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ENGINEERING STANDARD FOR PROCESS DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS (PROCESS PIPING AND PIPELINE SIZING) ORIGINAL EDITION MAR. 1996

This standard specification is reviewed and updated by the relevant technical committee on Aug. 2003. The approved modifications are included in the present issue of IPS.

This Standard is the property of Iranian Ministry of Petroleum. All rights are reserved to the owner. Neither whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third party, reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written consent of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum.

Mar. 1996 CONTENTS :

IPS-E-PR- 440

PAGE No.

0. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 3 1. SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................ 4 2. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 4 3. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY ............................................................................................. 4 4. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 5 5. UNITS.............................................................................................................................................. 7 PART ONE : PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED ONSHORE-SINGLE PHASE

6. GENERAL SIZING CRITERIA........................................................................................................ 8 7. FLUID FLOW .................................................................................................................................. 8 8. REYNOLDS NUMBER.................................................................................................................... 8 9. FRICTION FACTOR........................................................................................................................ 8 10. FLUID FLOW CALCULATIONS................................................................................................... 9 11. SINGLE PHASE LIQUID FLOW................................................................................................... 9 12. FITTINGS AND VALVES ............................................................................................................ 10 13. SPECIAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................. 10 13.1 Water Flow ........................................................................................................................... 10 13.2 Pump Suction Lines............................................................................................................ 10 13.3 Cooling Water...................................................................................................................... 11 13.4 Limitations Owing to Erosion Preventive Measures ....................................................... 11 13.5 Other Matters....................................................................................................................... 12 14. SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW ..................................................................................................... 13 14.4 A Practical Way to Calculate Gas Flow in Pipeline ......................................................... 13 14.7 Steam Flow .......................................................................................................................... 14 14.8 Flow Induced Noise ............................................................................................................ 14 PART TWO : PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED OFFSHORE

15. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 16 16. SIZING CRITERIA-GENERAL.................................................................................................... 16 17. SIZING CRITERIA FOR LIQUID LINES ..................................................................................... 16 17.1 General................................................................................................................................. 16 18. PUMP PIPING ............................................................................................................................. 17 19. SIZING CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS LINES ............................................................. 19 19.1 Process Lines...................................................................................................................... 19 19.4 Compressor Lines............................................................................................................... 20 20. SIZING CRITERIA FOR GAS/LIQUID TWO-PHASE LINES ............................................... 20 20.4 Minimum Velocity................................................................................................................ 21 20.5 Pressure Drop ..................................................................................................................... 21 PART THREE : TRANSMISSION PIPELINES FOR: 1) LIQUID 2) GAS

21. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 23 22. SIZING CRITERIA....................................................................................................................... 23

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IPS-E-PR- 440

23. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES ............................................................................................................. 23 25. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGL) PIPELINES............................................................................ 24 26. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES ...................................................................................................... 24 PART FOUR TWO PHASE FLOW 27. TWO PHASE FLOW SIZING PROCESS PIPING ...................................................................... 26 27.2 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss ................................................................................................ 27 28. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS .............................................................................................. 29 28.1 Bubble or Froth Flow .......................................................................................................... 29 28.2 Plug Flow ............................................................................................................................. 29 28.3 Stratified Flow ..................................................................................................................... 29 28.4 Wave Flow............................................................................................................................ 29 28.5 Slug Flow ............................................................................................................................. 29 28.6 Annular Flow ....................................................................................................................... 29 28.7 Dispersed Spray or Mist Flow............................................................................................ 29 29. VELOCITY LIMITATIONS .......................................................................................................... 29 30. MAINTAIN THE PROPER REGIME ........................................................................................... 30 31. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 31 APPENDICES : APPENDIX A MOODY FRICTION FACTOR CHART ................................................................... 35 A.1 Method of Solution.............................................................................................. 36 APPENDIX B RELATIVE ROUGHNESS CHART........................................................................ 37 APPENDIX C HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT (FRICTION FACTOR) "C" ............................ 38 APPENDIX D RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS ........................... 39 APPENDIX E RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS ........................... 40 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE DUE TO PIPE ENTRANCE AND EXIT........................................... 41 APPENDIX G EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS...................................... 42

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IPS-E-PR- 440

0. INTRODUCTION This Standard covers single phase liquid flow, single phase gas flow, and specific cases requiring special treatment, and a brief discussion of two-phase, two component flow calculations in short process pipes. "Process Design of Piping Systems (Process Piping and Pipeline Sizing)" are broad and contain variable subjects of paramount importance. Therefore, this Standard consists of four parts as described below: PART TITLE Part One: "Process Pipe Sizing for Plants Located Onshore-Single Phase" Part Two: "Process Pipe Sizing for Plants Located Offshore" Part Three: "Transmission Pipeline for (1)-Liquid and (2)-Gas" Part Four: "Two-Phase Flow" The flow of liquid, gases, vapor, two-phase flow and many other fluid systems have received sufficient study to allow definite evaluation of conditions for a variety of process situations for Newtonian fluids, which will be discussed later on. For non-Newtonian fluids considerable data is available. However its correlation is not as broad in application due to the significant influence of physical and reological properties. This presentation is limited to Newtonian system except where noted. Primary emphasis is only given to flow through circular pipe and tubes, since this is the usual means of movement of gases and liquids in process plants. The basis for fluid flow follows Darcy and Fanning concepts. The exact transmission from laminar or viscous flow to turbulent condition is variously identified or between a Reynolds number of 2000 to 3000. The correlation included in this Standard are believed to fit average plant design with good engineering accuracy. However other basis and correlations used by designer should be mutually agreed upon. As a matter of good practice with the exercise of proper judgment, the designer should familiarize himself with the background of the methods presented, in order to better select the conditions associated with a specific problem. Most published correlations for two-phase prossure drop are empirical and, thus, and limited by range at data for which they were derived. A mathematical models for predicting the flow regime and a procedure for calculating pressure drop in process pipelines are presented in this Standard. Design conditions may be: a) Flow rate and pressure drop allowable established, determine pipe diameter for a fixed length. b) Flow rate and length known determine pressure drop and line size in the range of good engineering practice. Usually either of these conditions requires a trial approach based upon assumed pipe sizes to meet the stated conditions. Some design problems may require determination of maximum flow for a fixed line size and length; however, this just becomes the reverse of conditions above. Optimum economic line size is seldom realized in the average process plant. Unknown factors such as future flow rate allowance, actual pressure drops through certain process equipment, etc. can easily over balance any design predicated on selecting the optimum. Certain guides as to order of magnitude of costs and sizes can be established either by one of several correlations or by conventional cost estimating methods. The latter is usually more realistic for a given set of conditions, since generalized equations often do not fit a plant system. Optimum criteria for pipe size should be subject to mutual agreement between Company and designer. Unless otherwise stated, equations presented here are only used for calculating pressure drop due to friction. Therefore pressure loss or gain due to elevation must be taken into consideration where appropriate . For supplementary information regarding the mechanical part of design, reference shall be made to Engineering Standard IPS-E-PI-240 for "Plant Piping Systems" as well.

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1987 HYDRAULIC INSTITUTE STANDARD "Centrifugal. Ed. Ed. 2003. but only to the extent justified by the problem at hand. The relationships presented cover Newtonian fluids which include most useful process piping application. The subject of this Standard is to present mathematical relationships. 1996 IPS-E-PR. Vol. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY AGA American Gas Association BBM Begg’s-Brill-Moody Sulfide Stress 4 . The approved modifications by T.Mar. were sent to IPS users as amendment No. These referenced documents shall. II. Rotary and Reciprocating Pumps". to the extent specified herein. The applicability of changes in dated references that occur after the cited date shall be mutually agreed upon by the Company and the Vendor. "Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. For undated references. 2003. API (AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE) API Publication 2564 Third Ed.440 1. SCOPE This Engineering Standard covers process piping design and pipeline sizing.C. Chapter 15 Guidelines for the Use of International System of Units (SI) in the Petroleum and Allied Industries" (IRANIAN PETROLEUM STANDARDS) IPS-E-GN-100 “Engineering Standard for Units” IPS-E-PR-460 "Process Design of Flare and Blowdown Systems" IPS-E-PI-240 "Plant Piping Systems" IPS NACE (NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS) NACE MR 0175-2002. These modifications are included in the present issue of IPS.. January 1982 3. "Standard Material Requirements Cracking Resistant Metallic” GPSA (GAS PROCESSORS SUPPLIERS ASSOCIATION) "Engineering Data Book". Note: This standard specification is reviewed and updated by the relevant technical committee on Aug. 214 on Aug. the methods suggested here do not contain any built-in safety factors.. 2. based on which pipe size is calculated. form a part of this standard. REFERENCES Throughout this Standard the following dated and undated standards/codes are referred to. the edition cited applies. December 2001. 1 by circular No. Section 17. the latest edition of the referenced documents (including any supplements and amendments) applies. Unless noted otherwise. These should be included. 14th. For dated references. in addition to presenting most popular pressure drop equations and fluid velocity. 10th..

kilopascal (kPa) is adopted as the unit of pressure in calculations. in (mm) di Inside diameter of pipe. in (m²) Am Minimum pipe cross-sectional flow area required. The following table gives equivalents of Nominal Pipe Size in DN and Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches: DN (mm) 15 20 25 40 50 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 NPS (inches) ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 DN (mm) 400 450 500 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 NPS (inches) 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 36 40 Eq. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Unless otherwise stated. (dimenssionless) ff or fF Fanning friction factor fD= fm= 4fF. (dimenssionless) fD Darcy’s friction factor = fm. The Metric Standard Conditions For measuring gases and liquids as referred to in the Standard is defined as 101.S gallons)per day Bh Rate of flow in barrels (42 U.S gallons) per hour BX& BY Baker parameters C Hazen-Williams constant D Inside diameter of pipe. 1996 dB DN IPS-E-PR.440 Decibles (unit of sound pressure level) Diameter Nominal. NGL NPS NPSHA NPSHR Re r/min s Natural Gas Liquids Nominal Pipe Size. in (m) Dp Particle diameter. in (mm per m³/h liquid flow) Amm Cross-section of pipe. (dimenssionless) B B B 5 . in (mm) E Efficiency factor f Friction factor of pipe. But in cases where the pressure drop is expected to be small. To this end. in (mm²) Bd Rate of flow in barrels (42 U.325 kPa and 15°C. in (inch) Net Positive Suction Head Available Net Positive Suction Head Required Reynolds number Rotations (revolutions) per minute (RPM) second.80665 Pa = 1 mm H2O (Conventional)]. millimeters of water column (mm H2O) is also used [9. (dimensionless) fm Moody friction factor. in (mm) The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) will be designated by "DN" although in calculations the diameter generally has the units of millimeters (mm). ERW mmH2O MSC Equation Electric Resistance Welding In adopting the SI System of Units in this Standard it has been tried to satisfy the requirements of API Publication 2564. 4. all symbols used in the Engineering Standard are defined as follows: A Area of cross-sectional of pipe.Mar.

in [kPa (absolute)] Final or outlet pressure. in 8314. in (kPa/100 m) Liquid flow rate. in (m) Final elevation of pipeline. in kpa Average gas pressure = 2 2 2 3 P P 1 2 Δ P100 Δ P100 Δ PTP100 QL Qsc Qv q ql qs R Re Rem Rgl S T To V Vave V Vc Ve VR W WT Wc Operating pressure in fittings. (dimensionless) Coefficient of resistance in pipe. at 20°C and 760 mm of mercury. in (m3/kg) Mass flow rate. in (kg/h) 6 . in (km) Equivalent length of pipe. in (m) Length of pipe. To. in [kPa (absolute)] 3 3 ! P1 P2 . in (J/kg) Enthalpy of condensate at return line pressure. in (kg/h) Total fluid mass flow rate. in kelvin (K) Base temperature = (273 + 15) = 288 K Fluid velocity. along 100 m of pipe. loss.3/M (J/kg. in (m³/s) Liquid flow rate. in (m³/h) Vapor flow rate. in [kPa (absolute)] Operating pressure. in [101. (liquid+vapor) Condensate load. fitting. in (kg/h).Mar.440 Gravitational acceleration (usually is equal to 9. in litre/minute (L/min) Liquid flow rate. in (m3/kg) Critical velocity with respect to sound velocity. G =M(gas)/M(air). in (mm) Enthalpy of condensate at supply pressure. in (m) Latent heat of steam at return line pressure. mol. in (m/s) Specific volume of steam at return line pressure. in (m/s) Fluid erosional velocity. in (m) Initial elevation of pipeline. in kPa/100 (absolute) or [P1-P2/100 (absolute)] Pressure loss. in (kg/mol) Operating pressure. in (m) Length of pipe.325 kPa (absolute)] Initial or inlet pressure. in [kPa (absolute)] Base pressure. in (m³/h) Rate of flow at flowing conditions. in (m³/s) Universal gas constant. in (m) Ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume cp/cv. Head loss due to friction. valves and etc. in (J/kg) Static head. in (m³/h) Gas flow rate at Po. K) Reynolds number Modified Reynolds number Gas/liquid ratio in m³ (gas)/m³ (liquid) at MSC Relative liquid density (water = 1) Flowing temperature. in [kPa (absolute)] Vapor pressure of liquid in suction temperature of pump.81 m/s2) Relative density of gas at the prevailing temperature and pressure relative to air. in (kPa/100 m) Two-phase pressure. in (m/s) Average fluid velocity. in (J/kg) Molecular mass. in (m/s) Specific volume. 1996 g G hf hc hR H h1 h2 K Ke L Lkm Le LR M P Pave Pf Pv Po P1 P2 IPS-E-PR..

440 ¡P flow = L100 ¡PV100 µ 0 . (dimenssionless) L & M modulus for two-phase Gas compressibility factor IPS-E-PR. or upstream conditions. 5.s) Density. in (kg/m3) Mixture density. in (kg/m3) Liquid volumetric fraction A fraction of L & M modules Surface tension of liquid. in (cP) Gas viscosity at flowing temperature and pressure. in (kg/h) Gas mass flow rate. 7 . in (kg/m3) Two-phase flow density. in (kg/m3) Gas density. in (kg/h) mass (weight) fraction of vapor. in (kg/m3) Vapor density. in (dyne/cm = mN/m) ρ L (rho) ρ g (rho) ρV (rho) ρ m (rho) ρ TP (rho) λ (lambda) φ (phi) δ L (sigma) Suscripts: 12gL- Refer to initial. in (m2/s) = absolute viscosity relative density Absolute viscosity at flowing temperature and pressure. except where otherwise specified. UNITS This Standard is based on International System of Units (SI).5 Greek Letters: Δ (delta) Differential between two points ε (epsilon) Absolute pipe roughness in (mm) γ (nu) µ (mu) µg (mu) ρ (rho) Kinematic viscosity. in (kg/m3) Liquid density. Refers to liquid. Refers to gas. 1996 WL Wg x X Z Liquid mass flow rate. Refer to second. downstream or outlet.Mar. in (Pa.

1996 PART ONE IPS-E-PR. sometimes for preliminary design purposes when pressure loss is not a concern. and B) is the Colebrook equation. and B. and rigorous calculations to determine pressure drop involving trial and error should be performed by computers. The problem is further complicated when a diameter is to be found which will produce a specified pressure drop or outlet velocity for a given flow. Since velocity is inversely proportional to the square of diameter. chosen. fluid viscosity and velocity of flow according to Reynolds number is as follows: Re = d. 1) 9.440 PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED ONSHORE-SINGLE PHASE 6. that of calculating velocity and pressure loss for a given diameter is very frequently encountered during hydraulic or "spool" checks. density and initial pressure. 7. and straight line in the system. In this situation additional trial and error is required to determine the proper diameter. With two-phase systems.Mar. process piping is sized on the basis of allowable velocity. This increase is a function of fluid velocity. In addition. pressure drop available for controllability. 1/ ⎡ ε 2. velocity limitations causing erosion or aggravating corrosion must be taken into consideration. spool check calculations are required before final specifications for prime movers can be written on final diameter. GENERAL SIZING CRITERIA The optimum pipe size should be based on minimizing the sum of energy cost and piping cost. the local pressure on the surface perpendicular to the direction of flow increases dramatically.51 f = −2 log10 ⎢ + ⎢ 3. 8. the line size must satisfy process requirements such as pump suction line. The opposite problem. FRICTION FACTOR The basis of the Moody friction factor chart (see Appendix A. In general an evaluation of the total system equivalent length must be made based on fittings. 2) For reference chart and method of solution see Appendix A. With both vapor and two-phase systems. When there is an abrupt change in the direction of flow (as in elbow or tees). approximate calculations often neglect the importance of momentum on total pressure drop. valves. However. is reduced. FLUID FLOW 7.V.1 In vapor systems. REYNOLDS NUMBER The relationship between pipe diameter. 8 . the result being that. the use of rule of thumb or approximate sizing methods can lead to critical flow and subsequent vibration and whistling. Although pipe sizing is mainly concerned with pressure drop.7 D Re f ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (Eq.ρ μ (Eq. high velocity fluids require special attention with respect to the size selection. but are functions of diameter. fitting and valve losses are not constant. improper sizing can lead to slug flow with its well known vibration and pressure pulsations. fluid density. The design problem as described above is correctly defined as line sizing. Sometimes. A preliminary line sizes must often be selected before an accurate knowledge of the system equivalent length is available.

W 2 d 5 . SINGLE PHASE LIQUID FLOW 11. using Equation (3): ΔPe = hL .. q S d 4 at flow condition d2 (Eq. Reynolds number should be determined for regime of flow. 6) Δ P100 = 81055 × 107 fD . 11.V = 4074 × 10 4 μ .4 P1 This is because energy losses due to acceleration and density variations can be neglected up to this limit.ρ (Eq.3 For a given mass flow rate and physical properties of a single phase fluid in turbulent conditions. 11. The average gas density of flow in uses .Mar. In cases where the pressure loss is less than 10% of the upstream pressure. for a given volumetric rate. where the pressure losses are small relative to line pressure) reasonable accuracy can often be predicted providing the following conditions are met. the Darcy-Weisbach or Fanning methods shall be used..e. The calculation is simplified for liquid flows since the density can reasonably be assumed to be constant. Δ P100 can be expressed as: (Eq.440 10. q2/d5 bar/100 meter at flowing conditions (temperature and pressure) 9 . 4) Where: Δ P100 is the pressure drop in bar per 100 meters.1 For the calculation of pressure loss in liquid lines. P100 can be expressed: ΔP100 = 6253 f P . i.e.2 Flow is considered to be laminar at Reynolds number of 2000 or less. 3) The elevation pressures gains or losses are added algebratically to the frictional pressure drops. As a result the Darcy-Weisbach calculation can be applied to a long run of pipe rather than segmentally as directed by the variable density in gas flow. 11. an average value of ñ is not required and either the downstream or upstream density can be used. therefor before using the formula for pressure drop. 5) Alternatively.1 For calculation pressure loss for a single phase (liquid-gas-vapor) fluid at isothermal condition when flow rate and system characteristics are given. (P1 . 1996 10. ρ 10200 kg m 2 (Eq. 10. presented in this Standard through the application of Darcy-Weisbach (often referred to as simply Darcy) and Fanning principles. FLUID FLOW CALCULATIONS IPS-E-PR. Elevation pressure drops must be calculated separately. ρ = ( ρ1 + ρ 2 ) 2 The pressure drop is less or equal 40% of up stream pressure i. The following formula is for pressure loss of laminar flow: ΔP100 = 32 μ .P2) ≤ 0.2 For compressible (gas and vapor lines.

.5 kPa/100 m.V 2 ⎜ d ⎜ 2 gc ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ( Fanningequ ation ) ⎟ ⎠ (Eq. kg-force).85 ⎛ Q1. lb-force). ρ .1 Generally the pressure drops in pump suction lines shall be held below 4. 10 . The Hazen-s formula is as follows: ⎛ 100 ⎞ h f = 2. is density (lb/ft3) or (kg/m3).1 × 10-6 K. 9. is gravity constant 32.. FITTINGS AND VALVES IPS-E-PR.Mar. .V2 / 196120 = 5. is velocity is pipe (ft/sec) or (m/s). (Eq.Williams’s formula... 1996 12. K = K valve + K elbow + K tee. shall be taken and calculated from Appendices D. in the case of liquid at the boiling point and below 7. As a result.L d (Eq. from which the pressure drops shall be calculated. following equation is obtained: Δ Pf = K.2. SPECIAL CONDITIONS 13.2 Pump Suction Lines 13.⎜ 4.9 kPa/100 m in the case of liquid below the boiling point. 13. ρ . f . K V P gc is coefficient of resistance. The value "K" is defined as follows: ΔP = n K= 4. 11) ρ .9) Δ Pf is pressure drop in fitting (psi) or (kg/cm2). E and F. 7) 4. constant "C" is taken as "100".25 × 10 4 Le ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ 1.V2 kPa In cases where valves and fittings are to be handled as pipe equivalent lengths.1 Water Flow The pressure loss for water flow shall be calculated by Hazen.440 In case where the coefficient of resistance "K" are to be used. 8) Pressure drops " Δ Pf" in fittings can be calculated as follows: ⎛ ρ . f .L ⎛ ρ .V2 kg/cm2 = 5 × 10-4 K.V 2 ΔP = K ⎜ ⎜ 2 gc ⎝ Where: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (Eq. is one of the most accurate formula for calculation pressure loss in water line (see Appendix C for Hazen-William’s constant C).80 (kg.w ⎟ ⎜ d 8655 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (Eq.17 (lb/ft/sec2. 10) (Eq.85 ⎞ . the equivalent lengths shall be taken from Appendix G and added to the actual pipe lengths.m/s2. 12) 13.. For the design of new water pipelines. The HazenWilliam’s relationship.

is height from datum to pump centre.2134 m for liquid below boiling point. NPSHR α (alpha) P1 Pv 13. in (kPa). 13. Pipe smaller than pump discharge nozzle size is not used. 13.1 Amine solution The following limitations should be considered. piping costs increase with diameter while utility costs decrease. is relative density (Water = 1). 1996 IPS-E-PR. in (kpa).5 psi) shall be added in the case o f dirty service. The equivalent length to be used for pressure drop calculations shall be assumed to be 46 m (150 ft). For carbon steel pipe: Liquid 3 m/s Vapor-liquid 30 m/s For stainless steel pipe: 11 .45 kPa (0.3 to 2. Allowable pressure drops can be determined by the following formula: Δ P = 9. 13. Velocity often strongly influences the mechanism of the corrosion reactions. is pressure working on suction liquid surface.440 The maximum velocity of bubble point liquids shall be 1.Pv) Where: (Eq. where most of the pump pressure is used for pipe and equipment resistance. 13) ΔP S H is friction loss in piping to pump inlet.3 A suction liquid line to a centrifugal pump should be short and simple. Of course.13 m/s. is vapor pressure of liquid at suction temperature. in (kPa).835 S [H -(NPSHR + α )] + (P1 . Between alternate design the best size can be determined by adding the total cost of utilities over the period of capital payout to the capital cost of each installation. An economical comparison is justified with large diameter piping. in (m) (the term "Datum" refers to the bottom tangent line in the case of vertical vessels and to the bottom level in the case of horizontal vessels).305 m (1 ft) for liquid at boiling point and 0. Mechanical wear effects at high values and particularly when the solution contains solids in suspension.4.3 Cooling Water Cooling water discharge headers are usually sized with unit pressure losses in decimals of 7 kPa (1 psi).4 Limitations Owing to Erosion Preventive Measures Velocity of the fluid plays an important role in errosion-corrosion.2.2 m/s and for sub-cooled liquids shall be 2.2 In cases where permanent strainers are to be provided a minimum pressure drop of 3. Note that the longer payout times favor larger pipe diameters.2. The lowest over-all figure will give the most economical solution.Mar. in (m). is net positive suction head required. is 0. For corrosive liquids these values may be reduced by fifty percent. Velocities are usually between 0.4 m/s. Higher velocities and unit losses can be allowed within this range when subcooled liquid is flowing than when the liquid is saturated. 13. No addition is required in the case of clean service.

26 Sh > Where: ρ (rhow) H h S ρ . 16) Δ P (flowmeter) + P (line friction) is relative density.2 Vacuum tower overhead line 1) The line cost and steam and cooling water consumptions shall be calculated and the line size shall be decided so that the annual cost will become minimum.Mar. 13. Δ P (flowmeter) = kPa pressure drop in flowmeter.003g (° L °V ). reducer and air cooler tube inlet parts after water injection points.5 Other Matters 13. especially for nozzles. the line size shall be determined so that no vaporization may occur at the inlet of control valve. is static head.5. 15) (Eq. Care must be taken not to exceed the highest fluid velocity in pipe tubes.Dp = °V (Eq.corrosion of carbon steel pipes.440 13. tees. the following should be satisfied. in (m). in (mm). 2) Pre-condenser shall be provided in wet cases where the pressure loss in the pre-condenser shall be 4 mm Hg. 0.4. is relative density. Δ P (line friction) = kPa pressure drop due to friction.1 Gravity flow 1) Side cut draw-off In cases where no controller is provided for the liquid level in the liquid draw-off tray. 14) The line size shall be also checked that the control valve size may not become larger than the line size. bend.1412 or 2. is static head. hydrotreating processes often cause rapid erosion. the flow velocity in the first 3 meters of the vertical line shall be less than 0.H > Δ P (flowmeter) + Δ P (line friction) (Eq.2 Ammonium bisulfate (NH3-H2S-H2O) solution Aqueous solutions of ammonium bisulfate produced in the effluent line of hydrocracking. In this case. 2) Determination of line sizes in cases where the liquid enters a control valve at the boiling point should be sized on the following basis: With consideration given to the static head and length of the line from the liquid level to the control valve. in (kg/m3). 1996 Liquid Vapor-liquid 9 m/s 36 m/s IPS-E-PR.5. 13. This value is intended for vaporliquid separation based on the particle diameter 200 micrometers (1000 micron = 1 mm) in cases where the operating pressure is high or the difference between the vapor and liquid densities is small: q V = 0. 12 .762 m/s.

A rigorous calculation of pressure loss for long pipeline involves dividing it into segments. 14. For every 0. the answer will be 1% error. It is based on Weymouth formula.1 Line from heat exchanger to steam trap or control valve The pressure drop in this line shall be smaller than 11. For process piping however. 5) also can be used for calculation of pressure loss in process gas lines as follows: Δ P100 = 62530 f D . (m3/h). VR (h C . LR (Eq. 14. SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW 14.4 A Practical Way to Calculate Gas Flow in Pipeline Here is a short cut way to calculate gas flow in pipelines. 3) The flow velocity shall be calculated by the following equation: V= 354.3.d bar /100m (see Eq.Mar. 1996 13. the answer will be three-fourths percent in error: Formula: Qg = Where: Qg 10. 2) In this case.5.e.W 5 2 g ρ g .3. Part of the hot condensate flashes into steam when it is discharged into the condensate return system. 5) 14.. the answer will be accurate. a simplified formula for compressible fluids is accurate for fully turbulent flow. a rigorous calculation would not be necessary and the equation outline below are considered adequate. 17) 13. WC .440 13. 13 . as pressure decreases along the line so does the density (assuming isothermal flow).d 8 / 3 P12 − P22 L m3 / h (Eq.1 In general when considering compressible flow.5. since pipe lengths are generally short.2 Line from steam trap or control valve to following vessel 1) Steam condensate return lines must be sized to avoid excessive pressure loss. a figure mostly practiced by design companies (refer to Engineering Standard IPS-E-PR-460 for.4 Flare headers Flare headers shall be designed so that the maximum allowable velocity does not exceed 50 percent of critical velocity.01 variation in relative density (specific gravity).6. 13.h R ) d2.3 kPa/100 m (0. performing the calculation for each segment (considering variable parameters) and integrating over the entire length. "Process Design of Flare and Blowdown Systems"). At 15.2 As mentioned above for estimating pressure drop in shortrun of gas piping such as within plant or battery limit.5°C and relative density (specific gravity) of 0. For every 5. assuming the pressure drop through the line is not a significant fraction of the total pressure (i.73 × 10 −4 .3 The Darcy formula (Eq.5. the flow velocity "V" must be limited to 1524 m/min to prevent erosion.5°C (10°F) variation in temperature.5. A variation in density implies variation in Reynolds number on which the friction factor is dependent.3 Steam condensate lines IPS-E-PR. no more than 10%). 14. 18) is cubic metere of gas per hour.1 kg/cm2/100 m) and shall be checked that no condensate may vaporize therein.

L is length of line in (m).L⎜1 + d + 0.440 d is pipe ID in (mm). m/s* 30 41 52 14 . 14. As the pressure drop in a pipe (increases) so does the flow. dB (A) 60 80 90 MAXIMUM FLUID VELOCITY TO PREVENT NOISE. P1 is kPa (abs) at starting point. 14. 23) 14.5 Vc and Vc for ideal gasis is given by: VC = K . the Spitzglass equation shall be used for pressure loss calculations: ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Δhw .00118d ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎣ 0.00118d ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 5 ⎢ ⎥ ΔP. For trouble-free operation maintain operable velocities at 0.64 K . are as follows: NORMAL BACKGROUND SOUND PRESSURE.5 0.8 Flow Induced Noise The allowable maximum flow velocities in cases where the maximum sound pressure levels of the piping noises must be kept 8 to 10 dB (A) under the sound pressure level of the background noise.P ρ m/s (Eq.d ⎥ m 3 / h at 15o C Q = 0.00338 ⎢ ⎛ 91. 1996 IPS-E-PR.7 Steam Flow Babcock formula shall be used to calculate pressure drop in steam lines: 2 iP = 1. 20) The maximum velocity in piping handling compressible shall be less than ½ of the critical velocity. 14.L⎜1 + d + 0.d 5 ⎥ m 3 / h at 15o C Q = 0.6 d6 3 W 2 .L °S (Eq.5 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎢ G. 22) Where: ΔP is the pressure drop in Pa. 21) (Eq.5 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎢ G. But for compressible flow this increase is limited to the velocity of sound in the fluid at flowing conditions.6 System operating at pressure less than 7000 N/m² (7 kPa).00108 ⎢ ⎛ 91.72 ⊄ 10 4 0.5 An important factor in handling compressible fluid flow is a phenomenon known as critical flow.R.0394d + 3.5 (Eq. Sonic or critical velocity is the maximum velocity which a compressible fluid can attain in a pipe. 19) = 31.T m/s M (Eq.Mar. P2 is kPa (abs) at ending point. This limit is called the critical velocity.

IPS-E-PR. 1996 * Obviously these velocity limitations refer to compressible flow.440 15 .Mar.

1996 PART TWO IPS-E-PR. both the flow velocity and pressure drop should be considered.2 Flow velocities in liquid lines may be calculated using the following derived equation: V = 353. 16. For lines transporting liquids in singlephase from one pressure vessel to another by pressure differential. to minimize flashing ahead of the control valve. The recommended practices. In determining the transition between risers and platform piping which these practices apply. The following sections present equations for calculating pipe diameters for liquid lines. presented are based on years of experience in developing oil and gas losses. SIZING CRITERIA FOR LIQUID LINES 17. special consideration should be given to material properties (ductility.Mar. recommendations based on extensive experience onshore are included for some aspects of hydrocarbon service containing hydrogen sulphide. 17. the maximum flow rate expected during the life of the facility should be considered rather than the initial flow rate. Manufacturer’s data or an equivalent length as in Appendix G shall be used . It is also usually advisable to add a surge factor of 20 to 50 percent to the anticipated normal flow rate.2 Determination of pressure loss in a line should include the effects of valves and fittings. respectively. Many companies also use computer programs to facilitate piping design. However. the overall pressure drop in the piping will usually be small.7) 17.1 General Single-phase liquid lines should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity. SCOPE This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the sizing of new piping system on production platforms located offshore.3 Pressure loss (kPa per 100 meter of flow length) for single-phase liquid lines may be calculated using the following (Fanning) equation: 16 .6 m/s at maximum flow rates.1 When determining line sizes.91 m/s to minimize deposition of sand and other solids. Most of the pressure drop in liquid lines between two pressure vessels will occur in the liquid dump valve and/or choke. 16. unless surge expectations has been more precisely determined by pulse pressure measurements in similar systems or by specific fluid hammer calculation. 16. 16. 17. Practically all of the offshore experience has been in hydrocarbon service free of hydrogen sulfide. the flow velocity should not exceed 4. At these flow velocities. If practical flow velocity should not be less than 0. the first incoming and last outgoing valve which block pipeline flow shall be the limit of this document’s application. singlephase gas lines and gas/liquid two-phase lines.). SIZING CRITERIA-GENERAL In determining the diameter of pipe to be used in platform piping systems. carbon migration and etc. The maximum design pressure within the scope of this document is 69000 kPa gage (10000 psig) and the temperature range is -29°C (-20°F) to 343°C (650°F).7 QL 2 dL (Eq.3 Calculated line sizes may need to be adjusted in accordance with good engineering judgment. 353. For applications outside these pressures and temperatures.440 PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED OFFSHORE 15.

Additionally provisions should be made in reciprocating pump suction piping to minimize pulsations. is static head. the liquid pressure at the suction flange must be high enough to overcome the pressure loss between the flange and the entrance to the impeller vane (or rotor) and maintain the pressure on the liquid above its vapor pressure. Available NPSH should always be equal or exceed the pump’s required NPSH. as well as the friction. is the absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at suction temperature. atmospheric or otherwise. Satisfactory pump operation requires that essentially no vapor be flashed from the liquid as it enters the pump casing or cylinder. meter of liquid.Mar. 1996 2 f m .2 In a centrifugal or rotary pump.hvh .S L kPa/100m d i5 IPS-E-PR. is friction head.4 For a centrifugal or rotary pump. on surface of liquid going to suction. ha. 18. meter of liquid. Otherwise cavitation will occur. the acceleration head is critical and may be determined by the following equation from the Hydraulics Institute. 18. is zero.4 The Moody friction factor "f" is a function of the Reynolds number and surface roughness of the pipe.C k . is velocity of liquid in piping. meter of liquid. is acceleration head.VL . 26) 18. In a reciprocating unit. meter of liquid.81 m/s²). (Eq.QL . velocity and static head. 18. 25) ΔP100 = 62.66 × 10 8 17. Similary the available NPSH supplied to the pump suction must account for the acceleration in the suction piping caused by the pulsating flow. the pressure at the suction flange must meet the same requirement. rotary and centrifugal pump suction piping systems should be designed so that the available net positive suction head (NPSH) at the pump inlet flange exceeds the pump required NPSH. The modified Moody diagram. is gravitational constant (usually 9. PUMP PIPING 18.3 The necessary available pressure differential over the pumped fluid vapor pressure may be defined as net positive suction head available (NPSHa).1 Reciprocating. but the pump required NPSH is typically higher than for a centrifugal pump because of pressure drop across the valves and pressure drop caused by pulsation in the flow. It is the total head in meter absolute determined at the suction nozzle.ha Where: hp hvpa hst hf hvh ha VL g is absolute pressure head due to pressure. meter of liquid. is velocity head.RP . due to liquid level above or below datum line (centerline of pump). meter of liquid. ha = L.g (Eq.hf . 27) 17 . positive or negative. meter/second (m/s).hvpa + hst . less the vapor pressure of the liquid in meter absolute.440 (Eq. the acceleration head. including entrance and exit losses. in Appendix A may be used to determine the friction factor when the Reynolds number is known. NPSHa = hp . or head loss due to flowing friction in the suction piping. For reciprocating pumps. Available NPSH for most pump applications may be calculated using Equation 26.

Acceleration head is directly proportional to C. location and charging pressure used. c) Reduce required pump speed by using a larger size piston or plunger. However. = 0. K is a factor representing the reciprocal of the friction of the theoretical acceleration head which must be provided to avoid a noticeable disturbance in the suction piping: = 1. This is very helpful since velocity varies inversely with the square of pipe inside-diameter. It should be noted that there is not universal acceptance for Equation 27. in meter/second (m/s).81 m/s²). Speed required is inversely proportional to the square of piston diameter. Acceleration head is directly proportional to fluid velocity VL. the length of pipe used in acceleration head equation to a value of 5 to 15 nominal pipe diameter. L. The results obtainable by using a dampener in the suction system depend on the size. g is gravitational constant (usually 9. the maximum instantaneous velocity in the feed line would be equal to that created by one pump having a capacity equal to that of all the pumps combined. if permitted by pump rating. is pump speed. = 1. A good. Equation 27 is believed to be a conservative basis which will assure adequate provision for acceleration head. type. = 0. 1996 Where: ha L VL Rp C is acceleration head.040 for quintuplex single or double acting. properly located dampener. is average liquid velocity in suction line. water. 18. all crankshafts are in phase and.066 for a triplex pump. This is about 40% less than C =0. d) Consider a pump with a larger number of plungers. = 2.028 for septuplex single or double acting. Dampener should be located as close to the pump suction as possible. 18 . Note: IPS-E-PR.200 for duplex single acting. the following should be evaluated: a) Shorten suction line. in rotations/minute (r/min).066 for triplex single or double acting. is length of suction line.5 when more than one reciprocating pump is operated simultaneously on a common feed line. e) Consider using a pulsation dampener if the above remedies are unacceptable. b) Use larger suction pipe to reduce velocity.115 for duplex double acting. = 0. is empirical constant for the type of pump: = 0.5 for relatively compressible liquid (hot oil or ethane).Mar. in meter of liquid. 18.5 for amine. = 0. in meter (actual length not equivalent length). Acceleration head is directly proportional to line length.04 for a quintuplex pump. = 0. = 2.440 The constant "C" will vary from these values for unusual ratios of connecting rod length to crank radius.200 for simplex double acting.4 for liquid with almost no compressibility (deaereted water). glycol.0 for most hydrocarbons. Acceleration head is directly proportional to pump speed Rp. For example: C= 0. if kept properly charged may reduce L. the multiple pumps act as one pump of that type with a capacity equal to that of all pumps combined. at time. In this case.6 If the acceleration head is determined to be excessive. to the feed system.

19 . size the common feed line so the velocity will be as close as possible to the velocity in the laterals going to the individual pumps.37 (4½ ft/sec) 0. e) In multi-pump installations.83 (6 ft/sec) 1. b) Suction lines should be short with a minimum number of elbows and fittings.3 m/s (60 ft/sec). SIZING CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS LINES 19. Additionally. This velocity will normally result in an economical line size for all pumps.Mar.46 (1½ ft/sec) 0. d) For reciprocating pumps.61-0. c) Eccentric reducers should be used near the pump.8 Reciprocating. c) Velocity in discharge piping should not exceed three times the velocity in the suction piping. reciprocating pump discharge piping should be sized to minimize pulsations. The pressure drops listed in the following Table 2. but are more complex than suction piping pulsations.83-2. noise may be a problem. means for removal is recommended.74 (6-9 ft/sec) 19. 18.440 f) Use a centrifugal booster pump to charge the suction of the reciprocating pump.61 (2 ft/sec) 0. The Table 1 below may be used to determine preliminary suction and discharge line sizes. with the flat side up to keep the top of line level.1 Process Lines When pressure drop is a consideration (lines connecting two components operating at essentially the same pressure.) single-phase gas lines should be sized on the basis of acceptable pressure loss. The following guidelines may be useful in designing discharge piping: a) Discharge piping should be as short and direct as possible. etc. When velocities in gas lines exceed 18. b) Discharge piping should be one or two pipe sizes larger than pump discharge connection. 18. TABLE 1 .305 (1 ft/sec) 0.7 The following requirements are recommended for designing suction piping: a) Suction piping should be one or two pipe sizes larger than the pump inlet connection. compression) and operating cost are considered. centrifugal and rotary pump discharge piping should be sized on an economical basis. include a suitable pulsation dampener (or make provisions for adding a dampener at a later date) as close to the pump cylinder as possible.TYPICAL FLOW VELOCITIES SUCTION VELOCITY m/s (ft/sec) Reciprocating pumps Speeds upto 250 r/min Speeds 251-330 r/min Speeds above 330 r/min Centrifugal pumps 0. This eliminates the possibility of gas pockets being formed in the suction piping. and will minimize pulsations in reciprocating pumps. when capital costs (pipe. have been found by experience to be an acceptable balance for short lines. 1996 IPS-E-PR. If potential for accumulation of debris is a concern. Pulsations in reciprocating pump discharge piping are also related to the acceleration head. This will avoid velocity changes and thereby minimize acceleration head effects.91 (2-3 ft/sec) DISCHARGE VELOCITY m/s (ft/sec) 1. d) For reciprocating pumps provide a suitable pulsation dampener (or make provisions for adding a dampener at a later date) as close to the pump cylinder as possible.91 (3 ft/sec) 1.

29) Where: f = 1.ρ g ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ μ ⎟ g ⎝ ⎠ 0. 30) 20.1 The velocity above which erosion may occur can be determined by the following empirical equation.19) 4.Mar.2 The above Table 2 may be used to determine pressure loss. Flow velocity should be kept at least below fluid erosional velocity.T d 2 . 1996 TABLE 2 .38 + 0.5-1. If the total pressure drop is greater than 10% an equation such as Weymouth’s should be used. SIZING CRITERIA FOR GAS/LIQUID TWO-PHASE LINES Erosional velocity.Q g P.05-0. ΔP = 1.81 ⎛ di .5 The following equation (Fanning) may be used when total pressure loss is less than 10% of inlet pressure and is based on friction factor given by the GPSA Data Book. if the total pressure drop is less than 10% of inlet pressure. production manifolds.3 Gas velocity may be calculated using the following derived equation: V = 124. If solid (sand) production is anticipated fluid velocity should be reduced accordingly. 19.ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROPS FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS PROCESS LINES OPERATING PRESSURE kPa (ga) 100-690 696-3447 3454-13790 IPS-E-PR.52-11.Le .2-0.2) 19. Ve = 1.4 Compressor Lines Reciprocating and centrifugal compressor piping should be sized to minimized pulsation.1 Z .440 ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROP kPa/100m (psi/100 ft) 1.0025 (Eq.14 (0. The selection of allowable velocities requires an engineering study for each specific application.433 × 10 5 2 G.Vg .49) 11. in (m/s).d i5 kpa (Eq. 20.082 (0.13-4. flow lines. 20 .30 (0. process headers and other lines transporting gas and liquid in twophase flow should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity.T . 19.3-27.22C ρm m/s (Eq.P (Eq.Q g . 31) Where: Ve is fluid erosional velocity. f . vibration and noise. 28) 19.

P kg/m³ 28.9 ρ m(rho) is gas/liquid mixture density.Z (Eq. This is particularly important in long lines with elevation changes. is operating pressure. ΔP100 = 6.5 Pressure Drop The pressure drop in two-phase steel piping system may be estimated using a simplified Darcy equation. is gas relative density ( MW ) at Standard Conditions. 34) Where: WT is total liquid plus vapor rate. in (kg/h). in (kg/m³) (calculated as shown in Equation 32). the minimum cross-sectional area required to avoid fluid erosion may be determined from the following derived equation: A= 277. the minimum velocity in two-phase lines should be about 3 m/s to minimize slugging of separation equipment. 1996 C is empirical constant: = 125 for-non-continuous service. IPS-E-PR.WT2 d 5 . The use of the equation should be limited to a 10% pressure drop due to inaccuracies associated with changes in density. 20.P + 35.2 The density of the gas/liquid mixture may be calculated using the following derived equation: ρm = Where: SL R P T G 28829. in (kg/m³).22R.3 Once Ve is known.440 ρm is gas/liquid mixture density at operating pressure and temperature. m³ (gas)/m³ (liquid) at MSC.G. in (kg/m³). 20.65 + 97. is operating temperature. 33) 20. 20. 32) is relative density of liquid (water = 1). in (kPa absolute). 28.12R. = 100 for continuous service. is gas/liquid ratio.ρ m kpa 100m (Eq. in (K).Mar.254 × 10 6 f m .4ZRT P Ve (Eq.82P + 10. use average gravity for hydrocarbon-water mixtures at Standard Conditions.4 Minimum Velocity If possible. ρ m (rho) 21 .6S L .T. is gas/liquid density at flowing temperature and pressure.

G + 1000 QL.Mar. 35) IPS-E-PR.440 22 .SL (kg/h) (Eq.2225 Qg. 1996 WT may be calculated using the following derived equation: WT = 1.

Mar.748 kPa/100m (Eq.2518 γ . 23. 0. But application of SHELL/MIT formula for diameter of less than DN 750 also gives an acceptable results: ΔP100 Where: 2 f . thereby minimizing accumulation of corrosion matter within the pipeline. the following points should be taken into consideration when designing a pipeline. 37) For viscous flow (laminar) For turbulent flow Rem = 45. 36) 23.355 ⎛ 1 ⎞ f = 0. The lower limit of the flow velocity range should be that velocity which will keep impurities suspended in the commodity.s.QL = 2. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES The following formula have been found to give results corresponding fairly closed to those observed in operation for typical Iranian crude oil properties.3 If water. This Standard presents different methods for economical calculations of pressure loss. 0018 + 0. for transmission of a specific quantity of crude oil.748.1 Design consideration should be given to flow velocity within a range which will minimize corrosion. 23. SIZING CRITERIA Although pressure loss is primary criterion in determining line size. SCOPE The transmission line as related to the requirements of this Engineering Standard is a pipeline transporting gas or liquid and also two-phase flow from oil fields to the ship loading points or production Units such as refineries and natural gas plants. The upper limit of the velocity range should be such that erosion-corrosion cavitation. design consideration should be given to obtaining an operating velocity which will pick up and sweep away water or sediment that accumulates in lower places in the line during periods of no flow. If operating criteria dictate the need for intermittent flow. 22. For turbulent flow up to Re = 170000 ΔP = 26.Q L .S d 4.S μ .2 Intermittent flow conditions should be avoided where possible. 22.d ⎛ 1 f = 0. Formula. 00662⎜ ⎜R ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ em ⎠ (Eq. pressure loss shall be calculated using the Service Pipeline Co. design should include loading and receiving pig trap. 22.54 × 10 × d5 10 kPa/100m (Eq.00207⎜ ⎜R ⎝ em ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. required diameter. 1996 PART THREE TRANSMISSION PIPELINES FOR: 1) LIQUID 2) GAS IPS-E-PR.440 21.2 For pipe sizes greater than DN 750 the SHELL/MIT formula shall be used for pressure loss calculations. Operating procedures should be developed and implemented for adequate cleaning (see also NACE MR 0175-2002).83 ×10 8 QL 1. 22. or impingement attack will be minimal.65. sediment or other corrosive contaminates are expected to accumulate in the pipeline. products and natural gas to the terminal under consideration. 38) 23 .1 For pipe sizes less than or equal to DN 750.

this water is a potential source of corrosion.Tave .5 (Eq. 25. actual temperature & pressure of line should be regarded.1 For gas pipelines up to about DN 300 the Weymouth and Panhandle formulas have been found to give satisfactory results. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGL) PIPELINES 25. Therefore in the time of calculations of pressure loss. Its components typically range from C2 to C9 and its relative density is typically about 0.94.02 ⎢ 0. 23.4 For natural gas pipelines with diameter greater than DN 300 the IGT/AGA formula should be used: 24 .E ⎣ G.4 Due to its higher vapor pressure. Weymouth formula: ⎛T ⎞ ⎡ P 2 − P22 ⎤ Qg = 0. in (m³/h). 25.02 ⎡ ⎤ P 2 − P22 1 .4 Rem = 0.135 Rem > 0. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES 26. a two-phase flow conditions must be avoided by maintaining an adequately.88-0.3 In transmission of NGL by pipe. 26.1 Natural gas liquids is generally in natural gas processing plants (dew point depression process). in centipoise (cP). 26.961 ⎥ .1 to 0.00494⎜ o ⎟.55.135 to 6. It generally varies between 0. QL is flow rate. 1996 Viscous flow Turbulent Indeterminate region Rem = 0.d 8 / 3 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ o⎠ ⎣ G.3 The compressibility factor "Z" is calculated at pipeline average pressure which is given by: ⎛ P 3 − P23 ⎞ ⎛ P −P ⎞ P ave = 2 / 3⎜ P + P2 − 1 2 ⎟ = 2 / 3⎜ 12 ⎜ P − P2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 1 P + P2 ⎟ 1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎝ ⎠ (Eq.14 × 10 − 3 ⎜ o ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ o⎠ 1. d is inside diameter. S is relative density. If the velocity of crude oil is too low. It is advisable to maintain a certain minimum velocity in order to keep the water from stratification. 40) The efficiency factor "E" decreases with increasing flow rate for fully turbulent flow.Z ave L ⎦ 0. 41) 26.4 IPS-E-PR.2 Pressure drop calculations should be made using an appropriate method as described for liquid handling.Mar.2 For line pressures greater than 450 kPa the Panhandle revised or "B" equation should be used: ⎛T ⎞ Qg = 14. pressure loss should not cause vaporization and consequently create two-phase flow. The Weymouth formula is applicable where the operating pressure is less than 450 kPa.d 1. in (mm). the water stratifies to the bottom of pipe and corrosion may occur. high minimum pressure along the pipelines.440 Where: Rem is Reynolds number modified Re/7742.Tave . (dimensionless). 39) 26.3 Crude oils generally tend to carry free water along the pipeline.Z ave L ⎦ 0.5 (Eq. 25. µ(mu) is absolute viscosity. . 25.

but it turns out that.5 In gas transmission lines changes in elevation may seem to have a negligible contribution to the overall pressure drop. But. Although it is not intended to present calculation methods for two-phase flow in transmission pipelines in this Standard. In recent years several computer methods have been developed for predicting the behavior of two-phase flow in pipelines.L. the final temperature might even drop below ambient. The factor can be critical in hill country.10 To get a reasonable evaluation one must resort to computer application. High gas velocities tend to decrease the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors. This phenomenon called "Joule-Thomson effect in pipelines" should be watched for. it would be helpful to consult the inhibitor manufacturer for limiting velocities. At design stage.10. 26.06834G (h2 − h1 ) Pave 2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ P − P2 − ⎜ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎥ − 5 ⎛ To ⎞ ⎢ Qg = 75.7 In long gas transmission lines when excessive pressure drop is encountered. 42) 26. 26.8 Due to operating problems normally a transmission line is not designed to handle two-phase (gas-liquid). 26. Each method has it relative merits in its particular applications. 26. 26.1 The effect of liquids accumulating in low sections of natural gas pipelines should be taken into account in the process design stage. 26. inter phase changes along the line. particularly in high pressure lines this contribution could be appreciable..5 IPS-E-PR. due to complex nature of twophase phenomenon.Mar.5 × ⎢4 log10 ε ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (Eq. particular attention must be paid to gas velocity.10. the following points are noteworthy as for as process design of these systems is concerned.2 Particular attention should be given to the additional pressure required if it is intended to remove accumulated liquids or internal deposits by pigs.6 When corrosion inhibitor is being injected into gas transmission line. Sometimes rich gas gathering networks also exhibit two-phase behavior. particularly when the gas contains water vapor and hydrate formation is suspected. a general agreement on the best methods available does not exist. 26. etc. 1996 ⎡ 2 ⎛ 0. the effect of elevation changes.Z aveTave ⎝ o ⎠⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0.440 3.7d ⎤ ⎡ × d 2.75 × 10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎜P ⎟ ⎥ G. consideration should be given to the incorporation of liquid knock-out traps where desirable and where permitted. 25 .9 Exceptions are flow and gas lines between oil and gas wells and separation Unit or system.

The borders of the various flow pattern regions in Fig. also changes friction losses in pipe. Once calculated. the vapor content of the mixture in equilibrium increases with corresponding decrease in vapor 26 . which is in turn. on vapor and liquid densities. Where Δ P100 (liquid) is calculated assuming only liquid is flowing in the pipe and Δ P100 (vapor) is calculated assuming only vapor is flowing in the same size pipe. The practical significance of the later variable is that by changing pipe diameters. to a much lesser extent. 1. the type of flow might also be changed. The position of the Bx line in Fig. 27.ρV / ρ L / 3 )(μ 1 / 3 / σ L ) L K = 212 SI K = 531 English Note: Percent liquid/percent vapor.Mar. Consequently. can be substituted for WL/Wv and √ ρ L. X remains constant for one set of flow conditions. (Eq. 27.33.166) and also μ L1/3= μ L0. it does not change with alternative pipe diameters.1.1 × 106 SI K = 2. Using data supplied or usually available to the process piping designer. This can occur in long pipe lines where relatively high friction losses reduce the pressure.16 English "By" depends on the vapor phase flow rate. The selection of one of these flow patterns is made using Fig. 43) K = 7. TWO PHASE FLOW SIZING PROCESS PIPING 27.1.1 Two-phase flow resistance is calculated in two main steps: IPS-E-PR. As Equation 44 shows "Bx" depends on the mass-flow ratio and the physical properties of the liquid and vapor phase. 44) ρ V .440 a) A possible flow pattern is selected by calculating coordinates of flow region chart. 1996 PART FOUR TWO PHASE FLOW 27.ρ v (Eq.1 Two-phase flow regions The two-phase flow patterns are shown in Table 3 first column. corrected by applicable twophase flow correlation./ ρ L 2/3=( ρ V0. b) Unit pressure losses are determined by calculating vapor-phase unit loss only. 1 changes only if the liquid-vapor mixture proportion changes and.5√ ρ L0. 1 are shown as lines. 2 BX = K (WL / WV )( ρ L . if the physical properties of the concurrently flowing liquid and vapor changes. In reality these boarders are rather broad transition zone. the Baker parameters can be expressed as follows: By = K Wv A ρ L . and on the pipe size.2 Baker parameters A particular flow region can be determined by the Baker parameters Bx and By.

If By ≥ 80. 1 27. The Bx line will shift somewhat to the left. 1996 density. the long multiplication of Bx does not have to be calculated. TWO-PHASE FLOW REGION SELECTION GRAPH Fig. the calculations of the unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures is based on the method of Messrs. IPS-E-PR.000 the flow will fall in dispersed flow region for hydrocarbon liquids of normal viscosities.440 The intersection of Bx and By on Fig. It is suggested that the designer calculate By first. the intersection point moves up and to the left. Only the essential necessary relationship are repeated here and used with the customary data of practical process piping design. The selected method for calculations should be approved by the Company. assuming that there is only vapor flowing in the pipeline. is a function of the Lockhart-Martinelli two-phase modulus X as follows: 27 . 1 determines the flow region for the calculated liquid-vapor proportion and physical properties of the liquid and vapor. It is assumed that the two-phase flow is isothermal and turbulent in both liquid and vapor phases and that the pressure loss is less than 10% of the absolute upstream pressure. The general equation for calculating two-phase flow unit losses is: Δ P100 (two-phase) = Δ P100 (vapor) ( φ ²) (Eq. With increasing vapor content. 45) Calculate the pressure drop of the vapor phase. then. In Equation 45 φ is the two-phase flow modulus. Lockhart and Martinelli.Mar. However. This can be expected when the vapor content is 25 percent or more of the total mass flow rate. At this stage the Lockhard-Martinelli method widly used in the chemical industries mostly for horizontal Pipes. In oil & gas transmission lines there are different correlations methods which the BBM (Begg’s-Brill-Moody) is the most popular.2 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss There are different methods to calculate Unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures.

L can be computed conveniently using Appendix G.5 (Eq.167 (Eq. density and friction factor.1 As mentioned previously X is the Lockhart-Martinelli. 51) A convenient form of Darcy’s equation for unit pressure loss calculations for liquid or vapor as previously stated is: Δ P100 = 62530 (fD. 3 or Table 3. Ö can be also found through Fig. Usually both phases fall in transitional turbulent zone. The form of the correlations are identical: φ =a.5 The over-all friction loss in the pipe between two points will be: Δ P = Δ P100 (two-phase)(L/100) (Eq.2. 47) Where "a" includes the vapor-phase flow rate and the pipe cross section and "b" is a constant.2. 27.2. 28 .5 (fL/fv)0.440 ¡P X= L100 ¡ PV100 μ 0 . 1996 IPS-E-PR. fL/fv increases with the increasing vapor content of liquid.2. 48) Inserting Darcy’s (or Wiesbach’s) equation in the numerator and denominator of Equation 48 (deleting the identical constants and symbols). 49) (Eq. 53) Where L is the equivalent length of the pipe and fittings in meter (Appendix G). It can be obtained directly by calculating the liquid vapor phase Reynolds numbers and using the Moody friction factor diagram for commercial steel pipes (see Appendix A). 46) Correct the calculated P100 (vapor) with the correlations listed in Table 3 second column. ρ bar/100 m Use the same diameter for liquid and vapor-phase and corresponding phase flow rate. 27.xb (Eq.73 ⎜ V ⎜ ρ ⎝ V ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. corresponding flow rates and viscosities. the two-phase flow modulus will be equal to: X² = (WL/Wv)² ( ρ v/ ρ L) (fL/fv) X = (WL/Wv) ( ρ v/ ρ L)0. two-phase modulus: X² = Δ P100 (liquid)/ Δ P100 (vapor) (Eq.3 As with all line sizing procedures pipe sizes must be estimated first.2. 52) 27.42 ⎛ ρV ⎜ X ⎜ρ ⎝ L ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. flow region coordinates can be calculated and the flow type determined. Knowing the pipe configurations.W2)/d5.5 (Eq. Re = 353. 27. After pipe size selection.µ (Eq. After finding the vaporphase unit loss and applicable twophase flow correlation (in Table 3). 50) fL and fv is the liquid and vapor-phase friction factor. where the friction factor varies with varying Reynolds numbers.7W/d.Mar.2 Reynolds number are calculated separately for the vapor and liquid-phase using the same diameter. 27. two-phase flow Unit losses can be calculated by Equation 45.4 The initial diameter of two-phase flow in short process pipes can be sized through the vaporliquid reboiler return line formula: ⎛W dmm = 18. except for annular flow where in "a" and "b" only pipe diameters appear as variants.

1996 28.2 Plug Flow Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the upper part of the pipe and liquid moves along the bottom of the pipe. VELOCITY LIMITATIONS Depending on the flow regime. 28. It occurs for liquid velocities less than 0. 28.1 Bubble or Froth Flow This pattern.305-3. characterized by bubbles of gas moving along the upper part of the pipe at approximately the same velocity as the liquid. 29.05 m/s (2-10 ft/sec). 28. These patterns (in order of increasing gas flow rate at a constant liquid flow rate) are as follows.15 m/s (0.440 In determining the type of flow in a process pipeline designers generally refer to as Table 3 which is known as Baker map in Fig. 29. develops when bubbles of gas dispersed throughout the liquid. 28. 28. where the corrosion rate of material is accelerated by an erosive material or force (in this case. These form frothy slugs that move along the pipeline at a much higher velocity than the average liquid velocity.5 Slug Flow This pattern occurs when waves are picked up periodically by the more rapidly moving gas.6 Annular Flow In annular flow liquid forms around the inside wall of the pipe and gas flows at a high velocity through the central core.5 ft/sec) and gas velocities of about 0. Plug flow occurs for liquid velocities less then 0.1 An index based on velocity head can indicate whether erosion-corrosion may become significant at a particular velocity and can be used to determine the range of mixture densities and 29 . these velocities are higher than what would be desirable for process piping.6 m/s.05 m/s (1-10 ft/sec). TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS IPS-E-PR. 1. the high-velocity liquid). In some cases. It occurs for gas velocities greater than 6.Mar.7 Dispersed Spray or Mist Flow Here all of the liquid is entrained as fine droplets by the gas-phase.305 m/s and gas velocities from about 4. 28.61 m/s (2 ft/sec) and gas velocities less then about 0.6 m/s (5-15 ft/sec) and gas superficial velocities of about 0. Dispersed flow occurs for gas velocities greater than 61 m/s (200 ft/sec).91 m/s (3 ft/sec). 28.61-3. It occurs for liquid superficial velocities of about 1. the liquid in a two-phase flow system can be accelerated to velocities approaching or exceeding the vapor velocity.4 Wave Flow Wave flow is similar to stratified flow except that the gas is moving at a higher velocity and the gasliquid interface is distributed by waves moving in the direction of flow. It occurs for liquid velocities less then 0. This type of flow causes severe and in most cases dangerous vibration in equipment because of the impact of the high-velocity slugs against fittings.3 Stratified Flow The liquid-phase flows along the bottom of the pipe while the gas flows over a smooth liquid-gas interface. The seven types of flow in horizontal pipe are shown in Table 3. Such high velocities lead to a phenomena known as "erosion-corrosion".5-4.1 m/s (20 ft/sec).

V²ave ≤ 10000 ≤ 14800 English SI (Eq.440 ρ ave.3. because it causes various mechanical and process problems.3. This index is: IPS-E-PR. 30 . the stratified flow pattern breaks down into slug flow. 30.3. As the liquid waves grow large enough to bridge the entire pipe diameter.3 Slug Flow Can be Avoided in Several Ways 30. 30. slug flow must be avoided.5 By arranging the pipe configurations to protect against slug flow. 30. The limitation for corrosional velocity is based on the inhibitor film resistance and experiments. such as liquid collecting at a sag in a pipeline and blocking the gas flow.1 Most importantly. The pressure in this blocked gas rises until it forces the accumulated liquid downstream in the form of a slug.A) + WL / (3600 ρ L . if slug flow enters a distillation column. Slug flow unit losses in process piping are generally not calculated. The cycling causes problems with product quality and process control. MAINTAIN THE PROPER REGIME In addition to keeping the velocity-density product within the acceptable range. It is normally less than erosional velocity and is basis for design velocity in pipelines.4 By using a low point effluent drain or by-pass or other solutions. 56) Vave = VG + VL = WG / (3600 ρ G .3. the liquid inventory in the pipeline decreases and the excess liquid forms a slug or a series of slugs. 30. the alternating composition and density of the gas and liquid slugs cause cycling of composition and pressure gradients along the length of the column.A) For erosional velocity refer to Clause 20 in Part two herein. 29. 30. First water hammer may occur as the slug of liquid impinges on pipe and equipment walls at every changes of flow direction. 30. Slugs can also form due to terrain effects. one must also maintain the proper flow regime.1 By reducing lines sizes to a minimum permitted by available pressure differentials. This could result in equipment damage due to erosion-corrosion. They may be created as a result of wave formation of the liquid-gas interface in a stratified flow. When the flow rate increases.2 The corrosional velocity limitations may be determined exprimentaly. 1996 velocities below which erosion-corrosion should not occur.3 By using valves auxiliary pipe runs to regulate alternative flow rates and avoid slug flows.2 Slugs can form in variety of ways. 54) Where the mixture or average density: ρ ave = WL + WG WL / ρ L + WG / ρ G . Changes in the inlet flow rate can cause slugs as well. 30. 30.3. (Eq. 55) (Eq.Mar. Second.2 By designing parallel pipe lines that will increase flow capacity without increasing the overall friction loss. Pigging-the removal of water from the line to minimize corrosion-can cause very large slugs as the line’s entire liquid inventory is swept a head of the pig.

6 Normally slug flow is undesirable in two-phase flow pipelines. Third between the various flow patterns.Mar.The package and the selected correlations should be confirmed by the Company. that the flow is steady (liquid and vapor move with the same velocity). DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IPS-E-PR. Increasing the velocity in the uphill portion of the line reduces the liquid holdup in the valleys and lowers the pressure drops. unit losses can differ. 31. it has been shown that for a given set of vapor liquid properties and physical properties a characteristics flow pattern develops. that the pressure loss is not more than 10 percent of the absolute downstream pressure. it has been shown that if the liquid content of a vapor line increases.440 The significance of the two-phase flow theories and experiments to the process piping designer is threefold. changes in flow conditions cause the liquid to go into or come out of storage. 31.7 Pipe size over design must be particularly watched for. In vertical lines.4 Designer can capitalize on the characteristics to obtain the optimum piping and component size and layout. 1996 31. but larger enough to stay within available pressure differentials and allowable pressure drops. the criterion for selecting a suitable line size is that the pipe diameter must be sufficiently small to have the highest possible velocity. The liquid in two-phase pipes passing over hills tends to run back down hill and accumulate in the valleys.1 Two-phase flow piping design through rational and empirical steps.The flow patterns shall be checked for normal flow.3 Process piping systems have flexibility in the distribution of pressure loss and control valves can operate within a wide range of available pressure differentials. Since flow velocity is one of the factors which influence the flow regime. due consideration should be given to this phenomenon at design stage. the static head back pressure will not be the same as that calculated with average densities. 31 . Low velocities tend to increase the chances for the slug flow. 31.8 Two-phase flow pipelines are unstable. vapor moves faster than the liquid.Two phase calculations normally are done by computer packages. 31. They use different correlations for flow patterns and equilibrium of states equations. Thus there are varying densities along the pipe length. Limitations. The assumptions connected with this Standard are: that two-phase flow is isothermal. flow and turn-down flow. When changes are made to the pressures or to flow rates. First. that two-phase flow is turbulent in both the liquid and vapor phase. .5 In general. 31. A two-phase pipeline is both a pipeline and extremely long storage tank. 31. Second. 31. 31.2 In long lines. max. the friction loss can be many times its original single phase pressure loss. generalizations and simplifications have been introduced for providing practical methods of design. . . the pipeline readjusts itself gradually and equilibrium may not be re-established for several days.

ρ fH.440 WAVE FLOW UNIT LOSS Fig. Hx = (W1/Wv)(µ1/µv) 2) with Hx enter the graph and read the friction factor. Δ P100 (wave) = 62530 fH (Wv)2/d5 ρ v. 2 According to Table 3 Item 5 for the wave regime. 3) calculate the unit loss. 1996 IPS-E-PR. 32 . procedure: 1) Calculate Huntington Correlation. pressure drop calculations are as follows: Wave flow unit loss.Mar.

3 33 . 1996 IPS-E-PR.440 LOCKHART-MARTINELLI CORRELATIONS CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE TWO-PHASE PRESSURE DROP Fig.Mar.

SUMMARY OF TWO-PHASE FLOW UNIT FRICTION LOSS CALCULATIONS TWO –FACE FLOW PATTERNS TWO-FACE FLOW CORRELATIONS Q=(A0.4156 X 0. lnx A3 . 1996 IPS-E-PR.000826 d = PIPE INSIDE DIA .04887 A3 = 0.18 X 0.Mar.49139 A2 = 0.440 TABLE 3 .1 φ = 86.A1 lnx + A2. mm d = 250 FOR 300 mm AND LARGE SIZE φ = 4.6294 X 0.8 FOR LONG BORIZONTAL PIPES USE SCHNLDER .000349 2 3 φ = ax b a = 4.8-0 _ 0123 d b = 0. 2 φ = 2.75 (W1 A) 0.17 34 .815 (W1 A)0.343 – 0.855 (W1 A)0.782 X 110 −2 X (W1 A)0.lnx ) A0 = 1. WHITE – HUNTLNGYON CORRELATION FOR LONG HORIZONTAL PIPES CALCULATION ON FIG .4659 A1 = 0.5 AVOID SLUG FLOW φ = 3.

Mar. 1996 APPENDICES APPENDIX A MOODY FRICTION FACTOR CHART IPS-E-PR.440 (to be continued) 35 .

.3 As an initial guess of the value x.51/R The problem then is to find an x such that y = 0 .7d) (Eq.1.1. A. this requires differentiating the objective function.B. The n is iterative counter and nmax is the maximum iteration.4 For the liquid when Re < 2000. A. 1996 APPENDIX A. friction factor can be found through Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation: fD = 64/Re ff = 16/Re fD = 4ff (Eq.4) A. A.2 log10 ( ε /3..0001.1) until the value of y (xn) is sufficiently close to zero. A.. A. 2.2 Successive values of x are then obtained from Equation (A. The corresponding value of x is then substituted into Equation (A.2-b) (Eq. f ′ (xn) is the value of differentiate of the objective function.7D B = 2.6) (Eq.1 A..2-c) (Eq. The Newton-Raphson method is of the form: Xn+1 = Xn - f (X n ) f ′( X n ) (Eq. A. y = x + 2 log10 [A +Bx] Where: X = 1/ √f A= (Eq. A. the friction factor used for the case of completely turbulent flow (flat parts of curves in Moody chart where f is independent of Re).5) (Eq. This value may be computed explicity from the form of Colebrook equation which is valid in this region: X = I/√f = . nmax xn is the guessed root of equation given by f (xn) = 0.1 The Newton-Raphson method is applied with convergence to ±0. A.2) For this purpose. A.3) A. f (xn) is the objective function. as a method of solving this equation.440 The well-behaved nature of Colebrook function-no maxima-no minimal or inflection points-suggests Newton-Raphson interpolation. log10 e A + Bx (Eq.2-a) (Eq.2-a) in order to compute the friction factor..7) 36 .Mar..1. one defines a function: ε /3. 4.Raphson method the first derivation of y with respect to x is required: y′ = dy dx = 1+ 2. A. To use the Newton.1.1) Where: n = 1. .A. A.1 Method of Solution IPS-E-PR. 3.

Mar. 250 mm int.001 .. Solution: Absolute roughness ( ε ) = 0.... Friction factor at fully turbulent flow (f) = 0. diam... Relative roughness ( ε /d) = 0. IPS-E-PR..440 (Absolute Roughness ε is in millimeters) Problem: Determine absolute and relative roughness... 1996 APPENDIX B RELATIVE ROUGHNESS CHART Relative roughness of pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence.. 37 .0196.. for fully turbulent flow in a cast iron pipe...26 ... and friction factor...

440 HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT (FRICTION FACTOR) "C" The Factor "C" shall not be confused with the Darcy-Weisbach-Colebrook friction factor "f".57 Multiplier (Basis C = 100 ) 38 .22 80 1.Mar. TYPE OF PIPE RANGE-HIGH = BEST SMOOTH WELL LAID-LOW = POOR OR CORRODED 160-140 __ 160-130 __ 150-120 145-110 150-80 __ 150-80 145-50 __ 152-85 __ __ VALUES OF C AVERAGE VALUE FOR CLEAN NEW PIPE 150 150 148 150 140 120 130 139 130 130 130 130 115 110 COMMONLY USED VALUE FOR DESIGN PURPOSES 140 140 140 140 130 110 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Cement-Asbestos Fiber Bitumastic-Enamel-Lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Cement-Lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Copper. cast-iron Tar-Coated cast-iron Girth-Riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth seams only) Concrete Full-Riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth and horizontal seams) Vitrified.85 150 0.47 140 0. lead.62 120 0.54 130 0.71 110 0. tin or glass pipe and tubing Wood-Stave Welded and seamless steel Intenor riveted steel (no projecting rivets) Wrought-Iron. spiral-riveted steel (flow with lap) Spiral-Riveted steel (flow against lap) Corrugated steel __ __ 100 60 90 60 VALUE OF C (100/C) 1.00 90 1.93 60 2. these two friction factors are not in any way related to each other. 1996 APPENDIX C IPS-E-PR.84 100 1.50 70 1. brass.

440 RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS 39 .Mar. 1996 APPENDIX D IPS-E-PR.

3 206.05 0.0 θ is angle between pipe axis and plug cock axis Butterfly valve θ = 5° 10° 20° 40° 60° K 0.56 θ = 5° 10° 40° 60° K 0.440 RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS Plug cock valve 20° 1.Mar.0 θ is angle between pipe axis and flopper plate 40 .24 0. 1996 APPENDIX E IPS-E-PR.29 17.8 118.54 10.52 1.

440 SHARP K 0.0 PROJECTING PIPE EXIT 1.50 0.23 SLIGHTLY ROUNDED ENTRANCE 0.Mar.0 SHARP ENDED EXIT 1.04 WELL ROUNDED ENTRANCE 1.78 SERVICE INWARD PROJECTING PIPE ENTRANCE SHARP EDGES ENTRANCE 0.0 ROUNDED EXIT 41 . 1996 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE DUE TO PIPE ENTRANCE AND EXIT IPS-E-PR.

8 ♣.1 ♣. bevel..4 ♣. bevel...Mar. 13.. or plug type seat) . 17..with stem 45 degrees from run of pipe line With no obstruction in flat....8 ♣. 3. Fully open 17 Three-Quarters open 50 One-Half open 260 One-Quarter open 1200 Fully open 3** Fully open 135 Fully open 50 Fully open same as globe Fully open same as angle Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Flow straight through Flow through branch 44 140 150 420 75 20 18 Foot valves with strainer Butterfly valves (DN 150 and larger) Straight through Cocks Three-Way Rectangular plug port area equal to 100% of pipe area Rectangular plug port area equal to 80% of pipe area (fully open) (to be continued) 42 . bevel or plug type seat With wing or pin guided disc Fully open Fully open Three-Quarters open One-Half open One-Quarter open Gate valves Gheck valves Conduit pipe line Conventional swing Clearway swing Globe lift or stop Angle lift or stop In-Line ball 3.. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCT EQUIVALENT LENGTH IN PIPE DIAMETERS (L/D) Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open 340 450 175 145 145 200 13 35 160 900 Globe valves Conventional Y-Pattern With no obstruction in flat.With stem 60 degrees from run of pipe line Angle valves Gate valves Conventional Conventional wedge disc. or plug type seat With wing or pin guided disc (No obstruction in flat.8 ♣. double disc or plug disc Pulp stock . 13.. With leather hinged disc 2....440 APPENDIX G EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS Representative equivalent l length in pipe diameters (L/D) of various valves and fittings.2 vertical & 1..7 horizontal ♣. 1996 IPS-E-PR. With poppet life-type disc 2.4 ♣.

** Exact equivalent length is equal to the length between flange faces or welding ends.440 Fittings 30 16 20 50 26 57 20 60 37 24 8 30 8 76 30 11 16 3 Close pattern Return bend Enlargement* Standard Contraction * Note: * Equivalent lengths are in terms of small diameter. ♣ Minimum calculated pressure drop (kPa) across valve to provide sufficient flow to lift disc fully. 1996 APPENDIX G (continued) 90 Degree standard elbow 45 Degree standard elbow 90 Degree long radius elbow 90 Degree street elbow 45 Degree street elbow Square corner elbow Standard tee With flow through run With flow through branch 50 Sudden d/D = ¼ d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ reducer d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ Sudden d/D = ¼ d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ Standard reducer d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ IPS-E-PR. L For limitations and effect of end connections. 43 . * Values applicable up to DN 600.Mar.

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