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ENGINEERING STANDARD FOR PROCESS DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS (PROCESS PIPING AND PIPELINE SIZING) ORIGINAL EDITION MAR. 1996

This standard specification is reviewed and updated by the relevant technical committee on Aug. 2003. The approved modifications are included in the present issue of IPS.

This Standard is the property of Iranian Ministry of Petroleum. All rights are reserved to the owner. Neither whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third party, reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written consent of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum.

Mar. 1996 CONTENTS :

IPS-E-PR- 440

PAGE No.

0. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 3 1. SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................ 4 2. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 4 3. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY ............................................................................................. 4 4. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 5 5. UNITS.............................................................................................................................................. 7 PART ONE : PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED ONSHORE-SINGLE PHASE

6. GENERAL SIZING CRITERIA........................................................................................................ 8 7. FLUID FLOW .................................................................................................................................. 8 8. REYNOLDS NUMBER.................................................................................................................... 8 9. FRICTION FACTOR........................................................................................................................ 8 10. FLUID FLOW CALCULATIONS................................................................................................... 9 11. SINGLE PHASE LIQUID FLOW................................................................................................... 9 12. FITTINGS AND VALVES ............................................................................................................ 10 13. SPECIAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................. 10 13.1 Water Flow ........................................................................................................................... 10 13.2 Pump Suction Lines............................................................................................................ 10 13.3 Cooling Water...................................................................................................................... 11 13.4 Limitations Owing to Erosion Preventive Measures ....................................................... 11 13.5 Other Matters....................................................................................................................... 12 14. SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW ..................................................................................................... 13 14.4 A Practical Way to Calculate Gas Flow in Pipeline ......................................................... 13 14.7 Steam Flow .......................................................................................................................... 14 14.8 Flow Induced Noise ............................................................................................................ 14 PART TWO : PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED OFFSHORE

15. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 16 16. SIZING CRITERIA-GENERAL.................................................................................................... 16 17. SIZING CRITERIA FOR LIQUID LINES ..................................................................................... 16 17.1 General................................................................................................................................. 16 18. PUMP PIPING ............................................................................................................................. 17 19. SIZING CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS LINES ............................................................. 19 19.1 Process Lines...................................................................................................................... 19 19.4 Compressor Lines............................................................................................................... 20 20. SIZING CRITERIA FOR GAS/LIQUID TWO-PHASE LINES ............................................... 20 20.4 Minimum Velocity................................................................................................................ 21 20.5 Pressure Drop ..................................................................................................................... 21 PART THREE : TRANSMISSION PIPELINES FOR: 1) LIQUID 2) GAS

21. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 23 22. SIZING CRITERIA....................................................................................................................... 23

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IPS-E-PR- 440

23. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES ............................................................................................................. 23 25. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGL) PIPELINES............................................................................ 24 26. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES ...................................................................................................... 24 PART FOUR TWO PHASE FLOW 27. TWO PHASE FLOW SIZING PROCESS PIPING ...................................................................... 26 27.2 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss ................................................................................................ 27 28. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS .............................................................................................. 29 28.1 Bubble or Froth Flow .......................................................................................................... 29 28.2 Plug Flow ............................................................................................................................. 29 28.3 Stratified Flow ..................................................................................................................... 29 28.4 Wave Flow............................................................................................................................ 29 28.5 Slug Flow ............................................................................................................................. 29 28.6 Annular Flow ....................................................................................................................... 29 28.7 Dispersed Spray or Mist Flow............................................................................................ 29 29. VELOCITY LIMITATIONS .......................................................................................................... 29 30. MAINTAIN THE PROPER REGIME ........................................................................................... 30 31. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 31 APPENDICES : APPENDIX A MOODY FRICTION FACTOR CHART ................................................................... 35 A.1 Method of Solution.............................................................................................. 36 APPENDIX B RELATIVE ROUGHNESS CHART........................................................................ 37 APPENDIX C HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT (FRICTION FACTOR) "C" ............................ 38 APPENDIX D RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS ........................... 39 APPENDIX E RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS ........................... 40 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE DUE TO PIPE ENTRANCE AND EXIT........................................... 41 APPENDIX G EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS...................................... 42

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IPS-E-PR- 440

0. INTRODUCTION This Standard covers single phase liquid flow, single phase gas flow, and specific cases requiring special treatment, and a brief discussion of two-phase, two component flow calculations in short process pipes. "Process Design of Piping Systems (Process Piping and Pipeline Sizing)" are broad and contain variable subjects of paramount importance. Therefore, this Standard consists of four parts as described below: PART TITLE Part One: "Process Pipe Sizing for Plants Located Onshore-Single Phase" Part Two: "Process Pipe Sizing for Plants Located Offshore" Part Three: "Transmission Pipeline for (1)-Liquid and (2)-Gas" Part Four: "Two-Phase Flow" The flow of liquid, gases, vapor, two-phase flow and many other fluid systems have received sufficient study to allow definite evaluation of conditions for a variety of process situations for Newtonian fluids, which will be discussed later on. For non-Newtonian fluids considerable data is available. However its correlation is not as broad in application due to the significant influence of physical and reological properties. This presentation is limited to Newtonian system except where noted. Primary emphasis is only given to flow through circular pipe and tubes, since this is the usual means of movement of gases and liquids in process plants. The basis for fluid flow follows Darcy and Fanning concepts. The exact transmission from laminar or viscous flow to turbulent condition is variously identified or between a Reynolds number of 2000 to 3000. The correlation included in this Standard are believed to fit average plant design with good engineering accuracy. However other basis and correlations used by designer should be mutually agreed upon. As a matter of good practice with the exercise of proper judgment, the designer should familiarize himself with the background of the methods presented, in order to better select the conditions associated with a specific problem. Most published correlations for two-phase prossure drop are empirical and, thus, and limited by range at data for which they were derived. A mathematical models for predicting the flow regime and a procedure for calculating pressure drop in process pipelines are presented in this Standard. Design conditions may be: a) Flow rate and pressure drop allowable established, determine pipe diameter for a fixed length. b) Flow rate and length known determine pressure drop and line size in the range of good engineering practice. Usually either of these conditions requires a trial approach based upon assumed pipe sizes to meet the stated conditions. Some design problems may require determination of maximum flow for a fixed line size and length; however, this just becomes the reverse of conditions above. Optimum economic line size is seldom realized in the average process plant. Unknown factors such as future flow rate allowance, actual pressure drops through certain process equipment, etc. can easily over balance any design predicated on selecting the optimum. Certain guides as to order of magnitude of costs and sizes can be established either by one of several correlations or by conventional cost estimating methods. The latter is usually more realistic for a given set of conditions, since generalized equations often do not fit a plant system. Optimum criteria for pipe size should be subject to mutual agreement between Company and designer. Unless otherwise stated, equations presented here are only used for calculating pressure drop due to friction. Therefore pressure loss or gain due to elevation must be taken into consideration where appropriate . For supplementary information regarding the mechanical part of design, reference shall be made to Engineering Standard IPS-E-PI-240 for "Plant Piping Systems" as well.

3

For undated references. Ed. REFERENCES Throughout this Standard the following dated and undated standards/codes are referred to.. These should be included. January 1982 3.440 1. 14th. The subject of this Standard is to present mathematical relationships. but only to the extent justified by the problem at hand. The applicability of changes in dated references that occur after the cited date shall be mutually agreed upon by the Company and the Vendor. in addition to presenting most popular pressure drop equations and fluid velocity. December 2001. based on which pipe size is calculated. "Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. Vol. 2003. "Standard Material Requirements Cracking Resistant Metallic” GPSA (GAS PROCESSORS SUPPLIERS ASSOCIATION) "Engineering Data Book". the latest edition of the referenced documents (including any supplements and amendments) applies. Unless noted otherwise. form a part of this standard.Mar. Section 17. For dated references. the methods suggested here do not contain any built-in safety factors. 2.C. 1987 HYDRAULIC INSTITUTE STANDARD "Centrifugal. to the extent specified herein. the edition cited applies. The approved modifications by T. were sent to IPS users as amendment No. 10th.. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY AGA American Gas Association BBM Begg’s-Brill-Moody Sulfide Stress 4 . Chapter 15 Guidelines for the Use of International System of Units (SI) in the Petroleum and Allied Industries" (IRANIAN PETROLEUM STANDARDS) IPS-E-GN-100 “Engineering Standard for Units” IPS-E-PR-460 "Process Design of Flare and Blowdown Systems" IPS-E-PI-240 "Plant Piping Systems" IPS NACE (NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS) NACE MR 0175-2002.. 2003. 1 by circular No. 214 on Aug. These referenced documents shall. These modifications are included in the present issue of IPS. 1996 IPS-E-PR. II. Rotary and Reciprocating Pumps". Note: This standard specification is reviewed and updated by the relevant technical committee on Aug. API (AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE) API Publication 2564 Third Ed. SCOPE This Engineering Standard covers process piping design and pipeline sizing. The relationships presented cover Newtonian fluids which include most useful process piping application. Ed.

kilopascal (kPa) is adopted as the unit of pressure in calculations. (dimensionless) fm Moody friction factor. millimeters of water column (mm H2O) is also used [9. ERW mmH2O MSC Equation Electric Resistance Welding In adopting the SI System of Units in this Standard it has been tried to satisfy the requirements of API Publication 2564.325 kPa and 15°C.Mar. The following table gives equivalents of Nominal Pipe Size in DN and Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches: DN (mm) 15 20 25 40 50 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 NPS (inches) ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 DN (mm) 400 450 500 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 NPS (inches) 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 36 40 Eq. (dimenssionless) B B B 5 . NGL NPS NPSHA NPSHR Re r/min s Natural Gas Liquids Nominal Pipe Size. The Metric Standard Conditions For measuring gases and liquids as referred to in the Standard is defined as 101. 4.S gallons)per day Bh Rate of flow in barrels (42 U.S gallons) per hour BX& BY Baker parameters C Hazen-Williams constant D Inside diameter of pipe. (dimenssionless) fD Darcy’s friction factor = fm. (dimenssionless) ff or fF Fanning friction factor fD= fm= 4fF. To this end.80665 Pa = 1 mm H2O (Conventional)]. in (mm per m³/h liquid flow) Amm Cross-section of pipe. But in cases where the pressure drop is expected to be small. in (mm) E Efficiency factor f Friction factor of pipe. in (mm) di Inside diameter of pipe. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Unless otherwise stated. in (m²) Am Minimum pipe cross-sectional flow area required. in (inch) Net Positive Suction Head Available Net Positive Suction Head Required Reynolds number Rotations (revolutions) per minute (RPM) second. in (m) Dp Particle diameter. all symbols used in the Engineering Standard are defined as follows: A Area of cross-sectional of pipe. in (mm) The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) will be designated by "DN" although in calculations the diameter generally has the units of millimeters (mm). 1996 dB DN IPS-E-PR.440 Decibles (unit of sound pressure level) Diameter Nominal. in (mm²) Bd Rate of flow in barrels (42 U.

in (J/kg) Molecular mass. in kelvin (K) Base temperature = (273 + 15) = 288 K Fluid velocity. in (J/kg) Enthalpy of condensate at return line pressure. along 100 m of pipe. in (kg/h). in [kPa (absolute)] Operating pressure. in (kg/mol) Operating pressure. G =M(gas)/M(air). in (m) Final elevation of pipeline. Head loss due to friction. in (m) Length of pipe. (liquid+vapor) Condensate load. mol. valves and etc. in (km) Equivalent length of pipe. in (m³/s) Liquid flow rate. in kPa/100 (absolute) or [P1-P2/100 (absolute)] Pressure loss. in [kPa (absolute)] Final or outlet pressure. at 20°C and 760 mm of mercury. in (m) Latent heat of steam at return line pressure. in (J/kg) Static head. in (kPa/100 m) Two-phase pressure. in (m³/s) Universal gas constant. in [kPa (absolute)] Base pressure. in (m3/kg) Mass flow rate.81 m/s2) Relative density of gas at the prevailing temperature and pressure relative to air. K) Reynolds number Modified Reynolds number Gas/liquid ratio in m³ (gas)/m³ (liquid) at MSC Relative liquid density (water = 1) Flowing temperature.325 kPa (absolute)] Initial or inlet pressure. 1996 g G hf hc hR H h1 h2 K Ke L Lkm Le LR M P Pave Pf Pv Po P1 P2 IPS-E-PR. loss. in 8314. in [kPa (absolute)] 3 3 ! P1 P2 . in (m³/h) Gas flow rate at Po. in (m) Initial elevation of pipeline. in (m/s) Fluid erosional velocity.440 Gravitational acceleration (usually is equal to 9. in (kPa/100 m) Liquid flow rate. in (m/s) Specific volume of steam at return line pressure. To. in (m/s) Average fluid velocity.Mar. in (m) Length of pipe. in [101.3/M (J/kg. in kpa Average gas pressure = 2 2 2 3 P P 1 2 Δ P100 Δ P100 Δ PTP100 QL Qsc Qv q ql qs R Re Rem Rgl S T To V Vave V Vc Ve VR W WT Wc Operating pressure in fittings. fitting. in (m3/kg) Critical velocity with respect to sound velocity. in (m/s) Specific volume. in litre/minute (L/min) Liquid flow rate. in (m³/h) Rate of flow at flowing conditions. in (kg/h) 6 . in (m³/h) Vapor flow rate. in (kg/h) Total fluid mass flow rate. in [kPa (absolute)] Vapor pressure of liquid in suction temperature of pump. in (m) Ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume cp/cv.. in (mm) Enthalpy of condensate at supply pressure. (dimensionless) Coefficient of resistance in pipe.

Mar. (dimenssionless) L & M modulus for two-phase Gas compressibility factor IPS-E-PR. except where otherwise specified. UNITS This Standard is based on International System of Units (SI).440 ¡P flow = L100 ¡PV100 µ 0 . downstream or outlet. in (cP) Gas viscosity at flowing temperature and pressure. in (kg/m3) Gas density.s) Density. Refers to gas. in (kg/m3) Mixture density. 7 . in (kg/m3) Liquid density.5 Greek Letters: Δ (delta) Differential between two points ε (epsilon) Absolute pipe roughness in (mm) γ (nu) µ (mu) µg (mu) ρ (rho) Kinematic viscosity. in (kg/h) Gas mass flow rate. or upstream conditions. in (dyne/cm = mN/m) ρ L (rho) ρ g (rho) ρV (rho) ρ m (rho) ρ TP (rho) λ (lambda) φ (phi) δ L (sigma) Suscripts: 12gL- Refer to initial. in (kg/m3) Two-phase flow density. 5. in (kg/h) mass (weight) fraction of vapor. in (kg/m3) Vapor density. Refers to liquid. in (Pa. in (m2/s) = absolute viscosity relative density Absolute viscosity at flowing temperature and pressure. Refer to second. in (kg/m3) Liquid volumetric fraction A fraction of L & M modules Surface tension of liquid. 1996 WL Wg x X Z Liquid mass flow rate.

valves. sometimes for preliminary design purposes when pressure loss is not a concern. velocity limitations causing erosion or aggravating corrosion must be taken into consideration. the line size must satisfy process requirements such as pump suction line. high velocity fluids require special attention with respect to the size selection. the local pressure on the surface perpendicular to the direction of flow increases dramatically. density and initial pressure. and B) is the Colebrook equation. fluid density. A preliminary line sizes must often be selected before an accurate knowledge of the system equivalent length is available. The design problem as described above is correctly defined as line sizing. 8. In this situation additional trial and error is required to determine the proper diameter. GENERAL SIZING CRITERIA The optimum pipe size should be based on minimizing the sum of energy cost and piping cost. REYNOLDS NUMBER The relationship between pipe diameter. fitting and valve losses are not constant. chosen. 2) For reference chart and method of solution see Appendix A. However. that of calculating velocity and pressure loss for a given diameter is very frequently encountered during hydraulic or "spool" checks. but are functions of diameter. pressure drop available for controllability. 1) 9. 1996 PART ONE IPS-E-PR.51 f = −2 log10 ⎢ + ⎢ 3. The opposite problem. Sometimes. In addition.440 PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED ONSHORE-SINGLE PHASE 6. the result being that. The problem is further complicated when a diameter is to be found which will produce a specified pressure drop or outlet velocity for a given flow.Mar. spool check calculations are required before final specifications for prime movers can be written on final diameter. and straight line in the system. the use of rule of thumb or approximate sizing methods can lead to critical flow and subsequent vibration and whistling. improper sizing can lead to slug flow with its well known vibration and pressure pulsations. and B.V. FLUID FLOW 7. When there is an abrupt change in the direction of flow (as in elbow or tees). FRICTION FACTOR The basis of the Moody friction factor chart (see Appendix A. 7. and rigorous calculations to determine pressure drop involving trial and error should be performed by computers. approximate calculations often neglect the importance of momentum on total pressure drop. With two-phase systems. 8 . fluid viscosity and velocity of flow according to Reynolds number is as follows: Re = d. This increase is a function of fluid velocity. process piping is sized on the basis of allowable velocity.ρ μ (Eq. 1/ ⎡ ε 2. Since velocity is inversely proportional to the square of diameter.7 D Re f ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (Eq. Although pipe sizing is mainly concerned with pressure drop.1 In vapor systems. is reduced. With both vapor and two-phase systems. In general an evaluation of the total system equivalent length must be made based on fittings.

1996 10.440 10.W 2 d 5 . FLUID FLOW CALCULATIONS IPS-E-PR.1 For the calculation of pressure loss in liquid lines. q S d 4 at flow condition d2 (Eq. 5) Alternatively. ρ 10200 kg m 2 (Eq. The following formula is for pressure loss of laminar flow: ΔP100 = 32 μ . i. The average gas density of flow in uses . presented in this Standard through the application of Darcy-Weisbach (often referred to as simply Darcy) and Fanning principles.ρ (Eq.Mar.e. Elevation pressure drops must be calculated separately. 3) The elevation pressures gains or losses are added algebratically to the frictional pressure drops.e. SINGLE PHASE LIQUID FLOW 11. an average value of ñ is not required and either the downstream or upstream density can be used.3 For a given mass flow rate and physical properties of a single phase fluid in turbulent conditions. The calculation is simplified for liquid flows since the density can reasonably be assumed to be constant.P2) ≤ 0. for a given volumetric rate. 4) Where: Δ P100 is the pressure drop in bar per 100 meters. 6) Δ P100 = 81055 × 107 fD .2 For compressible (gas and vapor lines. using Equation (3): ΔPe = hL ..1 For calculation pressure loss for a single phase (liquid-gas-vapor) fluid at isothermal condition when flow rate and system characteristics are given. ρ = ( ρ1 + ρ 2 ) 2 The pressure drop is less or equal 40% of up stream pressure i. P100 can be expressed: ΔP100 = 6253 f P . 11. 10.2 Flow is considered to be laminar at Reynolds number of 2000 or less. 11. (P1 . Reynolds number should be determined for regime of flow. the Darcy-Weisbach or Fanning methods shall be used. Δ P100 can be expressed as: (Eq. In cases where the pressure loss is less than 10% of the upstream pressure.V = 4074 × 10 4 μ . q2/d5 bar/100 meter at flowing conditions (temperature and pressure) 9 . 11. As a result the Darcy-Weisbach calculation can be applied to a long run of pipe rather than segmentally as directed by the variable density in gas flow. therefor before using the formula for pressure drop.. where the pressure losses are small relative to line pressure) reasonable accuracy can often be predicted providing the following conditions are met.4 P1 This is because energy losses due to acceleration and density variations can be neglected up to this limit.

f .1 Water Flow The pressure loss for water flow shall be calculated by Hazen.17 (lb/ft/sec2. kg-force). constant "C" is taken as "100".1 × 10-6 K.2. is one of the most accurate formula for calculation pressure loss in water line (see Appendix C for Hazen-William’s constant C).9 kPa/100 m in the case of liquid below the boiling point. .L d (Eq.L ⎛ ρ . in the case of liquid at the boiling point and below 7.. 11) ρ . (Eq. from which the pressure drops shall be calculated. ρ . 8) Pressure drops " Δ Pf" in fittings can be calculated as follows: ⎛ ρ . For the design of new water pipelines.V2 kPa In cases where valves and fittings are to be handled as pipe equivalent lengths.V 2 ⎜ d ⎜ 2 gc ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ( Fanningequ ation ) ⎟ ⎠ (Eq.85 ⎞ .1 Generally the pressure drops in pump suction lines shall be held below 4.80 (kg. ρ . f .5 kPa/100 m.9) Δ Pf is pressure drop in fitting (psi) or (kg/cm2).. The Hazen-s formula is as follows: ⎛ 100 ⎞ h f = 2. is velocity is pipe (ft/sec) or (m/s).⎜ 4. the equivalent lengths shall be taken from Appendix G and added to the actual pipe lengths.m/s2. SPECIAL CONDITIONS 13. The value "K" is defined as follows: ΔP = n K= 4. 9.Mar. is density (lb/ft3) or (kg/m3).V2 kg/cm2 = 5 × 10-4 K.2 Pump Suction Lines 13.. following equation is obtained: Δ Pf = K. 13. The HazenWilliam’s relationship. As a result. 1996 12.440 In case where the coefficient of resistance "K" are to be used. 10 . E and F..Williams’s formula. 12) 13.V2 / 196120 = 5.25 × 10 4 Le ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ 1.w ⎟ ⎜ d 8655 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (Eq.85 ⎛ Q1. 10) (Eq..V 2 ΔP = K ⎜ ⎜ 2 gc ⎝ Where: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (Eq. FITTINGS AND VALVES IPS-E-PR. K = K valve + K elbow + K tee. shall be taken and calculated from Appendices D. lb-force). 7) 4. K V P gc is coefficient of resistance. is gravity constant 32.

For corrosive liquids these values may be reduced by fifty percent. in (kPa). in (kpa). Note that the longer payout times favor larger pipe diameters.13 m/s.835 S [H -(NPSHR + α )] + (P1 . is height from datum to pump centre. 13) ΔP S H is friction loss in piping to pump inlet. 13. Velocity often strongly influences the mechanism of the corrosion reactions. Of course. NPSHR α (alpha) P1 Pv 13. is relative density (Water = 1). 1996 IPS-E-PR.3 to 2. Higher velocities and unit losses can be allowed within this range when subcooled liquid is flowing than when the liquid is saturated. Mechanical wear effects at high values and particularly when the solution contains solids in suspension. in (kPa). is vapor pressure of liquid at suction temperature. is pressure working on suction liquid surface.2. 13.2134 m for liquid below boiling point. piping costs increase with diameter while utility costs decrease. Velocities are usually between 0. is net positive suction head required. in (m).Pv) Where: (Eq.45 kPa (0. For carbon steel pipe: Liquid 3 m/s Vapor-liquid 30 m/s For stainless steel pipe: 11 .4 Limitations Owing to Erosion Preventive Measures Velocity of the fluid plays an important role in errosion-corrosion.5 psi) shall be added in the case o f dirty service.3 A suction liquid line to a centrifugal pump should be short and simple. Between alternate design the best size can be determined by adding the total cost of utilities over the period of capital payout to the capital cost of each installation.4 m/s.2 In cases where permanent strainers are to be provided a minimum pressure drop of 3. 13.2 m/s and for sub-cooled liquids shall be 2. The lowest over-all figure will give the most economical solution. in (m) (the term "Datum" refers to the bottom tangent line in the case of vertical vessels and to the bottom level in the case of horizontal vessels). Allowable pressure drops can be determined by the following formula: Δ P = 9.2. 13. An economical comparison is justified with large diameter piping.440 The maximum velocity of bubble point liquids shall be 1.3 Cooling Water Cooling water discharge headers are usually sized with unit pressure losses in decimals of 7 kPa (1 psi). where most of the pump pressure is used for pipe and equipment resistance.4.Mar.305 m (1 ft) for liquid at boiling point and 0.1 Amine solution The following limitations should be considered. The equivalent length to be used for pressure drop calculations shall be assumed to be 46 m (150 ft). No addition is required in the case of clean service. is 0. Pipe smaller than pump discharge nozzle size is not used.

13.2 Vacuum tower overhead line 1) The line cost and steam and cooling water consumptions shall be calculated and the line size shall be decided so that the annual cost will become minimum. 2) Determination of line sizes in cases where the liquid enters a control valve at the boiling point should be sized on the following basis: With consideration given to the static head and length of the line from the liquid level to the control valve.5.003g (° L °V ).1412 or 2. 14) The line size shall be also checked that the control valve size may not become larger than the line size. reducer and air cooler tube inlet parts after water injection points.440 13.H > Δ P (flowmeter) + Δ P (line friction) (Eq. 15) (Eq.Dp = °V (Eq. Care must be taken not to exceed the highest fluid velocity in pipe tubes.2 Ammonium bisulfate (NH3-H2S-H2O) solution Aqueous solutions of ammonium bisulfate produced in the effluent line of hydrocracking. bend.26 Sh > Where: ρ (rhow) H h S ρ . In this case. in (m). the flow velocity in the first 3 meters of the vertical line shall be less than 0. in (mm). the line size shall be determined so that no vaporization may occur at the inlet of control valve. especially for nozzles. Δ P (line friction) = kPa pressure drop due to friction. This value is intended for vaporliquid separation based on the particle diameter 200 micrometers (1000 micron = 1 mm) in cases where the operating pressure is high or the difference between the vapor and liquid densities is small: q V = 0. 13. hydrotreating processes often cause rapid erosion.corrosion of carbon steel pipes. the following should be satisfied.762 m/s.5 Other Matters 13.Mar.5. 12 . is static head. 2) Pre-condenser shall be provided in wet cases where the pressure loss in the pre-condenser shall be 4 mm Hg. Δ P (flowmeter) = kPa pressure drop in flowmeter. in (kg/m3). 0.4. tees. is relative density. 1996 Liquid Vapor-liquid 9 m/s 36 m/s IPS-E-PR.1 Gravity flow 1) Side cut draw-off In cases where no controller is provided for the liquid level in the liquid draw-off tray. 16) Δ P (flowmeter) + P (line friction) is relative density. is static head.

01 variation in relative density (specific gravity). VR (h C . 3) The flow velocity shall be calculated by the following equation: V= 354.d 8 / 3 P12 − P22 L m3 / h (Eq.h R ) d2.W 5 2 g ρ g .2 Line from steam trap or control valve to following vessel 1) Steam condensate return lines must be sized to avoid excessive pressure loss. For process piping however. the answer will be three-fourths percent in error: Formula: Qg = Where: Qg 10. A variation in density implies variation in Reynolds number on which the friction factor is dependent.5.5. 14. 17) 13.73 × 10 −4 . a figure mostly practiced by design companies (refer to Engineering Standard IPS-E-PR-460 for. At 15. 1996 13.5°C (10°F) variation in temperature. 5) also can be used for calculation of pressure loss in process gas lines as follows: Δ P100 = 62530 f D . A rigorous calculation of pressure loss for long pipeline involves dividing it into segments.3 kPa/100 m (0. performing the calculation for each segment (considering variable parameters) and integrating over the entire length.1 Line from heat exchanger to steam trap or control valve The pressure drop in this line shall be smaller than 11. "Process Design of Flare and Blowdown Systems").4 Flare headers Flare headers shall be designed so that the maximum allowable velocity does not exceed 50 percent of critical velocity. 14.1 In general when considering compressible flow. For every 5.5°C and relative density (specific gravity) of 0.d bar /100m (see Eq. It is based on Weymouth formula.Mar.. Part of the hot condensate flashes into steam when it is discharged into the condensate return system. 13. assuming the pressure drop through the line is not a significant fraction of the total pressure (i.440 13. the flow velocity "V" must be limited to 1524 m/min to prevent erosion.3 The Darcy formula (Eq.e.5. 2) In this case. no more than 10%). a rigorous calculation would not be necessary and the equation outline below are considered adequate.2 As mentioned above for estimating pressure drop in shortrun of gas piping such as within plant or battery limit.3 Steam condensate lines IPS-E-PR.1 kg/cm2/100 m) and shall be checked that no condensate may vaporize therein. the answer will be accurate.6.5. 14. WC .3. the answer will be 1% error.3. since pipe lengths are generally short. 5) 14.4 A Practical Way to Calculate Gas Flow in Pipeline Here is a short cut way to calculate gas flow in pipelines. (m3/h). 13 . LR (Eq. 18) is cubic metere of gas per hour. For every 0. a simplified formula for compressible fluids is accurate for fully turbulent flow. as pressure decreases along the line so does the density (assuming isothermal flow). SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW 14.

d 5 ⎥ m 3 / h at 15o C Q = 0. dB (A) 60 80 90 MAXIMUM FLUID VELOCITY TO PREVENT NOISE.d ⎥ m 3 / h at 15o C Q = 0. Sonic or critical velocity is the maximum velocity which a compressible fluid can attain in a pipe. For trouble-free operation maintain operable velocities at 0. But for compressible flow this increase is limited to the velocity of sound in the fluid at flowing conditions. As the pressure drop in a pipe (increases) so does the flow.64 K .6 d6 3 W 2 . L is length of line in (m).72 ⊄ 10 4 0. 19) = 31.8 Flow Induced Noise The allowable maximum flow velocities in cases where the maximum sound pressure levels of the piping noises must be kept 8 to 10 dB (A) under the sound pressure level of the background noise. 22) Where: ΔP is the pressure drop in Pa. P2 is kPa (abs) at ending point.5 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎢ G.L⎜1 + d + 0. 23) 14. 14. 14.Mar.00118d ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 5 ⎢ ⎥ ΔP.6 System operating at pressure less than 7000 N/m² (7 kPa).5 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎢ G. m/s* 30 41 52 14 . P1 is kPa (abs) at starting point.T m/s M (Eq. 1996 IPS-E-PR.00338 ⎢ ⎛ 91.440 d is pipe ID in (mm).0394d + 3.P ρ m/s (Eq.00118d ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎣ 0. 14.00108 ⎢ ⎛ 91.5 Vc and Vc for ideal gasis is given by: VC = K . are as follows: NORMAL BACKGROUND SOUND PRESSURE. the Spitzglass equation shall be used for pressure loss calculations: ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Δhw .L⎜1 + d + 0.R. 20) The maximum velocity in piping handling compressible shall be less than ½ of the critical velocity. This limit is called the critical velocity.5 (Eq.5 An important factor in handling compressible fluid flow is a phenomenon known as critical flow.L °S (Eq.7 Steam Flow Babcock formula shall be used to calculate pressure drop in steam lines: 2 iP = 1. 21) (Eq.5 0.

Mar. IPS-E-PR.440 15 . 1996 * Obviously these velocity limitations refer to compressible flow.

unless surge expectations has been more precisely determined by pulse pressure measurements in similar systems or by specific fluid hammer calculation.3 Calculated line sizes may need to be adjusted in accordance with good engineering judgment. If practical flow velocity should not be less than 0.91 m/s to minimize deposition of sand and other solids. Many companies also use computer programs to facilitate piping design.3 Pressure loss (kPa per 100 meter of flow length) for single-phase liquid lines may be calculated using the following (Fanning) equation: 16 . SCOPE This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the sizing of new piping system on production platforms located offshore. Practically all of the offshore experience has been in hydrocarbon service free of hydrogen sulfide. It is also usually advisable to add a surge factor of 20 to 50 percent to the anticipated normal flow rate. Manufacturer’s data or an equivalent length as in Appendix G shall be used . However. SIZING CRITERIA-GENERAL In determining the diameter of pipe to be used in platform piping systems. the first incoming and last outgoing valve which block pipeline flow shall be the limit of this document’s application.440 PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED OFFSHORE 15. Most of the pressure drop in liquid lines between two pressure vessels will occur in the liquid dump valve and/or choke.2 Determination of pressure loss in a line should include the effects of valves and fittings. presented are based on years of experience in developing oil and gas losses. The following sections present equations for calculating pipe diameters for liquid lines. the maximum flow rate expected during the life of the facility should be considered rather than the initial flow rate. In determining the transition between risers and platform piping which these practices apply. For lines transporting liquids in singlephase from one pressure vessel to another by pressure differential. 17. respectively. 16. to minimize flashing ahead of the control valve. 1996 PART TWO IPS-E-PR. 16.1 When determining line sizes. special consideration should be given to material properties (ductility. At these flow velocities. The maximum design pressure within the scope of this document is 69000 kPa gage (10000 psig) and the temperature range is -29°C (-20°F) to 343°C (650°F).). 16. both the flow velocity and pressure drop should be considered.1 General Single-phase liquid lines should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity.2 Flow velocities in liquid lines may be calculated using the following derived equation: V = 353. 16. carbon migration and etc. 353. the overall pressure drop in the piping will usually be small. the flow velocity should not exceed 4. SIZING CRITERIA FOR LIQUID LINES 17. 17.7) 17.6 m/s at maximum flow rates. The recommended practices. recommendations based on extensive experience onshore are included for some aspects of hydrocarbon service containing hydrogen sulphide.7 QL 2 dL (Eq.Mar. For applications outside these pressures and temperatures. singlephase gas lines and gas/liquid two-phase lines.

the pressure at the suction flange must meet the same requirement. In a reciprocating unit. meter of liquid. 26) 18. the acceleration head is critical and may be determined by the following equation from the Hydraulics Institute. 25) ΔP100 = 62. meter of liquid. on surface of liquid going to suction. the acceleration head.440 (Eq. is friction head.Mar. as well as the friction. meter of liquid.81 m/s²). the liquid pressure at the suction flange must be high enough to overcome the pressure loss between the flange and the entrance to the impeller vane (or rotor) and maintain the pressure on the liquid above its vapor pressure. is gravitational constant (usually 9.C k . due to liquid level above or below datum line (centerline of pump). Available NPSH for most pump applications may be calculated using Equation 26. For reciprocating pumps. 27) 17 . ha = L. It is the total head in meter absolute determined at the suction nozzle. Additionally provisions should be made in reciprocating pump suction piping to minimize pulsations. Satisfactory pump operation requires that essentially no vapor be flashed from the liquid as it enters the pump casing or cylinder. but the pump required NPSH is typically higher than for a centrifugal pump because of pressure drop across the valves and pressure drop caused by pulsation in the flow. meter of liquid.ha Where: hp hvpa hst hf hvh ha VL g is absolute pressure head due to pressure.4 The Moody friction factor "f" is a function of the Reynolds number and surface roughness of the pipe. meter of liquid. 18. in Appendix A may be used to determine the friction factor when the Reynolds number is known.66 × 10 8 17. Available NPSH should always be equal or exceed the pump’s required NPSH. atmospheric or otherwise. is static head.VL . or head loss due to flowing friction in the suction piping. rotary and centrifugal pump suction piping systems should be designed so that the available net positive suction head (NPSH) at the pump inlet flange exceeds the pump required NPSH. 18. velocity and static head. less the vapor pressure of the liquid in meter absolute. (Eq.g (Eq. Similary the available NPSH supplied to the pump suction must account for the acceleration in the suction piping caused by the pulsating flow.1 Reciprocating. NPSHa = hp .S L kPa/100m d i5 IPS-E-PR. is acceleration head. meter of liquid.hvpa + hst .3 The necessary available pressure differential over the pumped fluid vapor pressure may be defined as net positive suction head available (NPSHa). is zero. is velocity head. including entrance and exit losses. 18. PUMP PIPING 18. is the absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at suction temperature.QL .hvh .RP . meter/second (m/s). ha.hf . positive or negative. is velocity of liquid in piping. 1996 2 f m .4 For a centrifugal or rotary pump. Otherwise cavitation will occur. The modified Moody diagram.2 In a centrifugal or rotary pump.

= 0. = 0. the following should be evaluated: a) Shorten suction line. to the feed system. all crankshafts are in phase and. in rotations/minute (r/min). the multiple pumps act as one pump of that type with a capacity equal to that of all pumps combined. d) Consider a pump with a larger number of plungers. Speed required is inversely proportional to the square of piston diameter. = 2. = 0. It should be noted that there is not universal acceptance for Equation 27. glycol. 18.5 for relatively compressible liquid (hot oil or ethane). c) Reduce required pump speed by using a larger size piston or plunger. This is about 40% less than C =0.5 when more than one reciprocating pump is operated simultaneously on a common feed line. However. 18 . type. 18. if kept properly charged may reduce L. In this case. g is gravitational constant (usually 9. e) Consider using a pulsation dampener if the above remedies are unacceptable. if permitted by pump rating. This is very helpful since velocity varies inversely with the square of pipe inside-diameter. Dampener should be located as close to the pump suction as possible. the maximum instantaneous velocity in the feed line would be equal to that created by one pump having a capacity equal to that of all the pumps combined. in meter (actual length not equivalent length). For example: C= 0. is length of suction line.040 for quintuplex single or double acting. Acceleration head is directly proportional to line length.5 for amine. The results obtainable by using a dampener in the suction system depend on the size. = 2. in meter/second (m/s). the length of pipe used in acceleration head equation to a value of 5 to 15 nominal pipe diameter. = 0. = 0.066 for triplex single or double acting. L. Equation 27 is believed to be a conservative basis which will assure adequate provision for acceleration head. Acceleration head is directly proportional to pump speed Rp.200 for simplex double acting. b) Use larger suction pipe to reduce velocity. at time. water.115 for duplex double acting. 1996 Where: ha L VL Rp C is acceleration head.4 for liquid with almost no compressibility (deaereted water). is average liquid velocity in suction line.200 for duplex single acting. A good. in meter of liquid. Acceleration head is directly proportional to fluid velocity VL.6 If the acceleration head is determined to be excessive.04 for a quintuplex pump.066 for a triplex pump.0 for most hydrocarbons.Mar. is empirical constant for the type of pump: = 0. Acceleration head is directly proportional to C. is pump speed. K is a factor representing the reciprocal of the friction of the theoretical acceleration head which must be provided to avoid a noticeable disturbance in the suction piping: = 1.028 for septuplex single or double acting. location and charging pressure used.440 The constant "C" will vary from these values for unusual ratios of connecting rod length to crank radius. = 1.81 m/s²). properly located dampener. Note: IPS-E-PR.

b) Discharge piping should be one or two pipe sizes larger than pump discharge connection. TABLE 1 . Additionally. size the common feed line so the velocity will be as close as possible to the velocity in the laterals going to the individual pumps. The pressure drops listed in the following Table 2. This will avoid velocity changes and thereby minimize acceleration head effects. with the flat side up to keep the top of line level. b) Suction lines should be short with a minimum number of elbows and fittings. have been found by experience to be an acceptable balance for short lines.3 m/s (60 ft/sec). when capital costs (pipe. 18. noise may be a problem. If potential for accumulation of debris is a concern.83-2. means for removal is recommended.46 (1½ ft/sec) 0.83 (6 ft/sec) 1.8 Reciprocating.91 (2-3 ft/sec) DISCHARGE VELOCITY m/s (ft/sec) 1. 18.1 Process Lines When pressure drop is a consideration (lines connecting two components operating at essentially the same pressure.61-0. and will minimize pulsations in reciprocating pumps.37 (4½ ft/sec) 0. e) In multi-pump installations. but are more complex than suction piping pulsations.74 (6-9 ft/sec) 19. etc. c) Eccentric reducers should be used near the pump. 1996 IPS-E-PR. reciprocating pump discharge piping should be sized to minimize pulsations. Pulsations in reciprocating pump discharge piping are also related to the acceleration head.) single-phase gas lines should be sized on the basis of acceptable pressure loss. compression) and operating cost are considered. SIZING CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS LINES 19.305 (1 ft/sec) 0. include a suitable pulsation dampener (or make provisions for adding a dampener at a later date) as close to the pump cylinder as possible. 19 .61 (2 ft/sec) 0. centrifugal and rotary pump discharge piping should be sized on an economical basis.440 f) Use a centrifugal booster pump to charge the suction of the reciprocating pump.91 (3 ft/sec) 1. When velocities in gas lines exceed 18. This eliminates the possibility of gas pockets being formed in the suction piping. The following guidelines may be useful in designing discharge piping: a) Discharge piping should be as short and direct as possible. This velocity will normally result in an economical line size for all pumps.TYPICAL FLOW VELOCITIES SUCTION VELOCITY m/s (ft/sec) Reciprocating pumps Speeds upto 250 r/min Speeds 251-330 r/min Speeds above 330 r/min Centrifugal pumps 0. d) For reciprocating pumps provide a suitable pulsation dampener (or make provisions for adding a dampener at a later date) as close to the pump cylinder as possible. d) For reciprocating pumps. c) Velocity in discharge piping should not exceed three times the velocity in the suction piping.Mar. The Table 1 below may be used to determine preliminary suction and discharge line sizes.7 The following requirements are recommended for designing suction piping: a) Suction piping should be one or two pipe sizes larger than the pump inlet connection.

30) 20.3-27.P (Eq.T . The selection of allowable velocities requires an engineering study for each specific application.d i5 kpa (Eq. 19.440 ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROP kPa/100m (psi/100 ft) 1.81 ⎛ di .4 Compressor Lines Reciprocating and centrifugal compressor piping should be sized to minimized pulsation.5 The following equation (Fanning) may be used when total pressure loss is less than 10% of inlet pressure and is based on friction factor given by the GPSA Data Book.ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROPS FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS PROCESS LINES OPERATING PRESSURE kPa (ga) 100-690 696-3447 3454-13790 IPS-E-PR.5-1. 20.14 (0. in (m/s). flow lines.ρ g ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ μ ⎟ g ⎝ ⎠ 0. f .082 (0. process headers and other lines transporting gas and liquid in twophase flow should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity.3 Gas velocity may be calculated using the following derived equation: V = 124. vibration and noise.T d 2 . 29) Where: f = 1.49) 11.13-4.2) 19. 20 . 31) Where: Ve is fluid erosional velocity. Ve = 1. SIZING CRITERIA FOR GAS/LIQUID TWO-PHASE LINES Erosional velocity.Vg .1 The velocity above which erosion may occur can be determined by the following empirical equation. If the total pressure drop is greater than 10% an equation such as Weymouth’s should be used. 28) 19.2 The above Table 2 may be used to determine pressure loss.Le . Flow velocity should be kept at least below fluid erosional velocity. production manifolds.38 + 0. If solid (sand) production is anticipated fluid velocity should be reduced accordingly. if the total pressure drop is less than 10% of inlet pressure.05-0.Q g .433 × 10 5 2 G.0025 (Eq.22C ρm m/s (Eq. 1996 TABLE 2 .19) 4.30 (0.Mar.1 Z . ΔP = 1.52-11.2-0. 19.Q g P.

34) Where: WT is total liquid plus vapor rate.82P + 10. 1996 C is empirical constant: = 125 for-non-continuous service. This is particularly important in long lines with elevation changes. the minimum velocity in two-phase lines should be about 3 m/s to minimize slugging of separation equipment. use average gravity for hydrocarbon-water mixtures at Standard Conditions.Mar. the minimum cross-sectional area required to avoid fluid erosion may be determined from the following derived equation: A= 277. in (kg/m³). is gas relative density ( MW ) at Standard Conditions.2 The density of the gas/liquid mixture may be calculated using the following derived equation: ρm = Where: SL R P T G 28829.65 + 97.5 Pressure Drop The pressure drop in two-phase steel piping system may be estimated using a simplified Darcy equation.4ZRT P Ve (Eq.G. 20. is operating pressure. m³ (gas)/m³ (liquid) at MSC. in (K).4 Minimum Velocity If possible.3 Once Ve is known. in (kPa absolute).254 × 10 6 f m . 32) is relative density of liquid (water = 1). 28.9 ρ m(rho) is gas/liquid mixture density. ΔP100 = 6. IPS-E-PR. ρ m (rho) 21 . The use of the equation should be limited to a 10% pressure drop due to inaccuracies associated with changes in density. is gas/liquid density at flowing temperature and pressure.WT2 d 5 . 20. 33) 20. = 100 for continuous service. is gas/liquid ratio. in (kg/h).440 ρm is gas/liquid mixture density at operating pressure and temperature. is operating temperature.T.6S L .12R.Z (Eq.P + 35. 20. in (kg/m³).P kg/m³ 28.ρ m kpa 100m (Eq.22R. in (kg/m³) (calculated as shown in Equation 32).

35) IPS-E-PR.440 22 .2225 Qg.SL (kg/h) (Eq.G + 1000 QL. 1996 WT may be calculated using the following derived equation: WT = 1.Mar.

2518 γ .2 Intermittent flow conditions should be avoided where possible. pressure loss shall be calculated using the Service Pipeline Co. 23. 00662⎜ ⎜R ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ em ⎠ (Eq.Q L .83 ×10 8 QL 1. thereby minimizing accumulation of corrosion matter within the pipeline. 22.00207⎜ ⎜R ⎝ em ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. required diameter. design consideration should be given to obtaining an operating velocity which will pick up and sweep away water or sediment that accumulates in lower places in the line during periods of no flow. 1996 PART THREE TRANSMISSION PIPELINES FOR: 1) LIQUID 2) GAS IPS-E-PR. design should include loading and receiving pig trap. sediment or other corrosive contaminates are expected to accumulate in the pipeline. The lower limit of the flow velocity range should be that velocity which will keep impurities suspended in the commodity. SCOPE The transmission line as related to the requirements of this Engineering Standard is a pipeline transporting gas or liquid and also two-phase flow from oil fields to the ship loading points or production Units such as refineries and natural gas plants. 0. Operating procedures should be developed and implemented for adequate cleaning (see also NACE MR 0175-2002).1 For pipe sizes less than or equal to DN 750.d ⎛ 1 f = 0.440 21. The upper limit of the velocity range should be such that erosion-corrosion cavitation. for transmission of a specific quantity of crude oil.1 Design consideration should be given to flow velocity within a range which will minimize corrosion. Formula.355 ⎛ 1 ⎞ f = 0. 36) 23. 23. SIZING CRITERIA Although pressure loss is primary criterion in determining line size.65. 22. For turbulent flow up to Re = 170000 ΔP = 26. This Standard presents different methods for economical calculations of pressure loss. 0018 + 0.2 For pipe sizes greater than DN 750 the SHELL/MIT formula shall be used for pressure loss calculations. 22. 38) 23 .54 × 10 × d5 10 kPa/100m (Eq.3 If water. If operating criteria dictate the need for intermittent flow.Mar.748.QL = 2. 22. or impingement attack will be minimal. products and natural gas to the terminal under consideration.S d 4.s. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES The following formula have been found to give results corresponding fairly closed to those observed in operation for typical Iranian crude oil properties. But application of SHELL/MIT formula for diameter of less than DN 750 also gives an acceptable results: ΔP100 Where: 2 f .S μ .748 kPa/100m (Eq. the following points should be taken into consideration when designing a pipeline. 37) For viscous flow (laminar) For turbulent flow Rem = 45.

25.3 Crude oils generally tend to carry free water along the pipeline.5 (Eq. 23.4 IPS-E-PR.135 to 6.55. Weymouth formula: ⎛T ⎞ ⎡ P 2 − P22 ⎤ Qg = 0. d is inside diameter.14 × 10 − 3 ⎜ o ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ o⎠ 1.961 ⎥ . QL is flow rate.88-0. in centipoise (cP).1 Natural gas liquids is generally in natural gas processing plants (dew point depression process).440 Where: Rem is Reynolds number modified Re/7742.02 ⎢ 0. Its components typically range from C2 to C9 and its relative density is typically about 0. It generally varies between 0. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGL) PIPELINES 25. The Weymouth formula is applicable where the operating pressure is less than 450 kPa.3 The compressibility factor "Z" is calculated at pipeline average pressure which is given by: ⎛ P 3 − P23 ⎞ ⎛ P −P ⎞ P ave = 2 / 3⎜ P + P2 − 1 2 ⎟ = 2 / 3⎜ 12 ⎜ P − P2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 1 P + P2 ⎟ 1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎝ ⎠ (Eq. If the velocity of crude oil is too low. 25. 39) 26. S is relative density.Mar.02 ⎡ ⎤ P 2 − P22 1 .135 Rem > 0.Tave . 25.2 For line pressures greater than 450 kPa the Panhandle revised or "B" equation should be used: ⎛T ⎞ Qg = 14. It is advisable to maintain a certain minimum velocity in order to keep the water from stratification. a two-phase flow conditions must be avoided by maintaining an adequately. pressure loss should not cause vaporization and consequently create two-phase flow.Z ave L ⎦ 0. the water stratifies to the bottom of pipe and corrosion may occur. Therefore in the time of calculations of pressure loss. this water is a potential source of corrosion.Z ave L ⎦ 0. 40) The efficiency factor "E" decreases with increasing flow rate for fully turbulent flow.2 Pressure drop calculations should be made using an appropriate method as described for liquid handling. 1996 Viscous flow Turbulent Indeterminate region Rem = 0. 26. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES 26. high minimum pressure along the pipelines. 25. µ(mu) is absolute viscosity.1 For gas pipelines up to about DN 300 the Weymouth and Panhandle formulas have been found to give satisfactory results.4 Due to its higher vapor pressure. in (mm).E ⎣ G. 26.5 (Eq. actual temperature & pressure of line should be regarded.1 to 0.4 For natural gas pipelines with diameter greater than DN 300 the IGT/AGA formula should be used: 24 .d 8 / 3 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ o⎠ ⎣ G.4 Rem = 0. . in (m³/h).94. (dimensionless).d 1.Tave . 41) 26.3 In transmission of NGL by pipe.00494⎜ o ⎟.

particularly when the gas contains water vapor and hydrate formation is suspected.2 Particular attention should be given to the additional pressure required if it is intended to remove accumulated liquids or internal deposits by pigs. Each method has it relative merits in its particular applications. In recent years several computer methods have been developed for predicting the behavior of two-phase flow in pipelines.7 In long gas transmission lines when excessive pressure drop is encountered.10. 26. but it turns out that. 42) 26.L. due to complex nature of twophase phenomenon..Z aveTave ⎝ o ⎠⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0. 25 . particular attention must be paid to gas velocity. Although it is not intended to present calculation methods for two-phase flow in transmission pipelines in this Standard. the final temperature might even drop below ambient. consideration should be given to the incorporation of liquid knock-out traps where desirable and where permitted. 26. But.5 In gas transmission lines changes in elevation may seem to have a negligible contribution to the overall pressure drop. Sometimes rich gas gathering networks also exhibit two-phase behavior. particularly in high pressure lines this contribution could be appreciable. 26. it would be helpful to consult the inhibitor manufacturer for limiting velocities. inter phase changes along the line.1 The effect of liquids accumulating in low sections of natural gas pipelines should be taken into account in the process design stage. 26. At design stage.8 Due to operating problems normally a transmission line is not designed to handle two-phase (gas-liquid). etc.7d ⎤ ⎡ × d 2. the following points are noteworthy as for as process design of these systems is concerned.10. 1996 ⎡ 2 ⎛ 0. 26.440 3.9 Exceptions are flow and gas lines between oil and gas wells and separation Unit or system.Mar.75 × 10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎜P ⎟ ⎥ G. the effect of elevation changes. a general agreement on the best methods available does not exist.6 When corrosion inhibitor is being injected into gas transmission line.10 To get a reasonable evaluation one must resort to computer application.5 × ⎢4 log10 ε ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (Eq. 26. 26. This phenomenon called "Joule-Thomson effect in pipelines" should be watched for.5 IPS-E-PR. The factor can be critical in hill country.06834G (h2 − h1 ) Pave 2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ P − P2 − ⎜ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎥ − 5 ⎛ To ⎞ ⎢ Qg = 75. High gas velocities tend to decrease the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors.

As Equation 44 shows "Bx" depends on the mass-flow ratio and the physical properties of the liquid and vapor phase.1 Two-phase flow resistance is calculated in two main steps: IPS-E-PR. Consequently.ρV / ρ L / 3 )(μ 1 / 3 / σ L ) L K = 212 SI K = 531 English Note: Percent liquid/percent vapor. 1996 PART FOUR TWO PHASE FLOW 27. The position of the Bx line in Fig. Using data supplied or usually available to the process piping designer.1. The borders of the various flow pattern regions in Fig.5√ ρ L0. X remains constant for one set of flow conditions. 27. also changes friction losses in pipe. Where Δ P100 (liquid) is calculated assuming only liquid is flowing in the pipe and Δ P100 (vapor) is calculated assuming only vapor is flowing in the same size pipe. to a much lesser extent. 1 are shown as lines. The selection of one of these flow patterns is made using Fig. (Eq. can be substituted for WL/Wv and √ ρ L. This can occur in long pipe lines where relatively high friction losses reduce the pressure. 1. 2 BX = K (WL / WV )( ρ L .1 × 106 SI K = 2. 43) K = 7.33.166) and also μ L1/3= μ L0.16 English "By" depends on the vapor phase flow rate. the Baker parameters can be expressed as follows: By = K Wv A ρ L . corrected by applicable twophase flow correlation.1. the vapor content of the mixture in equilibrium increases with corresponding decrease in vapor 26 .440 a) A possible flow pattern is selected by calculating coordinates of flow region chart. 27. if the physical properties of the concurrently flowing liquid and vapor changes.Mar.ρ v (Eq. TWO PHASE FLOW SIZING PROCESS PIPING 27./ ρ L 2/3=( ρ V0. 1 changes only if the liquid-vapor mixture proportion changes and. The practical significance of the later variable is that by changing pipe diameters.1 Two-phase flow regions The two-phase flow patterns are shown in Table 3 first column. on vapor and liquid densities. In reality these boarders are rather broad transition zone. b) Unit pressure losses are determined by calculating vapor-phase unit loss only. 44) ρ V . which is in turn. the type of flow might also be changed. and on the pipe size. Once calculated. it does not change with alternative pipe diameters.2 Baker parameters A particular flow region can be determined by the Baker parameters Bx and By.

With increasing vapor content. The general equation for calculating two-phase flow unit losses is: Δ P100 (two-phase) = Δ P100 (vapor) ( φ ²) (Eq. Only the essential necessary relationship are repeated here and used with the customary data of practical process piping design.2 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss There are different methods to calculate Unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures. In Equation 45 φ is the two-phase flow modulus. However. is a function of the Lockhart-Martinelli two-phase modulus X as follows: 27 . 45) Calculate the pressure drop of the vapor phase.000 the flow will fall in dispersed flow region for hydrocarbon liquids of normal viscosities. the long multiplication of Bx does not have to be calculated. It is suggested that the designer calculate By first. 1 27. assuming that there is only vapor flowing in the pipeline. At this stage the Lockhard-Martinelli method widly used in the chemical industries mostly for horizontal Pipes. It is assumed that the two-phase flow is isothermal and turbulent in both liquid and vapor phases and that the pressure loss is less than 10% of the absolute upstream pressure. Lockhart and Martinelli. The selected method for calculations should be approved by the Company. then.Mar. IPS-E-PR. the calculations of the unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures is based on the method of Messrs. In oil & gas transmission lines there are different correlations methods which the BBM (Begg’s-Brill-Moody) is the most popular. If By ≥ 80.440 The intersection of Bx and By on Fig. TWO-PHASE FLOW REGION SELECTION GRAPH Fig. This can be expected when the vapor content is 25 percent or more of the total mass flow rate. 1996 density. The Bx line will shift somewhat to the left. 1 determines the flow region for the calculated liquid-vapor proportion and physical properties of the liquid and vapor. the intersection point moves up and to the left.

ρ bar/100 m Use the same diameter for liquid and vapor-phase and corresponding phase flow rate. density and friction factor. the two-phase flow modulus will be equal to: X² = (WL/Wv)² ( ρ v/ ρ L) (fL/fv) X = (WL/Wv) ( ρ v/ ρ L)0.W2)/d5.440 ¡P X= L100 ¡ PV100 μ 0 .2. 1996 IPS-E-PR.5 (Eq. two-phase flow Unit losses can be calculated by Equation 45.Mar.5 (fL/fv)0.1 As mentioned previously X is the Lockhart-Martinelli.2. After finding the vaporphase unit loss and applicable twophase flow correlation (in Table 3). fL/fv increases with the increasing vapor content of liquid.2. flow region coordinates can be calculated and the flow type determined.2. Knowing the pipe configurations. Usually both phases fall in transitional turbulent zone. except for annular flow where in "a" and "b" only pipe diameters appear as variants. After pipe size selection.xb (Eq. 50) fL and fv is the liquid and vapor-phase friction factor.3 As with all line sizing procedures pipe sizes must be estimated first.167 (Eq. L can be computed conveniently using Appendix G.42 ⎛ ρV ⎜ X ⎜ρ ⎝ L ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.2 Reynolds number are calculated separately for the vapor and liquid-phase using the same diameter. 28 . 49) (Eq.5 The over-all friction loss in the pipe between two points will be: Δ P = Δ P100 (two-phase)(L/100) (Eq. Re = 353. It can be obtained directly by calculating the liquid vapor phase Reynolds numbers and using the Moody friction factor diagram for commercial steel pipes (see Appendix A).5 (Eq.4 The initial diameter of two-phase flow in short process pipes can be sized through the vaporliquid reboiler return line formula: ⎛W dmm = 18. 53) Where L is the equivalent length of the pipe and fittings in meter (Appendix G). 27. corresponding flow rates and viscosities. 48) Inserting Darcy’s (or Wiesbach’s) equation in the numerator and denominator of Equation 48 (deleting the identical constants and symbols). 27.µ (Eq. 27. Ö can be also found through Fig. 3 or Table 3.2.7W/d. 47) Where "a" includes the vapor-phase flow rate and the pipe cross section and "b" is a constant. 46) Correct the calculated P100 (vapor) with the correlations listed in Table 3 second column. where the friction factor varies with varying Reynolds numbers.73 ⎜ V ⎜ ρ ⎝ V ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. 51) A convenient form of Darcy’s equation for unit pressure loss calculations for liquid or vapor as previously stated is: Δ P100 = 62530 (fD. two-phase modulus: X² = Δ P100 (liquid)/ Δ P100 (vapor) (Eq. 27. 52) 27. The form of the correlations are identical: φ =a.

It occurs for liquid superficial velocities of about 1.7 Dispersed Spray or Mist Flow Here all of the liquid is entrained as fine droplets by the gas-phase. 28. 28.6 Annular Flow In annular flow liquid forms around the inside wall of the pipe and gas flows at a high velocity through the central core.1 An index based on velocity head can indicate whether erosion-corrosion may become significant at a particular velocity and can be used to determine the range of mixture densities and 29 .61 m/s (2 ft/sec) and gas velocities less then about 0. These patterns (in order of increasing gas flow rate at a constant liquid flow rate) are as follows.15 m/s (0. characterized by bubbles of gas moving along the upper part of the pipe at approximately the same velocity as the liquid. 28.1 Bubble or Froth Flow This pattern. Plug flow occurs for liquid velocities less then 0. the high-velocity liquid).5 ft/sec) and gas velocities of about 0. 28. VELOCITY LIMITATIONS Depending on the flow regime. Dispersed flow occurs for gas velocities greater than 61 m/s (200 ft/sec). 29.91 m/s (3 ft/sec). the liquid in a two-phase flow system can be accelerated to velocities approaching or exceeding the vapor velocity.440 In determining the type of flow in a process pipeline designers generally refer to as Table 3 which is known as Baker map in Fig. It occurs for liquid velocities less then 0. 1996 28.61-3.305-3. In some cases.4 Wave Flow Wave flow is similar to stratified flow except that the gas is moving at a higher velocity and the gasliquid interface is distributed by waves moving in the direction of flow.5-4.6 m/s. develops when bubbles of gas dispersed throughout the liquid. These form frothy slugs that move along the pipeline at a much higher velocity than the average liquid velocity. these velocities are higher than what would be desirable for process piping.1 m/s (20 ft/sec). The seven types of flow in horizontal pipe are shown in Table 3.2 Plug Flow Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the upper part of the pipe and liquid moves along the bottom of the pipe. This type of flow causes severe and in most cases dangerous vibration in equipment because of the impact of the high-velocity slugs against fittings. 29. It occurs for gas velocities greater than 6.Mar. 28. 28.05 m/s (1-10 ft/sec).5 Slug Flow This pattern occurs when waves are picked up periodically by the more rapidly moving gas.305 m/s and gas velocities from about 4. 1.05 m/s (2-10 ft/sec). Such high velocities lead to a phenomena known as "erosion-corrosion". where the corrosion rate of material is accelerated by an erosive material or force (in this case. It occurs for liquid velocities less than 0. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS IPS-E-PR.6 m/s (5-15 ft/sec) and gas superficial velocities of about 0. 28.3 Stratified Flow The liquid-phase flows along the bottom of the pipe while the gas flows over a smooth liquid-gas interface.

First water hammer may occur as the slug of liquid impinges on pipe and equipment walls at every changes of flow direction. Pigging-the removal of water from the line to minimize corrosion-can cause very large slugs as the line’s entire liquid inventory is swept a head of the pig. such as liquid collecting at a sag in a pipeline and blocking the gas flow. 54) Where the mixture or average density: ρ ave = WL + WG WL / ρ L + WG / ρ G .2 The corrosional velocity limitations may be determined exprimentaly. the stratified flow pattern breaks down into slug flow. As the liquid waves grow large enough to bridge the entire pipe diameter. one must also maintain the proper flow regime. 30 .3 By using valves auxiliary pipe runs to regulate alternative flow rates and avoid slug flows. the liquid inventory in the pipeline decreases and the excess liquid forms a slug or a series of slugs. It is normally less than erosional velocity and is basis for design velocity in pipelines. 30. 30. The cycling causes problems with product quality and process control. The limitation for corrosional velocity is based on the inhibitor film resistance and experiments. because it causes various mechanical and process problems.Mar.3 Slug Flow Can be Avoided in Several Ways 30.4 By using a low point effluent drain or by-pass or other solutions.1 By reducing lines sizes to a minimum permitted by available pressure differentials. the alternating composition and density of the gas and liquid slugs cause cycling of composition and pressure gradients along the length of the column. Changes in the inlet flow rate can cause slugs as well. When the flow rate increases.2 By designing parallel pipe lines that will increase flow capacity without increasing the overall friction loss.2 Slugs can form in variety of ways. (Eq. 56) Vave = VG + VL = WG / (3600 ρ G . 55) (Eq. 30.3.3. MAINTAIN THE PROPER REGIME In addition to keeping the velocity-density product within the acceptable range. 30. 30. 30.3.5 By arranging the pipe configurations to protect against slug flow.3. 29. This index is: IPS-E-PR. 30. 30.3. They may be created as a result of wave formation of the liquid-gas interface in a stratified flow.1 Most importantly.A) For erosional velocity refer to Clause 20 in Part two herein. Slugs can also form due to terrain effects. if slug flow enters a distillation column. Slug flow unit losses in process piping are generally not calculated. This could result in equipment damage due to erosion-corrosion. V²ave ≤ 10000 ≤ 14800 English SI (Eq. The pressure in this blocked gas rises until it forces the accumulated liquid downstream in the form of a slug. slug flow must be avoided.A) + WL / (3600 ρ L .440 ρ ave. Second. 1996 velocities below which erosion-corrosion should not occur.

generalizations and simplifications have been introduced for providing practical methods of design.4 Designer can capitalize on the characteristics to obtain the optimum piping and component size and layout. 1996 31. Third between the various flow patterns. .3 Process piping systems have flexibility in the distribution of pressure loss and control valves can operate within a wide range of available pressure differentials. When changes are made to the pressures or to flow rates.1 Two-phase flow piping design through rational and empirical steps.6 Normally slug flow is undesirable in two-phase flow pipelines. the criterion for selecting a suitable line size is that the pipe diameter must be sufficiently small to have the highest possible velocity. it has been shown that if the liquid content of a vapor line increases. Second. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IPS-E-PR. the friction loss can be many times its original single phase pressure loss. 31.440 The significance of the two-phase flow theories and experiments to the process piping designer is threefold. A two-phase pipeline is both a pipeline and extremely long storage tank. that two-phase flow is turbulent in both the liquid and vapor phase. . . 31. First. In vertical lines. 31. 31. Increasing the velocity in the uphill portion of the line reduces the liquid holdup in the valleys and lowers the pressure drops. The assumptions connected with this Standard are: that two-phase flow is isothermal. but larger enough to stay within available pressure differentials and allowable pressure drops. it has been shown that for a given set of vapor liquid properties and physical properties a characteristics flow pattern develops. Low velocities tend to increase the chances for the slug flow. 31 . due consideration should be given to this phenomenon at design stage. vapor moves faster than the liquid.The flow patterns shall be checked for normal flow. Since flow velocity is one of the factors which influence the flow regime. Limitations. 31. that the pressure loss is not more than 10 percent of the absolute downstream pressure. that the flow is steady (liquid and vapor move with the same velocity). changes in flow conditions cause the liquid to go into or come out of storage.2 In long lines.7 Pipe size over design must be particularly watched for. The liquid in two-phase pipes passing over hills tends to run back down hill and accumulate in the valleys. unit losses can differ. the static head back pressure will not be the same as that calculated with average densities. Thus there are varying densities along the pipe length.The package and the selected correlations should be confirmed by the Company. 31.Mar.5 In general.Two phase calculations normally are done by computer packages. max. flow and turn-down flow.8 Two-phase flow pipelines are unstable. They use different correlations for flow patterns and equilibrium of states equations. the pipeline readjusts itself gradually and equilibrium may not be re-established for several days. 31. 31.

Mar. procedure: 1) Calculate Huntington Correlation. pressure drop calculations are as follows: Wave flow unit loss. 32 . Hx = (W1/Wv)(µ1/µv) 2) with Hx enter the graph and read the friction factor. 2 According to Table 3 Item 5 for the wave regime. 1996 IPS-E-PR. Δ P100 (wave) = 62530 fH (Wv)2/d5 ρ v. 3) calculate the unit loss.440 WAVE FLOW UNIT LOSS Fig. ρ fH.

440 LOCKHART-MARTINELLI CORRELATIONS CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE TWO-PHASE PRESSURE DROP Fig. 3 33 . 1996 IPS-E-PR.Mar.

mm d = 250 FOR 300 mm AND LARGE SIZE φ = 4.18 X 0.4156 X 0.04887 A3 = 0.8-0 _ 0123 d b = 0.782 X 110 −2 X (W1 A)0.000826 d = PIPE INSIDE DIA .1 φ = 86.855 (W1 A)0. lnx A3 .6294 X 0.A1 lnx + A2.8 FOR LONG BORIZONTAL PIPES USE SCHNLDER . 1996 IPS-E-PR.Mar.000349 2 3 φ = ax b a = 4. WHITE – HUNTLNGYON CORRELATION FOR LONG HORIZONTAL PIPES CALCULATION ON FIG .75 (W1 A) 0.17 34 .815 (W1 A)0.49139 A2 = 0.343 – 0.4659 A1 = 0.440 TABLE 3 .lnx ) A0 = 1.SUMMARY OF TWO-PHASE FLOW UNIT FRICTION LOSS CALCULATIONS TWO –FACE FLOW PATTERNS TWO-FACE FLOW CORRELATIONS Q=(A0. 2 φ = 2.5 AVOID SLUG FLOW φ = 3.

Mar. 1996 APPENDICES APPENDIX A MOODY FRICTION FACTOR CHART IPS-E-PR.440 (to be continued) 35 .

2-c) (Eq. this requires differentiating the objective function. the friction factor used for the case of completely turbulent flow (flat parts of curves in Moody chart where f is independent of Re). as a method of solving this equation. 3. f ′ (xn) is the value of differentiate of the objective function. A. y = x + 2 log10 [A +Bx] Where: X = 1/ √f A= (Eq. nmax xn is the guessed root of equation given by f (xn) = 0...A.6) (Eq..1 Method of Solution IPS-E-PR.1.1 The Newton-Raphson method is applied with convergence to ±0.5) (Eq.7) 36 .2-b) (Eq.440 The well-behaved nature of Colebrook function-no maxima-no minimal or inflection points-suggests Newton-Raphson interpolation.2 Successive values of x are then obtained from Equation (A. This value may be computed explicity from the form of Colebrook equation which is valid in this region: X = I/√f = .1) until the value of y (xn) is sufficiently close to zero. The corresponding value of x is then substituted into Equation (A.4) A.1. f (xn) is the objective function.2-a) (Eq.1 A.. A. A.3) A.1) Where: n = 1.Mar..7d) (Eq. . A.7D B = 2.51/R The problem then is to find an x such that y = 0 .Raphson method the first derivation of y with respect to x is required: y′ = dy dx = 1+ 2. A.1.B. A. The Newton-Raphson method is of the form: Xn+1 = Xn - f (X n ) f ′( X n ) (Eq.1.4 For the liquid when Re < 2000. A. friction factor can be found through Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation: fD = 64/Re ff = 16/Re fD = 4ff (Eq.3 As an initial guess of the value x.. The n is iterative counter and nmax is the maximum iteration. A. 2. To use the Newton. one defines a function: ε /3.2 log10 ( ε /3.0001. A.2-a) in order to compute the friction factor. A.2) For this purpose. A. 1996 APPENDIX A. 4. log10 e A + Bx (Eq.

....26 . Friction factor at fully turbulent flow (f) = 0....Mar..001 . for fully turbulent flow in a cast iron pipe.. 37 . 1996 APPENDIX B RELATIVE ROUGHNESS CHART Relative roughness of pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence.... Relative roughness ( ε /d) = 0.0196..440 (Absolute Roughness ε is in millimeters) Problem: Determine absolute and relative roughness.. Solution: Absolute roughness ( ε ) = 0.. and friction factor. IPS-E-PR.. diam. 250 mm int..

85 150 0.47 140 0. cast-iron Tar-Coated cast-iron Girth-Riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth seams only) Concrete Full-Riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth and horizontal seams) Vitrified.22 80 1.50 70 1.57 Multiplier (Basis C = 100 ) 38 .440 HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT (FRICTION FACTOR) "C" The Factor "C" shall not be confused with the Darcy-Weisbach-Colebrook friction factor "f". TYPE OF PIPE RANGE-HIGH = BEST SMOOTH WELL LAID-LOW = POOR OR CORRODED 160-140 __ 160-130 __ 150-120 145-110 150-80 __ 150-80 145-50 __ 152-85 __ __ VALUES OF C AVERAGE VALUE FOR CLEAN NEW PIPE 150 150 148 150 140 120 130 139 130 130 130 130 115 110 COMMONLY USED VALUE FOR DESIGN PURPOSES 140 140 140 140 130 110 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Cement-Asbestos Fiber Bitumastic-Enamel-Lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Cement-Lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Copper.54 130 0.Mar.93 60 2. spiral-riveted steel (flow with lap) Spiral-Riveted steel (flow against lap) Corrugated steel __ __ 100 60 90 60 VALUE OF C (100/C) 1. 1996 APPENDIX C IPS-E-PR.71 110 0.62 120 0.84 100 1. these two friction factors are not in any way related to each other. lead. tin or glass pipe and tubing Wood-Stave Welded and seamless steel Intenor riveted steel (no projecting rivets) Wrought-Iron. brass.00 90 1.

1996 APPENDIX D IPS-E-PR.Mar.440 RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS 39 .

05 0.0 θ is angle between pipe axis and flopper plate 40 .Mar.56 θ = 5° 10° 40° 60° K 0.8 118.440 RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS Plug cock valve 20° 1. 1996 APPENDIX E IPS-E-PR.29 17.24 0.54 10.3 206.0 θ is angle between pipe axis and plug cock axis Butterfly valve θ = 5° 10° 20° 40° 60° K 0.52 1.

0 PROJECTING PIPE EXIT 1.Mar.23 SLIGHTLY ROUNDED ENTRANCE 0.0 SHARP ENDED EXIT 1.04 WELL ROUNDED ENTRANCE 1.440 SHARP K 0. 1996 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE DUE TO PIPE ENTRANCE AND EXIT IPS-E-PR.50 0.78 SERVICE INWARD PROJECTING PIPE ENTRANCE SHARP EDGES ENTRANCE 0.0 ROUNDED EXIT 41 .

.440 APPENDIX G EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS Representative equivalent l length in pipe diameters (L/D) of various valves and fittings. 13. 1996 IPS-E-PR.. double disc or plug disc Pulp stock .. With leather hinged disc 2. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCT EQUIVALENT LENGTH IN PIPE DIAMETERS (L/D) Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open 340 450 175 145 145 200 13 35 160 900 Globe valves Conventional Y-Pattern With no obstruction in flat.8 ♣.4 ♣.. bevel.8 ♣..With stem 60 degrees from run of pipe line Angle valves Gate valves Conventional Conventional wedge disc.with stem 45 degrees from run of pipe line With no obstruction in flat.Mar. Fully open 17 Three-Quarters open 50 One-Half open 260 One-Quarter open 1200 Fully open 3** Fully open 135 Fully open 50 Fully open same as globe Fully open same as angle Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Flow straight through Flow through branch 44 140 150 420 75 20 18 Foot valves with strainer Butterfly valves (DN 150 and larger) Straight through Cocks Three-Way Rectangular plug port area equal to 100% of pipe area Rectangular plug port area equal to 80% of pipe area (fully open) (to be continued) 42 .7 horizontal ♣.. or plug type seat) .2 vertical & 1. or plug type seat With wing or pin guided disc (No obstruction in flat.. With poppet life-type disc 2.... bevel or plug type seat With wing or pin guided disc Fully open Fully open Three-Quarters open One-Half open One-Quarter open Gate valves Gheck valves Conduit pipe line Conventional swing Clearway swing Globe lift or stop Angle lift or stop In-Line ball 3. bevel.4 ♣.. 17.8 ♣... 3. 13..1 ♣.

Mar. 43 . 1996 APPENDIX G (continued) 90 Degree standard elbow 45 Degree standard elbow 90 Degree long radius elbow 90 Degree street elbow 45 Degree street elbow Square corner elbow Standard tee With flow through run With flow through branch 50 Sudden d/D = ¼ d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ reducer d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ Sudden d/D = ¼ d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ Standard reducer d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ IPS-E-PR. ** Exact equivalent length is equal to the length between flange faces or welding ends.440 Fittings 30 16 20 50 26 57 20 60 37 24 8 30 8 76 30 11 16 3 Close pattern Return bend Enlargement* Standard Contraction * Note: * Equivalent lengths are in terms of small diameter. * Values applicable up to DN 600. ♣ Minimum calculated pressure drop (kPa) across valve to provide sufficient flow to lift disc fully. L For limitations and effect of end connections.

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