.




Tabari, vol.

p. 2018.



of the Persians, set out against him and Khalid sent ahead al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ash-Shaibani who met Jaban at

Nahr ad-Damm [sanguine canal]. Khalid made terms with the inhabitants of Ullais, stipulating that they act as

guides and helpers to the Moslems against the Per-


Khalid in al-Hirah.

Khalid then proceeded to Mujtama'

[confluence of canals], where he was met by Azadhbih, the holder of the frontier fortifications of Kisra

and the Arab territories. The 243 Moslems fought against him and defeated him. Then Khalid came and stopped at Khaffan. Others say he proceeded directly to al-Hirah, where he was met by 'Abd-alMasih ibn-'Amr ibn-Kais ibn-Haiyan ibn-Bukailah 2 (Bukaithat lay between the Persian

proper name being al-Harith) of the Azd, Hani' ibnKabisah ibn-Mas'ud ash-Shaibani and Iyas ibn-Kabisah atlah's

Ta'i (others say


Kisra Abarwiz

over al-Hirah

ibn-Iyas), Iyas being the 'ami! of after an-Nu'man ibn-al-

These men made terms with Khalid, stipulating that they pay 100,000 dirhams per year, others say 80,000
per year, that they act as spies for the Moslems against the Persians, and that Khalid would not destroy any of their churches or citadels.
It was reported by abu-Mikhnaf on the authority of abu1-Muthannah-l-Walid ibn-al-Katami, who is the same as

ash-Sharki ibn-al-Katami-1-Kalbi, that 'Abd-al-Masih, who was an aged man, appeared before Khalid who asked him.


— What thou come out from?" — "From my mother's womb." — "Woe unto " —" Woe thee! Where thou now? — In my


dost thou

come from,




he re-

From my

father's back."






Wellhausen, Skizzen,

vol. vi, p. 42; Caetani, vol.


p. 937.


285; Tabari, vol.


2019; Mas'udi, vol.

p. 217.


39 j

—"On the ground." — — am speaking thee a man!" — And am answering a man." — Art thou for peace or for war? — " For peace." — What are then?" — We


to thee "



dost thou stand

now ?"

Dost thou have reason [Ar. ta'kul] ?" " Yes, I can bind [a'kul] and tie up [a camel]." 1 "Woe to thee! I



thee like




these forts


meek comes." 2 The two then discussed the question of peace and it was agreed that 100000 [dirhams] be offered the Moslems every year. The money taken from these people was the first sum carried to al-Madinah from al-Trak. It was also stipulated that they seek no evil for the Moslems and that they act as spies
them for the rogue
until the

against the Persians.
latter said

All that took place in the year 12.

Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Yahya ibn-Adam:


I heard it said that the people of al-Hirah were 6,000 men, on each one of whom 14 dirhams, each having the weight of 5 kirdts, were assessed, making 84,000 dirhams in all, of 5 kirdts each, or 60,000 of 7 each. To that

end, he [Khalid] wrote

them a statement which



have read."




reported that Yazid ibn-Nubaishah-l-'Amiri said, came to al-Trak with Khalid and went as far as the

We then came to al-Hirah whose people had fortified themselves in al-Kasr al-Abyad [white citadel], Kasr ibn-Bukailah and Kasr al-'Adasiyin. We went around on horseback in the open spaces among their buildings, after which they made terms with us." (Acfrontier fort of al-'Udhaib.

cording to ibn-al-Kalbi al-'Adasiyin were a branch of the Kalb, and were named after their mother who was also of
the Kalb tribe.)

Pun on words.

Caetani, vol.



657 takes


enough [kawad] ".

to pay the blood-wit


I am mean, and to retaliate by killing



Cf. Mas'udi, vol.



218; Tabari, vol.



2019; Caetani, vol.


P- 657.



from ash-Sha'bi Khuraim ibnAus ibn-Harithah ibn-Lam at-Ta'i said to the Prophet, "If Allah enables thee to reduce al-Hirah, I shall ask thee to give me Bukailah's daughter." When Khalid wanted to make terms with the inhabitants of al-Hirah, Khuraim said



The Prophet has given me Bukailah's daughter. She should not therefore be included in thy terms." This was testified to by Bashir ibn-Sa'd and Muhammad ibnMaslamah of the Ansdr; and therefore, Khalid did not include her in the terms, but turned her over to Khuraim. She was then bought from Khuraim for 1,000 dirhams, she
to him,


being too old for Khuraim to marry her.

Some one


marked to Khuraim, " She was sold very cheap. Her people would have paid thee many times the price thou hast " I never thought there was a charged." And he replied, number above ten hundred." Another tradition has it that the one who asked the Prophet to give him Bukailah's daughter was one of the Rabi'ah. The former view, however, is more authentic.
Bdnikiya taken. Khalid ibn-al-Walid despatched Bashir ibn-Sa'd abu-an-Nu'man ibn-Bashir of the Ansdr to Bani2



Bashir was met by the Persian horsemen headed by Bashir's men were shot with arrows but

he led the charge and put the enemy to flight, killing Farrukhbundadh. He then returned with a wound which be-

when he came to 'Ain at-Tamr, and Others say that Khalid himself, accompanied by Bashir, met Farrukhbundadh. Khalid then sent Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali to the peocame

caused his death.

ple of Banikiya.


was met by Busbuhra ibn-Saluba,


refused to fight and proposed to





333; Tabari. vol.
p. 165.


pp. 2047-2048.



2 Mughaffal and not Mughaffil as Baladhuri has Al-J abal or al-Jibal See Dhahabi. 278-280. . " We arrived in al-Hirah and camel's saddle. repeat that he Khalid wrote a statement to mantle as a present to al-Husain ibn-'Ali. and the death of Mihran. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from al-Aswad ibn-Kais's father : 3 —The latter said. however. Others deny that Jarir ibn-'Abdallah ever came to al-Trak except in the Abu-Mikhnaf and alwent there twice.000 dirhams and one mantle. its : —When Khalid ar- inhabitants made terms without of- fering any resistance. 1 Others say that ibn-Saluba came to Khalid and. p. pp. No land Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ibn-Mughaffal : : Muzani — No al- — below al-Jabal is fit for sale except the land of the banuSaluba and the land of al-Hirah. = Dozy. refusing to After the battle of an-Nukhailah 245 right. tailasdn = Persian apparel of dark wool. Busbuhra ibn-Saluba and sent the mantle to abu-Bakr together with the money from al-Hirah and the thousand dirhams. and wrote them a receipt. Vetements. Abu-Bakr offered the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab.THE CONQUEST OF ASSAWAD 393 made terms with him on 100. 209 seq. What Abu-'Ubaid from Humaid ibn-Hilal rived in al-Hirah. made those terms. Wakidi. 4773 Media. Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from. it. pp. 'Abdallah ibn-Mughaffal 2 part of al-'Irak made covenant [with the Moslems] except al-Hirah. The following verse was written by Dirar ibn-al-Azwar al-Asadi : 1 Ar." made terms on answer to him." so much money and a " In did ye do with the saddle?" my question. Hamadhani. Jarir came and received from ibnSaluba's people and from the people of al-Hirah the sum agreed upon. " One of us had no saddle and we gave it to he replied. Ullais and Banikiya.

Le Strange. 3 "Rabi'ah" p. Our companions agree that this Dirar was slain in al-Yamamah. in Duraid. 4 153. p." — Al-Wakidi states. Khalid proceeded to alwhose people betook themselves to their fortifications.394 *' THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE I had insomnia in Banikiya and whosoever receives what I received there a wound. Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate. The Moslems then invested the inhabitants of al-Anbar and set fire to places in its district. 6 Khalid sent al-Muthanna who made a raid on this market. p. Ma'drif. See Ya'kubi. Here some one came to Khalid and pointed out to him Suk [market] Baghdadh. 5 which later [after Baghdadh was founded] was called as-Suk al-'Atik [the old market] Siik Anbar and which lay near Karn as-Sarat. and " Rabi'ah ibn-Saifi " in Kutaibah. two come 4 to the place where Jaban was. re. p. 2 Haukal. al-Falalij. PI. 235.246 turned to al-Hirah. Khalid sent against him al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ash-Shaibani and Hanzalah ibn-ar3 Rabi' ibn-Rabah al-Usaidi of the banu-Tamim (he is the one called Hanzalah-1-Katib[the scribe]). vol. Khalid came to Al-Falalij and Tustar. Al-Anbar was thus called because the Persian granaries Mere in 1 it and the friends and proteges of an-Nu' iii. would certainly have insomnia. They were soon dispersed. Hearing that Jaban was at the head of 2 a great army in Tustar. Yakut. and Khalid. p. 172. 12. Buldan. of Fallujah. 77. p. than he Baghdad and al-Anbdr. p. these " No sooner had fled. 908. 1 in which was massed a host of Greeks. 6 s ." From Banikiya. and the Moslems filled their hands with gold and silver and commodities light to carry. and then where Khalid was. They came to al-Anbar spent the night at as-Sailahin. meeting no resistance. where as-Sarat canal disembogued to the Tigris. Lstakhri. As-Sarat Point. 127.

000 diryear. where Khalid and the Moslems besieged them 247 Khalid refused to give them until they sued for peace.THE CONQUEST OF ASSAWAD man 395 used to get their subsistence allowances from it. this place al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah who made a raid against it. Seeing what had befallen them.000 cloaks fabricated in Katawan. A tradition communicated to me by certain sheikhs from al-Anbar states that terms were concluded with the people of al-Anbar in the caliphate of 'Umar in which it was stipulated that they — pay for their canton [tassiij] 400. This. iii. of his freedmen. how- ever. hams and 1 . vol. slaughtered and took captives. The holders of the fort made a sally and fought.000 but Allah knows best.Walid someone who pointed out to him a market above al-Anbar in which the Kalb. Jarir reduced Bawazij al-Anbar in which are to-day many . Bakr ibn-Wail and others from the Khalid despatched against tribe of Kuda'ah used to meet. carried as booty what there was in it. Others assert that Khalid sent al-Muthanna before him to Baghdadh and then followed him and directed the raid against it. is not authentic. 759. after which he returned to al-Anbar. the inhabitants of al-Anbar made terms which satisfied Khalid. According to a report there came to Khalid ibn-al. they confined themselves to their fort. per The terms were made by Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. p. : The people Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from ash-Sha'bi of al-Anbar have a covenant [with the Moslems]. and so he left them in their homes. 1 Yakut. but after that. . Tamr x and invested its fort in which a great frontier guard of Persians was stationed. Thence Khalid advanced to 'Am at'Ain at-Tamr. Others say that the sum was 80.

the father of Musa ibn-Nusair. a grandfather of Muhammad ibnIshak the author of as-Snah 2 and a freedman of Kais — — ibn-Makhramah ibn-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf (5) Murrah abu-'Ubaid. This Nusair was a freedman of the banu-Umaiyah. the poet. p. Anas ibn-Sirin. as it is asserted by f reed- men 1 in the frontier towns descended from slaves whom he Bakri. This Humran was the freedman of 'Uthman. their ancestor as 'Ubaid sari His descendants give the name of ibn-Murrah ibn-al-Mu'alla-1-An. a grandfather of 'Abdallah ibn-'Abd-al-A'la. (4) Yasar. to make on which occasion inquiry regarding the conduct of his 'amii Humran did not tell the truth. Muhammad being the eldest brother. (Nafis ibn-Muhammad ibn-Zaid ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Murrah. father of Muhammad ibn-Sirin.396 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE promise of security and reduced the fort by force. Others say his father's name was Abba. He first belonged to al-Musaicaptives ) yab ibn-Najabah-1-Fazari from whom 'Uthman bought him. 'Uthman later sent him to al- Kufah there. and all being the f reedmen of Anas ibn-Malik al-Ansari ( 3 ) . and later az-Zuraki) (6) Nusair. Here he found certain persons in a church whom he took captives. . jiwdr] 'Uthman denied him the and Humran went and settled in al-Basrah. abu-'Amrah. and Ma'bad ibn-Sirin. So rights of protection [Ar. the owner of the citadel [kasr] near al-Harrah [volcanic tract of al-Madinah] was a son ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Murrah of this Muhammad. 2 The biography of the Prophet from which ibn-Hisham's was abridged. whose brothers were Yahya ibn-Sirin. slaughtering and carrying away captives. and then released him. Among other 1 captives were (2) Sirin. the governor of al-Maghrib. 199. Among these was ( i Humran ibn-Aban ibn-Khalid at-Tamri. a grandfather of Muhammad ibn-Zaid .

p. iii. Al-Kalbi adds that some one said that the two [Nusair and abu-Farwah] were brothers taken captives from 'Ain at-Tamr. ii. Caetani. p. one of the ancestors of abu-1of captives. to the list adds Kaisan. abu-Farwah joined them and said to 'Uthman. Musa was lame. it is stated by someone that abu-Farwah and Nusair were of the captives of 'Ain at-Tamr. . 8 Aghani. a companion of al-Mansur. — According to 'Ali ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini.THE CONQUEST OF ASSAWAD had released. Abu-Farwah illustrious abi-Farwah was one of the was thus called because of a furred garment [Ar. 504. Khalid made terms with the 1 ' " Kaf armathra " ii. 945. digging graves. ibn- One of 2 his descendants was ar-Rabi' ibn-Yunus ibn-Muhammad ibn-abi-Farwah. farwah] which he had on when he was taken captive. 3 According to certain reports. I bought thee out of the sad a k ah funds that thou mayest dig ! When 248 the tombs. Galilee] in Syria during the caliphate of abu-Bakr. Abu-Farwah was bought by Na'im al-Asadi who sold him later to 'Uthman who used him for the people rose up against 'Uthman. 'Atahiyah. vol. 127. " Restore what thou hast wrongfully taken from others " To this 'Uthman replied." His son 'Abdallah freedmen. vol. vol. p. and he returned to Syria Umaiyah gave where in a village called Kafarmara x his son Musa was born. Some one of the banuhim his liberty. ^gy abu-Farwah 'Abd arRahman ibn-al-Aswad and Nusair abu-Musa ibn-Nusair were both Arabs of [the clan of] Arashah of [the tribe of] Bali and that they were taken captives from Jabal al-Jalil Ibn-al-Kalbi says that [Mt. but thou hast left that. and that they owed their libthe diminutive erty to the banu-Dabbah. in Marasid. Nusair's name was originally Nasr which was later used in form Nusair. " Thou representest the first thing.

According to ibn-al-Kalbi. Tabari. that he say that Sirin was one of the inhabitants of Jarjaraya and came there on a visit to a relative of his and was taken captive together with those in the church. When Khalid ibn-al-Walid was at 'Ain at-Tamr he sent an-Nusair ibn- Daisam ibn-Thaur tled the to a spring of water banu-Taghlib. The wound of Bashir ibn-Sa'd al-Ansari became recru- descent and caused his death. vol. One of the prisoners tassuj. and stated them in a ple letter to abu-Bakr. . Noldeke. i. which the latter endorsed. p.Walid made terms with the peoof al-Hirah and 'Ain at-Tamr. He was defeated. who was hit by an arrow at 'Ain at-Tamr and fell a martyr. note.' replied.398 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE holders of 'Ain at-Tamr fort and these captives [mentioned 1 Some above] were found in a church in a certain canton. Yahya adds. Hilal ibn-'Ak- kah ibn-Kais ibn-al-Bishr an-Namiri. ash-Sha'bi : — ' I asked al-Hasan ibn-Salih. ZDMG. an-Namari ". The razzias of an-Nusair ibn-Daisam. vol. 2 3 One of the intermediate authorities of this tradition. 94. He was buried at 'Ain at- Tamr. 2 ' Have Tamr. xxviii. By his side was buried 'Umair ibn-Ri'ab ibn-Muhashshim ibn-Sa'id ibn-Sahm ibn-'Amr. to the people of 'Ain atpay something for their ' lands. ' ? To this al-Hasan It is stated at the by someone that there was at 'Ain at-Tamr head of the an-Namir ibn-Kasit tribe. there was at the head of the an-Namir at that time 'Akkah ibn-Kais ibn-alBishr himself. killed and crucified. killing and carrying away many 1 captives. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Yahya ibn-Adam from Khalid ibn-al. whom by which were sethe surprised by night. like those of al-Hirah. 2122 " : 1874. p. but nothing for their persons " Yes."' who gathered an army and fought against Khalid.

but was so called after being occupied by a certain descendant of Mukharrim ibn-Hazn ibn-Ziyad ibn-Anas ibn-ad-Daiyan al-Harithi. whose people hurried to present themselves before the Moslems. The Moslems then retreated to 'Ain at-Tamr. promising to point out to him a quarter inhabited by the banu-Rabi'ah. as it is mentioned by Hisham ibn-Muhammad al-Kalbi. It is stated by al-Wakidi that after the battle of al-Jisr [bridge] and after making the Moslems withdraw to Khaffan. Khalid did so and an-Nusair came to the Rabi'ah quarter. . known to-day by the name of Kasr 'tsa ibn'Ali. an-Nusair came to 'Ukbara' and gave promise of security to its inhabitants. which was enough Thence an-Nusair advanced to al-Mukharrim which ac1 cording to abu-Mas'ud was not called then Mukharrim. Thus captives. on the authority of Muhammad ibn-Marwan. in the night-time upon them He 249 According to a tradition communicated to me by abuMas'ud al-Kufi. Buldan. but was fought and defeated by them. Never mind !" . An-Nusair " said. p.THE CONQUEST OF ASSAWAD 399 asked Khalid to release him. The bridge was in charge of Khurzad ibn-Mahibundadh who went out against the Moslems. where he fell and carried away booty and then proceeded inland towards Takrit. who destroyed a band of the banu-Taghlib 1 Ya'kubi. The Moslems then crossed a bridge lying near Kasr [castle] Sabur. to guarantee their safety. 253. did the Moslems enrich themselves with booty. He then passed through al-Baradan. who brought forth food for his men and their animals. al-Muthanna ibn-Ha- rithah sent in the caliphate of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab an- Nusair and Hudhaifah ibn-Mihsan at the head of a body of horsemen. An-Nusair a nd Hudhaifah.

" said 'Attab " was that an-Nusair and Hudhaifah promised ibn-Ibrahim. II. p. . takes this to Dumah al-Hirah and not al-Jandal. Khalid advanced to Syria and said " Return [to al-Hirah?] to al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. however. This was done in a few other cases. * be Skizzen. n. De Goeje. vol. Cf. 2 which he reduced.400 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to Takrit and crossed over camels and goats. year 13. is. " from which they carried away of the things told me by abu-Mas'ud. p. directed by Khalid ibn-al-Walid. mentioned the fact that an-Nusair. p. One security to the people of Takrit and wrote a statement which was carried out by 'Utbah ibn-Farkad as-Sulami when he reduced at-Tirhan He also [or Tirahan] and al-Mausil. It is claimed by to some that Khalid came from 'Ain at-Tamr Dumah. Der Islam. Memoire. Miiller." 'Ain at-Tamr. vol." The departure of Khalid according to others. untired and unfailing. more reliable. 47. 229. Rabi' for Syria took place in Rabi' I. 3. i. From may Allah have mercy on thee x — — 250 to thy Sultan. made a raid against villages in Maskin and Katrabbul [or Kutrubbul] from which he carried off large booty. note. That he departed for Syria from 'Ain at-Tamr. and after that he proceeded to al-Hirah and thence to Syria. 1 Certain verses describing the battles referred to above are here omitted from the translation. 15. iv.

1 He then advanced to meet al-Jalinus." Abu-'Ubaid defeats Jaban. Meanwhile. taking some Thence abu-'Ubaid proceeded to Durna l in which there was assembled a body of Persians. 565. the Persian. 251 'Ubaid met Jaban and put his troops to of them captive. tious But warfare is fit is a stubborn thing. 401 . he directed abu-'Ubaid ibnMas'ud ibn-'Amr ibn-'Umair ibn-'Auf ibn-'Ukdah ibn-Ghiyarah ibn-'Auf ibn-Thakif (who is identical with abu-1- Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid) to al-'Irak with 1. pp. 569. and only the cau- man for it. vol. p. ordering him to receive abu-'Ubaid and obey his word. i. On was arriving in al-'Udhaib. In the company of abu-'Ubaid. vol. ii. i. * "Jalinus". These abu-'Ubaid chased to Kaskar. he wrote to al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. saying thou art too hasty. Yakut. p. vol. When 'Umar ibn-al- Khattab was proclaimed caliph. Tabari. p.CHAPTER The Caliphate II of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab Abu-'Ubaid chief commander. at Tustar with a laige body of men. al-Jalinus and other Persian Abu-'Ubaid marched forward and left no Aral) chiefs. he heard that Jaban. Had it not been for the fact that al-Ansari. in Tabari. 345. Thus. Abuflight. I would have put thee in chief com- mand. he sent Salit ibn-Kais ibn-'Amr al" to him. 2 cf. Bakri. 2169: "Durtha".000 men. 2170. tribe by which he passed without arousing its interest in " " the and plunder. he was joined by a holy war large host.

pp. won the victory and carried away [many] captives. 2029 seq. .4 02 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE . provided abu-'Ubaid should keep his way. vol. 951-952. ii. i. pp. al-Muthanna fought against them. and finding that its inhabitants had violated their covenant. agreeing 'azz * but ibn-al-Andarz- to pay four dirhams on every person. vol. 2 Yakut. who was at Barusma [or Marusma] made terms with him. 2 Abu-'Ubaid sent al-Muthanna to Zandaward. Abu-'Ubaid also sent 'Urwah ibnZaid-al-Khail at-Ta'i to az-Zawabi. 1 Tabari. with whose chief [dihkdn] me made terms similar to those made with Barusma.

foot. The elephant. 3 Yakut. to lift them above his His name. ii. '. p. Salit ibn-Kais said " I have warned thee against crossing this to abu-'Ubaid. p. 161. abu-'Ubaid and the Moslems crossed from al-Marwahah 3 and met dhu-1-Hajib who was accompanied by 4. 148. endowed with great means] because he au1 gured good from him. the people of Banikiya helping in the construction. he tied up his brows. were inflicted on the Moslems. iv.000 men armed from head to A others say many elephants. 4P3 . Hearing that the Arabs were massing their forces. III or the Battle of al-Jisr Dhu-l-Hdjib. Being in ruins. the Persians sent dhu-1-Hajib [the eye-browed] " BahMardanshah who was nicknamed by Anushirwan " man [potent. Which is the vulnerable point in this creature?" and he was told that it was its trunk. Caetani. Ya'kubi. and advised thee to withdraw to some quarter and bridge it repaired. vol. vol. in his pride. ' Commander Salit of the Beuntil he was fought " Abu-'Ubaid asked. abu-'Ubaid ordered Over this bridge. 252 upon which he made a rush and struck the trunk of the elebut thou hast refused. it is said. * iii. p. It is said that this bridge once belonged to the people of al-Hirah on which they crossed over to their farms. — write for reinforcements to the lievers killed.CHAPTER The Battle of Kuss an-Natif. vol. was Rustam. At this. and one elephant in the course of which many wounds fierce fight ensued. and it was." 1 Cf. He was called dhu-1-Hajib because. 2 eyes. 505. Abu-'Ubaid ordered that the bridge [on the Euphrates] be erected.

the flag was carried by his brother. After abu-'Ubaid. al-Hakam. after which he withdrew others. so fiercely that his action that of a whole group of men. ' Among those according to those killed in the battle of al-Jisr [the bridge]. The " polythethe elephant and struck and broke its leg. pp. Abu-Zubaid was a Christian. who was then killed. Isma'il ibn-abi-Khalid adds that abu-'Amr ash-Shaibani end of 1 stated that the battle of Mihran was fought at the beginning of the year. ists ". Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Kais ibn-abiAs abu-'Ubaid was crossing Banikiya with a band Hazim " " cut the bridge and many of followers. thereupon. Al-Muthanna 2 ibn-Harithah carried it for one hour. Al-Muthanna came and occupied Ullais and communicated the news in a letter to Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent with 'Urwah ibn-Zaid. those who took lems on the west bank of the part in the defense of the Mosriver. p. as some of them defended the 'Urwah ibn-Zaid al-Khail fought was estimated to be equivalent to Among at-Ta'i. ii. vol. Tabari. The battle of al-Jisr was fought on Saturday at the end of Ramadan. its Others say that the elephant threw 1 weight upon him and crushed him. his men On this occasion. made an attack which resulted in the death of abu-'Ubaid. abu-Mikhnaf. was abu-Zaid al-Ansari. who also fell. and the flag passed to the hands of his son. one of who compiled the Koran in the days of the Prophet. was the poet abu-Zubaid who happened to be at al-Hirah on some personal business. Jabr. the polytheists : — of his men lost their lives. vol. year 13. and al-Kadisiyah at the it. The Moslems who fell.404 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Abu-Mihjan ibn-Habib ath-Thakafi also charged phant. pp. 33 2 -333- 2 Dinawari. 119. . i. 2178-2179. Athir.

They left it for him to choose for them. for one year after the calamity 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab rename of al-Trak. whom he defeated. 1 Tabari. Still labiyah. 2186. In the al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah was staying in the meantime. 155. but they kept aloof and hesitated to go there. x dhar.CHAPTER The Battle of IV 253 Mihran or an-Nukhailah Jar ir ibn-' Abdalldh' s campaign in al-'Irak. Others claim that the conflict with place the Jarir was in the company of others assert that Jarir took the road to al-'Udhaib. provided onequarter of what they took possession of be allotted to him and his men. i. so much so that he was on the point of carrying the expedition in person. frained from the mention of the and offered to go to al-Trak. vol. a body of al-Azd came to 'Umar intent on the invasion of Syria. p. but he asked them to go to al-Trak and aroused their interest in the spoils to be taken from the Kisra family. Jarir ibn-'Abdallah came from as-Sarah at the head of the that befell abu-'Ubaid and Salit. iii. passing through Paid and ath-Tha'- Marzuban took when Khalid ibn-al-Walid. Some claim that he went via al-Basrah and had a conflict with the satrap [Marzuban] of al-MaBajilah tribe. 'Umar accepted the offer and Jarir started towards al-Trak. and he ordered them to start [for al-Trak]. vol. Now. According to abu-Mikhnaf and others. 405 *\ . " holy war ". region of Ullais summoning the Arabs to the At last 'Umar invited the Moslems to an expedition to alTrak. p. Caetani.

764. i. pp. ii. iii.. who was to rule Yazdajird ibn-Shahriyar came of age. p." Jarir said. Yazdajird sent against them Mihran ibn-Mihribundadh al-Hamadhani until 2 head of 12. p. daughter of Kisra. Hamadhani. 5 The reference The text is i. p. Buldau. Ibid. Cf. i. pp. vol. made 5 said that the irregularities in the land of filled level up with bones in the time of the civil with the surface and covered with pow- 254 dered soil [and that whenever the soil was removed the bones were seen]. Bakri. Yakut. p. 2187. ii. 8 8 corrupt. The Moslems assembled in Dair Hind * in the year 14 immediately after the death of Shirawaih. 183.. vol. vol. 125 Tabari. 3 * Yakut. is. 644. vol. 8 *A 2 convent near al-Hirah. Tabari. It is reported by Saif that Mihran. after crossing al-Jisr [the bridge]. Dair Hind. 707-709. p. Someone has al-Buwaib were war. Ibid. to the insurrection of 7 Mus'ab ibn-az- Zubair. 7 This was the place in which the water of the Euphrates sank in the time of the Kisras and from which it poured into al-Jauf. Caetani. Dinawari. Wouldst thou go to al-Trak if I allow thee one-third of the spoils after the [usual] fifth has been taken?" and " I will. 2163. p.000 men. .4 o6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : 'Affan ibn-Muslim from ash-Sha'bi —After the death of by 'Umar to abu-'Ubaid. It was in this place that he was killed. saying. i. who was the first to be directed al-Kufah. cj. lines 12-13. 256-257. pp. " 'Umar directed Jarir ibn-'Abdallah there. The Moslems offered no resistance until he crossed the bridge on the Euphrates and ar3 rived next to Dair al-A'war. 362-364. vol. vol. p. perhaps. 2191. and the succession of Buran. came to a place 4 called al-Buwaib. vol. at the The battle of al-Buwaib. . 6 The spot lay between as-Sakun [canal] and the banu-Sulaim [canal].

and Sarat 4 Jamasib and an-Nahrain and 'Ain-at-Tamr. in the death of Mihran and the defeat of the 2 dels ". . 5 [ ?] Yakut. Such is the fate of the best among you. Others ing affirm that the Moslems were commanded in turn by the tribes. The Moslems pursued them with slaughter. Kurt ibn-Jammali al-'Abdi applied his sword until its edge was bent. and Shurahbil ibn-as-Simt al-Kindi distinguished himself Mas'ud ibn-Harithah was slain.THE BATTLE OF MIHRAN The Moslems camped cording to the Bajilah. ^* 4 5 Yusuf. iv. See Le Strange. each one of whom claimed that he had killed him. At last. vol. cease to Moslem raids. 121. because my brother is killed. Dinawari. and Jarir. the rest of the spoils from him. pp. p. in the fight that ensued. iv. Barbisma between 1 al-Fallujatain. This took place in the year 14. map. After this victory. " Fear not. as if they were one body. which led to a 3 fierce dispute. Kaskar. ac- an-Nukhailah 1 and were by Jarir ibn-'Abdallah. 25. the Moslems did not make raids in the regions between al-Hirah and Sura. heads of the various When the night fell. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate. The death of Mihran was effected by Jarir ibn-'Abdallah and al-Mundhir ibn-Hassan ibn-Dirar ad-Dabbi. Moslems. by al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. Mas'udi. sert that among those who killed him was al-Hisn ibn-Ma'bad ibn-Zurarah ibn-'Udas at-Tamimi. lines 16-17. Cf. at 407 led. and few were those who escaped. and." Upon this. 771-772. they returned to their camp. pp. 205-206. by Allah's " infihelp. vol. So al-Muthanna said. 16. the Moslems charged. p. 2 Cf. accordto the Rabi'ah. p. with confidence and patience which resulted. al-Mundhir carried away Mihran' s Some asbelt. On this day. The Moslems met their enemy.

the Persians by this time having become emaciated and having become weak and Certain Moslems crossed Nahr [canal] feeble in power. from other watching posts at at-Taff. which was a watching post. Nahr al-Malik and Baduraiya. There are those who say that between the battles of Mihran and al-Kadisiyah. and reduced They drove the Persians Sura and came to Kutha.4 o8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE also The Moslems attacked Hisn it. 18 months elapsed. .255 zias lived on what they plundered. Malikiya. The Arabs in these raz. some reaching as far as Kalwadha.

His case soon became serious and he was carried to his clan among whom he died. 'Umar desired to lead the razzia in person and collected an army for that purpose. Finally. but the latter refused." 'Umar proposed to 'Ali the idea of going. and he advised Sa'd to meet the enemy between al-Kadisiyah and al-'Udhaib. Others say that at this time Sa'id ibn-Zaid ibn-'Amr was on an expedition in Syria. and asked for reinforcements. but my mind to stay. upon which 'Umar wanted Sa'id ibn-Zaid ibn-'Amr ibnNufail al-'Adawi to go. to al-'Udhaib. in the course of which all the troops overtook him.CHAPTER V The Battle to of al-KadisIyah 'Umar sends Sa'd ibn-abi-W akkas. have made up him to go himself. Sa'd was a man of valor and a good shot. and 'Umar did that. The Moslems wrote 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab telling him of the great number of the Persians massing against them. 'Ali 'Umar ibn-abi-Talib advised " I replied. in the year 15. 409 . but he was ad- vised by al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib and other sheikhs from among the Companions of the Prophet to stay at home and send out the forces and troops. Thence he came. Sa'd married his wife. The name of abuWakkas was Malik ibn-Uhaib ibn-'Abd-Manaf ibn-Zuh- rah ibn-Kilab. which he did. Al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah happened to be ill at that time. Sa'd proceeded to al-Trak and stayed at ath-Tha'labiyah for three months. it occurred to him to send Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas.

see Vullers' Persian Dictionary. 2175.000. sheep Al-Mughirah reinforces Sa'd. yah.000. 1 or Diraf shikabiyan. al-Muthanna died be- Rustam. and were accompanied by thirty elel phants. In .000 and 10. taken together. and had a great banner called Diraf sh Kabiyan . in the meantime. Al-Basrah was built sometime between the battle of an-Nukhailah and al-Kadisiyah by 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan. relations with umm-Jamil. The Moslems.4io THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE According to al-Wakidi. Of having immoral by al-Baladhuri. they sent horsemen into the interior of the land who would make raids along the lower course of the Euphrates. fore Rustam came to al-Kadisiyah. When the Moslems were in need of fodder or food. discussed later See abu-1-Fida. the charge 2 that was brought against al-Mughirah was brought against him. This Rustam. who was confirmed in his position by a letter from 'Umar. 256 From al-Madinah. When 'Utbah asked leave for a pilgrimage. Tabari. numbered between 9. 'Umar wrote to abu-Musa. Later. vol. who camped at Tizanabadh. who was from ar-Rai or from Hamadhan as others say came and occupied Burs from which he left for a place between — — al-Hirah and as-Sailahin. and 'Umar appointed abu-Musa governor of al-Basrah and recalled alMughirah to al-Madinah. ordering him to reinforce back to al-Basrah together with those against him. 'Umar used to send them and camels for slaughter. 163. * i. p. he assigned as successor al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. where he stayed for four months without trying measures or fighting with the Moslems. Rustam sent ahead of him dhu-l-Hajib. . p. Persian : dirafsh-i-Kawiyan = is the royal standard of the Sassanians vol. Before long. while the Moslems. 'Umar sent al-Mughirah who gave witness on the day of the battle of al-KadisiNow. lay camped between al-'Udhaib and al-Kadisiyah. which i. The " " polytheists num- bered about 120.

Sa'd wrote to 'Umar. who battle was 16. Having taken part in the battle. and according to others. Kais reinforces Sa'd. but was not allowed to do so by the Persian cavalry Rustam said many things." booty. did not arrive until the radi. after calling al-Mughirah back to al-Madinah because of the charge brought against him. " If Kais share. among guard [asdwirah]. A1-' Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi from ash-Sha'bi 'Umar wrote to abu-'Ubaidah. In the meantime. 'Umar wrote to abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah. Kais's men asked for a share in the who wrote back. upon which abu-Musa sent al-Mughirah with 800 (others say 400) men. which was the following. " I have learned that ye were forced to what ye are doing by nothing but the narrow 257 . over. Rustam asked Sa'd to send some companions of his to consult with him. al- Mughirah returned to al-Madinah. never sent him out of al-Madinah except when he assigned him governor of al-Kufah. took part in the battle of alKadisiyah. at the head of 700 of them. arrived before the burial of those that were killed. then thou shouldst give him his Al-Mughirah's interview with Rustam. and he sent to the reinforcement of Sa'd Kais ibn-Hubairah ibn-al-Makshuh al-Muaccording to some. took place at the end of the that it was 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan who year say sent al-Mughirah to the reinforcement of Sa'd. " Send to al-Kadisiyah Kais : — ibn-Makshuh at the head of the men he invites to join him.THE BATTLE OF AL-KADISIYAH 4II Sa'd." Kais summoned a body of men and arrived. in order to sit by him. to find the victory already won by Sa'd. Al-Mughirah betook himself towards Rustam's throne. Kais commanded 700 men. Sa'd delegated al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. that al- The battle of al-Kadisiyah Some Mughirah was assigned governor of al-Basrah only after he returned from al-Kadisiyah and that 'Umar.

long conversation followed in which A they said. Koran." answered al-Mughirah. vol. things and obeying whom has sent us his Prophet by following we were made prosperous. said. 'Amr and al-Ash'ath interview Rustam. 3 p. and he has ordered us to fight Until they pay tribute those who differ from our faith 2 of hand and in a humbled state out We. 1 Dinawari. 2 p. ' '. your land. the sword will decide between us. Tabari. which if thou shouldst do. carrying in it some of the soil. ibn-Kais al-Kindi at the head of a delegation. i. the day will not anger. and on being brought before him. We are ready to give and to see you leave with certain " x Allah that ye choose. Why didst thou do that ? "." " To your are ye going?" to which they replied. call thee to the worship of Allah alone and the belief in his Prophet. They passed by Rustam." basket land !" Our Prophet has promised us the conquest of upon which Rustam called for a palm-leaf " full of soil and said. vol. 2271. spread his cloak and departed. he asked them. means of you what will satisfy you. p. . to Sa'd instructing 3 'Umar wrote him to send to the magnate of the Per- sians a delegation to invite Accordingly. 127. and de- parted riding a lean horse with a sword broken at its edge and wrapped up in rags. 'Amr re" Because I considered it a good omen. When " he was asked later. 2270. 9:29. indicating that plied. . " "To whom chief. i. Tabari. therefore. snorting with " By the sun and by the moon. well and good otherwise. " No strength break to-morrow before we kill you all.4I2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE livelihood and by poverty. This is for you from our 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib immediately arose. Sa'd sent 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi and al-Ash'ath him to Islam." Al-Mughirah answered." Rustam." and no force but in Allah.

daughter of Hafsah of the tribe of the banu-Taimallah ibn-Tha'labah. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi rushed forward and. . "Is it jealousy or cowardice. 23. special reason. 258 and the Moslems to those on battle raged between the two. appointed Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas had. would have put you to death !" He also wrote and rebuked Rustam for sending them to him. saying. for a Khalid ibn-'Urfutah-l-'Udhri. ! ' ! " saying. lifted him to the saddle in front of him. seiztheir expedition ." will take possession themselves before the king Finally. saying [to his men] "I am abu-Thaur Do ye I do of one of the elephants. The king became angry and or" Had ye not been envoys. they presented one day be ours. which was the occasion for the final conflict. 'allafah. A Moslem tion 1 forage expedition. to aid the cavalry !" Hearing that. Muthanna peated. His wife. 1 Ar. headed by Zuhrah ibn-Hawiyah ibn- 'Abdallah ibn-Katadah at-Tamimi say it — later as-Sa'di 2 . often re" But there is no more Muthanna O. the vulnerable point in the elephant his trunk. and for- merly the wife of al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah. as He then stabbed the nose . — (others was headed by Katadah ibn-Hawiyah ) came across some Persian cavalry. a forage expediof the Moslems. The Persians rallied to the succor of their cavalry. 2 p. and we and invited him to Islam. to be commander of the army and ally director of the affairs of the Moslems. upon which she Sa'd?" said. ing a Persian chief by the neck. Salma. and a fierce The time was an afternoon. Sa'd slapped her on the ! face. Later. Sa'd lived in Kasr [tower] al-'Udhaib. an of the banu-Zuhrah. Apply your swords is to their trunks . Hajar. vol." Sa'd slaps his wife. I dered them to leave. ii.THE BATTLE OF AL-KADIS1YAH their land will 4^3 of it.

iv. 219. 2 p. Tabari. 213-219. In the army of Sa'd. according to al-Wakidi. i. the noble. ' uncircumcised iv. Sa'd said to abu- after seeing what I never punish thee for wine " As for me. pp. 471. 407. " To be killed is the fate of turned to the people and said. Dinawari. if 3 released. p. 22. p." Abu-Mihjan then returned to his fetters. a concubine of Sa'd. cut the under-helmet of al-Jalinus. 133. vol. p. Hamdani. Athir. but the charge is that of ing him. promising to return to his fetters. vol. 7: "Nasi"'. p. vol. al-Farid. vol. Mas'udi. By Allah. again. " The mare is mine. ' have more paal-'Ikd Yiisuf. abu-Mihjan again drank wine on account of which Sa'd flogged and imprisoned him in al-'Udhaib tower. abu-Mihjan. 1. 129. On that day. but the former report is more authentic. " by Allah. he rushed on the Persians. p. When the question of " Mihjan." shall swered abu-Mihjan. i. Rustam was I settled. not being one of those who had started with Sa'd. 41. 8 2480. but did not in- On the same occasion. to release him that he might take part in the fight. ii. Others say that it was Salma. I shall never drink it The slayer of Rustam. 369- . iii. 4 Mas'udi. vol. vol. daughter of Hafsah. Here he asked Zabra'. do so She made him swear by Allah that he would Riding on Sa'd's mare. p. Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid al-Asadi distinguished himself in fighting. pp. said." ansaw of thee. Yakut. 1 Let not those 17-18. pierced through their line and thrust his sword Sa'd who was watchinto the nose of the white elephant. 1. he. and with a blow.4 I4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE in prison. 2 1 Abu-Mihjan ath-Thakan was alienated to Badi' by 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in punishment He somehow managed tofor his being addicted to wine. Abu-Mihjan run away and followed Sa'd. who gave him the mare. p. Kais ibn-Makshuh jure his head.

Salman ibn-Rabi'ah's part. vi. pp. 165. Rus. planting " their banner firmly in the ground. 2 The night of the battle of Sif- was say that Kais ibn-Makshuh took no part in the fight at al-Kadisiyah. ' rushed at him. By Allah's help. Caetani. and 1 others by Hilal ibn-'Ullafah at-Taimi. Friday and the night of Saturday. by 'Auwam ibn-'Abd-Shams . According to al-Wakidi. Syria in the company of abu-Umamah as-Sudai ibn-' A j Ian and took part in the battles fought by the Moslems then went forth to al-'Irak together with those who. 675 . under great urgency. and took part in the decisive conflict. 1 Ya'kubi. ii. a group of Persians. . Some say that Rustam was killed by Zuhair ibnAbd-Shams al-Bajali others. . vol. vol. settled at He al-Kufah and was killed in Balanjar. tarn was slain and his body was found covered with so many blows and stabs that the one not be determined. carrying their ban- ner away. 2327. vol. iii. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib.THE BATTLE OF AL-KADISIYAH tience or be 4I e more anxious to die than yourselves. 2 The night of yells of pain. vol." Saying he rushed and fought fiercely.259 this. having arrived there after the Moslems Some had been through with the fighting. Skizzen. This battle of al-Kadisiyah was fought on Thursday. i. who gave the fatal blow could Khuwailid al-Asadi." upon which Salman ibn-Rabi'ah1-Bahili made an attack and killed them. Tulaihah ibnKurt ibn-Jammah al-'Abdi and Dirar all ibn-al-Azwar al-Asadi had cording to al-Wakidi. 643. Ahmad ibn-Salman al-Bahili from certain sheikhs: Salman ibn-Rabi'ah invaded — al-Bahili. said. He reinforcement. . ac- was killed in the battle of al-Yamamah. hastened to al-Kadisiyah as a there. p. 75 Tabari. which last was since still called f in " Lailat al-Harir ". This Dirar. also thus called. p. We shall not leave our position until we die. p.

Ibn-alKalbi says that it was Zuhrah ibn-Hawiyah as-Sa'di who killed him. Abu-Raja' al-Farisi from his grandfather: The latter said: "I took part in the battle of al-Kadisiyah when I was still a Magian. the first to kill a Per- sian in the battle of al-Kadisiyah was Rabi'ah ibn-'Uthman ibn-Rabi'ah of the banu-Nasr ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn- Bakr ibn-Hawazin ibn-Mansur. until we were overwhelmed. When the — arrows against us. vol. which we meant. Here Khalid was the guest of one. . continued to shower upon us. In this battle. Khalid then passed through as-Sarah [canal] and caught up with Kathir ibn-Shihab al-Harithi charged Jalinus and Jalinus. but it would not do more than attach itself garment of an Arab whereas their arrow would tear the coat of mail and the double cuirass that we had on. The [their king].4I 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Khalid ibn-'Urf Utah's part. who treated him with kindness and loyalty. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. Sa'd ibn-'Ubaid al-Ansari fell a martyr. 262 His death afflicted 'Umar so much that he said. A canal that ran there was called Nahr Bistam. p. we began to shout. i. Tabari. These spindles. almost marred the joy of the victory for me. by however. Persians fled to al-Mada'in. The former report is more authentic." >Yusuf. " His death 16: "dus!" Cf. Sa'd sent Khalid ibn-'Urfutah at the head of the cavalry charged with pursuing the enemy. Our archer would send the arrow from his Na- Arabs sent duk duk ' ! their 260 l !' to the wakiyah bow. following Yazdajird Sa'd immediately communicated with 'Umar. and according to others. announcing the victory and giving the names of those who had fallen. Khalid and his men killed every one they overtook until they arrived in Burs. p. 2236. The Persian arrows. killed him. Bistam." . spindles. stabbed him.

la Perse. Perser. 17. p. pp. where they spent nine months (others say 18). who appeared at the head of a large body of men from 3 al-Mada'in. thereby putting 2 him to death. Zuhair ibn-Sulaim al-Azdi seized an-Nakhirkhan by the neck. Sa'd and the Moslems went and occupied 4 They then assembled in the city of Bahurasir. them until they could Moslems entered the When the city riyar. n. which lay in the Shikk al-Kufah [western bank of the 5 Tigris]. and they both fell to the ground. p. The inhabitants of that city fought against offer no more resistance. resolved to flee was thus reduced. p. 4 Meynard. at which the city. the Moslems started off.* they were met by an-Nakhirkhan. Noldeke. 152-153. in Noldeke. and after passing Dair [monastery] Ka'b [?]. 1. Geschichte der Perser. 5 133. In the conflict that ensued. during which they ate fresh dates for two seasons. 2 3 Tabari. Yazdajird ibn-Shahand was suspended in a basket from the wall of al-Abyad fort in al-Mada'in and was therefore called by the Nabateans Barzabil [the 263 1 Yusuf. 4U . 8: "Dair al-Masalih " (?).CHAPTER The Conquest VI of al-Mada'in An-Nakhirkhan slain by Zuhair. Balmrasir. Dinawari. the Persian king. Seleucia-Ctesiphon. 4. Dictionnaire de 16. Zuhair took a dagger that was in the other man's belt and cut open his abdomen. 518. p. After the battle of alKadisiyah. Sabat.

vol. p. are fighting are nothing less than demons [jinn] !" and they took to 1 flight. Wa'il The Arabs The : — cross the Tigris. Yakut. 724. p. Seeing that. Caetani. Sa'd chose one of the Moslems who swam across on horseback. Likewise. vol. vol. and carried with him the treasury of the kingdom. iii. vol. the other Moslems crossed on horseback and. wives and children. plague and famine ravaged all Persia. 723. They reunited at and we pursued them until we reached the at which the Moslems said. private treasury. and took possession of the crossed [the Tigris] through a city on the eastern bank 'Affan ibn-Muslim from abu- of the river. 318. * Ar. 133. Dinawari. 3 we the Persians were put to pursued them. small body of water? Let us wade through. and once more put the enemy to Kutha flight. 3 Yakut. Sa'd and the Moslems finding no way to cross over were greatly afflicted. khiff . whose water was flowing higher than ever. 312. his precious but light 2 pieces of furniture.' 4 Accordingly. those we gage. the fugitive Persians came to al-Mada in. on landing. p. iv. iii. The Moslems then ford. In the year in which he fled. " latter said. Yazdajird thence Hulwan with a the principal dignitaries of his kingdom. found that the Persians had removed the ships and ferry-boats to the eastern bank and burned the bridge. p. ii. made the owners of the ships transport the bag" By Allah. we waded through. When flight at al-Kadisiyah. . 4 Text not clear. the Persians said. At last. takes in it to be khaffa le and stretches ". The Moslems having arrived at the Tigris. the meaning into " ma abbandonando gran parte sue masserizie Cf. Caetani. 'Why do you gaze at this Tigris. p.4 i8 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE left for son of the basket]." Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Aban ibn-Salih : —When they were defeated at al-Kadisiyah.

On that day. 3 . agreeing to have those of them who wanted to leave. 1 Sometimes 1. too. ii. Kisra's Sha'bi concubines. 1 4. and only one of them from the tribe of Taiyi'. but was shown a ferry near river] found as-Saiyadin village. 724. escaped. no ferry-boats. vol. lavishly adorned for him.THE CONQUEST OF AL-MADATN Sabat 419 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from ar-Rumiyah. p. 17. put it in their cooking-pans. Dinawari. 867. i. ashthe :— The In the battle of al-Mada Moslems carried away many of Kisra's maids [concubines] who had been brought from all quarters of the world and My mother was one of them. the Moslems found camphor and. 1 Yakut. Salil ibn-Yazid ibn-Malik asibn-Salih 'Abdallah " from in. Sa'd [in crossing the taining any treachery against them. vol. Sa'd was all done with the conquest of al-Mada'in and Jalula' in the year 16. p. 264 whose full name was Sinbisi. and abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-alSa'd ibn-abi-WakMuthanna from abu-'Amr ibn-al-'Ala and : — kas sent at the head of the van of his army Khalid ibn-'Ur1 futah. do so. p. its 2 Khalid proceeded and camped at ar-Rumiyah until people made terms. p. taking it for salt. 3 . who succeeded in reducing Sabat before Sa'd's arrival. p. Yakut. and those who wanted to stay. on condition that they offer homage and give counsel. stay. 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam. vol. The horses waded through while the Persians shot them with their arrows. Yiisuf. Caetani. was killed. however. pay kharaj and act as guides for the Moslems. without enter. Perhaps a suburb of Mada'in." 3 According to al-Wakidi. latter said. All the Moslems. 134. iii. called Sabat Kisra.

p. The Moslems.000 men to meet them. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib commanding the cavalry and Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid commanding the inThe Persians were on this occasion led by Khurfantry. Media]. kept pursuing them at their very heels with fearuntil darkness intervened and they had to re- 1 Yakut. The Moslems found that the Persians.. thinking it best to hasten the attack before the reinforcements became too strong. the Moslems received word that Yazdajird A had massed a great directed it host. having left their families and heavy baggage at Khanikin.CHAPTER The Battle VII of Jalula' description of the battle. had dug trenches and fortified themselves. After spending several days in al-Mada'in. Reinforcements were coming to them all the time from Hulwan and al-Jibal [the mountains. fiercest The fight that ensued was the until they they ever had. ii. a brother of Rustam. vol. flight. razad. met them with Hujr ibn-'Adi-l-Kindi commanding the right wing. until broken to pieces. and had Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas thereupon against them. in which arrows and lances were used Finally the Moslems altogether made one onand drove the Persians from their position. 393- 420 . Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abi-Wakkas at the head dispatched of 12. and swords were applied bent. e. were slaught putting them to The Persians fled away and the Moslems ful slaughter turn to their camp. bind1 ing themselves with a pledge never to flee. which was then at Jalula'. i.

1 Busbuhra —the dihkdn of Yakut. daughter of abu-Wakkas. Noldeke. According to Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi. 1. Yakut. vol. vol. Hashim promised them security. Hashim put the dihkdn of ad-Daskarah Al-Bandanijain. Khdnikin. The Moslems carried on many gions of as-Sawad on the east bank of the ing to Mahrudh. Yazdajird thereupon left Hul- 265 Mahrudh. 2 Ibid. left Sawad Dijlah Thus was no region unconquered by the Moslems or unpossessed by them. agreeing to pay tax and khardj. The converts. 3 to death. After the battle of Jalula'. Those who embraced Islam were among others. p.THE BATTLE OF JALQLA' 421 Hashim ibn-'Utbah left Jarir ibn-'Abdallah in Jalula' with a heavy force of cavalry to act as a check between the Moslems and wan. their enemy. 1 raids in the reTigris. p. 700. Hashim then proceeded to al-Bandani- whose inhabitants sued for peace. 575. n.. 745. Consequently. the Persians against whom Jarir ibn-'Abdallah now marched and of the whom he put to death. Perser. ii. At Khanikin there was a small remnant of jain. . The battle of Jalula' took place at the close of the year 16. 3 Persian : Bandanikan i. the leader of the army in the battle of Jalula' in behalf of Sa'd was 'Amr ibn- ibn-'Utbah ibn-Naufal ibn-Uhaib ibn-'Abd-Manaf Zuhrah whose mother was 'Atikah. iv. On a charge of treachery. p. and then kept on his way to the region of al-Hirah. . vol. 295. [ Hashim made terms with stipulating that the latter should pay a jarib of dirhams and the former should not kill any of the men. p. its Comdihkdn. Sa'd left for al-Mada'in where he gathered a host of men. ?] Ad-Daskarah. against the 2 Moslems. al-Falalij and an-Nahrain.

vol. vol. and Khutarniand Fairuz the — and Kutha. Hdshim's campaign. leave hands of those men who work them. 453- 1 iii." 1 Yakut. p.. p. s * Ibid. ii. nothing them in the will be left for those who come after them. after camels letter. «Kor„ 59:6. ' Ibid. Ibid. 846. 'Umar ibn-aldihkdn of Nahr al-Malik Khattab did not interfere with them but left their lands in their own hands and father : annulled the poll-tax they paid. find ' ' taking away one-fifth. p. Yakut. vol. vol. iv.. ii. together 5 trated towards Sinn Barimma and Bawazij al-Mulk as far as the border of Shahrazur. visited Hashim passed through ar-Radhanat i and all that region Hashim penewith all the district of Bajarma. conquering 'U mar's message to Sa'd.4 22 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 Bistam ibn-Narsi yah. If thou dividest them among those present. nah's ibn-abi-Wakkas dispatched Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abi-Wakkas accompanied by al-Ash'ath ibn- — Sa'd Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from 'Awa- Kais al-Kindi. —the dihkdn of — the dihkdn of ar-Rufail 3 Babil 2 al-'Al. so that be included in the stipends [pensions] of the Mosthey may lems. . At the receipt of my out what possessions and horses the troops on horses and 6 have acquired and divide that among them. 169.. As for the land and camels. Dakuka and Khanijar. he received the following letter from 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab : have received thy letter in which thou statest that thy men have asked thee to divide among them whatever spoils I " 266 Allah has assigned them. vol. p. 729. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from When Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas comYazid ibn-abi-Habib : — pleted the conquest of as-Sawad. iii. p. 59-2.

and kharaj on their land. 24. c." Accordingly. . as-Sawad and he answered. " AlThe following statement was made by Sulaiman Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik wanted to consider the inhabitants of as-Sawad as having been acquired without fighting [Ar. 'Umar took the " Leave advice of the Prophet's Companions. Allah prevented him from doing so.' This is because it was taken by force and was not divided. iv. posterity] .THE BATTLE OF JALVLA' 423 How the land considered. but when I told him of the position 'Umar took refai'] garding them.. " If ye were not to strike one another on the face [have civil war] I would divide as-Sawad among you." 'Umar Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Sulaiman ibn-Yasar left as-Sawad for those who were still in ibn-al-Khattab ' : — men's loins and mothers' ing the inhabitants wombs [i. It belongs to all the Moslems. — : • • • [dirhams]." The people of Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Amir as-Sawad have no covenant. 'Umar sent 'Uthman ibnHunaif al-Ansari who assessed on each man 48. desiring to divide as-Sawad among the Moslems. x them that they may become a source of revenue and aid for the Moslems. maddah. Each Moslem had three peasants for his share." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Harithah ibn-Mudarrib 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. ordered that they be counted. Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from 'Ali : —The : latter said. or 12 : . see an-Nih&yah. p. They are therefore dhimmis and cannot be sold as slaves. consider- dhimmis from whom tax should be taken on their person. It can neither be bought nor sold. vol. 1 Ar. 84. and 'Ali said. " and the inhabitants of as-Sawad should be The Al-Husain from 'Abdallah ibn-Hazim : — I once asked Mujahid regarding the land of latter said. rather they came under our — control by surrender.

My I shall never deliver it !" 'Umar turned to her " and said. p. " The people The Magians. of the tribe of Bajilah. . I bear witness that the Prophet said." Jarir and the others did as 'Umar said." The Al-Husain from 'Amir of as-Sawad have no covenant. but when the Moslems consented to take kharaj from them. thy people have all con" " unI shall never consent." : — — latter said. Muhammad ibn-asThe BajiSabbah al-Bazzaz from Kais ibn-abi-Hazim lah tribe constituted one-fourth of the Moslems in the battle of al-Kadisiyah. came " father died and his share in asand said. they had none. then they came to have one. "I know not how to treat the Magians. Treat them according to the same law with which ye treat the People of the Book '. "At first. 'Amr an-Nakid from Ja'far ibn-MuhamThe Emigrants had a sitting place in the mad's father mosque in which 'Umar used to discuss with them the news he received from the different regions. called umm-Kurz. 18. 1 A woman to 'Umar Sawad holds good. dinars. so ye have to restore what ye have taken. and 'Umar had allotted them one-fourth of as-Sawad. the latter said." The Bajttatis share in as-Scm'dd. sented to do so. I " Had I not been responsible for would leave to you the share already given. One day he said. umm-Kurz. to which he replied. but I see that the Moslems have multiplied. But. and 'Umar offered Jarir a present of 80 what I divide." less thou carry me on a submissive she-camel covered with 1 Yusuf.4 24 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : The latter was asked 267 Al-Husain from ash-Sha'bi whether the people of as-Sawad had a covenant." said she." upon which 'Abd: — " ar-Rahman ibn-'Auf rose and said. Once when Jarir [ibn-'Abdallah] called on ' : — 'Umar.

'Umar Humaid ibn-ar-Rabi' from al-Hasan ibn-Salih : — gave the Bajilah. Sa'd communicated the demand to 'Umar who wrote back as follows " If Jarir wants him: considered as having with his men. Kor. If. pp. 'Umar gave Jarir ibn-'Abdallah 400 dinars. I I ' said. upon which 'Umar ofx fered a present of 80 dinars to Jarir. Memoire. fought for a pay similar to the pay of al-Mu'allafah Kulubuhum? then ye self may give them their pay. Those whose hearts are won to i.Adam. We do " Hearing that. p. a stipend of 2. the spoils of Jalula' were brought together." 1 Yahya ibn.THE BATTLE OF JALVLA' a red nappy mantle [Ar. Tabari.." has the ' Truly and honestly Commander of the Believers spoken. 51." which 'Umar did. katifah] and fill 425 both of my hands with gold. then they are part of the Moslems. p. having their rights and their obligations. 244. 29 seq. they have fought in Allah's cause and will accept his remuneration.000 dirhams.' And they did. See De . 'Umar gave to the Bajilah oneAl-Husain from Jarir quarter of as-Sawad which they held for three years." 2 According to a tradition communicated by al-Hasan see now ibn-'Uthman az-Ziyadi on the authority of Kais. 1679. Had I 268 held responsible for what shares already given but . Islam by special gifts. however. p. Jarir said. 9:60.Jarir ibn'Umar allotted to Jarir and his 'Abdallah' s grandfather : — men When one-quarter of what they had conquered in as-Sawad. Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Jarir ibn-Yazid ibn. 2 8 Dhahabi. ' not want our quarter. : — Kais said : — " Jarir ibn-'Abdallah accompanied by 'Amnot been mar ibn-Yasir called on 'Umar who I divide. vol. in exchange for the fourth of as-Sawad they held. Jarir de- manded his quarter. would leave to you the that ye ought to restore what ye have taken. Goeje.

. What you? will then be left for those Moslems who come if after ye may come to be at variance with one another on account of its water. 6. assessing a tax on their person and a fixed 1 tax on their lands which he did not divide.30. 241. 272. pp. therefore. 172-173. saying. on every jarib of ratbah kafizes." ~ According to Yahya ibn-Adam. ii. Das Arabische Reich. J. 1 . provided it was accessible to water. which he found to be 36. Al-Kasim adds." —When 'Umar conquered as-Sawad. vol. I am afraid that I divide it. n. accepted Islam and ask thee to exempt my piece from the land. one dirham and one kafia. whether cultivated or uncultivated. trees ten dirhams and five dirhams and ten ka- Ar. 'Umar. 3 s p. it Divide among us because we have reduced by force " through our swords.42 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : Al-Husain from Ibrahim an-Nakha'i Someone came " I have to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. task or Wellhausen. Thy land has been taken by force. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from ash'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif : — 269 al-Ansari to a survey [yamsah] of as-Sawad. 304. pp. Caetani. on every jarib of which he " I assessed one dirJiam and one kafi." to — which 'Umar " replied. Introduced through al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf who died in the year 90 A. p. A Sha'bi survey of as-Sawad.k I lardj.000. 9. Mawardi. Noldeke.000 jaribs." But 'Umar refused. left the people of as-Sawad in possession of their lands. 'Amr an-Nakid from Muhammad ibn'Abdallah ath-Thakafi 'Umar assessed on every jarib in : — as-Sawad. n." Moreover. saying. 1 [trefoil or clover] five and on every jarib of tisk. the troops " Khalaf ibn-Hisham al-Bazzar from Ibrahim at-Taimi it : said to him. Perser.z. H. make heard that the kafiz was a measure of theirs also called ashsMburkdn. it is equivalent to al-makhtum al-Hajjdji* The tax assessed.

and 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif below the Tigris. " iii." and mentioned Indian peas. 6 dirhams. who endorsed the assessments. 98. 10 dirhams. ratbah or rutbah . pp. he as- sessed 48. 4 dirhams. onetheir militia. upon each of which he assessed 8 dirhams and : — excluded palm-trees. and 1 Ar. of wheat.270 kafi When al-Mughirab ibn-Shu'bah was governor of as" Sawad. . on one jarib of barley. sawdkit. p. pp. s and 4 Cf. 24. may also be applied to cucumber. 2 dirhams. grapes. Adam. p. To these three. a!a as-salah . 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif measured the land and assessed on each jarib of palm trees. he assigned each day one goat. Khalaf al-Bazzar from al-'Aizar ibn-Huraith 4 : — 'Umar " l'autorita ibn-al-Khattab assessed on one janb of wheat two dirhams and two jaribs. 10 dirhams: of vine trees. Al-Kasim ibn-Saliam from abu-Mijlaz Lahik ibn-Humaid 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab assigned 'Ammar ibn-Yasir to act as religious head for the people of al-Kufah and to : — ' command • 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud to be their and 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif to measure the kadi and treasurer. he wrote. Yusuf. p. together with the appendages 'Ammar and the other half to be divided between the by 2 other two. melon the like. and of barley. 7 and they assessed on every jarib one kaftz and one dirham. see Caetani. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Amr ibn-Maimun 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman be: — yond the Tigris. 20-22. clover and sesame. We find here other products than wheat 3 and barley. one dirham. 756. Caetani. translates : civile.THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' fines 427 (palm trees not mentioned). Ar. v. vol. On every man. { Al-Husain from Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ath-Tha. 370 and 371 Yusuf. he wrote to 'Umar. or 12 dirhams as poll-tax." 1 Ar. To this end. vol. • • to be taken half of which. 20: batn " = belly. land. of sugar-cane.

ar-Rumakan. one dirham. on one jarib — of clover. Nahr Jaubar. and 10 dirhams on one jarib of vine-trees. two-thirds of a dirham and if not so if thickly sown. one 1 sd''. pp. 5. " 'Ali-ibn-abi-Talib sent 3 me to the land irrigated by the Euphrates. pp. but 000. of cotton. Caetani. Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Mus'ab ibn-Yazid abu-Zaid al- — Ansari's father : —The latter said. Al-Walid ibn-Salih al-Miswar ibn-Rifa'ah: — 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz said that the khardj of as-Sawad in the time of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab was 100. Yakut. but he assessed no tax on what was grown among from the vines. it amounted to 40. one Ya'kubi. v. in the time of al-Hajjaj. and the kharaj during his governorship amounted to 100.000 of the "uncircumcised". . Bahurasir. 'Amr an-Nakid from abu-Mijlaz jarib of palm-trees 8 dirhams.42 8 . mentioning dif- naming Nahr al-Malik Kutha.- Al-Walid from Aiyub ibn-abi-Umamah ibn-Sahl ibnHunaif 's father. 12-16. 3 vol. He ordered me to assess on every ferent cantons and villages. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from —'Umar assessed on a ash-Sha'bi — 'Umar : : ibn- al-Khattab sent 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif * who assessed on the people of as-Sawad 5 dirhams on one jarib of clover. 371-3/2. if dirham and a half and thinly sown. ii. 10. on one Farisi palm-tree.000. p. iv. 173-175- 3 Yusuf. 'Uthman ibn-Hunaif put seals around 271 2 the necks of 550.000 dir- hams. and jarib of wheat. 73. Khalaf al-Bazzar from al-'Aizar ibn-Huraith: 'Umar assessed on one jarib of vine-trees 10 dirhams. Nahr Durkit and al-Bihkubadhat. vol.000. 846.000. one dirham on two trees.000. p. vol. 1. one dirham and if of inferior quality. THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE one jarib and on every two jaribs in the uncultivated land that can be sown.

2 . with nothing on palm-trees that are outside the villages and the fruits of which are eaten by the passers-by. rates of assessed land-tax [task] They. 45* p. and is from one-tenth to one-half of the produce of the lands. on one jarib of vine-trees.' " iMawardi. 1. grains. 429 thickly or thinly sown one dirham and on barley. What are ? And he ' ' those different ' the drinking places in the river [fiirad]. 24 dirhams per annum each. and if it bears fruit.THE BATTLE OF JALVLA' . De Goeje's Baladhuri ibn-Tiktaka. On vegetables. Cf. Berchem. 86-87. ten dirhams.' Yahya ibnAdam says. 5. p. Ar. dirhams each and on those of them who are merchants of medium means. but he died before the system was introduced Later. if its trees had been planted for three full years and a part of the fourth. pp. 260. is the system of land tenure by which the kharaj is levied on the produce and not the area. 16. He also ordered me to assess on the gardens that include palm-trees and other kinds. ibn-ar-Rabi' " I from al-Hasan ibn-Salih • • • : —The asked al-Hasan. Mawardi. as contrasted with misahah. 12 dirhams each. but on the farmers and the rest of them. P. 10 dirhams per jarib. . me not to assess anything. have been assessed according to the x nearness and distance of the land from the markets and replied. 306. he ordered including cucumbers. 1. 1." Humaid • latter said. the system was in all places with the exception of 'Akabat Hulwan. " Glossarium ". 215. by al-Mahdi's orders. La Proprietc Territoriale. sesame and cotton. 260. 12. 2 p. one after the other. one-half of that. On those landlords [dihkdns] who ride mules and wear rings of gold around their feet. The Moslems of as-Sawad asked al-Mansur ' 272 towards the end of his caliphate to introduce the system by which they turn over to the authorities as tax a part of the produce of the land introduced. p. mukasamah. he ordered me to assess 48 .

Mukaddasi. 1. Z2. v. 1 Caetani. 13. vol.430 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE The survey of Hudhaifah. (3) one belonging to king Kisra. 374. 2>7?>. (4) (5) the land of those who were killed during the war. 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-'Ijli from certain authorities: Hudhaifah who measured the — surface of the land irrigated by the Tigris. v. necessary that there should be levied on the jarib of the fiefs subject to the area [misdhah] system of khardj is what is levied on the jarib of the isSuch was the case. p. they collected khardj. because he camped near them but others . of land in as-Sawad of which I remember seven. all of Dair Yazid 2 . say because he renewed them. gives it "dayr mubad nel testo : barid)". Cf. after they had that based on the area [misdhah]. and after they attached its seals to the necks of the dhimmis. the pieces — remaining three having slipped me." : — the first places they conquered . (2) one covered with marshes. Yiisuf. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-abi-Hurrah's father: The latter " 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab confiscated for himself ten said. p. hand and thumb. The lands he confiscated were (i) a piece covered with woods. which was one of also one-fifth of tdns 1 [ ?]. His cubit [Ar. Lands confiscated by 'Umar. p. is the length of a man's arm. stretched out. vol. dJiira]. When the inhabitants of as-Sawad had the system of kJiardj proportioned to the produce of the land. The Kanatir Hudhaifah [arches of Hudhaifah] are named after him. 20. . died at al-Mada'in. Abu-'Ubaid from Maimun ibn-Mihran 'Umar sent Hudhaifah and ibn-Hunaif to Khanikin. p. ( ? 1 Caetani. on the istdns [administrative Therefore. like that of ibn-Hunaif.3. one of the officials said tenth which levied it " : The tithe levied [ on the fiefs was a was not equivalent ?] to one-fifth of the half districts]. (6) the land of those who fled the country.

4. Nakid from Musa ibn-Talhah: — 'Uthman assigned Al-Husain and 'Amr anas fief . Sa'd ibn-Malik az-Zuhri." s vol. "I noticed that ibn- Athir. and to Sa'd [ibn-abi-Wakkas] the village of Hurmuz. 2 Yusuf. 407. iv. 4 1 Ibn-Sa'd. pp. " Adam. the value of what propriated by swampy place.THE BATTLE OF JALVLA' ^l 273 This state of affairs lasted until the register was burned in the days of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. 5 Musa ibn-Talhah p. vol. Hi . Sa'. pp. to 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud a piece of land in an-Nahrain to 'Ammar ibn-Yasir. 45-46. . Yakut. p. ii. who the land belonging to Kisra's every Dair Yazid and all the land that was apKisra for himself. adds. 25. Ya'kubi. ii. the people burnt the register and every one of them seized what bordered on his land. az-Zubair ibn-al-'Auwam. 4 Khabbab ibn-al-Aratt and Usa- mah 1 ibn-Zaid. 3 Usamah ibn-Zaid. 202. 'Umar took amounted Fiefs assigned by 'Uthmdn. . vol. In the battle of [Dair] al-Jamajim. 783.000.000 dirhams. p. land of king family. all to 7. Asbina 2 to Khabbab ibn-al-Aratt. 1. Thus. 1. ibn-'Affan assigned as 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-Tjli from ash-Sha'bi 'Uthman fief to Talhah ibn-'Ubaidallah an: — Nashastaj and to he later sold. naba. 9: Istiniya. vol. all : — 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab confiscated killed fled the country. all the al-Ju'fi from 'Abd-al-Malik ibnin as-Sawad the land of those who were during the war." Abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman abi-Hurrah's father the land of those Kisra. p. 75-77. a piece of land which Shaiban ibn-Farrukh from Musa ibn-Talhah: —'Uth- man ibn-'Affan gave fiefs to five of the Companions of the Prophet: 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud. 5 Cf. upon which the people 1 seized the [domanial] land bordering on their property.

Tizanabadh. to Wail ibn-Hujr al-Had. a precipice of a well from the Nahr Wakkas Sa'd." The first ibn-Salih from Musa ibn-Talhah Al-Walid : — one to give out al-Trak in fiefs was 'Uthman ibn-'Affan who gave out pieces of land appropriated by Kisra. a piece of land near Hammam [bath] A'yan. Asbina. 225. Mas'ud and who were my neighbors. In this forest. is a landslide. The ibn-Salih : — piece of parchment. assessed on the owners of Ajamat [forest] Burs 4.432 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Sa'd. they dug until they reached a mountain which they could not cut through. the land bordering on Zurarah's. 2 Cf. is soil of which the bricks of the palace were made. and to Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from al-Hasan " I was informed that 'AH latter said. his land on the bank of the Euphrates. p. . I was told by Ahmad 1 Burs lies in the vicinity of the ibn-Hammad al-Kufi that Ajamat Namrudh [Nimrod] palace is in Babil [Babylon].000 dirhams. and which. upon the canal 1 Adam. p. which. to Khalid ibn-'Urfutah. ar-Rauha'. Sa'd wrote to Sa'd ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram. to 'Adi ibn-Hatim at-Ta'i.274 rami. Mas'udi. according to others. vol. according to some. Talhah as fief an-Nashastaj . he wrote them a statement on a Ajamat Burs. and Thus. I learnt from abu-Mas'ud and others that the landlords [dilikdns] of al-Anbar asked Sa'd ibn-abi- to dig for them a canal which they had previously 2 asked the Persian magnate [king] to dig for them. and to that end. he assigned to others evacuated by their owners. used to cultivate their lands for one-third and one-fourth [of the produce]. ordering him to dig for them. Accordingly. there great depth. i. to Khabbab ibn-alAratt. to al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi. 18.

248. p. however. But when al-Hajjaj became governor of al-Trak. Nahr Shaila. and she gave it the name of ar. limited]. The mountain excavated was named after al-Hajjaj but the canal. the work had divided into sections. vol. [umm-al-khulafa] ordered that the canal known by the name of Mahdud be dug. " Take note of what one of the diggers eats per day. 48: al-Marban/* . he gathered workmen from all regions. iii. after Sa'd .THE BATTLE OF JALOLA' 403 which they gave it up. Hi. 864. and put it in of a group of men to dig hence the name Mahdud charge [t. they spent money on it until therefore it was completed. the canal being old but buried. vol. Cf. work. p. it Her superintendent over . al-Mansur ordered that it be excavated. Caetani. vol. al-Mansur died and the work was completed in the caliphate of al-Mahdi.. e. 2 Al-Khaizuran. 275 who made work was brought to an end. p. put limits for every section." Thus. it is As for the canal known by the name of claimed by the banu-Shaila ibn-Farrukhzadan Shaila. ibn-'Amr ibn-Haram. 2 3 Cf. the canal was so called after a contract for digging the canal in the days of the caliph al-Mansur. al-Mansur ordered that a mouth [only] be dug for the canal above its old mouth but he did not complete the . then continue the work. If it is the weight of what he digs 1 out. Marasid. Shaila. Ac- cording to others. According to others. Before the one. " iii. al-Marwazi that Sabur [Persian king] had dug it out for their grandfather when he sent him to guard the frontier of the dominion at Nighya in the canton of al-Anbar. Marasid. 1 Al-Mahdi completed it. the mother of the caliphs. Nahr Mahdud 3 Raiyan. and said to his superintendents.

flies were so numerous. 2 The Arabic and Persian names Perhaps a quarter 434 in of Ctesiphon . 2 Asbanbur and Kurdbandadh 3 and settled his troops in them. p. All this took place in the year 17. and so he removed them to Suk Hakamah. reduced al-Mada'in. he went to al-Mada'in. 237. The troops occupied these places. 84P. provided that between him ['Umar] and the Moslems. Acto 1 Dinawari. Yakut. others say to Ku waif ah on this side of al-Kufah. Sa'd was ordered [by 'Umar] 2 remove them. on the authority of When Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas was sheikhs from al-Kufah Suk Hakamah. ibn-Ja'far VIII of al-Kufah Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 'Abd-aland others: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas ordering him to adopt for the Moslems a place to which they could emigrate. . . vol. 131. Subsequently. which proved to be unsatisfactory. p.CHAPTER The Founding Al-Kufah chosen. Accordingly. and therefore he moved to alKufah which he divided into lots. p. no sea l should intervene. i. giving the houses as fiefs and settling the different tribes in their quarters. however. The following was communicated to me ibn-al-Mughirah-1-Athram. iii. 3 Ctesiphon Caetani. Here. 'Ali by : — through with the battle of al-Kadisiyah. made terms with the inhabitants of ar-Rumiyah and Bahurasir. He Hamid — also erected its mosque. Sa'd came to al-Anbar with the idea of occupying it. and which they could use as a meeting place [kaircKvan]. vol. that Sa'd had to move to another place.

kufah. 276 " Arabs are like camels. 2389. It is stated that when the were attacked by the mosquitoes. to the one whose arrow was drawn first. out to thee a site which is outside the waterless desert." in al-Mada'in The determining 1-Haiyaj al-Asadi was entrusted to abu'Amr ibn-Malik ibn-Junadah. p. whatever is good for the camels is good for them. allotted the . " I can point presented himself before Sa'd and said to him. therefore. on the east 1 2 side. a man shot. and 2 higher than the muddy places where mosquitoes abound.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 1 ^S " the recording to al-Athram." Saying this. i. He then drew lots with two arrows be- tween the tribe of Nizar and the tribes of al-Yaman. and the governor's residence on the spot where the mosque man who shot the arrows had stood. therefore. The people of al-Yaman had theirs first and they were. Tabari. When an arrow towards the kiblah. in answer to which 'Umar wrote back. vol. he pointed out the site of al-Kufah which was then called Suristan. the word takauwuf means union of people ". another towards the north. another to the south. The pieces pieces allotted to the Nizar fell on comes. Then 'Abd al-Masih ibn-Bukailah Al-Kufah founded of the dwelling-place . a habitable place. . mud and sand. which was the better of the two. a fourth to the east. call the land rich in Mosqu itoes Moslems in al-Madd'in. and let no sea intervene between them and me. From which noun Kufah Cf. Choose for them. prom- ising the left side. and marked the Sa'd then established the spots where the arrows fell. . Sa'd wrote to 'Umar telling him that they were badly affected by them. fencing in all the space around that spot. tined to be the site Sa'd arrived on the spot desof the mosque. by his orders. Others say that circular places when sandy are called kufah and still others pebbles.

" On every one of the pillars of the Ziyad often repeated. Wahb ibn-Bakiyah-1-Wasiti from ashThe latter said. al-Mughirah 1 ibn-Shu'bah enlarged the mosque. therefore. which they used to remove by clap:t — I am afraid that ping their hands. the Nizar were 8. Another at al-Kufah. I spent 1. .000 — easily see that we constituted the majority of the settlers 277 Our arrow went to the east side of the of al-Kufah. pp. The Yamanites. in course of time. because when people prayed their hands were covered with dust. 1 Hamadhani. from which you can 12. 'Ali ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini from Mas: lamah ibn-Muharib and others Al-Mughirah enlarged the of al-Kufah and rebuilt it. pp. vol. the clapping of hands will be taken for a When he. agents erected many buildings in which made Ziyad's the place its crowded and thickly set.4 ^6 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE the west side beyond the boundaries fixed for the mosque. iv. that of al-Basrah. The mosque. This made Ziyad say. Ziyad later enlarged mosque Pebbles were spread in this mosque and in it still more. and Ziyad [ibn-Abihi] strongly and rebuilt the governor's residence." mosque building was zumi. enpart of the religious ceremony. "We (the Yamanites) were Sha'bi: men. 410 seq.800 [dirhams]. 173-174. vol. whom established by 'Amr ibn-Huraith al-MakhZiyad used to leave in his place over al-Ku- fah whenever he absented himself in al-Basrah. pp.000." 1 " Yakut. That is why we hold the pieces we now hold. 1 Athir. leaving what was fenced in within the marks for the mosque and rebuilt it the governor's residence. 323-324ii." The lane called Kukak 'Amr al-Kufah takes name from the banu-'Amr ibn-Huraith ibn-'Amr ibn-'Uthman ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Umar ibn-Makhzum ibn-Yakazah. Later." mosque.

the Moslems found the place too dirty and productive of pestilence. By such means. or his son. 1 Freytag. ii." : Abu-'Ubaidah states that the colonization of al-Kufah took place in the year 18. Sa'd came to Kuwaifah ibn-'Umar. saying. the saying. choosing special samples. they enriched themselves. . They hit on the ridge called al-'Adhra' [the virgin's cheek] on which lavender. they established themselves. I was told by a Kufite sheikh that the region between al-Kufah and al-Hirah was known by the name of al- 278 Miltat. and asking for similar ones. is good to be in authority even over stones. 'Ubaidah by the fact that al-Hajjaj ibn-'Atik ath-Thakafi. planned it out and established a mosque. 917. the Moslems left it and came to the site on which al-Kufah now stands." however. Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas communicated the fact to : — 'Umar who wrote back that they should move westward. "It ing. This gave rise to the expression It is good to be in authority even over stones. p.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KUFAH 437 larged the mosque and added to it. The version of al-Haitham. n. had charge of cutting the pillars for the al-Bas- This sayaccording to al-Athram. Khadd daisies. Hafs ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from al-Haitham ibn-'Adi at-Ta'i After having settled in al-Mada'in. but finding the water all around it. vol. is. On this site. Hence. he ordered that pebbles be strewn in the courtyard of the mosque. broom-plants [shih and kaisum] and poppies grew. The overseers of the work used to oppress those who gathered the peb" bles. 47. Ziyad took for himself in the al-Kufah mosque a maksurah which afterwards was renewed by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah al-Kasri. Bring us only this kind which we show you". explained by abu- * rah mosque from Jabal al-Ahwaz where he discovered a " mine.

212. Charges against Sa'd. in the last * "That was what was thought of thee. him to troubles if equally. being af' ' flicted with the curse of Sa'd Bukhari. I have always followed the charge. perpetuate his poverty. p. In answer to the " As for me. he does not divide shares Sa'dah said. abu-Sa'dah?' he always replied. abutwo. . until they came to Here someone called abuthe mosque of the banu-'Abs. claimed.43 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-'Umair was used for 'Umar having ordered that some house entertaining guests. quire in al-Kufah regarding Sa'd. prayer of the Prophet and never deviated from first it. " As for Sa'd. — 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent Muhammad ibn-Maslamah-1-Ansari who and made Sa'd leader in nothing but good was spoken of him. God." said 'Umar. vol. Paik. i. telling a lie." 'Umar then sent certain men to inIshak. be put to that use for those who came from the different The house provinces. quickly. 195: Zamakhshari. nor judge cases justly. and when somebody asked him. Sa'd ex- O he is ' ! Sa'dah intercepting the way of the maids in the streets. In the two [prostrations] I repeat prayer slowly. vol. Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi : Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas made from Muhammad ibn-Ishak a wooden door for his mansion which he surrounded with a fence of reeds. take away his eyesight and expose " I later saw abu'Abd-al-Malik said. : door and fence. How are you." " Hearing this. I am old and crazed. make his age long. about whom nothing but good was told in the different mosques. i. '. Sa'd said." 1 p. the mosques of al-Kufah where set fire to the Al-'Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi and Ibrahim al-'Allaf The people of al-Kufah al-Basri from Jabir ibn-Samurah — reported Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas to 'Umar on the ground that he did not lead properly in prayers.

who perse' veres in ishes. said. v. judges cases justly and leads the bands success" It looks. " " Lane's Dictionary j." that . and to hate them is destruction. having as much sympathy with them as a kind mother. becomes known. regarding the people of " al-Kufah God. In his love of dates. war." answered 'Amr. he is Nabatean. per- is thee." to compensate each other with praise (Sa'd having before written to 'Umar in commendation of 'Amr). he is an Arab in the ." 1 A proverb applied to the case of abasement on the occasion of need. 'Amr " I left him laying up for them gave the following answer.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 439 In another tradition transmitted by al-' Abbas an-Narsi." " is to suffer." — "The lancet?" — "It — The arrows? —" Arrows are which may betray — The or messengers of death which — That the defense which has most shield?" —" The coat of mail?" —" Something keeps the horsea man busy a nuisance for the footman but — The sword?" — May be the cause strong —" Describe " it. Sa'd made the following petition. ." " " either err hit." grows " the arms. in all cases." " x it !"— Thy death !"— " The fever has abased me to thee. " It is bitter in taste when waged. " " of thy death protection. 'Amr. and : O ' let them be never satisfied with a ruler! I was informed by al-' Abbas an-Narsi that al-Mukhtar " To love the people ibn-abi-'Ubaid." Well. adra'a." "No. 'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib visited 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab and was asked by him about Sa'd and whether the people were satisfied with him. or someone else. He divides shares equitably. let no ruler be satisfied with them. I rather " " describe said what I knew. ." — Ask me about whicha brother ever thou wantest." said 'Umar." He." Al-Hasan ibn-'Uthman az-Ziyadi from ash-Sha'bi : — 279 After the victory of al-Kadisiyah. as an ant lays up. " Commander of the Believers '." said 'Umar. "as if ye both have agreed fully. but he who weak. collection of taxes. of al-Kufah is honor.

pointed by 'Umar over al-Kufah. they united in a confederacy with Zuhrah l 'Ikd. spise him. 'Umar dismissed Sa'd and appointed 'Ammar ibn-Yasir.44 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 'llmar appoints 'Ammar and then al-Mughirah. In this connection. Kazwini. vol. he asked Wouldst thou commit again what thou if I commit. p. 'Umar remarked." until 'Umar's death. Rustam led 4. be confederates with whomever they who asked wanted and receive soldiers' stipends. A complaint was made against 'Ammar to the effect that he was weak and knew nothing about politics. At last. 184." " x Calling al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah." Al- Walid was ibn-al-Asi later dismissed and Sa'id ibn-al-Asi ibn-Sa'id 280 ibn-Umaiyah was nominated to his place. He was therefore dismissed after holding the office of governor over al- Kufah for one year and nine months. Either thou hast become intelligent after me. p. they dehim. . " What am I to do with the people of alKufah? If I appoint a strong man over them.360. but later dismissed him and appointed al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait ibn-abi-'Amr ibn-Umaiyah. the latter said. Sa'd. Their request hav- ing been granted. . Then came 'Uthman ibn-'Affan and appointed over al-Kufah Sa'd. iii. they attribute transgression to him. should assign thee over al-Kufah? " didst once " And al- Al-Mughirah went to alafter the conquest of al-Kadisiyah. 167. Hamadhani. and was apMadinah. which position he held Mughirah answered. Persians unite with the Arabs. : — for peace provided they be allowed to settle wherever they wanted. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from Mis'ar ibn-Kidam In the battle of al-Kadisiyah. then Saul as governors. and if a weak man. then al-Walid. When al-Walid " visited Sa'd. No.000 men called Jund [army] Shahanshah. p. or I have become foolish after thee. Athar al-BUad.

000. those others [i. was one of them called Dailam." it. They Dailam. Sa'd [ibn-abiWakkas] allowed them to settle where they chose. Then they came to al-Kufah and settled in it.000 dirhams for stipends. Arabs] we have no refuge. and have already left a bad impression on the Moslems. killed ' . Abarwiz brought from adDailam 4. they presented their faith. they withdrew. saying." According to al-Mada'ini. they accepted Islam on the same terms as the Asawirah of al-Basrah. to know adopt the cause. which position they held until the Arab invasion. They witnessed 1 the conquest of al-Ma- " Dilam " in Persian. . Sa'd wanted case. Later Ziyad [ibn-Abihi]. " I heard someone say that these Asawirah lived near ad-Dailam and when they were attacked by the Moslems in Kazwin. sent some of them to Syria where they are called al-Furs [Persians].." as they would say. "We your him about cepted Al-Mughirah came back to Sa'd and told Sa'd promised them security. " " I came from Juhainah or some other place. and would say. and al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah asked them about will Thus. e. the Arabs call the non-Arabs " I came from Hamra' [the red]. Let us then adopt their faith. following the orders of Mu'awiyah. to the Moslem camp. others to al-Basrah where they were combined with the Asawirah [Persian cavalry]." tam. and we will be strengthened by them.000 men who acted as his servants and escort. Abu-Mas'ud adds. then took part in the battle of al-Kadisiyah under Rus- and the Magians were deWe are different from feated. 1 hence the name of kib~\ the place Hamra' Dailam. When Rustam was Having deserted it. Hamra' According to abu-Mas'ud. and they ac- Islam. saying. and asTheir chief [nasigned 1.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 44 r ibn-Hawiyah as-Sa'di of the banu-Tamim.

p.442 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE . after the banu-Kirar ibn-Tha'- The Sahra bani-Kirar labah. . ibn-Ku- . p. ii. the 'Umar . da'in under Sa'd and the conquest of Jalula after which they returned to al-Kufah where they settled with the Moslems. pp. The following Dhahabi. after Bishr ibn-Rabi'ah mair al-Khuth'ami. Uthair. . who used to shake in it milk in a skin [so that its butter might come forth]. . 1' The Jabbanat [cemetery] [desert] they are after a son of as-Sabi'. a dunghill where the inhabitants of Dar ar-Rumiyin was al-Kufah cast their rubbish and which was taken as fief from Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik by 'Anbasah ibn-Sa'id ibnal-Asi. p. iii. in al-Hirah. ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz over al-Kufah. 338.000 dirhams. 282 Jabbanat Bishr. after 'Umar ibn-Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. vol. Hamadhani. 135. . Bi'at [church] bani-Mazin in al-Hirah. a freedman of Sa'd ibn-abi-Wakkas. . 2 3 5-6. Places of interest and the persons after named. . Marasid. 182. . list is a shortened form of the original. . . vol. ibn-Sa'sa'ah. . in it for 150. after the banu-Bajlah. after a certain 'Arzam. 3 Shaharsuj Bajilah in al-Kufah. Jabbanat 'Arzam. after A'yan. who removed the soil The Suk [market] Yusuf 'Umar ath-Thakafi. after Yusuf ibn- Hammam Azd [bath] A'yan. Zurarah. after some of al- of Ghassan. ibn-Nizar. Yakut. whom as-Sabi' ibn-Sabu' ibn-Sa'b al-Hamdani." after Uthair of the banuafter 'Abd-al-Ha- 281 The Dukkan [shop] 'Abd-al-Hamid. mid ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Zaid 'dmil of ibn-al-Khattab. The Sahra Asad. Hammam 'Umar. after Zurarah ibn-Yazid 1 .

Hajar. [castle] 2 443 in al-Kufah. Dair [monastery] al-A'war. after . after the same banu-Umaiyah. "Zubair" Yakut. after Hukaim x ibn- Kasr . were later ex- Dair Ka'b. As-Sawadiyah 'Adi. 36. Masjid [mosque] Simak in al-Kufah. after . 2 " Sauwariyah in in p. . al-Asadi. . 356. . Salabah ibn-Malik ibn-Tarik. after ad-Daizan ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-al-'Abid as-Salihi. i. . 12. after Shaitan ibn-Zu3 ibn-Tamim. . after the Iyad. 3 iii. after one of the Iyad of the banu-Umaiyah. after the Iyad tribe who in a battle with the banu-Bahra and the banu-1-Kain lost many who were buried there and whose skulls [jamdjim] cavated as one was digging in the ground. Tizanabadh. 585. Dair as-Sawa. Aksas Malik. after Sawad ibn-Zaid ibn- 283 Ivaryat • [village] abi-Salabah on the Euphrates. after Mukatil ibn-Hassan of the banu-Amru'i-1-Kais. cf. p. p. vol. Dair Kurrah after Kurrah of the banu-Umaiyah ibn- Hudhafah. " iv. vol. ii. Mahallat [quarter] bani-Shaitan. ibn-Nizar. iii. 390. . p. Bi'at bani-'Adi. 1. Yakut. . . . Dair al-Jamajim. Dar Kumam. after Malik ibn-Kais . vol." p. after the mother of 'Amr ibn-Hind. 22 " : Haiyan. 182. the banu-'Adi ibn-adh-Dhumail of the Lakhm. . Mukatil.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH Dar [house] Hukaim Sa'd ibn-Thaur al-Buka'i. . Hamadhani. Dair Hind. . in al-Kufah. vol. Simak ibn- Makhramah ibn-Humain hair 1 . cf. Taj al-'Arits. • • . 180. 1. ni' after the daughter of al-Harith ibn-Haafter 284 al-Kindi. vol. . p. Kdmiis.

after the poet Albardakht ad-Dabbi. 286 Dar abi-Artat. after Salim ibn-'Ammar . after the banu-'Ammar ibn-'Abd-al-Masih. Masjid bani-Jadhimah. . . after 'Umarah ibn-'Ukbah . after al-Mukatta* ibn-Sunain al-Kalbi. Dar al-Mukatta'. 'Abd-ar-Rahman There is a path Shihab. after Hujair ibn-al-Ja'd al-Ju- [well] [Mubarak ?] Raha [hand-mill] 'Umarah. . ibn-Asad. after Artat ibn-Malik al-Bajali. . 'Isa . The cathedral mosque in al-Kufah was built with ma. 285 in al-Kufah named after 'Amirah ibn- Sahra' Shabath. al-Mubarik [Mubarak ?]. after the banu-Bahdalah ibn-alMithl ibn-Mu'awiyah of the Kindah. after al-Ja'd. . after the banu-'Anz ibn-Wa'il ibnKasit.44 4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE site The of Dar . the price of that material constituting. Bi'r in al-Kufah. . after Shabath ibn-Rib'i ar-Riyahi of the banu-Tamim. Masjid bani-'Anz. . in There Makasif. Jabbanat Salim. Sahra' Albardakht. . . after al-Mubarik ibn-Tkrimah ibn-Humairi [Himyari ?]-l-Ju'fi. ibn-Umaiyah. Sikkat al-Barid [post-office] in al-Kufah was once a . ibn-Ha- \vazin. Kasr al-'Adasiyin at the extremity of al-Hirah. . is a mosque al-Kufah named after the banu-1- Masjid bani-Bahdalah. terial taken from the ruins of the castles in al-Hirah that belonged to the al-Mundhir clan. .lik ibn-Nasr . . Bi'r al-Ja'd in al-Kufah. Dar Hujair mahi. a part of the tax paid by the people of al-Hirah. after the banu-Tadhimah ibn-Ma. ibn-Musa belonged to al-'Ala' ibnibn-'Abd-Manaf. a freedman of Hamdan.

by Khalid and others. Khalid's brother. left it and built the castle known by the name of Kasr ibnHubairah near the Sura bridge.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 445 church built by Khalid ibn-'Abdallah . Baghdad. Later. enlarging it and preparing it according to his own idea. and erected the Kasr Khalid. . People in general called it by this city. " The city of peace. tradition : Al-HdsliimiyaJi. he abandoned it in favor of Baghdadh. Suk Asad. he occupied the city of al-Hashimiyah in al-Kufah after completing its erection. ordering him to avoid the neighborhood of the people of al-Kufah. 5-6. and abu-l-'Abbas making " I see that the name of ibn-Hubairah will always cling to it ". When caliph abu-l-'Abbas came to power. After residing there for some time. Madinat as-Salam. gave it up and established on a site opposite to it another city by the name of al-Hashimiyah. mitted to me by abu-Mas'ud and others — Yazid ibn-'Umar it The following w as T trans- 287 ibn-Hubairah laid out a city in al-Kufah on the Euphrates He then reit was fully completed. where he built his well-known city * in which he was buried.. 2 and repaired its old p. and he. 10. after Asad ibn-'Abdallah. When abu-Ja'far al-Mansur became caliph. its old name the remark. Khalid built shops. he occupied and occupied before ceived a letter completed the erection of certain mansions [makdefended by walls in it. from Marwan." Le Strange. he decided to settle in al-Anbar. therefore.. who was a Christian. established new buildings surahs] and called it al-Hashimiyah. Kantarat [arch] al-Kufah was built by 'Umar ibn-Huand later repaired bairah. of the Bajilah for his mother. Madinat as-Saldm. pp. dug the canal called al-Jami'. where he built his dadh and 1 called it He founded Baghcity. * Le Strange. after ibn-Hubairah.

Al-Khawarnak. pp. he erected the of al-Khawarnak which did not exist before. During the caliphate of al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim. It 1 was this his ar-Ribab. Ibrahim lived in Madinat as-Salam and was a freedman of of an-Nu'man.6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE begins at the Tigris wall which [canal]. as mentioned by 'Adi ibn-Zaid al-'Ibadi in his poem. When the " blessed dynasty" appeared. . was an old by (whose mother was ash-Shakikah. They wrote to 1 Tha'alibi. Muluk al-Furs. Al-Mansur built in al-Kufah ar-Rusafah [causeway] and by his orders. pp. one of their propagandists in Khurasan and a grandfather of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Ishak al. 530-540 (ed. Others say "that abu-1-Khavisit sib built the castle for himself and al-Mansur used to it him in it. who was brought up in the home left same an-Nu'man who kingdom and traveled around.4^. they captured an elephant all the other elephants they came across before having been killed by them. al-Khawarnak was given as fief to Ibrahim ibn-Salamah. Zotenberg) . his freedman abu-1-Khasib Marzuk built for him on an old foundation the castle that bears his name : abu-1-Khasib. . Hamadhani. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from certain sheikhs conquered al-Mada'in. al-FU. dome Bab of In the caliphate of abu-l-'Abbas. It and ends at as-Sarat was in this al-Hashimiyah that al-Mansur imprisoned 'Abdallah ibn-Hasan ibn-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib be- cause of his two sons Muhammad and Ibrahim . : al-Kufah —When the Moslems .288 Kadi. Persian castle As for al-Khawarnak. 178-179. daughter of abu-Rabi'ah built an-Nu'man ibn-Amru'i-1-Kais ibn-Dhuhl ibn-Shaiban) for Bahram Jur ibn-Yazdajird ibnBahram ibn-Sabur dhu-1-Aktaf. Ar-Rusafah. and it was here that he was buried.

2 freedman of abu-Bishr. The first explanation. These explanations are false. mun cemetery at According to abu-Mas'ud. Jabbdnat Maimun. Baghdad. . vol. than it fell dead. cf. pp. umm-Aiyub. Tabari. still others that the trough of the mosque was . which was for that reason called Bab al-Fil. After looking at it. Muhammad built surnamed who at-Takat in Baghdadh near Bab ash- Sham. There are those who claim that the trough of the mosque was carried on an elephant and brought in through this door. But no sooner had the elephant taken a few strides. p. is the most authentic. 27. however. pp. brought on an elephant and passed through this door. Ya'ktibi. Some say that the one who looked at it was the wife of al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait others that it was a sorcerer who made the people see an elephant appearing from the door riding on a donkey. daughter of 'Umarah ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abi-Mu'ait (who was the wife of al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah and the elephant as she later of was in her father's Ziyad) wanted to see home. 2 s Archways or arcades.THE FOUNDING OF AL-KOFAH 447 'Umar about it and he told them to sell it if possible. Cf. 130. p. p. ii. Others think that an elephant owned by one of the governors once rushed against this door which was later called after it. " The Syrian gate". she gave its owner something and dismissed him. a ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah. Le Strange. 17-18. That 1 is why the door was called Bab al-Fil. 240-242. 184. Hamadhani. the Maial-Kufah was named after Maimun. The elephant was bought by a man from al-Hirah who used to cover its back with a cloak and go round the villages ex- hibiting it. The elephant was brought before her and stood at the door of the mosque which is now termed Bab al-Fil. Sometime after that. 1 3 " The elephant door " . Le Strange.

. he being displeased with them on account called after . To the head of Islam. There will be a time : — it : which every l>eliever will either it. The inhabitants of al-Kufah commended." be in or will have his heart set upon . I was told by abu-Mas'ud that al-ManAl-Kufah sur held the people of al-Kufah responsible for its moat and that he imposed on every one of them forty dirhams to meet its expenses." said." — 'Umar Al-Husain from Nafi' ibn-Jubair ibn-Mut'im " In al-Kufah are the most distinguished men. the treasure of the faith. Al-Husain and Ibrahim ibn-Muslim al-Khawarizmi from 'Umar in addressing the people of al-Kufah ash-Sha'bi : : — — wrote." own frontier forts — in The latter said Abu-Nasr at-Tammar from Salman " Al-Kufah is the dome of Islam.448 THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Sahra umm-Salamah. mah 289 moat. the lance of Allah." Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from " Shamir ibn-'Atiyah " : — 'Umar said regarding the people of al-Kufah. of their tendencies toward the Talibite party and their spreading false news regarding the sultan [the chief authority]. . who protect their force other Arabs. daughter of Ya'kub ibn-Salaibn-Makhzum and the wife of abu-1-' Abbas. The umm-Salamah desert was so umm-Salamah. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 'Amir: 'Umar writing to the people of " al-Kufah called them the head of the Arabs. the They and are cranium of rein- the Arabs.

The city of Wasit was built in the year 83 or 84 by al-Haj jaj who also built its mosque. 2 e. p. the city acquired the name of Wasit al-Kasab. 449 . ' Ibn-al-Kirriyah remarks.CHAPTER IX Wasit al-Trak The first cathedral mosques. s castle and Kubbat al-Khadra." p. Taj al-'Arus. 240. The site of Wasit having Wasit built been covered with reeds [kasab]. = the chief mosque of the city in which people as- semble on Friday for prayer and the khutbah. v. vol. has built it but not in his town. s and Ta'rikh. 31 seq. i. 326. al-Basrah and al-Kufah. 290 by al-Hajjaj. I have built a city in a hollow of the ground [kirsh] between al-Jabal and al-Misrain. the green dome. s. called Bab adh-Dhahab. Before he 1 Masjid jami' " i. 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Wasi' ibn-Salih : al-Khatli-1-Hasib from * al-Hasan —The first cathedral as-Sawad was that of al-MaIt was later made and stronger under the supervision of Hudhaifah larger mosque built in da'in built by Sa'd and his companions. : Ya'kubi. vol.. It was later occupied by al-Mansur and Le Strange." He One of the sheikhs of Wasit from other sheikhs : —When al-Hajjaj completed the erection of Wasit. 450. This city is equidistant from al- Ahwaz.'' That is why 3 the people of Wasit were called the Kirshiyun. who died at al-Mada'in in the year 36. Sa'd established the mosque of al-Kufah and that of al-Anbar. Bid dan. vol. ibn-al-Yaman After that. Tabari. p. and shall [al-Haj jaj] leave it but not for his son. and called it Wasit [lying halfway between]. iii. 683. ii. he wrote to " 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. kirsh. p. Yakut.

al-Hajjaj had the idea of taking up his in as-Sin of Kaskar. Dair Masirjasan and Sharabit. i. After that later occupied. 1981. Da6 rusat. He then turned his attention to certain crown-domains which 'Abdallah ibn-Darraj.450 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE abode erected Wasit. pp. 322. pp. 321. 311. Al-Mubarak 7 canal ibn-'Abdallah-l-Kasri al-Mubarak and was dug by Khaiid commemorated by al-Farazdak in certain verses. Nahr dug [canal] as-Sin and ordered that the workmen be chained together so that none of them might run away as a deserter. Tabari. vol. iii. then which he he dug out an-Nil and az-Zabi canals. ditches These domains included waste lands. a freedman of Mu'awiyah ibnabi-Sufyan. ad-Daukarah. * ' Marasid. TCij al-'Arus. To Al-Mubarak. and thickets. al5 Hajjaj brought doors from Zandaward. our cities and possessions. Buldan. Haukal. uprooted the reeds in them and added them to the domains of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan after populating them. 1985. vol. swamps. Al-Hajjaj built dams 4 in these do- mains. 52. 320-321 Ya'kubi. 2 3 4 p. saniya. and the cathedral mosque in Wasit. He thus reclaimed the land around these two canals and erected the city called an-Nil 3 and populated it. Tanbih." but he did not mind what they his castle said. whose people pro" We have been guaranteed the security of tested. pp. . The latter was so called because it branched off from the it 2 occurred to him to establish Wasit 1 old Zabi. p. 439. s. p. 162-163. v. therefore. . He. vol. Tabari. Mawardi. p. p. 1 Kazwini. saying. had reclaimed (when with al-Mughirah ibnShu'bah he had charge of the khardj of al-Kufah) for Mu'awiyah. iii. musannayat.

an agent of umm-Ja'far Zubaidah. but it was soon destroyed by Hisham made Khalid pay the expenses out of the water. The mouth of al-Maimun was near a village called Maimun. and Hisham answered: If thou art sure that it is feasible.WASIT AL-'IRAK Khalid's bridge. the position of the mouth was Faraj ar-Rukhkhaji. Tabari. The income thereof was used as stipends to the inhabitants of the sacred territories of Makkah and al-Madinah there. " it. daughter of Ja'far ibn-al-Mansur. iii. his — ibn-Khalid ibn-'Abdallah own pocket. Bazzak. In the time of al-WathikBillah. Hisham wrote " If this were possible. lest the idea of auspiciousness be dis- sociated from it. but the river kept shifted by 'Umar ibnits old name al-Mai- mun I [the auspicious]. the Persians would have done back. As for al-Maimun x it was first dug out by Sa'id ibn-Zaid. The canal known by the name of al-Bazis zak was an old one of which the Nabatean form sak. Nahr as-Silah was dug out and the lands around it were entrusted to farmers. was informed by Muhammad ibn-Khalid that by the order of caliph al-Mahdi." Khalid built the arch at a great expense. vol. al-Bas- which means that which cuts the water off from what comes after it and takes it over to itself." . Al-Bazzak. This name was corrupted into al- Al-Maimun. 45I 291 Muhammad at-Tahhan from his sheikhs: Khalid ibn-'Abdallah alKasri wrote to Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik asking for permission to make an arch over the Tigris." Khalid wrote again. It and for other expenses ants was [ahl al-Haramain] stipulated on the ten- who came 1 to those lands that they should yield twop. thou mayst do it. 1760: "Nahr Maimun. In this canal the superfluous water from as-Sib jungles and some water of the Euphrates gather.

. Meynard. al-Amir. 'Isa ibn-'Ali As regards Nahr and lay al-F'il. P. 241-242. which has since been called 3 Mashra'at al-Fil or Furdat al-Fil. Mashra'at We were informed by Muhammad ibn- Khalid that Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim presented to al-Haj2 which was transported jaj an elephant from as-Sind through al-Bata'ih [the great swamp] on a ship and was landed at a watering place. 2 Kudamah. Al-Amir. A country bordering upon India.45 2 fifths [ THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ?] of the produce. 1 Cf. they should yield as tax 1 one-half of its produce. with the understanding that after holding their share for fifty years. 3 mashra'at = wharf. pp. it was ascribed to 292 in his fief.324. Karman and Sijistan. This stipulation is still in force. furdat = harbor.

1 The united course of Tha'alibi. into the Persian Gulf. Now. 586-603. I was informed by certain learned men that the Persians often discussed the future fall of their kingdom and thought that earthquakes and floods would be the sign thereof. pp. 453 . the Tigris emptied its water into Dijlat 1 al-Basrah. which was the year 7 A. by means of branching streams which drew their water from the main stream which carried the those streams. also called al-'Aura. Abarwiz made special effort to stop the breaches. Kubadh was a feeble man and cared little for the breach. 2 Yakut. H.CHAPTER X Al-Bata'ih Al-Anra. he ordered that dams be made flour- and thus the water was stopped and some of the lands ished again. But when his son Anushirwan came to rule. rest of the water and looked In the days of like one of ibn- The formation of al-Bataih. ii. but the water had the better of him. causing many great breaches. the Tigris and Euphrates before they empty vol. When the year came in which the Prophet sent 'Abdallah ibn-Hudhafah as-Sahmi to Kisra Abarwiz. p. Euphrates rose to a height never reached before or since. flourishing tracts of land. Fairuz. 745.'. (others say 6) the waters of the Tigris and the . 2 Kubadh the water at the lower part of Kaskar broke a great breach which was neglected until its waters through drowned large.

Kudamah. Hassan an-Nabati. 'Abdallah. Then came Hassan an-Nabati. p. . p. 2 1 drowning Kisra rode out in person to block the breaches left. When Mu'awiyah ibn-abi-Sufyan ruler. Before al-Bata'ih was formed. the freedman of the banu-Dabbah. Dastumaisan and al- Al-Janb canal. 1 When al-Bata'ih in was formed. Euphrates disappeared. crucified on certain breaches forty dam builders in one day. that part of the The great swamp Anushirwan . 225. reclaimed certain lands in al-Bata'ih for al-Hajjaj in the 5 days of al-Walid and for Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. but all that was of no avail against the force of water. the builder of Haud [reservoir] Hassan in al-Basrah and the one after whom ManaHassan rat [light-house] Hassan in al-Bata'ih is named. which water overflowing from the Tigris and Rustah. there was at Kaskar a canal called al-Janb. over the khardj of al-'Irak.000. . his f reed- man. and the feudal lords [dihkdns] failed to block them. vol. 04. the income of which amounted to 5. al- became 'Abdallah ibn-Darraj. With the advent of the Arabs into al-'Irak. by cutting down the reeds and stopping the water by dams. p. 4 Batihah was made wider and more extensive. 2 s * Tha'alibi. 603. Cf. according to a report. p. he appointed 'Abdallah ibn-Darraj.000 [dirhams]. p. Mas'udi. i. 5 Kudamah. 240. Ahwaz. along the south bank of which ran the post-road to Maisan. reclaimed for his master lands in al-Bata'ih.454 and tered THE ORIGIXS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE and overflowed the buildings many cantons that were there. Consequently. turned towards al-Bata'ih plants. 240. he scatto death put and. the Persians 3 money right and many workmen 293 were kept too busy fighting to mind the breaches which would burst and no one would mind them.

and one of those sent to al-Basrah when 'Adballah It was this abu-1-Asad who made ibn-'Ali resided in it. and the other part was called jam i\ghmarbathi A A in which the great thickets fit lie. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from Al-Bataih was formed after the "flight" of the Prophet and during the reign of Abarwiz over the Persians. who pitched his camp between al-Mansur and the army of 'tsa ibn-Musa as alMansur was fighting against Ibrahim ibn-'Abdallah ibn-alI was told Hasan ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib." Kudamah. Many great fissures were formed which Kisra was unable to block. 'Abdallah ibn-'Ali enter al-Kufah. which part was again sunk in the time part of al-Hajjaj when new breaches appeared which al-Hajjaj it wider. Hassan an-Nabati reclaimed for Hisham the Batihah land. did not care to block. p. 294 by 'Umar ibn-Bukair that al-Mansur dispatched his freedman abu-1-Asad. Abu-l-Asad. from whom Nahr abu-1-Asad takes its name. At the time of the Moslem wars with the Persians. The version of abu-Mas'ud. 1 "A Nabatean word which means the great thickets . trying thereby to injure the Persian feudal lords whom he suspected to be on the side of ibn-al- Ash'ath who had broken off his allegiance to al-Hajjaj. 241. The canal is now seen in the al-Jdmidah [solid] claimed and rendered his sheikhs: lands that have recently been refor use. The same abu- 1-Asad dug the canal near al-Batihah which bears his name. the water overflowed and no one took the — trouble to block the fissures. . was one of the generals of the caliph alMansur. certain tracts of Abu-1-Asad.AL-BATA'IH 455 jam alpost-road which became a thicket was called l Barid. thus making the rivers overflow and producing al-Bata'ih. This enlarged the Batihah and made The banu-Umaiyah had reclaimed a of the Batihah.

000 dir- hams. Maslamah gained possession of lands that had many cantons close together. reaching the mouth of the canal and finding it too narrow for the ships.000. Abu-Mas'ud from 'Awa- Al-Hajjaj wrote to al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik stating that he estimated that 3. therefore. and. al-Hajjaj. Al-Walid thought that too much. Because of the water of the Euphrates. It is stated " dynasty by abu-Mas'ud that in the time of the "blessed certain breaches were formed which made al- Bata'ih larger.000. many landowners voluntarily turned their farms over to him. new breaches were made. after spending 3.000 dirhams would be required for blocking them. When the Thus . which sum shall be spent under the direct supervision of thy counsellor and trusted man.*' Al-Walid accepted the offer. He dug as-Sibain x and induced the farmers and tenants to come and hold land. the land flourished and in order to secure his protection. widened it. came and the possessions of the banuUmaiyah were confiscated. thickets grew. Maslamah ibn-'Abd-al-Malik said to al-Walid. blessed dynasty 1 " " The dual form of as-Sib. from whose heirs it was bought with its rights and boundaries and was included in the crown-domains [diyd' al-khil-afah]. of which some were reclaimed and many made tillable Maslamah nah: land. —In the days of al-Hajjaj. all as-Sibain was assigned as fief to Da'ud ibn-'Ali ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas. "I offer to pay the expenses provided thou givest me as fief the depressed tracts in which the water remains. it was named after him. .456 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Others say that abu-1-Asad. reclaims nezv lands. and then held them from him as fief.

it Madinat as-Salam [the In the year 147. which 295 he began in the year 145. the wall of this city. This took place in the year 151." see Le Strange. al-Mansur returned to he transferred the public treasures [buyiit al-mal]. Ar-Rusafah was built for al-Mahdi by al-Mansur on the east side of Baghdadh. Buldan. the eastern suburb of Baghdad. Hearing that Muhammad and Ibrahim.. p. 4 Ya'kubi. repositories. 457 . the sons of 'Abdallah ibn-Hasan ibn-Hasan. 164.CHAPTER XI Mad'inat as-Salam Built by al-Mansur. and registers from al-Kufah to Baghdadh. i. had and added a it thrown off their allegiance to al-Kufah. 251. 1 Before al-Mahdi had occupied the " A Persian word meaning the city founded by God. but al-Mansur colonized 1 Baghdadh it. In the year 146. 360. it had occurred to al- Mansur to direct him to settle in Khurasan. 83. p. Istakhri. When he settled in ar-Rusafah. an ally of the banu-Umaiyah. causeway. This side was 4 because al-Mahdi camped called 'Askar [camp] al-Mahdi in it on his way to ar-Rai. 10-11. Ar-Rusafah. Al-Mansur died in Makkah in the year 158 and was buried near the well of 3 Maimun ibn-al-Hadrami. him. was an ancient city to 2 city. although he returned from ar-Rai. and called city of peace]. Baghdad. 3 e. p. Tanblh. 84. pp. pp. with else connected with it. and the wall of ancient everything Baghdadh were completed. 2 Haukal.

Mahasin. Al-Mansur as a builder. 453 : as-Surai ibn-al-Hutam 7 Cf. soldiers. after whom it is sometimes called. 2 Places of interest in Baghdad:' The al-Mukharrim quar4 in Baghdadh takes its name from Mukharrim ibn-Shuter their shops raih B ibn-Hazn al-Harithi. Nahr Buk and Nahr Bin. The Kantarat al-Baradan 8 from as-Sari ibn-al- Hutaim. the oriental palace ". owners of the villages of Baduraiya. from Salih ibn-al-Mansur. 1 The following Le Strange. Duraid. the builder of al-Hutamiyah. Al-Mansur built the two mosques of Madinat as-Salam and the new bridge over asThe site of the city he bought from the Sarat [canal]. " p. from Harb ibn-'Abdallah al-Balkhi. vol. ". " i. He made the meeting place of al-Karkh. the streets at al-Karkh. was a man from al-Anbar who had charge of the expenses.45 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE was built for him by al-Mansur's order. omits p. p. ghallah = rent paid for buildings standing on the property of the state. 238. the commander of the guard in al-Mausil under Ja'far ibn-abiJa'far. ibn-Shuraih " ". . Ya'kubi. • XIarasid. quarter. 7 Al-Harbiyah. As-Salihiyah. and ordered the merchants to build and held them responsible for the rent. his generals. 4 4 pp. fief to members of his household. list is an abridged form of the original. p. a palace 1 Al-Waddah. 217-230. 307. from Zuhair ibn-Muhamof the inhabitants of Abiward. 2 Ar. ii. Katrabbul [or KutHe gave the city as rubbul]. companions and secretaries. e. 296 mad 1 Az-Zuhairiyah or Bab at-Tibn. vol. 245. i. Kasr alMahdi and ash-Sharkiyah. It lay on the other side of Bab east side. the one variously known as Kasr al-Waddah..

p. to Shubail. Most of the time he spent in Madinat as-Salam was passed in palaces he built at 'Isabadh. 2 name of Masjid bani-Raghban. ii. pp. Ar-Rashid Harun also resided in it. 1 459 from 'Isa ibn-al-Mahdi. who died in it. Kasr 'Abdawaih standing opposite Baratha. The city was then occupied by the caliph al-Mahdi. 247. as fief Al-Mansur assigned . a special lief near Bustan al- Kass. He made a pilgrimage from it and died in Makkah. al-Mahdi left for Masabadhan. and died at Tus. a notable of the Azd. to . The city a residence for the caliphs. to Maimun abu-Bishr after whom Takat Bishr are named. 1 Tattbih. Al-Mansur lived in Madinat as-Salam to the last days of his caliphate. where he died.297 captives of Sinfadh and was set free by al-Mahdi. from 'Abdawaih. 227 Ya'kubi. Darb [path] Mihrawaih takes waih ar-Razi who was one of the 4 its name from Mihra. The city became after that the residence of Muhammad ibn-ar-Rashid. his freedman. to umm-'Ubaidah. 343-344- * Ya'kubi. vol.MAD IN AT AS-SALAM 'Isabadh. the quarter that bears his name. p. p. and later left it for ar-Rafikah where he stayed for a while and then departed for Khurasan. 244-245. . Later. Madinat as-Salam was then occupied by al-Hadi Musa ibn-al-Mahdi. ' 4 Marasid. a special fief to 'Umarah ibn-Hamzah. a freedmaid of Muhammad ibn-'Ali and after whom Darb Munirah and Khan [inn] Munirah are 3 named. a freedmaid of Muhammad ibn-'Ali. Dhahabi. a fief near Dar Yaktin. who was slain in it. a fief. 433. to Munirah. pp. after whom Darb Muhalhil is named. a special fief and to Raisanah a spot known by the . Sulaiman ibn-Mujalid the site of his home to Muhalhil ibn-Saf wan. .

he built his residence. 14. year 232. 501.. a cathedral mosque. pp. the caliph Ja'far al-Mutawakkil-'Alallah was installed. AlMu'tasim made his freedman. p. Surra-man-ra'a. He started to colonize that region and after beginning a new city.4 6o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to the city Al-Ma'mun 'Abdallah ibn-ar-Rashid came from Khurasan and took up his abode in it. iii. vol. Tabari. pp. Al-Mu'tasim erected in al-Katul a building which he occu- Ashnas at-Turki [the Turk]. Ashnas. He erected many in men 1 fiefs buildings and assigned to different a place back of Surra-man-ra'a called al- 298 Tanbth. Caliph alMu'tasim-Billah made his residence in it and then left it for al-Katul built it where he occupied the Kasr ar-Rashid which was when ar-Rashid dug out Katulah [canal] and called * abu-1-Jund [the father of the army] because the land watered by it produced enough provisions for the army. his freedman. p. pied. 1 Marasid. together with the other generals who had joined him [Ashnas]. p. . day of his life in Surra-man-ra'a and called al-Halived to the last When in dhu-1-Hijjah. 256-257. he gave it up and built the city of 2 He transplanted people to it and made it Surra-man-ra'a. iii. v. Harun al-Wathik-Billah a house which he built at runi. vol. He then left on an expedition during which he died at al-Fadhandun and was buried at Tarsus. a residence for the caliphs. pp. 183. vol. 356-357Ya'kubi. he made al-Haruni his residence. 2 Yakut. 1179-1180. settle at Karkh Fairuz. At the meeting point of the streets. Other generals were given the houses 3 Al-Mu'tasim died in Surra-man-ra'a called al-'Arabaya. and offered the Kasr to in the year 227. and called the city Surra-man-ra'a. n. Mushtarik.

Athir. vol. 56. 539. From Here he died in Shauwal.MADlNAT AS-SALAM Ha'ir l ^fa in confinement. 258 " : al-Hair ". in which al-Mu'tasim had put him thus giving more space for the inhabitants. Hamadhani. and the minaret could be seen at a distance of many parasangs. Al-Mutawakkil built in this city a the time he started the city to the time he occupied it. al-Muntasir-Billah was proclaimed caliph. vii. Al-Mutawak- kil also built mous a great cathedral mosque and lavished enorsums of money on it. cathedral mosque. 'Uyun [springs] at-Taff 3 which include 'Ain as-Said. and Ya'kubi. 189. and al-Katul. 1 Tabari. Yakut. he left al-Mutawakkiliyah for Surra-man-ra'a. al-Makhurah p. known by the name of Kisra. p. " p. chose it for his abode and gave fiefs in it. ii. The houses and the villages known as al-Mahuzah 2 were included in it. vol. ". 2 p. pp. iii. al-Kutkutanah. iii. 752. known by the name of Fairuz. 187. e Uyun at-Taff. which Sabur had dug between him and the Arabs who guarded the frontier and the other Arabs who lived there. [2] 47. the first mosque and held Friday founded built it Al-Mutawakkil Al-Mntawakkiliyah. Cf. ar-Ruhaimah. The Moslems gave up prayers in it. He a city al- between Karkh. In the same night on which he died. 3 Yakut. . were held by the garrisons that guarded the frontier forts beyond as-Sawad. only a few months elapsed. Sabur allowed them the use of the land as fief without collecting kharaj from them. making the minaret so high that the voices of the muezzins could be easily heard. the occupation having taken place at the beginning of the year 246. which he called al-Mutawakkiliyah. 'Ain Jamal and the lands that belonged to them. vol. These springs lay near Khandak [trench] Sabur. vol. where he died. and on Tuesday the 10th of Shauwal. 68: p.

was 'Ain as-Said. As one of the Moslems was passing there. jamal] died near Jamal it. When wad and Ishak ibn-Ibrahim ibn-Mus'ab ruled over as-Sa- in the name of al-Mutawakkil. p. . 180: '"Ain Jamal". 2 Ibid. he added these 'Uyun what he already controlled. and the land which they cultivated became tithe-land. the legs of his horse sank in the in the mud. all the sadakah thereof being given to the 'dmils of al-Madinah. Moslems and given out as fiefs. The Arabs who held the remaining springs embraced Islam. treating in a similar way. the Persians took to flight after covering over with all the springs in their lands. 'Ain as-Said 2 [fishing spring] it. the whose owners had evacuated them. 180: '"Ain Said". Khurdadhbih. The Moslems later dug wad. and he colthem as any other land in as-Sawhich status they still retain. l I was told by a sheikh that Win al- so called because a camel [Ar.. the Arabs gained possession of some of these hands of the Persians. cf. 'Ain al-Jamal. p. With the help of ground. were turned over to the lands. Others say that the one who dug it out was called Jamal. lands After the battles of al-Kadisiyah and al Mada'in. p.4 62 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE In the battle of dhu-Kar in which Allah through his Prophet gave the Arabs the victory. He dismounted and dug and the water appeared. the rest remaining in the When the Arabs advanced to al- Hirah. out many other springs which irrigate lands that are treated their lands to lected their tithe. earth springs. 1 Rustah. thus becoming titheSuch was the case with 'Uyun at-Taff whose lands 299 are treated like the villages in the valley of al-Madinah and the villages of Najd. was so called because fish gathered in I was told by certain Kuraiziyun [ ?] that this spring was one of those covered with earth. 146.

then passed to the hands of 'Isa ibn-'Ali. the The course was opened and the water issued as before. was umm-Kalthum. 'Ain ar-Rahbah was also one of the A pilgrim from Karman once saw and when he returned from his pilgrimage. who bought spring it from a son of Hasan ibn-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. : Kasim ibn-Sallam from Muhammad ibn-abi-Musa —One Al- day 'AH went out to the market and saw that his relatives " had secured special places. This Karman man took it as fief with its land and dug it out. together with other things. upon which he remarked. he leaking. daughter of Hasan Mu'awiyah in exchange for the caliphate. 'Ain ar-Rahbah. he had claim on it until the nightfall. "Never did we Hence the see a greater number of sawadl" i." : 300 all —The we Abu-'Ubaid from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-'Ubaid's father : latter said. he called. 'Ain as-Said as fief to al-Hasan ibn-'Ali. and whose tithes are taken by the chief of Hit. The meaning of Sazvad.. A few parasangs from Hit lie certain springs buried of old. the market is similar to the place of worship he who arrives first can hold his seat day until he leaves it. e. 'Uyun al-'Irk. But when . and when one sat in a place. advised 'Isa ibn-Musa regarding it and pointed it out to him. used to go early into the market. objects. He cultivated the lands around it and planted the palm-trees which stand on al-'Udhaib road. the earth men One of 'Isa's wives ibn-Hasan. as- signed. palm and other trees. to The market compared the place of worship. : — name of the country as-Sawad.MADlNAT AS-SALAM certain 463 and soil were removed. Al-Athram from abu-'Amr ibnWhen the Arabs saw the great number of vilal-'Ala' lages. "In the time of al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. they exclaimed. it springs called al-Trk which are similar to 'Uyun at-Taff. For the Moslems. That can not be.

he ordered that he who claim it so long as he occupied it." : According to Mar wan. could Ziyad came. al-Mughirah held the governoranother time ship of al-Kufah twice once for 'Umar and for Mu'awiyah.464 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE sat in a place. .

Salih was acquainted with al-Hajjaj. which he did." retorted Salih. Al-Hajjaj sent his own physician. and I see that he has found me acceptable. Allah. I." Never believe that. who found him One day Salih said to Zadan. Hearing In the days of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Muhammad ibn-alAsh'ath al-Kindi. that." Salih having done that. al-Hajjaj made Salih secretary in the 465 . who knew both Arabic and Persian. a freedman of the banu-Tamim. because none but myself can be found to keep his books. it. in which " case thou wouldst fall. Thereupon. or some other man's home." answered Zadan. and the latter was assisted by Salih ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman. Through Zadan Farrukh. "he has more use for me than I for him." and I will see." Try a part of " I could change said Zadan. Salih's father was one of the captives of Sijistan. Zadan Farrukh was killed on his way from some house to his own home. but found nothing wrong with Salih. Zadan asked him to feign illness. means by which I became acquainted with the governor. " the accounts into Arabic." " By " if thou so desire. When alHajjaj became ruler of al-'Irak he chose Zadan Farrukh ibn-Yabra for secretary. therefore.CHAPTER XII Arabic Made the Language of the Register Al-Mada'ini 'Ali sheikhs : — Persian was the language of the ibn-Muhammad ibn-abi-Saif from his register of the khardj of as-Sawad and the rest of al-'Irak. Zadan ordered him to appear. " Thou art the acceptable. do not wonder if he should promote me over thee.

x " I shall use instead 'ushr [tenth] nusfushr Hearing that. change of the language of the register. ibn-Muhammad used 'Abd-al-Hamid ibn-Yahya. wouldst thou do with dahwiyah and shashwiyah? this. . but he refused and carried out the shall use aidan [half -tenth]. and great is to say.4 66 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE to Salih reported place of Zadan. 350. " What Mardanshah ibn-Zadan Farrukh asked Salih. aidan corresponds to ditto. versation that took place between to the al-Hajjaj the conrelative him and Zadan Al-Hajjaj 301 immediately made up his mind to adopt Arabic as the language of the register and charged Salih with the task. shash means six. May God efface thy trace ' ! plan. 1 used to-day in Persian in the sense of Ar. p. Marfrom the world danshah said. the secretary of Marwan " Great is Salih. 8 Cf.000 dirhams in order to show that it was impossible to change the language of the register and to refrain from doing it. Mawardi. Salih was as thou hast effaced the trace of the Persian later offered 100. 2 wid or waid " is little "."—" " " And what 2 about wid? "—" I {wid means excess). ' ! : the favor he has bestowed upon the secretaries 'Umar ibn-Shabbah from Sahl ibn-abi-as-Salt —Al- Hajjaj assigned for Salih ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman a certain 3 period in which to change the language of the register. ' : To and Salih replied. These are the Arabic equivalent of the Persian terms dahwiyah and shashzviyah.



'Ammar wrote to Jarir that 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wanted him to reinforce abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari [inTustar]. daughter of Sa'd ibn- Rustah. Later on.CHAPTER HULWAN « I Hulwan capitulates. iv. Hashim ibn-'Utbah ibn-abiWakkas added to the forces of Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali a heavy detachment of cavalry and stationed him at Jalula' between the Moslems and their enemy [the Persians].000 Moslems and ordered him to advance with them and his forces to Hulwan. Hulwan capitulated . After the decisive battle of Jalula' had been won by the Moslems. 1 No fled sooner had Jarir approached Hulwan than Yazdajird away in the direction of Isbahan. reduced Karmasin He then returned to the arrival of Hulwan and held its governorship until 'Ammar ibn-Yasir in al-Kufah. and Jarir promised to spare the people and guarantee their lives and possessions without interfering with those who preferred to flee the land. p. Leaving Hulwan a part of his forces [ ?] with 'Azrah ibn-Kais ibn-Ghaziyah-1-Bajali. Jarir pushed towards ad-Dinawar. 164-165. Muhammad 1 ibn-Sa'd from 'A'ishah. ever. how2 on the same terms as Hulwan. in Karmasin. Accordingly. 1 Yakut. Sa'd sent Jarir about 3. He. and in the year 19 made his 302 way to join abu-Musa. which he failed to reduce. vol. Jarir left 'Azrah ibn-Kais over Hulwan. 469 . 68. pp.

vol. Mu'awiyah had seen the part Hujr had Hulwan." of what great in the reduction of lah settled in living. . 15 seq. pp. 3-4 . Cf. v. p. pp. . 2 Text not clear. iii.470 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE : abi-Wakkas —The ' latter 1 " said. pp. When Mu'awiyah my father made the put fol- lowing remark. where their descendants are still Aghcmi. xvi. yajar. i. 645. vol. he would have realized value he was to Islam '. 1 According to al-Wakidi. vol. Mas'udi. Hujr taken ibn-'Adi-l-Kindi If ' to death. certain sons of Jarir ibn-AbdalHulwan. 392 seq. vol. Athir.

Dinawari. who the people of al-Basrah. Yakut. These "polytheists" numbered 60. vol. 203 . iv. When 'Ammar ibn-Yasir communicated this news to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab. he wrote to the people of al-Kufah ordering that two-thirds of them should set out and onethird should stay for the defense of their homes and country. in the year 20. n. is Cf. 142 Caetani. iv. 2 shall be the first to expose himself to the spears.000. p. 471 . Consequently. pp. joined Yazdajird. when from Hulwan. p. Kumis.CHAPTER The Conquest An-Nu'man in chief fled II of Nihawand command. lest the Greeks should return to their home. 'Umar wrote to an-Nu'man ibn-'Amr ibn-Mukarrin al-Muzani. The latter put at their head Mardanshah dhu-1-Hajib and they unfurled their flag ad-Dirafshikabiyan. p. the latter was on the point of leading an expedition in person against them. Isbahan. but desisted lest the Arabs should then prevail over Najd and other places. The advice to let the Syrians lead the attack from Syria and the Yamanites from al-Yaman was also discarded. * The original 1. obscure. Meynard. 315. and according to other estimates. who was at that time with as-Sa'ib ibn-al1 In Tabaristan.000. the Persians and the away Yazdajird 1 people of ar-Rai. 464-465. Hamadhan and al-Mahain communicated with one another and. vol. In the year 19. he also sent a group of " I shall use over the army someone then said. and the Abyssinians should subjugate what was next to them." From He Accordingly. 100. . men.

he started from it. on an-Nu'man ibn-Mu- my 'amil [lieutenant] ". Yaman shall be the leader." "An vading one. Meynard. together with " replied. if if he should be 303 ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali. p. [in his When 'Umar fell entered the mosque al-Madinah]. 406. assigning him to the leadership of the " In case thou art killed. pp. the head. An-Nu'man " replied. 2 s He is also called dhu-1-Hajib Mardanshah. 827. yes. i. saying. vol. 2600-2601 . 3 Al-Mughirah [reaching the Persian camp] drew his sword and began cutting the rugs to pieces until he presented himself before the chief. then Jarir he should be killed. and when he received his appointment over this army from 'Umar by word of mouth. Shaiban from Ma'kil ibn-Yasar When 'Umar ibn-alits territory.47 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Akra' ath-Thakafi. Isbahan is Cut it/' 1 off the head. An-Nu'man sian chief at sent al-Mughirah to dhu-1-Hajibain. : — Khattab sought the advice of al-Hurmuzan. then al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. By dhu-1-Hajib's 1 Cf. vol. 573-576. upon which he took his seat on the throne. or Nahawand. Tabari. 245. Mas'udi. 230. no. Hudhaifah ibn-alarmy. p. pp. and if he should be killed. Thus 'Umar sent an-Nu'man and wrote to the people of al-Kufah to reinforce him. iv. al-Ash'ath This an-Nu'man was at that time the 'amil ibn-Kais. pp. iv. " Shall we begin with Isbahan or Adharbaijan [Atrapatakan] ?" al-Hurmuzan jan the wings. Yakut. 2 the Per- Nihawand. which they did. " I want thee to be through with his prayer. . so he took a seat by his side." said 'Umar. i. over Kaskar and Others say he was in al-Madinah." killed. saying. Muller. and Adharbaiand the wings will fall off Al-Mugh'irah as envoy. 'Umar said. eyes When he was karrin. vol. but if an invading-' amil. sending among others al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. If a colin- lecting-'a?m7. vol.

glad news to 'Umar who asked. theists ".' — ' How washed his face with some water which he asked. made. When the third shake is. myself carried the about an-Nu'- Cf. ' Ma'kil. Tabari. Before the fight started fives. — I carried in a vessel. by Allah's will. " So he exclaimed the " poly- found them fastened in chains." Saying this. Coming to an-Nu'man and finding that life had not yet fully departed from him. " Ma'kil ibn-Yasar [the narrator of this tradition] adds. and he was the first Moslem to be killed. the Prophet did not carry on the fight in the morning. His coat of mail was too 304 they heavy for him. 2603. 'Who art thou?' upon I have glad did the Moslems fare?' I — ' tidings. Allah has given us conquest and victory!' " be to Allah! Write and tell 'Umar about it. The Persian [dhu-1-Hajib] fell from his mule and his belly was cut open. they shot their arrows and wounded some of the Moslems. but he fought and his men fought. let each After the carry three times. I noticed that when . al-Mughirah " 473 : was dragged [Remember that] I am an envoy! The battle fought. 1 And what p. " I shall now shake the standard shake. putting everything in order. then rush and let none of you heed the other." 1 An-Nu'man added.THE CONQUEST OF NIHAWAND order. .' — ' Praise The news man an-Nahdi — The : carried to 'Umar. an-Nu'man shook the standard and did as he had ordered them. After the second shake. vol. latter ' Shaiban from abu-'Uth" I said. in tens and so that they might not flee. i. he would wait until the sun set and the wind blew then the victory would be assured. the ablutions and satisfy perform I first his natural wants. When the Moslems met out. they Then an-Nu'man " said. let each turn to his sword (he may have said sandal-thong) and get ready.

145. the forwarding with as-Sa'ib (whom 'Umar ment in put in charge of the booty) of the appoint: " which these words occur Bring no false case to and never hold justice from anyone." x The my attention. vol. others whom he. I then made my way to 'Umar who.' said ' ' I. was roaming al-Madinah] and making inquiries. began to cry. his appointment of an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin. . : Ahmad — I of the death of an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin." Sa'ib ibn-al-Akra' to The version of as-Saib. upon which Hudhaifah carried the standard and " I Allah gave them [the Arabs] victory. Tabari. 2597.' re- marked 'Umar. I found two chests containing pearls.' we return. p. not. having not in the streets [of yet received the news. gathered the booty and divided it. he covered his face with his hands and began to cry. 145: "Nukharijan"." I and to Allah I then said. 'Oh! what news?' I gave him an account of the battle and the death 1 Cf. tradition then gives an account of the battle and mentions that an-Nu'man was the first to be killed in the battle of Nihawand. Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from asThe latter said.' When I climbed up there. he By Allah.' Saying this. •Ibid. " An army. marched against the Mos: — lems. the similar which was never seen before. Seeing me.' said The ibn-Ibrahim from abu-'Uthman an-Nahdi " When 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab received the news latter said. p. he was killed with know ' But whom Allah knows." He then cited the tradition regarding 'Umar's in- tention to lead the expedition in person. After that there came 3 2 to me a spy. i. p. Dinawari. the similar to which I never saw before. As-Sa'ib adds.474 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ' man ?' He was ' killed. 'Umar exclaimed. 'The treasure of an-Nakhirkhan is in 305 the castle. We are Allah's. saying.. ' Cf.

who was Nihawand. p. Skiszen. 2 Dinar makes terms for the defeat of the Persian lems. to 1 the city. laid siege sorties but " p. pp." the Moslems. vol. pp. Caliphate. 97. At last the Moslems won the victory. In the fight that ensued. Muir. by name. Go and sell the chests and divide the price ' among Accordingly. Other versions. where he sold it for the same price he had paid me for both and the other he kept. pp. Annals. He reports in describing the battle a similar tradition to that reported by Hammad ibn-Salamah. Nihawand was fought on Wednesday and Thursafter a short cessation. were de" . Ar-Rifa'i from al-Hasan and of Muhammad : —The battle Nihawand took place in the year 21. and Dinawari. Wellhausen.THE CONQUEST OF NIHAWAND 'Umar said ' 475 of an-Nu'man and mentioned the case of the two chests. One chest he took to al-Hirah. Ibn-al-Kalbi from abu-Mikhnaf An-Nu'man camped : — at al-Isbidhahar his right 1 with al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais commanding wing and al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. 1 p. year 19. and according to others. I took them to al-Kumet a young man of the Kuraish. fighting was continued on Friday. an-Nu'man was killed. whose inhabitants made Hamadhani. the left wing. Others report that after army and the victory of the Mosat that time the leader. and that conquest was termed " the victory of victories. 20. vi. who paid their price from the stipends of [his own] family and the warriors of its members. . 178-180.' I where . This was the first part of the fortune 'Amr amassed. ". Huraith." The conquest of Nihawand took place on Wednesday. Weil. A similar tradition was communicated to me by ar-Rifa'i on the authority of Muhammad ibn-Ka'b. Hudhaifah. 211. 259. i. 255-258. 239 " : Isbidhahan Cf. 143: al-Isfidhahan Yakut. battle of A certain biographer reports that the day and. pp. vol. Muir. i. Amr ibnfah. 88-94. vol.

stipulating that the kharaj and poll-tax be paid. " What is thy " name?" and he replied. and give thee for taking me as prisoner whatever thou requestest. go to your leader that I may make terms with him on this land. whereas ad-Dinawar was one of those conquered by the people of al-Basrah. Caetani. 306 down Simak took him as prisoner but as he spoke Persian. iv. 1 Niha- wand was thereafter called Mah al-Basrah . All this took place during the cali- Cf. Seechased yielded and laid . Simak. Dinar ". THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE One day Simak ibn-'Ubaid al-'Absi chased a Perwho was accompanied by 8 horsemen. Abu-Mas'ud al-Kufi from al-Mubarak ibn-Sa'd's father Nihawand was one of the places conquered by the people of al-Kufah. them in turn ing that he was left alone.47 6 feated. be guaranteed. Mah al-Basrah and Mah al-Kufah. phate of Mu'awiyah. Consequently. which was. Nihawand was thereafter called Mah Dinar. To thee I owe a great deal because thou didst spare my life. offering him presents and showing his loyalty. vol. and that the safety of the possessions. 1 Mah al-Kufah. . Simak led him to Huhis arms. in exchange for which the people of al-Basrah were given [the district of] Nihawand which formed a part of [the province of] Isbahan. the man turned against him. The increase of the Moslems at al-Kufah made it necessary that the lands the kharaj of which was divided among them be increased. pay him poll-tax. 502. and ad-Dina- war. dhaifah who made terms with him. Simak killed as each of sian all eight." Simak asked. p. Nihawand. [the district of] ad-Dinawar was given them. Simak called someone who understood him and " I shall translated what he said. Dinar often came after that to. walls and dwellings of the inhabitants of his city. The : — excess of the kharaj of ad-Dinawar over that of Nihawand was therefore a gain for the people of al-Kufah.

shhal. which al-Yaman is a shortened form]. people would say. Husail ibn-Jabir ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-'Amr ibn-Jurwah. In accordance mistake.THE CONQUEST OF NIHAWAND The meaning of certain 477 " al-Yamdn ". . His father was killed in the battle of Uhud by 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud al-Hudhali. His people called him al-Yamani because he made an alliance with the Yamanites. taking him for an with the Prophet's order. the blood money was paid. and his mother was ar-Rabab. I have been informed by men of learning that Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman was He was an the son of Husail [Hisl] ibn-Jabir al-'Absi. fled although between the two many generations Jurwah. however." AcYamani [of cording to al-Kalbi. Jurwah being the one nicknamed al-Yamani after whom Hudhaifah was so and called. ally of the banu-'Abd-al-Ashhal of al-Ansdr. but Hudhaifah distributed it among the Moslems. where he became an ally of the 307 banu-'Abd-al-xA. intervened. Hudhaifah was the son of . who killed him by " unbeliever ". in pre-Islamic times. According to al-Wakidi. daughter of Ka'b ibn-'Adi of the 'Abd-alAshhal tribe. Husail was nicknamed al-Yaman because he had commercial interests in al-Yaman and whenever he ar" Here comes alrived in al-Madinah. killed someone to al-Madinah.

in which he was offered resistance for only one The people of ad-Dinawar then agreed to pay tax day. Others assert made terms abu-Musa conquered Masabadhan before the battle of Nihawand. The city capitulated. vol. Masabadhan and Mihrijankadhaf Ad-Dinawar makes terms. Abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari left Ni- hawand. agreeing to pay poll-tax and kharaj . to which he had come with the army of al-Basrah for the reinforcement of his rive an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin. and proceeded to Masabadhan. 1 As-Sirawdn makes terms. iv. 393- 478 . On way. p. vol. ii. Yakut. that no captives be taken. As-Saimarah capitulates. Athir. whose people offered no resistance. p. 2477. vol. Tabari. and abu-Musa sent detachments and conquered all the lands of ad-Dinawar. prothat — — 1 Cf. and sought safety for their lives. possessions and children. he passed by ad-Dinawar where he camped for days. and it was agreed that the lives of the inhabitants be spared. i. and kharaj.CHAPTER III Ad-Dinawar. 409. The people of as-Sirawan similar to those of ad-Dinawar. Abu-Musa granted their request and left over the city his 'dmil. p. and that no pieces of gold or silver be carried away. Abu-Musa 'Abdallah ibnKais al-Ash'ari sent as-Sa'ib ibn-al-Akra' ath-Thakafi who was his son-in-law through his daughter umm-Muhammad to as-Saimarah the chief city of Mihrijanibn-as-Sa'ib kadhaf. together with some horsemen.

" Mu'awiyah gave him for of the Book. He died either before or at the beginAlning of the rebellion of al-Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid. vol. the revealer : surely dig the grave of Kathir ibn-Shihab. MASABADHAN AND MIHRIJANKADHAF 479 As-Sa'ib reduced vided the inhabitants paid poll-tax and khardj on the land. After that. hence the name [sinn protruding beyond of the peak Sinn Sumairah. the transgressor. the 308 Kanatir [arches] an-Nu'man. the severe in punishment. the liar. more reliable report is that abu-Musa dispatched as-Sa'ib from al-Ahwaz. — Sumairah 2 had a tooth others] . and the latter reduced Mihrijankadhaf. ". which had been standing from ancient time. 2458: 'Ukbah ibn-Mukram 2 Tabari. p. they passed by called Sinn Sumairah. i. Sinn Sumairah. vol. . Ziyad and al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. according to ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi.AD-D1NAWAR. Sumairah being a woman of the Dabbah [a branch] of the banu-Mu'awiyah ibn-Ka'b ibnTha'labah ibn-Sa'd ibn-Dabbah and one of the Emigrants. and dissuaded men from following al-Husain. Kathir ibn-Shihab. and Tabari. p. Al-'Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi from 'Awanah: —Kathir ibn-Shihab ibn-al-Husain ibn-dhi-1- Ghussah-1-Harithi belonged to the 'Uthman party and often spoke evil of 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. p. Mahasin. i. i. " vol. the Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid referred to him when he said "By Lord of heavens. which he held on behalf of Mu'awiyah and his two 'amils. he incurred Muin 'awiyah's anger and was flogged and imprisoned by him 1 Cf. Muhammad ibn-'Ukbah ibn-Musrim : l When the ad-Dabbi from certain sheikhs of al-Kufah the eastern summit Moslems invaded al-Jibal. were named after an-Nu'man ibn-'Amr ibn-Mukarrin al-Muzani. I shall some time the governorship of ar-Rai and Dastaba. who camped by Kanatir an-Nu'man. 2648. The all the districts of Mihrijankadhaf. these Kanatir. 700.

Hamadhani. Thou art a man of disSeeing that. Al-'Umari from al-Haitham ibnZiyad was one day on a trip when the belt of his : — Kathir ibn-Shihab immediately drew a needle. selfish two Mahs]. learned from a descendant of Khashram ibn-Malik ibn-Hubairah-1-Asadi that the Khasharimah came first to Masabadhan towards the end of the [the Hulwan and al-Mahain ing Kathir many villages of the Umaiyad dynasty. p. Zuhrah ibn-al-Harith ibnMansur ibn-Kais ibn-Kathir ibn-Shihab had secured many crown-villages at Masabadhan. that was stuck in his cap. Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. and such a one should never go without an office. and wrote to 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad. 228. approved of following Kathir and sidwith him. for reasons. p. 106. I Al-Khasharimah. p.4 8o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Damascus. 'Adi Kathir made governor. their grandfather being an emigrant from al-Kufah. and he was released. 2 or al-Jibal = Persian 'Irak or Media. Mihrijankadhaf. " Jabal. Saying this. asking ing him to appoint Kathir over Masabadhan. givcrown-domains in al-Jabal x as fief. Shuraih ibn-Hani' al-Muradi interceded in favor of Kathir. 209. . Rustah. p. and a thread and mended robe became loose. Kazwini. which he did. 151 . he appointed him governor over a part of althe belt. Meynard." cretion. Here Kathir built the castle which bears his name and which lies in ad-Dinawar. Ziyad said.

Its inhabitants. pp. H. after the dismissal of 'Ammar ibnghirah Yasir. iv. 981 . in the course of which Jarir re" I give up ceived an arrow in his eye and he remarked. Jarir reduced 24. The terms with al-'Ala. In the year 23 A. marched against Hamadhan and. vol. seeking recompense from Allah who decorated with it my face and provided me by means of it with light. 2 Other versions. was the 'dmil of 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab over al-Kufah. dispatched Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali to Hama1 The inhabitants of Hamadhan offered resistance and repelled his attacks. 481 . drove Jarir back. p. so long as he willed. 597-608. with Jarir leading the vanguard. put it in charge of Kathir ibn- Shihab al-Harithi. See Meynard. but he having took their land by force. my eye. 16.CHAPTER The Conquest Jarir reduces IV 309 of Hamadhan Hamadhan. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from his When Sa'd ibngrandfather and 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam : — 1 Ecbatana. al-Muibn-Shu'bah who. Athir. six months after the death of It is reported by others that al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. which made terms similar to those of Nihawand. 23. According to al-Wakidi. p. This took place finally toward the close of the year later rebelled.. . Yakut. * Cf. and then deprived me of it as I was in his cause!" After that he reduced Hamadhan. after reducing it. in. vol. dhan. Nihawand in the year 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab.

Sisar and the adjoining region were pasture-lands for the It also had meadows for the beasts of bur- den and the cattle of caliph al-Mahdi. its lay in other also was called Sisar Sadkhaniyah which means it a hundred springs. inviolable rights and children. who camped around until reduced Sisar. 27. so called after as-Sari ibnit ibn-Thaur it. p. Hence " Thalathun Ra's It [thirty summits]. vol. the of known he name * Madharan was al-Tjli. they should pay khardj on their land and tax on their person and deliver to him 100. and was entrusted to a freedman of his called Sulaiman ibn-Kirat whose name Sahra' Kirat in Madinat as-Salam bears of his. When in the caliphate of al-Mahdi the destitute [sa'dlik] over al-Jabal. — —and to a partner Sallam at-Taifuri. The people of Hamadhan them them until they acted treacherously and violated the covenant. Marasid. on the one hand. Taifur having been a freedman of abu-Ja'far al-Mansur and having been given by him as present to al-Mahdi.Wakkas ruled over 'Uthman ibn- 'Affan. .482 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE al-Kufah in behalf of abi. The terms he made with stipulated that. became numerous and spread they chose this region for their refuge and and villain 1 Cf. on account of which al-'Ala' fought against surrendered. and that. on the other hand. thirty summits and has as many as one hundred Kurds and others. he should not interfere with their possessions. castle Mddharan. he assigned over Mah and Hamadhan al-'Ala' ibnWahb ibn-'Abd ibn-Wahban of the banu-'Amir ibn-Lu'ai. iii. Ziyad ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Balkhi from : tain sheikhs of Sisar — Sisar was so ' : cer- 310 called because it name a depression surrounded by thirty hills. by the Nusair According to ibn-al-Kalbi.000 dirhams for the Moslems. because springs.

Murrah ibn-ar-Rudaini did not cease in the days of Muhammad ibn- ar-Rashid to pay the fixed kharaj of Sisar which he had ! Khurdadhbih. al-Mahdi directed against them a great army and wrote to Sulaiman and Sal- lam. iii. in the caliphate of ar-Rashid. Hamadhani. ar-Rashid appointed Murrah ibn-abi-Murrah ar-Ru'Uthman al-Audi attempted to daini-l-'Ijli over Sisar. Thereupon. ad-Dinawar and Adharbaijan. reporting the case of those who interfered with their beasts and cattle. Ar-Rashid be repaired and fortified. Sulaiman and his colleague wrote it to al-Mahdi. . p. to which they resorted after acting as highwaymen. 'dtnil to kharaj was paid. fortified it. ordering them to build a city and occupy it with their associates and shepherds and use it as a refuge for their beasts and cattle against those who threatened them. and that of al-Judhamah in Adharbaijan which is a part of the province of Barzah. According to Hamadhani. Later. ? p. and made 1 people settle in it. together with Rustuf 2 and Khabanjar were added to Sisar and the whole was made into one district that was put under one . " p. The district [rustdk] of Mayanharaj in ad-Dinawar.THE CONQUEST OF HAMADHAN 483 stronghold. be- cause was a boundary line between Hamadhan. Towards the end of his calimultiplied it ordered that 31 r phate. nn 239-240. succeeding 4 only in at wresting or most of what Murrah already held Adharbaijan.000 of the men of Khakan al-Khadim as-Sughdi. stationing in it 1. he failed in that. 4 3 4 perhaps rustdk cf. 240 : Mayanmaraj ". 120. and from which they could not be called back. . 216. vol. this band of destiits whom 3 tute and badly damaged Sisar. Yakut. Until the time of the insurrection. T-TamarlTipni pp. too. whose descendants are still in it. p. they built the city of Sisar. 240. Ac- cordingly. oici-OACi Hamadhani. but failed. wrest it from all his hands.

who told him the story of the place and informed him of the desire of all the people to give up their lands to him and act as his tenants in it provided they be protected and strengthened against the destitute bands and others. According to a tradition communicated to to al-Hajjaj. he was met by certain sons of Hammam and a man from al-Mafazah named Muhammad ibn-al-' Abbas. Thus these lands were added to the crown-domains. which is situated near Sisar. Sisar was taken from the hand of 'Asim ibn-Murrah and once more added to the crown-domains [diya al-khildfah]. 253. that when 2 al-Jurashi ruled over al-Jabal the inhabitants of al-Mafazah evacu- ated their town. et way 1 back. to when al-Ma'- mun was on Madinat as-Salam. V. p. Berchcm. Hammam appropriated the villages to himself and used to pay the treasury what was due on them until he died. After the death of Muhammad ibn-Zubaidah. mukata'ah les Fonder sous * M. agreed to pay annually. al-Harashi " in Ya'kubi. . . 45. On her Sawah. Laila-1-Akhyaliyah paid a visit He gave her a present. La Propriete Territorial Premiers Calif es. his His sons were too weak to hold them. Hammam ibnwhom most of the people of al-Mafazah yielded their villages and held them as tenants in order to enjoy his protection. I was told by certain sheikhs from al-Mafazah. Hani' al-'Abdi. and she requested him recommend her to his 'dmil at ar-Rai. I'Impdt " Cf.484 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 In the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. where she was buried. to Al-Jurashi had a general. Al-Mafazah. p. Laila died at Ar. Al-Ma'mun accepted their offer and ordered that they be reinforced and strengthened in order to cultivate the lands and repair them. to write and way from Khurasan me by al-Mada'ini. Laila-l-Akhyallyah.

'Ab- which capitulated after a fight. * A part of Isbahan. Meynard. 'Abdallah ibn-Budail then directed al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais. Others assert that 'Umar wrote to abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari ordering him to direct 'Abdallah at the head of an army to Isbahan. In the year 23. stopped at reduced after a few days' fight. 261 . who was in his army. p. 181 . agreeing to pay kharaj and poll-tax. 1045. Kashan and Isbahan 312 Kumm Musa after and Kashan reduced. whose name was ad-Dahhak ibn-Kais atTamimi to Kashan. iv. Yakut. pp. p. IJaukal. p. 198. Yakut. 485 . provided the population be guaranteed the safety of their lives and all possessions with the exception of the arms in their hands. 2 made terms similar Thus ibn-Budail of Isbahan with 1 to those of Jai. vol. p. Istakhri. . which abu-Musa did. 175. and which he passing through it. vol.CHAPTER V Kumm. Another suburb of Isbahan. 8 ii. 'Umar ibn^al-Khattab directed 'Abdallah ibn-Budail ibn-Warka' al-Khuza'i to Isbahan. iv. Yakut. abu- 'Abdallah ibn-Kais al-Ash'ari came to al-Ahwaz. Jai and al-Yahiidiyah capitulate. Leaving Nihawand. 188-189. vol. He then directed al-Ah- Kumm naf ibn-Kais. to al-Yahudiyah. note « pp. Abu-Musa 1 then overtook him. which he took by force. 3 whose inhabitants dallah ibn-Budail conquered Jai. effected the conquest of the territory its districts over which he acted as 'amil to Cf. 15.

broke it and cut the breast-girth [of the horse]. p. vol. Cf. takes 'Abdallah to be the one who delivered the Wow. which they refused. p. and if thou fight a duel. adds. al-Fadusafan in 313 whose courage and obedience he confided. p. warmness of his men. 2639: al-Fadhusafan ". i. however. pay and he fought to against help. Mu- hammad The " In my view this refers to the inhabitants of hammad satrap of ibn-Ishak: Kumm. Ash'ari camped at Isbahan and proposed to the people the He then proposed that they pay tax. he looked behind and said to 'Ab" Take heed for thyself. made terms agreeing rebelled. As soon as 'Abdallah knew of it. If we will fight! thou charge. and fled away from the city towards Karman with a view to joining Yaz- dajird. Seeing the lukechose thirty archers. " i. Muhammad —'Umar ibn-Sa'd from Mu- sent ibn-Budail al-Khuza'i to Isbahan. vol. he sent after the him a heavy detachment of cavalry. the end of the the banu-Hashim. . the people inciting them to forsake him. defeated them. may 1 back with thee that I arrange terms with thee and pay tax for my towns- Wouldst thou let me go Tabari. a freedman of Bashir's version. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd. 10. we shoot. and brave. mark. v. As Persian reached a high place. 2 Caetani. falling on the pommel of his saddle. Tabari. from Bashir ibn-abi-Umaiyah : —Al- idea of Islam. at which time 'Uthman appointed as-Sa ib ibn-al-Akra'." Isbahan. by Allah's ibn-Sa'd. " A duel followed in the course of which 2 a blow [with the sword] the Persian gave 'Abdallah which.4 86 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE first year of 'Uthman's caliphate. whose satrap [marzubdn] was an aged man called 1 Ibn-Budail besieged the city and wrote to al-Fadusafan. The very next morning they them and. 2639. The Persian then said to " I hate to kill thee because I see thou art wise 'Abdallah. no arrow of ours misses its dallah. vol. upon which they it.

p. vol. are mean and disunited. They Isbahan with al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais commanding the van of who met abu-Musa. Ibn-Budail then passed through the plains and mountains of the territory of Isbahan. p. Ibn-Budail returned with him and took Jai and the Persian fulfilled his promise. Thus they subjugated all al-Yahudiyah Ibn-Budail. as described above. —a place where a martyr " : died or is buried. people of Isbahan. cf. all of which he conquered.KUMM. dail. 3 or Kahjawarsan. ii. p. & Yakut. Pers. vol. and they both marched through the territory of Isbahan and reduced it. i. reported by others that 'Umar ibnal-Khattab sent at the head of an army 'Abdallah ibn-Bu- Other versions. Rustah. The most reliable account. is that Kumm and Kashan were conquered by abu-Musa whereas Jai and al-Yahudiyah. after that. 275 at-Taimara " . therefore." . however. Yakut. " I saw that ye. Gah Gawarsan. Some say that the conquest of Isbahan and its territory was effected partly in the year It is 23 and partly in the year 24. deserve what I did with you. Kumm had conquered both now led the attack against and Kashan. . Ye. treating them as regards kharaj as he had treated the people of al-Ahwaz. 1 of 'Uthman ibn-abi-l-'Asi ath-Tha- at-Tamimi from Persian nobility embrace Islam." The territory of Isb ahan pays kharaj. In Isbahan Abu-Hassan az-Ziyadi from a Thakif man . : — stands the sanctuary kafi. II. and those who flee will not be interfered with? The city I will turn over to thee. in Bihjawarsan and in the fort 1 2 314 Ar. 908. mashhad Ya'kubi. KASHAN AND ISBAHAN 487 men. by 'Abdallah ibn-Budail. 154. after the latter abu-Musa's army. p. reduced Jai. Muhammad ibn-Yahya To the nobility of Isbahan his sheikhs : — belonged various strongholds in Jafrabad in the district of 3 2 ath-Thaimarah -l-Kubra. of whom those who stay will be considered dhimmis. . saying.

" p. 402 " : Sarimin " . which was dilapiAbu-Dulaf al-Kasim ibn-'tsa strengthened his position and rose into eminence in the eyes of the sultan. After that. Meynard. he rebuilt. 3 recruiting him with troops and ordering him to wage war off their allegiance 1 Cf. Al-Ma'mun directed against them 'AH ibn-Hisham al-Marwazi. Kumm's threw rebellion suppressed. Tabari. It is stated by al-Kalbi and abu- 1-Yakzan that after al-Hudhail ibn-Kais al-'Anbari was appointed governor of Isbahan in the time of Marwan. Idris ibn-Ma'kil imprisoned. pp. these nobles offered to pay the kharaj. carried Therefore. the 'Anbari clan moved there. which he reduced and whose fort. * s 382: Marabanan Hamadhani. This took place when Yusuf ibn-'Umar ath-Thakafi ruled over al-Trak in the days of Hisham ibn-Abd-al-Malik. p. One day Idris ibn-Ma'kil attacked a merchant who owed him money and choked him. whose occupation consisted in preparing perfumes and trading in sheep. 478-479. and because they dishomage. they became Moslems. he was away to al-Kufah. p. p. " Ya'kubi. Al-Karaj rebuilt. 1093. . " . 'tsa ibn-Idris came to al2 Karaj. They became wealthy and came to own many [crown] villages. The grandfather of abu- Dulaf (abu-Dulaf being al-Kasim ibn-'Isa ibn-Idris ibnMa'kil al-Tjli).488 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 1 Jai was reduced. vol. iv. came to al-Jabal with a number of his relatives and occupied a village at Hamadhan called Mass. dated. When Al-'Anbari in Isbahdn. Mukaddasi. agreeing dained to pay poll-tax. : Mirabin " : Yakut. of Marabin. 263. Al-Karaj to-day forms a district by itself. Others say he choked him and took his money. The inhabitants of Kumm and withheld the kharaj. where he was imprisoned. vol. 275 p. He enlarged that fort and built the city of al-Kawhich was for that reason called after him Karaj abiraj Dulaf. iii.

KASHAN AND ISBAHAN against them. killed their chief. who was conductthe war against the Talibites who appeared in Tabaing ristan.000. 'Ali did so. In the caliphate of abu-'Abdallah al-Mu'tazz-Billah ibnal-Mutawakkil-'Alallah. his 'amil over al-Jabal. Musa group of its leading men should be deported. 489 Yahya ibn- 'Imran. Al-Mu'tazz wrote that a legiance. Kumm was reduced by force and a large number of its inhabitants was slaughtered. .000 dirhams as tax.000. they once more threw off their al- upon which al-Mu'tazz directed against them ibn-Bugha. although previous to this they used to complain that 2.000 were too much for them to pay. razed the city wall to the ground and collected over 7.KUMM.

CHAPTER The Death The VI 315 of Yazdajird ibn-Shahriyar ibn-Kisra Abarwiz ibn-Hurmuz ibn-Anushirwan Yazdajird fled from al-Maof Yazdajird. and likewise did 'Uthman ibnabi-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi try it and fail. When the Mosda'in to Hulwan flight lems were done with Nihawand. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz proceeded to al-Basrah. Meynard.23. after the conquest of Isbahan. vol. "which is Ardashir Khurrah". to well come to It Tathen fortified. where he was pursued. Tabari. The castle in which he resided was called after him Kasr occurred to Yazdajird to Mujashi'. few only surviving. flee to Karman. mar- Yazdajird : too haughty to speak to Cf. p. Yazdajird was on the point of leaving for Tabaristan. Abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari came to Istakhr and attempted its con- quest. but to no avail. he fled from Isbahan to Istakhr. its As Yazdajird was one day cuban came 1 sitting in felt Karman. but did not succeed. baristan which he told when Yazdajird was still in him was Isbahan. 400 . where his army was caught by a snow storm and nearly annihilated. by 'Abdallah ibn-Budail ibn-Warka'. to which ibnhim Mujashi' ibn-Mas'ud as-Sulami and 'Amir sent after Harim ibn-Haiyan al-'Abdi. In the year 29 when all Persia with the exception of Isx takhr and Jur was already reduced. whose satrap had invited him. Mujashi' came and stopped at Biyamand in Karman. i. but 2863 way back to ibn-'Amir. and thence to Isbahan. Mujashi' then took his in. P.

p. Qaukal. and the marzuban ordered that he be driven out. ' satrap of Maru. Thou hast helped him in order to have his kingdom restored to him but see " what he wrote to thee! They both then agreed to put him to death. p. Yazdajird left for Khurasan. give an account and be asked about the money he had collected. Istakhri. He then wrote Yazdajird asking for the hand of his daughter. 321. ii. 316 here as a runaway fugitive. Chabot). This aroused the anger of Yazda" Write and tell him Thou art nothing but jird. one of my slaves how darest thou then ask for my daugh" ter's hand? Yazdajird also ordered that Mahawaih. who said. Yunabidh. who came but then the tide turned against Yazdajird. insti" This is the one gating him against Yazdajird and saying. whose king showed regard After a few days Yazdajird atti- x asked about the khardj which made the king change his tude towards him. he would not have put thee in such condition! . 273. "Not only art thou unworthy of a kingdom but even of a governorship of a village and if Allah had seen any good " in thee. p. after bountifully. which he left him. Michel le Syrien. p. s Yazdajird slain. vol. 743: 3 "Mahawait". 324. Chronique. reached the boundary line of Maru he was met by its satrap 2 [marzuban] Mahawaih with great honor and pomp. Mukaddasi. . At first the Turks retreated. Mahawaih wrote to Nizak. the thing to ride upon. Nizak led the Turks to al-Junabidh where he met the enemy. saying. gave ' . his followers 1 Cf. . Yunawid or Kunabidh.THE DEATH OF YAZDAIIRD 4™ him. 424 (ed. p. "Tha'alibi. Here he was also met by Nizak Tarkhan who offered him some- him presents and entertained him Nizak spent one month with Yazdajird. When he Seeing that. Yazdajird for left for Sijistan him and exalted him.

of Maru." They found Yaz" and he said. ring and crown. he took his crown and clothes and threw the body into the water. In the evening. Yazdajird was warned against the messengers of Mahawaih and fled away. According to another story. 315. he put the miller and his family to death and took the crown and clothes. which he ate. left my house.492 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE killed. ordered that the miller himself be put to death. and thus ye will be safe. and he said. The man has dajird in the water. Haukal. he " said. p. After and raising killing him. the miller coveted the possession of the crown. p. and one of them gave him 4 dirhams. Mahawaih sent his messenger who killed him in the miller's house. jumping into the water. Seeing that. which intoxicated him. The 1 dismount Mirghab. " Kill me not. When the news came to Mahawaih. Seeing that. rather carry I ' " me to the king of the Arabs. 1 or Marghab or Murghab. Yazdajird laughingly said." He asked them for some money with which he could buy bread. also called Nahr Maru." They refused and choked him by means of a bow-string. at a miller's Some gates so he had to house standing on the bank of alsay that having heard of that. and drink. the miller killed Yazdajird. Tabari. and I will make terms with him on your and my behalf. If ye spare me I will give you my belt. Others assert that Mahawaih incited the miller and. was told that I will some day feel the need of 4 dirhamsl Later he was attacked by certain men sent after him by Mahawaih. Still others claim that the miller offered Yazdajird food. vol. Yazdajird took out his crown and put it on his head. his were camp was plundered. after which Mahawaih " No slayer of a king should be kept alive ". i. and he city refused to open its fled to the city . by his orders. When the miller was asked about him. . and he said. a mill-stone dropped it on Yazdajird. 2872.

who gave him one of their women in marriage. .THE DEATH OF YAZDAJIRD His clothes they carried away in a pouch. and he settled among them. and 1 they threw away into the water. his 493 body Fairiiz taken away by the Turks. pp. 746-747. vol. pp. Tha'alibi. Tabari. 2879-2881. It is claimed that Fairuz ibn-Yazdajird fell into the hands of the Turks. i. 1 Cf.


Sa'id. 301. 485-487. 321 Hudhafah. 83. 124. 466 'Abd b. 225 (built 'Abbas. 362 455 'Abdallah 'Abdallah b. b. 390 Hasan. 192. 'Abd-al-Malik b. b. 238. 455 'Abbas b.Wahid b. 397 al-Habhab. Kais. 49. 321. 82 'Abdallah b. 283. 217. 233. 226. 300. 368. b. 60. 424 abi-Bakr. 282. 135. 294 b. 322. b. 59. 25 'Abd-al-Wahhab b. 358 'Abdallah 54. 324 Salih. 258 Hatim. 147 Abarwiz. 63. 202. b. 82. 367. 'Amir. 233. al-'Abbasiyah. 347. 174 'Uthman. al-Walid. 293 'Abd-al. 360. 127 al-Harith b. b. Zaid. 'Abdallah 'Abdallah 'Abdallah 'Abdallah Darraj. 446 al-'Abbas al-'Abbas al-'Abbas 'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Abd-al-'Aziz 'Abd-al-'Aziz Haiyan. b. 45o 'Abd-al-Malik b. 361.*Naufal. b. 216. 220. 383-385. al-Harith. Yahya. 255. b. 356. b. b. Zuf ar. 139 'Ali. 490 75. 282. Muslim. al-Julanda. b. Jaz'. Ghanm. 'Abd-ar-Rahman 'Abd-ar-Rahman 356 b. 20. b. Yahya. Abd-al-Malik 262. 'Abdallah 238. 'Abd-al-Muttalib. 289 203. 81 Muhammad. 338. 124. 490 'Abd-al-Hamid b. 450. 369 'Abd-al-'Aziz b. 321 193. 30 al-'Abbas b. 36o. 'Abd-ai-Malik Shabib. 195.INDEX Aban Aban Aban Aban b. 288 'Abdallah 'Abdallah b. 'Abd-al-Malik. 300. 328. 130 'Amr. 356 'Abd-as-Samad b. 289 'Abdallah 'Abdallah b. 341. b. 'Abdallah Budail. Bishr. al-'Abbasiyah by Hizar- mard). 135. 139 al-Harith b. 446 b. 118 'Abd-al-Kais. 120. 237 352. b. 409 226 banu-'Abd-ad-Dar. Marwan. b. 465 b. 368. 445. Ilabib. 'Auf. abu-l-'Abbas as-Saffah. 160. b. 'Ali. 250. 455. 294 b. 454 abi-Farwah. Ibrahim. 247. 162. 'Abdallah. b. 249. Marwan. 34. 21 'Abdallah 'Abdallah 'Abd-al-Masih 'Abd-al-Masih Amr. 446 Hatim. 180. 396 b. 104. Muhammad. b. b. 375 341. 255. 129. 367 Hadhaf. 184 Abanain. b. b. 390. 263. Kais. Bukailah. 371 'Abdallah Abd-al-A'la. 82 b. 86. 294. 'Abd-ar-Rahman 'Abd-ar-Rahman 'Abd-ar-Rahman 'Abd-ar-Rahman 104. b. 77 453 'Abdallah b. 495 . 221. 449. 224 368 Ishak. al-Walid. 441. b. b. 116. 435 'Abd-al-Muttalib. 'Abdallah 219. 291292. 248. 256. 277. 453. 283 78. 69.

Musa. 289. 144 Zaid b. Adhruh. 'Adi. 282 Mother of the Be- 'Abdallah 'Abdallah lievers"). 356-359. Sa'd. daughter of b. 283. 51. 237 umm-Aiyub. 264 b. 275 'A'ishah. Adhramah. 'Adi 'Adi 'Adi 'Adi b. 122. 128. 193. 105 127. b. 169. 135. 224-226. 70. 21. 180. 27. ar-Rabi'. b. 'Abdallah 74. 485 •Ali b. 371 al-Aghlab b.496 'Abdallah 'Abdallah b. 'Abdallah 'Abdallah Rawahah. Salim. 120 'A'ishah ("the Hisham. 218. 350- 'Ain Shams. az-Zubair b. b. 249. 369-370. 297 139. b. 260 179. 220 Ajyad. 258-259 al-'Akik. 447 Ajamat Burs. 344. 118 al-'Ala' b. 357 al-'Ala' b. 123. 483 324. 322. 83 Suhail. 228 'Abdallah •Abdallah b. 462 'Ain ar-Rahbah. 76. ' Ahmad b. 135 'Abdallah b. 219. 432 Zaid. 280. Numair. al- 'A'ishah 'Auwam. 129 'Abdallah 'Ain al-Wardah. 479. umm-'Abdallah. 455. 207. 375 487 al-Ahnaf al-Ahwaz. 477 'Ain al-Jamal. 96. 375 b. 379-380 'Abdallah •Abdallah b. 283. 49. 74 Allah. Siba'. 118 Acre f'Akka]. Zaid b. 340. 311 'Abidin. 472. 'Adan. 485. 394-400. b. 'Abd-al-Wahhab. 105. Tha'labah. 229 Alexandretta [Iskandarunah]. 356. 322 al-'Ala' b. 31. 166 Mas'ud. b. 82. 131. 258 'Akabat an-Nisa'. 220. 232 al-Abna'. 'Ain Zarbah. 331 Wahb. 'Asim. 340. 370 "Akubah. b. 40. H3. 461. 449. 124. 446 Aflah b. . 75. 19. 121. 366 105 44. abi-Aiyub. 184 abu-Aiyub Khalid. b. 174-175- 183. b. Sufyan. 461. 26. 135. 160-162 208. 352 'All b. 321. 80 407 v. Aleppo [lialab]. 337. 488-489 Sulaiman. Zaid b. 338. 137 . 28. . 'Abdallah. 215. 481-482 Hatim. 341 'Ain at-Tamr. 228. Adharbaijan. 462-463 'Ain as-Sallaur. 130. 140 'Abdallah. 463 'Ain ar-Rumiyah. 253 I Alexandria [al-Iskandariyah]. 487 Hisham. 30. 107 Adhanah. Ali b. 47. Artat. 'Umar. 351. 181. 214-215 " 92-94. 20. 32 319. see 'Umar Wahb. 216 Abyssinia (al-Habashah). 133. 302. al-'Akki. 'Abd-al- Muttalib. 289 al-'Ain al-Hamidah. b. 105. Muhammad. 129. al-Husain. . Kais. 48 b. s. 75. 39 'Akk. 92-94. 346-351. 344 al-Ahwaz. 141. 431-432. b. 360 b. b. Ahmad. 206. 256. 81 'Akabat Baghras. 281-282 'Ain as-Said. . 427. az-Zubair b. 392. Ra's al-'Ain 'Abdallah 'Abdallah •Abdallah Tahir. 174 b. 120. 247. 30 Aiyub b. 337. INDEX Khalid. b. 140 'Abdallah b. 432 Ajnadin (Ajnadain). 281 Adhri'at. 328.

Arabia. 396 abu-Arwa ad-Dausi. 355. Yasir. 453. Yahya. b. 'Arafah. 275. 'Arbassus. 249. 296 'Amk Tizin. 299 'Amr 'Amr 147. 109 al-'Arim. 355. Sa'id b. 16. 174 166 abu-'Amrah. al-Asi. b. 319. 394-395. j. 338. 108 Iluraith. 'Abdallih. 246. 16 135 banu-Amr banu-'Amr 157 b. 305. 305. 439 Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 247 b. 54. 85 abu-Amir ar-Rahib. 179. 258. 184 b. 254. 61 Arjish. 231 380 Arakah (Arak). 60. 28 'Arib b. 300. 103 213. 332 Artahal. 213. 'Ulathah. b. 342. 242 Ardabil. 346-351. 358. 231. 454 4°3. 'Anbasah b. Mu'awiyah. 421 az-Zubair. 396 b. 425. 306-308. 329 Arjil as-Sughra. 278. Lu'ai. 313 Umaiyah. 481 226-231. ''Abd-Kulal. 413. 201. Armenia. Sa'sa'ah. 379. b. 29 b. abi-Talib. 279. 189. 175. 'Amk Mar'ash. 471. 62. 488 'Alkamah b. 352 Antartus. b. 193 Arashah. 171 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr Hazm. b. 434. 52. of the Bali. 13. 207. b. 168 al-'Arabaya. 321 b. 26 Ans. 241. 295. 305-332 Arran. 'Ammuriyah. 209. 362. 433. . 207. 180. 94. 449. 61. 347 Alusah. 248. 118. al-'Arabah. 67. 420. 257. al-'Arsah. 358. 263. 323. 213. 270 al-Andarz'azz. 58. Amid. 254. 215. Salim. 258. 30 309. 183. 217. 259. 147 Antabulus. 140. 335 174. 310 275. 427. 219. 117. 476 'Arandal. 107. 159 176. 286. 329 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr 'Amr b. v.INDEX 'AH b. 328 al-Arhadiyah. 34 'Utbah. 116. 17 banu-Amir b. 225. 186. 256. 101. Malik. Arjil al-Kubra. 'Amawas [Emmaus]. 428. 250 'Ammar b. 336. Arwa. 479 'Ali b. Mu'awiyah. 402 Amir Amir Fuhairah. 415. 324-325. b. 216. Ma'dikarib. 29. 322. 318 153. abi-Wakkas. 197 339. 178. 249. 279. 432. 288 b. 211. 321. 253. 440. 445. 118. Armaniyakus. 442 al-Andalus [Andalusia]. 119 al-Asi. 396 409. 497 b. 431. 397 b. 432. 185. Mud ad. b. 352-353. 184. Anas Anas Anat. 208 abu-Amir al-Ash'ari. 294. 460 165-167. 335-345. 305. 176. 255. 32. 311. al-Jarud. 263 279. al-'Arish. 250. 81 Sudd Sa'id al-Ashdak. 336 Anushirwan. 279 Alyunah. 133 b. 412. 150- banu-'Amr 'Auf. daughter of 'Abd-al-Muttalib. 77 'Arajin. 202. 463. 205 Antioch [Antakiyah]. 436. 469. 103. 318. Sirin. Sa'id. 62. b. 423. 365372 b. 215. 306. 48. 284 al-Anbar.

395. abu-1-Asad. 298. 219. Asbanbur. 417. 207. 325 'Asim b. 129 al-Ash'ath. 469 Bakkar b. Hamzah. 395 abu-Bakr b. 160. 114. 53. 187. 117. 253. 190. 331 Azadbih. 211. 140 Bahram Jur. 458 al-Ashban [Spaniards]. 202-203. 290. 112. 66. 260. . 141. 412. 432 Badham. 'Abd-Shams. 156. 263. 96. Muhammad. 73. 137. 263. 365 Ashnas. 128. 390. 432 al-Ash'ath b. 5i. 472. 422. 324. 405. 289. 331 Badr. 284. 388. 272 Bajunais. 301 Bajuddah. 258 zantine Empire]. 407. 278 al-Asbadhi. 325. 310. 306. 32. Murrah. 253. 328 al-Bab ash-Sharki. Baghrawand. 39. 323. 390 al-Azd. 136. 314 'Azrah b. 424-425 242. 294. 162. 61. 49. 186. 46. 422. 104 Baduraiya. 321. 54. Kais 432. 71 abu-Bakr as-Siddik. 20. 26. Asad b. 134. 159-162 Baisan. 'Abdallah. or Madinat as-Salam). 447. 161 b. 306. 414 153-158. Kais. 120. 408. 428. 120 325. 431. 33. 120. 107. 286 al-'Awasim. 28S. al-'Ansi. Bab Barikah. 213 Asid. 'Umar. 38.Sham. 275 INDEX Bab al-Lan. Badlis. 384 Bahurasir. 85 'Auwam b. 445 b. 329 Asid b. 445. Ashut b. 328 Bajilah. 329 Bakr b. 321. 296. 313 al-Bak. 314 Baghdad (Baghdadh. 447 al-Bab wa-1-Abwab. 245 Bait Ras. 214. 318 143-150. 228. 179 Autas. 434 Asbina. 275. Bab al-Lal. 376 Arzan. 305. 117. 195. 446 299. 189. 124. 239. 356 'Askalan. 460 Ashush. Muslim. 261. 200 Bait Mama. Wa'il. 415 71. 282. 33 Bait Lihya. 223-234. 84. 322.131. 197 Bait Jabrin. 179 Bait 'Ainun. 306-307 Bab al-Fil. 52. Azdisat. 457-464.49 8 Arwad. By- 482. al-Auza'i. 240. 130. 31. 280. 327. Ma'dikarib. Bajarma. 87 al-Aus. 129. 208. 148. 484 Baghras. 307. 422 Bajarwan. 434 al-Bailakan. 209. 34. 331 Asia Minor [Bilad ar-Rum. 318. 405. 328. 455. 262. 254. 221-222 al-Aswad •Attab b. 190 Babil. 475 b. 243. Badi'. 153-155. 328 Bab Samsakhi. 484 'Asim b. 145. 306. 446. 232. 319. 442 116. 305 al-Bahrain. 456 banu-Asad Khuzaimah. 28. 285. 307 Bab ash. 282. 446-447 127. Zafir. 101.

319. 322. 392. 369 Bihjawarsan. 264. 342 Busr b. 123. 382 Barkah 371 (in Africa). 234 al-Butah. 416 Busbuhra 117. 309 Bukrat b. 289 Bilal. 455. 451 Beirut. 449. 193. 320. 342 al-Bandanijain. 282. 259 Bukailah. 397. 410. 172. Malik. 319 Bugha-1-Kabir. 416 Barah. 441. 264. an-Naka. 180. 402 Barzah. 421 Banikiya. 45. al-Basrah. al-Busfurrajan. 114. Buka. Yasar. 186 abu-Barzah-1-Aslami. 361. 251 Berbers. 172. 169. 118. 388. Sa'd. abi-Artat. 368. 389. 229. 305. 246. 452. 392-394. 193 Batihan. 144. 218. 173. 321. 324. 145. 204 Balis. 406 Burs. Butnan Habib. 228. 367 al-Baradan. 220 al-Ba'udah. 319 Baldah. 459 Bishr b. 411. Saluba. 318. 130. 396. 366. 26 Bilhit. 356. J. 236. 245. 387. 149 Bawazij al-Anbar. 250. 281 b. 33*-332 al-Bujah. 205 Biiran. 147 Byzantine Empire. 360. 300. 398 banu-Bakr. al-Audah. 471. 131 al-Bima. Masruh. 151. 25. 66 al-Basharudat. 228. 404 Bara' b. Wadi—26 Busra. 61 abu-Bakrah b. 32 al-Batrik b. Barr Kais. al-Barshaliyah. 422 Bardha'ah. 247. Bathan or Buthan.INDEX 165-167. 381. 275 Bazalit. b. 197 Bana. 149 22. 428 Bikrat b. Maimun. V. 231-233 al-Balka'. Ashut. 307. 313. 305. 82. 198. 158 Bashir b. 36 Batn Marr. 375. 352-354. 453-456 al-Bathaniyah. 47 375. 392 Bukh. 232 al-Bu\vairah. Ashut. 358 al-Bata'ih. 331 180. 213. 315. 331 Bulunyas. 340 al-Balanjar. 329 Barik. 253-254. 421 398 116. 499 175. 353 al-Barriyah. 318 al-Bazzak. 392-393. Safwan. 319. 436. 193. 351 Bishr b. 194 Baiabakk. 490 Busir. 173. 371 Bistam b. 360. 171. 46. 85 Bawazij al-Mulk. 139. 171. 422 Bazabda. 399 Bistam. 410. 406 Buwailis. 476. 229 al-Buwaib. 487 al-Bihkubadhat. 342 Bashir b. 395 Buzakhah. Narsi. 403. 307 Barusma. Bushair b. 366. 124. 201. 325. 184 Biyamand. Asia Minor . 490 Bugha (a freedman of al-Mu'tasim). 320. 415 al-Balasajan. 437. 357. 393. 405.

453 Dabil. 295 180. 207. 347.279. 342 Dumat Dumat al-Hirah. Dakuka. 417. 360. 295. 478- Dailam. 202. 356. 441 Dair al-A'war. see Tigris Dijlat al-Basrah. 172. 488 Duluk. 130 186. 216. 441 ad-Dailam. 80-81 Dar an-Nadwah. 173. 35i. 312. 352. 376 ad-Daukarah. v. 366. 45i. 219. 149. 353. al-Ahnaf al-Khariji. 167 Constantine [Kustantin b. 278 Diyar Rabi'ah. 306. 406. 306 Durna. 483 305. 311. 469. 231. 305. 397 Dabik. 383 Da'ud b. Dabba. 182. 232. 80-81 Dara.284. 299 Constantine. 200. 162 Dikahlah. 394. Egypt (Misr). 342 Dinar. 443 Dair al-Jamajim. 422 Damalu. 479 Dastumaisan. 365 Crete [Ikritish]. 117 banu-Dabbah. 445. 376 Copts. 328 ad-Dinawar. 372. 298 ad-Darb (Darb Baghras). 313 432.5oo INDEX ad-Daskarah. 335-345. 347 Constantinople. 217. 328 abu-Dujanah Simak. 342 Dimyat. 191. 428. 358. 359. 480 abu-Dulaf al-Kasim. 20I. 235-243 Diduna. 198 Dirar 415 b. 431.'Ali. 403. 186. Diyar Mudar. Dinar. 330 Dadhawaih. 421 Dastaba. 161. 135. 'Umair. 168 banu-Dudan. 379. son of Heraclius. 97. 95-97. 264. 342. 186-199. 293. 476. 388. 37. 139 167. 129. 85 ad-Durdhukiyah. 344. 320. 456 Cordova [Kurtubah]. I7 1 Dar al-'Ajalah. 480. 176. 453. 215. 410. 37i. 297 D ami rah. 324 Cyprus [Kubrus]. 294 ad-Dahhak ad-Dahhak b. 401 ad-Dustan. 259 Dijlah. 96. 317 Dijlah (district). 356 Dhufafah b. 443 Dair Ka'b. 454 Dathin. 36. Kais. al-Azwar. 443. 346. 32i. 450 abu-Dharr al-Ghifari. Darusat. 254 abu-ad-Darda' 'Uwaimir. 178. 475-476 Dinar b. 393. Alyun]. 179. 301. 275 Darauliyah. 340. 343. 210. 209. 406. 281 ad-Dubbiyah (ad-Dabiyah). 2l6. 347. 287. 244 Darb al-Hadath. 400 al-Jandal. 80-81 Dar al-Kawarir. 217 Darin. 202. 293. 180. 20. 443 Dair Khalid. 78. 314-315. 263-264 Damascus [Dimashk]. 237 abu-Dhu'aib Khuwailid. 383 Euphrates [al-Furat]. s. 35. 456 . 450 Dasht al-Warak. 318. 255 Duraid b. 183. 216. 278. 443 Dair Hind. 290-291. 306 ad-Dudaniyah. 381. 339. 296. 406. 389. as-Simmah. 285.

422 Fairuz b. 107. 141 Farrukhbundadh. 309. 206 al-Ghamr. 160 155 abu-Farwah 'Abd-ar-Rahman. 'Ubaid. 140 umm-Habib s. 215 umm-Ghadban. as-Sahba'. 'Isa. 135.oi al-Ghabah. 120. 29 Habib b.INDEX Fadak. 275. 147-148 Yazid. 368 Habib b. 151 al-Hajjaj b. 96. 336. 254. al-Furu'. 223 Hadir Taiyi'. 29 al-Fustat. 28. 129 Yazdajird. 157 Hafs b. 282 al-'Abbas. 135. 289. 168. 347. 141 Fairuz b. 169 93. 149. 280 Hadithat al-Mausil. Zaid. 209. 122. 389. 99 al-Fauwarah. 201-202 al-Farafisah-1-Kalbiyah. 493 al-Faiyum. al-Fadusafan. Sulaim. 61. 148 Ghazzah. 335 umm-Habibah. s. 37. 235 al-Falalij. Maslamah. 128 Karin. 79 Fakhitah. 208 Musa al-Hadikah. Habtar. 141 abu-1-Haiyaj al-Asadi. 55. b. 241. 231. 216 Filan. 'Abd-ar-Rahman. 50-56. al-Fasilah. abi-l-'Asi. 175 . 144. Jushaish. 'Atik. 460 abu-1-Haitham Malik. 17 172. 366 al-Farazdak. 128 al-Hadi. 153. 311 al-Hadrah. 227. 330 al-Ha'ir. 237 al-Fadhandun. 94 Faranjah [France]. 298. 121. 421 Habbar b. 407 Famiyah. 324. b. 350 437 al-Hajjaj al-Harith. 450 al-Farma'. 246. 323 Ghurabah. Hubairah. no. 320-321 al-Fallujatain. abu-Sulaim banu-Habibah. Ghatafan. 405 Fairuz (dihkan). b. 54. 381 umm-Farwah. 229. 123. 130 Ghabat b. 376 Haidar b. 224-225 al-Hadithah. 442 b. 460 al-Fadl al-Fadl al-Fadl b. 435 Hajar. 176-177. 327 Hadramaut. 146 Fihl. 158 Fukair. 390 Musaik. Rauh. 273. 213 Ghumik. 486 Faid. 392 Farwah Farwah IJadir IJalab. 156. 208. b. ad-Dailami. 175 abu-1-Fawaris. 397 Hadir Kinnasrin. Haiyan. 50 al-Fuja'ah. 335. 296. 311-318. . daughter of Karazah. 52. 32. 288. 287. 24 al-Ghabah (the city of). 125 abu-Hafs 'Umar b. 53. 229 Fatimah. 141 Ghurah. 129 Fakhitah. Faraj b. daughter of 'Amir. Iyas. 174 Habib b. 29 Furat b. 341. 124 Hajar. 369 Yahya. 394. 112. 262 banu-Fazarah. 330 al-Fadl banu-Ghanm 'Auf. 309. v. Kawus. Sufyan. 282 b. v. al-Ghamr Ghassan. b. 58 Fadalah b. 341 Fakh. 83. 224-225 b. 160-162 Fairuz b.

322 abu-Hatim as-Saddarati. an-Nu'man. 109 al-Harith b. 132. 445-446 Hasmadan. 390 Hashim Hashim 469 Subabah. Khuwailid. Hamadhan. 321. 455 Hassan b. umm-Haram. Khalid. 396 no. 'Ali. Hassan b. 160. b. 21. 455. 283. 293. 344 Hibal b. 282. 149. 85 Heraclius [Hirakl]. 'Abd-Kulal. 454. 50. 27. 188. 73. 353. 157. Harithah b. 264. 179. 295. 221. 2IO. 52 banu-Hanifah. 201-202 109. 135. 252. 272-274. 369 Haudhah 237 b. Safwan. abu-1-Haul. 76. 404 182 117. Malik. 30. 420-422. 394 Hanzalah. 168. 366. 57. b. 175. 254. 288. 257. 133. Malik. 326 Kabisah. 134. 291 433. 322 al-Haram. 329 b. 454. Hakam b. 272 'Akkah. 370. 112. abu-Harun as-Sulami. 33 165. Hamzah Hamzah Hamzin. umm-Hakim. 104. b. 174. 76. 215 Hibra. 369-370 al-Harith b. Sa'd al-'Ashirah. al-Hakam. 82 Hamra' Dailam. 428. 173. 83. 145 112. 481-484. 443 al-Harith. 32 b. 488 Ham ah. 59. 75. 466. Thabit. 197 Havvazin. al-Harrah. b. b. 286. 'Ali-1-Badhaghisi. 258 Hassan b.84 70. b. 207. 460. 449-450. 81. Hawarih. 82. 253. al-Hani wa-1-Mari. 259. 176. 308 Daigham. 238. 297-298. 77. 367 banu-Hanzalah. 452. * 175. 483 Halab as-Sajur. 297 b. 299. 177. 463 155 al-Hammarin. 49. 36. b. 292. al-Hasan al-Hasan al-Hasan al-Hasan b. 81 Hasan b. 83 abi-Shimr. b. 296. b. 150 al-Harajah. INDEX Yusuf. 280. 31.502 al-Hajjaj b. 300. Mahawaih. 484 Harthamah 370 b. 209 Tha'labah. 'Ali. 'Ali. 190 Hassan an-Nabati. 264 Hamdan. 313 al-Hashimiyah. A'yan. an-Nu'man. 356 al-Harith al-Harith al-Harith al-Harith al-Harith b. Harran. 58 323. 280-281 umm-Hani'. 182. 175 2ii. 317 193. 456. 322 al-Harith b. 235. 24 al-H'irnaniyah. 72. 114. 67 'Utbah. 261. 136 Hanzalah. 376. an-Nu'man. 22. 263. 208. 231 410. 465. 75. b. 99. 459. Harim b. Hani'. Hani' b. 244. Hammad Hamzah 135 al-Barbari. 471. 282. b. 262. 133 490 Harish. ar-Rabi'. Hasan b. 330 Kahtabah. 281 261. Haiyan. 261. 78. 389 Hilal Hilal b. 'Amr. 360 Hassan b. 431. 300. 233. 260 . 218 Hatim b. 197 al-Hijaz. 78. 280 444 al-Haruniyah. 189. b. 184 Hauran. 200. Harim ar-Rashid. 105. 202. 260. Hisham. 441 80. 'Umar. 261. 'Abd-al-Muttalib. 250. banu-Harithah. 221. 224. b. al-Hakam Mas'ud. 112 al-Harak. 381.

128 al-Huwairith b. Hulwan. 286. 463 Hiyar bani-1-Ka'ka. 406. 170 Himyar. 238. 230 al-Hisn b. 225-226 Hubabah. 74. US. 470 155. 371 29. 126 200-206. 181. 409. 488 Hisham Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn Hisn b. 230. 32. 471. Hima Hima an-Naki'. 360. Mujalid. 127. 223. 446 Idris b. 325. 394. 477 Husain b. 389. 41. 282. 147. 287-288. 293 Kamkh. 'Ali. 295. 125. 415 503 b. 117. 444. Sa'd. 475. 454. 405. 275. 228 Ibrahim b. 475 Hisham b. 108. 399-400 al-Yaman. 393. 'Ullafah. 391. 212. 433. 102. 462. 443 261. 340-341 'Ikrimah b.'. 97. 'Abd-al-Malik. 362. 371 Ibrahim b. 279. Ilyas b. 451. 323. 4/6. 421. 169 403. 'Abdallah. ar-Rabadhah. 35344 Ibrahim b. 389 al-Husaid. Muhammad. 280. 167. 207 Hind. Ifrikiyah. 366. 155. 296-297 Kaludhiyah. 301. 47 Hukaim b. 228 Ibrahim b. 228. 390. 320. 99. 404. 490 420. 474. 477 Ikhmim. 393. 109 Hurmuz b. Husail [Hisl] b. 488 'Imran 146. 472 Hurmuzjarad. al-Aghlab. al-Himar. 376 Aban. 488 Hudhaifah Hudhaifah b. Habib. 431 Hind. (village). 393479 al-Husain al-Khadim. 407. 194 . 356-361. 291 al-Hutam. 421. 169. Sa'id. 280. daughter of Yamin. 407 Hit. al-'Asi. 367. Hunain. 427. 23 Humaid Humran Ma'yuf. 415. 337. Akhtab. 299-300 Huwarin. 379 Hims [Emesa]. 352. 210. 263 al-Husain b. 366. 400. 43. 270. 43. 350. 64. 'Abd-al-Malik. 256. 420. b. 49. 457 Ibrahim b. 45. Numair. 138 b. 174. Nukaidh. abu-Hudhaifah abu-Hudhaifah al-Hudhail Hujair. 282. 75 324. 112 al-Husain b. 30. 85. 44 Maridin. b. 141 Hubash b. 387. 355. 124. 275 Salman. 447. 198. 442. 67 Malikiya. 314 Hurmuz al-A'raj. 449. Salamah. 368 Kais. 398. 79. 350 al-Hurmuzan. Jabir. 63. 247. 96 Hurkus an-Nu'man. 260.INDEX Hilal b. 216. 454. 231. daughter of 'Utbah. 60 Ibrahim (son of the Prophet). 238. 455. 370 430. abu-1-Hukaik. abi-Jahl. 283 al-Husain b. 86 abu-Hurairah (ad-Dausi). 173 al-Hadath. 446. 23 180. 480. 401. 389. b. 96. 469-470. Hujr b. 408 Mansur. 369. 74 'Utbah. al-Hurmuz. Mihsan. 138 174 b. 388. 171 Huyai b. 117. 155 al-Hirah. 472. 104. 290. b. 488 'Irkah. 410. 370. b. 291. 83. 294. 158. 49. 392. Ma'kil. 258. 465. 320 Huraith b. Ma'bad. 367. 210 al-Hudaibiyah. 437. Kais. 66. 396 22. 217. 432. 39i. 344. 96. 129. 368. Muslim. 'Adi. al-Mughirah. al-Mahdi. 155 al-Hubal. al-'Irak. 2li.

403-404. 198. 296. 91 al-Jurf. 432. 449. 441 al-Junabidh. 204. 289. 306. 332 . 489 Jidh'. 406. j. 405-407. 233 abu. 'Abdallah. Isma'il. 246-252. 118 Jurash. 189. 463 'Isa b. 490 Iyad.504 'Isa b. 217. 481 b. 488 184. 92-94 Isbahan. 254. 485-489. 314 Jurwah al-Yamami. 179 al-Jarba'. 207. 424. 'Abdallah. 404 Cf. 186. 469. al-Jibal 227. 470. 188. al-Jifshish al-Kindi. 269-278. 232. 462 425. 317. 394. 214. abi-'Ubaid. Ja'far b. 205 393. 332 Muslim. 218 umm-Ja'far Zubaidah. 117 al-Jarajimah. 469. 256. 325. 322- Isma'il b. 217. 487 Jai. 215. 419. 165. 159. 258 Jarash. 216. 167. 437 Jabal al-Kabak. 416 Jalula'. Jurhum. 301 Jubail. 47i. 201. Mesopotamia al-Mukaddas. 181. 482. 'Isa b. 469 Jamil b. v. 307. 116. 230 Jordan [al-Urdunn]. al-Mansur s. 21. 443 Jau Kurakir. 247. 393. 38 193. 230. 341 j. 319. 328 Jarjaraya. 213-214. 216. 472. Ibrahim. 254 Jaban. 401. 32. 107 al-Janb.Ja'far. 414. 366 323 Jarshan. 'Ali. al-Jazirah. 365. 194 s. 226. Ishak Ishak Ishak b. 148 al-Jaulan. 454 al-Jar. INDEX 488 Ja'far. 484. 259-260 al-Jisr. 487. 295 al-Jalinus. 324. Yahya. Busbuhra. 295. 316. 300. 176. 290. 395. 233 Jabr b. 309. 318 Jarir b. 218 Jaihan. b. 150 Ja'far. Sulaiman. 'Abdallah. 477 Jurzan. 32 Jabalah b. 229. 390 J. al-Aiham. 207-210. 160. 293. 491 Junadah b. 190. baidah Jafrabad. b. 169. 324 Istakhr. al-Julanda. 182. Idris. 323. 452. v. 392. 172. 31/. 485. Kuss Jabril b. 369 al-Jibal or al-Jabal. 420-433. 375-376 Jaifar. Zu- al-Juhaf w-al-Juraf. 472. Kabisah. 187. 475 389. b. 178- Jadhimah. 488. 231. 399. [Bait 15. 330. 28. 76. 490 al-Isbidhahar. v. 82 Juhainah. 421 al-Janad. 275 Jisr al-Walid. 74 al-Jurjumah. 3*5. 420. 305. 330. 39. Jabal al-Ahwaz. 257 an-Natif Jabrin. 398 al-Jarrah b. Ja'wanah Jerusalem Iliya']. Ghanm. al-Jardaman. 202. 179 'Iyad b. 92. 309 Jabalah. 250 Jurna. 31. 421. 244. 227. 401 al-Jabiyah. 389-390. 154 Jisr Manbij. 249. al-Jabal. 313 Iyas b. abi-Umaiyah. 114. al-Harith. Judham. 30. 323 v. 480.

Hidm. Shihab. 349 Kafartutha. 319 Kanatir an-Nu'man. 391. b. 165. 460 367. 371. 324 al-Khaizuran. 318. 106. Hubairah. 320 al-Khais. Kais Kais Kais Kais Kais b. 258 Kathir b. 49 al-Katif. 462 277. 263 al-Kanisat as-Sauda'. 160. 360 Kainuka'. 369. 440. 407. 483 b. 432 al-Khabur. 395 Kilikala. 488 Karda. 264 Khaizan. 372 Khalid b. 306. 51. 159 107. . 387. 128. 415 358 Kazwin. 136. 33 Katrabbul 358. 116 Kaisariyah. 450451 dhu-Kar. 160-162. 58. Kafarbaiya. 486. 131 Karyat abi-Salabah. b. 183 b. 437. 434. 63. Malik. 312- Kalthum b. 391 al-Kassah. 335 banu-1-Ka'ka'. 413. 259. 357. 128. 431. 129 al-Kahinah. 320. 441 Khabanjar. 411 Katulah. 408 al-Kamibaran. 167-168. Kaskar. 402. 306. 479 Kanisat as-Sulh. 313. 147-150. al-Kairawan. 'Abdallah. 279 Khaffan. 137. 318 b. (or Kutrubbul). 95. b. 323. 214 Karman. al-Walid. b. 414. 170. 319 Khakan al-Khadim. 42-49. 57. 289. 225-226 Kalarjit. Sa'd. 237 Kabalah. 308. 441. 282 al-'Adasiyin. 483 Khakhit. 275. 454. 479. 275 Khalid Khalid Khalid Khalid Khalid 432 b. 156. 319. 433 Khakan. 460 Makhramah. 480. 208. 166. 396 Makshuh. 368. 340 309-310. 134. 391. b. 462 al-Karaj. 337 Kalb. 37i Sakan. 404. 490 'Umair. Karmasin. 46. 461 Karkisiya. 140 505 Kashan. 179 al-Kadisiyah. 64. b. Sa'id. Khabbab b. 145 Kastasji. 52. 319 Kadas. 256. 472 409- 389. 460. 37. 171. 318 Kasr Kafarmara. 182. 231-232 Ka'b al-Habr. 45. 130. al-Aratt. 461 al-Katul. 463. 485-489 al-Kasim b. 324 'Urfutah. 453. 144. 445. 279. 216-220. 65. 325 Khalfun al-Barbari. 469 Karraz an-Nukri. 281 Katarghash. 408. 37o. 424. 439. 274. 171 Khalid 96. 481 al-Katibah. 390. 129. 397 Kafartis. 416. 444 al-Kasr al-Abyad. 305. 400. 127. 257 Kafarjadda. 118. 419. Karkh Fairuz. 15 Kalwadha. 41. 361. 145.INDEX Juwatha. 443 al-Karyatain. 158. 399 Khaibar. '458 Katul Kisra. 281 Thabit. 362. 129. 50. 97. 417-418. Rabi'ah. 321 Kasirin. 416. 416. 124.

415. 324-327. 341. 157 b. 17. 103. 156. Kurrah b. 457. 481. 317 Khunasir b. 369. 64. 309. Malik. 61 107. 33. 262. 256 Khutarniyah. 186-191. 84 dhu-1-Kila'. 25. Hudhafah. 202. 346 al-Khasharimah. 62. 297. 293. 198. 319. 430. 305-306. 318 Kumis. 358. Khatal al-Adrami. 152. 230 Kurz b. 202. 263 al-Kilab. 112 Kuhuwit. 77. 491 banu-Kuraizah. 424 Kusai b. 388. b. 193. 97. Kilab. 406. 270. 173. 369 Khalid Khalid Yazid b. 124. 453 as-Sulami. 420. 464. 300. al-Khavvarnak. 61. 323 Khurrazad. Kuraish. 446. 53. 368. 327 66. 449. 313. 223. 176. INDEX 178. 81 • Kuba'. 214. 270. 450. 211. 310. 63. 86. 317. 213.506 169-172. 421. 322. Kisra. 'Iyad. 479. 319. 133. Mahibundadh. Khaulan. 346. 68. Kubakib. 29 b. 411. 480. 169. 15. 261. Kumm. 129 Kudamah 133. Mazyad. Kinnasrin. Khunan. 475 105. 432 b. 112. 34 Kusam. 77. 61. 459. Kindah. 415 Kurtubah. 381 Khukhit. 301 Khanijar. 383 Khalij Banat Na'ilah. 125 102. 143 75. 305. Hisn. 457. 229 Khunasirah. 480 Ku'aiki'an. 277-278. 63. 18 Khashram Khashram b. Khuraim b. 212. 80 171 banu-Kilab. 124. 331 Khufash. 422 Khanikin. 475. 223-234. 147 Kurt b. 65. 360. b. 205. 155. 367 al-Kulzum. . 317 Kulthum b. Jammah. 294. 60. Aus. 405. 336. 296. 'Alkamah. 390. 320. 307. 484. 430 al-Kiryaun. 446 al-Khazar. 324 umm-Kurz. Kura 74. 482. 387-400. 349 Kisal. 254. 399 al-Khusus. 330 Yazid b. 310. 62. 30S. 427. 434 Kurds. 27 180. 460. 306. 485-489 64. 179. 392 151. 419. Kinanah. 229 al-Khuraibah. 306. 469. 405. 420 Khurzad b. 80. 148 Kharijah Kharij ah b. 33 488 al-Khidrimah. 105. Hubairah. al-Khazraj. 319. 431. 154. 292. 292 Kubbash. 16. 407. 228. b. 169. 129. 19. 211. 297. 157. 275. b. 259. 325 145. al-Kufah. 153. 482 al-Kurr. 211. 329 279. 323. 217. b. 60. 293. 280. 455. 174. 141 Khilat. 422 Khuza'ah. 472. 104. 170 Kurdbandadh. 289. Mu'awiyah. 160. 471 78 Khumm. 328. 434-448. 200. 405 169. 388 'Arabiyah. 40-41 Kurakir. see Cordova • 240 Khuzaimah Khazim. 77. Khauwat Jubair. 330 Kurus. 'Amr. Maz'un. Khurasan. 60. 476. 197 al-Khatt. 480 Kubadh 67 Fairuz. 144. 471.

107. Masruk. 264. Nuwairah. 403-404 Kutha. 356. 449. 141. 416. 434. 71. 270. 208. 165. 312 Malik b. 297. Anas. 430. 288. dhat-al-Lujum. 188. al-Mada'in. 459. 297 Mahrdbah. H4. 108 472. 461 Kuwaifah. 372. 368. 281. 229. 117 al-Lakz. 324 Mahrudh. 314-315 Luwatah. 362. 202 Maimun Maimun Maimun (village). 472. 32. 451. 203-205 Laila (daughter of al-Judi). 144. 47. 421 al-Mahuzah. 124. 462. 96-97 Laila-1-Akhyaliyah. 92-94 al-Maksalat. 87 . 84. 149-150 al-Ma'mun. 162. 136. 33. 309. 350. 358. 238 Malik al-Ashtar. Murarah. 484. 92. 254. 207. 33. 492 al-Mahdi. 323 Madh'ur b. 118. 44i Kutham b. 155. 262. 381 Makna. 'Abdallah. 435. 422. 418. 165. 437 Mah Mah al-Kufah [ad-Dinawar]. 261. 410. Baghdad Malik b. 82-83. 'Auf. 484 b. 483 286 al-Laith b. al-' Abbas. 73. 437. 260. 60-76. abi-Laila. 54. 457. 86. 289-293. 480 Mahawaih. 83. 'Adi. 300. 471. 356. 214. 88. 349. Dinar. 282 al-Jurjumani. 314. Hamzah. 54 Mah 482 al-Basrah [Nihawand]. 287. 146. 356. 238 Lakhm. 183. 61. 484 al-Maghrib. 223. 15. 324 213. 296. 56. no. 370. 19. 462. 30. 27. 330. 460. 240. 129. 113. 359. 127. 256. 326. 451 Maisarah b. 123. 424. 121. 257. 254. 441-442. 476 al-Kutkutanah. 263. Lakit b. 226 Malik. 21. 117. 420. 451 b. 322. 476. 76. 473 15. al-Mahain. 27. 16. 275 Majaz al-Andalus. 57. 408. 158. 459 Madharan. v. 440. 54. 312 al-Kushan. 280. 184. 366. 434. 365 359 Ma'kil b. Ja'far. 405 457. 289. Ma'bad b. 376. Sa'd. 248 al-Maimun (canal). 297. s. Yasar. 451. 477 Madinat as-Salam. 421. Malatyah. 491. 411. 298 Malik b. 433. 77-8i. 256. 173 Ma'arrat Misrin. 184. 184. 233. 89. 335-345. 80. 252. 482 Madhhij. 490 Makkah. 352- . 90. 341. 443 al-Mahdiyah. 396 507 353. 353-354 Ma'ab. 85. 429. 387. 220 Ludd [Lydda]. 244 369. 295. 417-419. 476 Labbah. 190 al-Madinah. 120. 391. 461 Maimadh. 16 al-Ladhikiyah. Kuss an-Natif. 327 Liran. 309. 130. 482. 299. 428 Magians. 367. 446. 257. 358 Malik b. 146. 129. al-Madhar. 160. 81. 451. 229 Ma'arrat an-Nu'man. 387 al-Ma'din.INDEX Kusan al-Armani. 381. 37i. 101 Malik b. 21. 270 Maiyafarikin. 446. 488 al-Mafazah. 389.

314 al-Hasa. 290. 79. Mukhallad. Karin. 291. 255. 472. 358. 213. 251. 71 dhu-1-Marwah. 231. 405-408 Mihrijankadhaf. 278 Manuwil. 296 Mikyas b. 246. 271. 20. 299. 294. 433. 206 al-Mazihin. 466. 289. 400 464. b. 84. 347-348 Manzur b. 470. 483 Mayazdiyar b. 309. 67 Mi'lak b. as-Suffar. 368. 83. 471. 202. 279-280 abu-Mihjan b. 182-185. 321. 55. 359 al-Mubarak at-Tabari. 172 Mid'am. 449 Maru ar-Rudh. 309. Hudaij. 356. 294. 250-251 Mt. 135. 329. 277. 492 Mirbala. 375. 160 al-rlakam. 'Amr. b. 228 76. 341. 231. 291. Maslamah Mass. 488 204. 258. 459. 456 Mansur Mansur b. 328. 295. 248. 300. 216-219. Lebanon. 278279. 57 Midlaj b. 108. Zadan. 242. 375. 254. 294-295. 257. 174. 109. 476. 312 Husain. 296. Yazid. 369. 215. 200 Marj Tarsus. 288. 376. 247 Mu'adh b. 344. 319. 232. al-Massisah. 473 Mardanshah b. 488 Marakiyah. 313 al-Misrain. 380 Mu'awiyah 205. Muhammad. 441. 186. b. 264 al-Mauriyan ar-Rumi. 404. 256. 233. 79. 341. 261 Martahwan. 325-328. 293-295 Mesopotamia [al-Jazirah]. 316. 103. 298 al-'Anazi. 64. 191. 403. al-Lukam [Amanus]. Zabban. 324 Maskin. 393. Ja'wanah. 287. 103. 328 Mardanshah. 255-259. in. 455. 458 445. 369 al-Marwah. 452 Maskat. 280. 184. 360. 293. 347. 261. 251. 155. 176. 180. 229 Maru. 312. 360 b. 207. 260. 3io. 84. 478-480 banu-Mashja'ah. 463. 478-480 Mikha'il. Zaiyar. 429. 202. Jabal. 300. 311. 309. Mandal Manbij. no. 227. 54. 292. 261. 317 'Abd-al-Malik. 194-197. 299-300 al-Mahdi. 166 al-Marwahah. 482 Mayanharaj. 450. 357. 250. 488 256. 144 Marabin. 320. 359. 151. al-Marzubanah. 179.Wahid. 249. 269. 445. 313. 375 Mu'awiyah b. 259. 299. 357. b. 397. 400. 457-459. 479 Mu'awiyah b. 263 'Rahit. 359 al-Mansur. 403 Mt. 29. 358. 297. 312-313. 410. 54. in Marj 'Abd-al. Masabadhan. 259. 491. 208 Marj Marj Marj Marj Marj 216 Dabil. 233-234. 292. 205 Mar'ash. 314. Badham's wife. 323-325. 306. 446. 466 Ma'rib. 293. 312 al-Mausil. 454. 269-283. 56 . abi-Sufyan. 203. 448. 342. 191. 287. 59. 296. 107. Habib. 228- 229. 260. 86. 235-238. Saffar. 288. 295. 205. 248. Marwan Marwan 3H. 282-283. 296 Manjalis. 228. 359. Subabah. 238.5 o8 INDEX Maslamah b. 183. 171 Mashra'at (or Furdat) al-Fil. 322 Milhan b. 231. 299. 289. 414 Mihran. 320. 78. 254. 368. 184.

b. b. Muhammad Muhammad 345. b. b. b. 131 abi-Umaiyah. 184 'Abdallah Murah. b. abi-l-'Asi. 483 Bugha. Muhammad Hasan b. 202. 464. 180. 358. 51 abu-1-Muhajir. 328 Musailimah al-Kadhdhab. 392. 26 Sallam. 436. 264. 340. Maslamah. al-Muntasir. ar-Rahman. b. 313 'Abd- 'Abdallah 'Abdallah b. 160. 439. Shu'bah. al-Muhammadiyah. b. 475. b. b. Nusair. b. 322. Musa b. 127 b. 132. 447. 446. 489 184. 159 al-Kasim. Ma' as-Sama'. 481 136-137. 296 Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad 30 Mutammam b. 450. 293. 151. 228 al-Musta'in. al-Musaiyab b. 138. 120. 132- Muhammad Muhammad 452 140. Ishak. 396 Muhammad 298. 258 Murrah b. Mas'ud. Muluk at-Tawa'if. 293. 346-348 al-Mukhabbil. 459 b. I34-J36 Mukharrim al-Mukhtar b. Sa'id. 257. 107. Hasan. b. al-Mukaukis. 411. 195 Mu'tamir b. 372 al- Muhammad Kummi. 221. 162 Mukhairik. Mu'tah. b. Sa'id. IS4-I57. 225. 55 Yazid. al-'Abbas. 427. 35 Muhakkim [Muhakkam] al-Yamamah. 479. 369. 381-382 b. 339. 'Ali. 410. 329 Muslim b. 463. 469. 479 Muhammad Muhammad b. Zuhair. 490 al-Mus'ab abi-Hudhaifah. b. 299 b. b. b. al-Murtafi'. 306. b. 55. 206. 101. 258. b. Sulaiman. 490 Mujja'ah Murarah. 473. 407 b. abi-Murrah. 372 314. 128. Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad 361. 51. 185. 247 al-Musafir al-Kassab. Nuwairah. 250. Marwan. 129. 'Abdallah 56 al- al-Mundhir al-Mundhir al-Mundhir al-Mundhir Hassan. 487. 259. 297. 206. 44i. 321. 461 . 130. 509 b. 256. Yahya. 399 b. 296 Mujahid b. Musa-1-Hadi. 127. 261. 123. 343. 362. 288-289 Muhammad 446. 25. 85. 297. 372 125 Muhammad 112 Yusuf ath-Thakafi. 259. 128 Sawa. 371 al-Ash'ath. 484 Muks. 297 Musha'il al-Armani. 141 Muhaiyisah b. 479. 358 267. 309 b. az-Zubair. 359 al-Muhajir b. 106. 299. 330 460. 'Abdallah. 83 107. 134. 50. 357. 397 Muhammad Muhammad 358 abu-Musa-1-Ash'ari. 472. 149-150 312-313. 410-412. Jabr. Hazn. 485. 79. 440. Mas'ud. 399 abi-'Ubaid. 478. 376 Mujashi' b. 155. Ibrahim. al-Aghlab. 294. abi-Bakr. 321. 225 an-Nu'man.INDEX Mudhainib. b. 344- 438 b. 288. 184 al-Mu'tasim. al-Muffarraj al-Mughirah al-Mughirah b. b. 457 b. al-Muka'bar al-Farisi. b. 368 'Abdallah Musa b. 365-366.

39i. 459 ar-Rahbah. 240 98-105. 390. 229. 230 Ramman. 353 Maslamah. 421. 154. 278-279 ar-Raiya. 155. 307. 451 as. 409. 247. 460. 178. 453. as-Silah. 452 ad-Damm. 46 ar-Rakkah. 32. 231. 478. 280 Shaila. 213. 428 Mahdud. 193. 401402. 200. 109 Aus. Nizak Tarkhan. 128. Said. 3^5. 33.Sin. 321. al-Mundhir. INDEX 56. 263. 252. 491 Nizar. 290. 134. 479. 29. 227 Palestine [Filastin]. 180. 141. 207. Muhammad. 413 an-Nukhailah. 415. 63. 319. 389 232. 300. 282. Bujair. 284 banu-an-Nadir. an-Nil. b. 379-3S2 an-Nujair. Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr Nahr al-Amir. 462. 280. 30. 274. Nafis b. 408. 420. 407 Rabi'ah b. 250. 157. 167. 462 Najran. 454. 168. 394-395 Nabateans. b. 389. 76. 227. 489 Nu'aim Nu'aim b. 107. 436 461 al-Mutawakkiliyah. 392. 43. 201. 435. 33i. 403. 280. 275. 471 an-Nahrain. 282 Ra'ban. 450 441. 202. 158 388. 82 Najd. 408. 390. 329. 133. 398 an-Nashastaj. 213 ar-Rafikah. 'Abd-Kulal. 170 an-Najraniyah. 417. 169. 31 an-Nu'man an-Nu'man b. 297 Rabi'ah. 455. 387. 202. 298 ar-Rai. 395. 142 Nasr Nasr b. 213-222. 407. umm-Nahshal. Harithah. 270-272. 45. 422. 322 Nihawand. 169. 45i. 265. 249-250. Malik. 293 ar-Rajjal [Rahhal] b. 399. 393. 197 al-Muthanna b. 103 an-Nakhirkhan. 'Unfuwah. 417 Nabulus. 457. 400. 421. 419. 409-410. Daisam. 390. 390 Durkit. 127. 147 . Zur'ah. Kasit. 432 Rafah. 372. 81. 485. 289. 120. 431. 450 229. 330 Nasibin. 225. 45. 157. 102. 301. 433 401. 398-400 Orontes [al-Urunt or al-Urund]. 490 146. 287. 245. 471. 123. 405-408. 293 481. 396. 375. 220-221 Nikabulus. 410 an-Nu'man Kail dhi-Ru'ain. 134 an-Natat. 306. 418. 433 al-Malik. 244. ar-Ramlah. 76. 394. 471-477. 404. 399. 132. 396 51 Nusair abu-Musa. 431 Rabad Harran. 484 an-Nashawa. 281. 278. 416. 372. 21. 414. 34"39. 440. 127. 432 Persies (Furs). 410. 281 Rahwat Malik. 387- Nubia. 396. Sa'd. 407. 461 al-Mu'tazz. 474 an-Namir b. 428 al-Mar'ah. 109 Muzaikiya. 274-275. 248. 413.5io al-Mutawakkil. 232 Sa'd. 381-382. 165. 397 an-Nusair b. 245 b.

329. 440. 457 Rusafat Hisham. 446 as-Sakun. 329 Sa'id. 330. ash-Shabiran. 330 al-Akra'. 425. 280. ar-Rumiyah. 151. 300 272-275. 326 San'a'. 244-245 as-Samsamah sword. 205. 282. 306. 32. 'Amr 'Amr b. 319. 324. 228 Sahl Sahl b. 41 abi-Wakkas. 193-194 Sa'id b. 326 230. 458 as-Sarat. 36. al-Mu'attal. 280. 330 511 as-Sailahin. 440 Sa'id al-Khair b. 275-277. 405 Rustam. 465 Safiyah. 479. 257. 433. 474. 278 abu-Shajarah 'Amr. 417. 431. 403. 270. 151. 478 Sajah. 269. as-Sadif. 151 ar-Rawadif. b. 421. 433 as-Sa'ib 478. 169. 43 Seleucia [Salukiyah]. 295 Salit b. 37 Shabath b. 148 Shakkan. 422- as-Safa. 482. 24. 444 b. 434. 461 Sa'd b. Khaithamah. 43-44 as-Sawardiyah. Sharwan. 486 Shaizar. 201 as-Sa'ib b. 297. 250 Rhodes [Rudis]. 417. 306. 114. 375-376 ar-Ribab. 432 Mu'adh. 406 ar-Ruha. 153. Rib'i. 176. 'Amr. al-'Auwam. 394. 323. 15. 282 ar-Rass. 'Abd-al-Malik. 319 abu-Shakir. 319. 471-472. 432. 251. 318. Rabi'ah. 156 387-400. 280 . 162 Malik. b. 183-185 as-Samur. 40. as-Sa'fukah. 274. 106-107. 318-320. Kais. 230-231. 441 Sallam at-Taifuri. 431. 323 Sa'id b. 405 as-Sarir." 247. 326 Shaila. 221. 310- 312. 419. 319. b. 443 as-Sayabijah. 418. 422. 205 Sala'us. 309. 217. 278. 446. 461. 416. 274. b. 160. 273. 466 Salih b. 409-414. 469. 260. 156. 107. 282 Salih b. Hunaif. 319. 449. 136. 414 Salman b. 434 ar-Rusafah. 23. 81 Sa'id b. 419 420. 420. 132. 288 Sa'yah b.INDEX Ra's al-'Ain. 301 Saruj. 65. 413. 213 Sabat. 290 'Ali. 435. al-'Asi. 287. 310. 279 Raskifa. 419. as-Sanariyah. 319 ash-Sharat. Sabastiyah. Samaritans. 250 270. 83 Sa'id b. 71 431. Sanbat. 401. 'Amir. 410-415. 410 Rauh " b. 484 Sa'id b. 483 Salma. 'Abd-ar-Rahman. Sa'd. 449. tlatim. ash-Shamakhiyah. 416. 36Q as-Saimarah. 432-433 Sa'd b. 279. 291. 329 306. Salim. 323-325. 415 as-Sabun. 396. 129 Sabur. 463. 275. 282 as-Sawad. 421. 465. 184. 184 Shamkur. 437-442. 462. Aswad. 112. 446. 16 Sa'd Sa'd Sa'd b. 329 as-Sarah (canal). 'Amr. 142 Safwan ' b. Salamyah. 287. 327. 481-482 Sarjun [Sergius]. 138 Sa'id b.

491 Suran. 179. 301 177. 250. 261. 309 Tabalah. 398. 399 at-Ta'if. 398 abu-Muhammad. 217. 223. 'Ubaid. 114. 409. Sa'd. 238. 20. Mujib. 362 as-Sus al-Aksa. 287. 278. 234. Hasanah. Shimshat. 87. 314 as-Sirawan. 447. 273-274. 397. 92. 222. 349 Shurahbil b. 89 Sufyan b. 289. 332. 274. 'Auf. 282 Tall A'zaz [or 'Azaz]. abu- Suwa. 62. 157. 479 Siraj Tair. 471 as-Sisajan. 382. 220. 191. 118. 'Abdallah. Syria (ash-Sham). 208 Taima'. 176. 415. 309. as-Simt. 325 St. 400 Talhah 260. 85-90. 155. 45. 460-461 as-Sus al-Adna. 297. Harb. Sughdabil. 338. 46 Sultais. 400. 96. 186. Kharashah. 46. 405. 307. 158. 224. 232. 198. 328 Sicily [Sikilliyah]. 307. 177.512 ash-Shikk. 372 Surra-man-ra'a. 322.Malik. 232. 294 Sufyan b. 305. 195 Sufyan b. 101. 169. 328. 102. 61. Simak b. 330. 241. 202. 283. 287. 46 INDEX banu-Sulaim. 144. Sumaisat. 316-317. 297. 291 'Abd-al. al-Muhajir. 389 16. 248 abu-Sulaim Faraj al-Khadim. 225. 165-167. 198. 61. 201. 28. 190. 309. 167 John's Cathedral. 231. 289. 54. 247. 465. 'Ubaidallah. 197. 230. 305. 129. Kutbah. Sinan. 262 as-Siyasijun. Dujanah Simak b.431. 'Amr. Sulaiman Sulaiman Kirat. 169. 319 Shirawaih. 320. 165-168. Taflis. 324. 194. 224 in. 255 as-Sind. al-Aswad. Sulaiman 148. 279. 17. 66. 'Uyainah. 490 Tabarsaran. 406 Shuraih 'Amir. 483 b. b. 269. 200-201. 372. 75. 63. 299. 209. 173. 215 Sulalim. 214. 105. 230 Tall Jubair. Suhaim 262 b.432 Tall 'Afra'. 190. 191-192 Tadmur. 340. 91. 57-59 Taiyi'. 30. 208. 210. b. 478 Sirin 246. 211. 62. 362 v. 241. 115. 212. 45. 91 Tabaristan. 171 as-Sudd al-'Arim. 146. 250. Tabuk. 170. 399. 284-286. 61. 216. 459 208 Takat Bishr. 211-212. 165. 211. 31 Sufyan b. 327 Slavs [Sakalibah]. 294. 297 Sidon [Saida'J. 38S. 231. 406 Shurahbil b. 263 . 476 asiSimt b. 178. 306. 482. 419 282. 238. 305. 396. 251. 219. 415 Sijistan. 32. 215 Takrit. 306 Suhail b. 489. 240 abu-Sufyan b. 249. 388-389 Shurat. 332 Sisar. 162. 276 I7S. 482-484 Sisiyah (Sis). 310. 169-170 Suwaid b. 254. 359. 325 banu-Taghlib. 180. 151. 31. 220. 212. 107. 92-94. 3 75 b. 315. 366 b. 33i. 194. Sinn Sumairah. 194 Siffin. 215. 50. 252 Sinjar. 305. s. 103.

216. 427. 139. 330. 244. 161 ath-Thughur al-Jazariyah [MesoFrontier Fortificapotamian tions]. 224. b. 218 168. 173. 369 b. 180. 58. 193. Tizanabadh. Ka'b. 197 120. 453 Mihsan. 205. 124. 221. 330 Ziyad. b. 289-290 Turks. as-Sudai. 209-210. 54. b. 217. 410. 353. 253. 30. Aus. 326 Tunis. 202. 4©5 at-Tirrikh. 52. 393. 21. 176. al-Jarrah. 362. 151. 112. Tigris. 133 as-Samit. b. 230. 367. 258. b. 35. 145 186-190. 270. 135 'Ubaid 357. 357. 487 Tha'labah b. 367 abu-'Ubaidah b. 287 'Umair b. 480 'Ubaidallah Thaniyat al-'Ukab. 379 'Ukbara'. 198. 432.INDEX Tall Madhaba. b.119. Hajizah. 287-300 Uhud. 415. 65. 165166. 365 Ttiman. 237 banu-Tamim. 234. 135. al-yarith. 293. 269. 'Abd-ar-Rahman. 209. 343 Nan'. Ziyad. 342. 365 403-404. 179. 362 Murrah. 200. 328 213-216. 443 Tizin. 394. 204. 396 401-402. 306. 307. 417. 208. 253- 'Amir. 146 Ullais. 178-179 361. 397. 272. 151. 404. 275 513 b. 241. 368. Fortresses of Syria]. 455. 358. 193. 'Amr. 237. Turandah.'Aziz. Kais. 246. 223. 201. 369 abu-Umamah abu-Umamah 415 As'ad. 100. 456 Tulaitulah [Toledo]. 140. 342 53. 414. b. 52. Turaifah b. 284-285. 194-196 Tripoli (Atrabulus) in Africa. Tanjah [Tangiers]. 394 Ubai b. 446. 140. 1/9. 463 b. 172. 254. 45i. 'Abd-al. Tantikh. Tulaihah 147. . 477 Ukaidir ath-Thughur ash-Shamiyah [Frontier 'Abd-al. 296. 200 That al-Ubullah. 116. 70. 30. 409. 49i. al-Mahdi. 118. 288 Sa'd. 296. 86. 87/248. 430. 49. 88. 411 'Ubaidallah b. 'Ubadah 'Ubadah 129. 406 Tarsus. 265 Thumamah b. 145. 181. 399 'Ukkashah 'Umair 'Umair 254. 336. 177. 420 145. 105. 20. 410. banu-Umaiyah. 149 'Uman. 28. Nu'aim. 226- ath-Thabja' al-Hadramiyah. 279. 178. 19. b. 360. 282 Tall Mauzin. 388 al-'Udhaib. 28. 146. 254. 229 Tripoli [Atrabulus]. 155 32. 69. 421. 389. 254 Tarik b. 405. 391. 313-314 al-Hubab. b. al-Walid. 155 Thakif. 389-390. 418. 357. dhi-1-IIirrah. 460 'Ubaidah b. 414. 251. 493 Tustar. 53. 18.Malik. 355. abu-'Ubaid Mas'tid. b. 405. 149. Khuwailid. 233. 95-97 b. 103. 223-224. 203-205. 443. 85. 192. 2ii. 278. 276-277. 413. 92. Tamim b. 33 ath-Tha'labiyah. Wahb. 409 232. b. Tyre [Stir]. 263. 235. 295 Tiberias [Tabaraiyah]. 401. 359. 359. 32. Thabit Thabit b. 401 'Umar 220 104. 203. 80. 'Ukbah 'Ukbah 22. 147. 405. 260-262. 172.

Yazid. 286. 220. Wadi-1-Kura. 442 INDEX 'Uthman 'Uyainah b. 32i Wadi Mahzur. 338. 235. 346. 148. 324. 29. 255. 290. 438. 376. 151. 337. 447 102. 418. 157 'Utbah 'Utbah Ghazwan. 107. 323. 195. 416. 485. 45. 406. 342. 278. 311. 469. 222. Sa'id. 47. 188. 106-115. 145. 'Abd-al-Malik. 416. 81 'Affan. 233-234. 328. 162. 62. 486. 69. 46 406. 426. 34. 258. 451. 35i. 50. 343 b. 282. 405. 432. 197. 471-475. 486 al-Yarmuk. 414. 26 Wahshi b. 88. 273. 340. 196. 439. 393. 490 417. 20. 124. 394. 61. 241. 179. 315 banu-Wali'ah. 141. 183. 53. 487. 80. 298. 397. 176. 389. 198. 287. 227. 320. 276. 'Uyun 'Uyun al-'Irk. 280. 102. 146 463 368-369 'Umar 'Umar b. 90. 87. 402-404 Yahya b. 49. 76. 354. 343. b. 191. 207-211. 311. b. 51. 89. 242. 269. 29. 67. Yathrib (al-Madinah). 461-463 al-Khattab. 'Umar. v. 125. 150. 102. 49. 146. 347. 226. 249. 130. Shahriyar. 86. 188. 260. 339. b. 34. 125. 152. 51. 250. 23. 456 al-Walid b. 340. 220. 482. 31. 103. 379. 76. 440. 158. Zaid. 152. 320. 279. 431. 275. 281 al-Wathik. 45. 366. 344. 25. 401-402. 54. 173. 264. 322. 18. 37-39. 216. 190. 366. 434. 208. 194. 3io.5H 342. al-Yaman. 36. 24. 25. 73. Yafa [Jaffa]. 445 Hisn. 489 b. 222. 309. 440. 357. 362. al-Yakusah. 253. 328 Wasit. 34i. 423. 103. 82. al-Urdunn. 399. 395. 73. 209. 29. 272. 196. 'Ukbah. 440. 21. 353. b. 223. 194. 423. 415 31. 356. 350. 307. 76. 99. 446. Hi. 126. 464. Rabi'ah. 238. 35i. Jordan 'Urwah 'Urwah 122. 48. 454. 469. Yazdajird 490-493 b. 88. 102. 123. 139. 422-428.355. in. 24. 336. 261. 481. 430 361. 421. Hubairah. 166. 129. 147. 277-278. 227. 483 . al-Walid b. 359. 29. 43i. 249. 184 az-Zubair. 428. 238.86 124. 98. 449-452 Wasit ar-Rakkah. 448. 61. 321. 471. 43. Harb. 270. 487 Yahya b. 54. 210. 153-158 al-Walid b. 'Uthman 184. 279. Hafs Hizarmard. 410-41 1 al-Yamamah. 152. 27. 123. 427. 156. 428. 70. 175 Ya'la b. 430. 485. 131. 104. 81. at-Taff. Munyah. 70. 280. 240. 76. 435. 404. 125. 42. 44. 104. 296. 50. 214-219. 46. 192. 132-142. 3h 33. 'Imran. Hunaif. 460 al-Watih. 37. 350 Warthan. 396. 'Uthman b. 358. 22. 471. 375. 284286. 102. 23. 349. 20. 232. 241. 282. 57. 'Uthman al-Audi. 335. 74. 318. abi-l-'Asi. 435. b. 54. 159-162. 409-412. 420. 345. 212. 58. 74. 138. 367 Wardan. 20. 310. 51. al-Yahudiyah. 259. 213 356 s. 185. 487 b. 165. 193. 335 175. 235. 'Umar b. 477 253. 135 Wais.

Zandaward. 1 53-157. Ziyad b. daughter of abu-1-Fadl. b. 107 banu-Zuhrah. 376. 130. al-'Auwam. 451 269. 442 b. 117.282. 282. az-Zawazan. 360 b. b. Nun al-Yahudi. 160 abu-Zubaid at-Ta'i. 27. 1 abu-Zaid al-Ansari. 359. 59. 139. 275 Zawilah. 330-331 'Umar. 96. 440- az-Zab. 402. Zamzam. 105. 441. Zurarah. 281. 465-466 Zaid b. Zuhair Zuhair b. 322. 341 Yazid Yazid Yazid b. 437. 166-168. 150 116. 24 Zadan Farrukh. 413 Zur'ah b. 336-338. 28. 104. 369 254 75. 328-329 al-Walid. b. 202. az-Zubair 343.. 76. 445 Usaid. b. 236. 326 Ziyad b. 189. 201. 68 Zibatrah. 259. 442 az-Zutt. Labid.INDEX Yazid Yazid Yazid Yazid Yazid b. Abihi. 81. 294. al-Muhallab. 179. 50 Muhammad. b. 404 Zubaidah. 39. Sulaim. 442. 49. 215-217. al-Khattab. 368 b. 208. 112. 131 b. 219. 138. 63. 450 'Abd-al-Malik. 190. 413. 244. 241. b. Makhlad. 370 Zabid. 107. 464. 238. 309. az-Ziba'ra as-Sahmi. 138. 436. 264 18. 366 abi-Muslim. 178. 190. 366 abi-Sufyan. 480 Yazid Yazid Yazid 173. 319. 65. 432. b. 515 77 389. 251. Kais. 417 Zuhrah 488 441 IJawiyah. Hatim. 250. 58. T07 Zuraib. az-Zarah. 298-299 Zirikiran. 194. 447. 193. dhi-Yazan. 352-354 b. 245. b. 262 Mu'awiyah. 204. 416. 259. 431 b. 196. 129. Yuhanna Yusha' b. 186. 43. b. 335. 38. 80. 92 Yusuf Yusuf b. 366. Ru'bah. al-IJurr. 'Umar. 404 . 479 103.



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