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Social Sciences

Grade 8

Grade 8 [U.S. History – 1765‐Reconstruction]


Historical Knowledge
8.1.
Determine and explain the historical context of key people and events from the ori
gins of the
American Revolution through Reconstruction including the examination of differen
t
perspectives.
8.2.
Evaluate continuity and change over the course of United States history by analyz
ing examples
of conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, or nations.

8.3.
Examine factors that motivated military and economic expansion from the Americ
an Revolution
through Reconstruction, including the Westward Movement.
8.4.
Evaluate the impact of different factors, including gender, age, ethnicity and class
on groups
and individuals during this time period and the impact these groups and individual
s have on
events of the time, including, but not limited to, the Irish Famine.
8.5.
Analyze important political values such as freedom, democracy, equality, and justi
ce embodied
in documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitu
tion, and the
Bill of Rights.
Historical Thinking
8.6.
Use and interpret documents and other relevant primary and secondary sources p
ertaining to
U.S. History from multiple perspectives.
8.7.
Analyze evidence from multiple sources including those with conflicting accounts
about specific
events in U.S. History.
8.8.
Critique data for point of view, historical context, distortion, or propaganda and rel
evance to
historical inquiry.
8.9.
Construct a written historical argument demonstrating an understanding of primar
y and
secondary sources.
Geography
8.10. Interpret maps to identify growth and development of the United States.
8.11.
Identify and describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, migrat
ion, and
settlement.
8.12.
Investigate how differing geographic perspectives apply to issues in U.S. History.
Civics and Government
8.13.
Explain the rights of citizens in the United States and identify the origins of these r
ights.
8.14.
Use historical evidence to determine and support a position about important politi
cal values,
such as freedom, democracy, equality, or justice and express the position coheren
tly.
8.15.
Describe the varied forms of local governments in North American colonies and id
entify the
interests that the governments were serving (tribal relations, enfranchisement).
8.16.
Compare and contrast the British government’s impact on American colonists to t
he colonists’
expectations of how they should be served (effective governance).
8.17.
Contrast the impact of the Articles of Confederation as a form of government to th
e U.S.
Constitution.
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8.18.
Compare and contrast how European governments and the United States govern
ment
interacted with Native American peoples.
8.19.
Examine the development activities of political parties and interest groups and th
eir affect on
events, issues, and ideas.
8.20.
Examine and analyze important United States documents, including (but not limit
ed to) the
Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, Bill o
f Rights, 13th
‐15th Amendments.
8.21.
Examine important Supreme Court decisions prior to 1880 and the impact of the d
ecisions on
government practices, personal liberties, and property rights.
8.22. Analyze the changing definition of citizenship and the expansion of rights.
Economics/Financial Literacy
8.23. Explain the function of the stock market.
8.24.
Distinguish among tariffs, quotas, and government policies as means to regulate t
rade.
8.25.
Describe the economic components of local, state, regional, and national governm
ent.
8.26. Explain “balance of trade” and evaluate the results of trade imbalances.
8.27. Explain business cycles and how they affect producers and consumers.
8.28.
Describe how industrialization changes production and how it creates shifts in the
market.
8.29.
Describe the “circular flow” of economic activity and the role of producers, consu
mers, and
government.
Social Science Analysis
8.30.
Compare fictional portrayals of a time, place, or character to historical or other no
n‐fictional
sources relating to the same period.
8.31.
Critique data for point of view, historical context, distortion, or propaganda and rel
evance.
8.32.
Examine a controversial event, issue, or problem from more than one perspective.

8.33.
Examine the various characteristics, causes, and effects of an event, issue, or pro
blem.
8.34.
Investigate a response or solution to an issue or problem and support or oppose u
sing research.
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Grade‐by‐Grade Standards
Social Sciences

High School

High School [US History – Reconstruction to Present; World History – 20th


& 21st Century]
Historical Knowledge
HS.1.
Evaluate continuity and change over the course of world and United States history
.
HS.2.
Analyze the complexity and investigate causes and effects of significant events in
world, U.S.,
and Oregon history.
HS.3.
Explain the historical development and impact of major world religions and philos
ophies.
HS.4.
Investigate the historical development and impact of major scientific and technolo
gical
innovations; political thought, theory and actions; and art and literature on culture
and
thought.
HS.5.
Examine and evaluate the origins of fundamental political debates and how conflic
t,
compromise, and cooperation have shaped national unity and diversity in world, U
.S., and
Oregon history.
HS.6.
Analyze ideas critical to the understanding of history to include, but not limited to,
populism,
progressivism, isolationism, imperialism, anti‐communism, environmentalism, libe
ralism,
fundamentalism, racism, conservatism, cultural diversity, feminism, and sustainab
ility.
HS.7.
Analyze the history, culture, tribal sovereignty, and historical and current issues of
the
American Indian tribes and bands in Oregon and the United States.
HS.8.
Explain how the American labor movement influenced events and thinking in the
United States
and Oregon.
HS.9.
Identify historical and current instances when national interests and global interes
ts have
seemed to be opposed and analyze the issues involved.
Historical Thinking
HS.10. Evaluate a historical source for point of view and historical context.
HS.11.
Gather and analyze historical information, including contradictory data, from a var
iety of
primary and secondary sources, including sources located on the Internet, to supp
ort or reject
hypotheses.
HS.12.
Construct and defend a written historical argument using relevant primary and se
condary
sources as evidence.
HS.13.
Differentiate between facts and historical interpretations, recognizing that a histor
ian’s
narrative reflects his or her judgment about the significance of particular facts.
Geography
HS.14.
Create and use maps, technology, imagery and other geographical representation
s to
extrapolate and interpret geographic data.
HS.15.
Analyze and illustrate geographic issues by synthesizing data derived from geogra
phic
representations.
HS.16.
Analyze and evaluate the human and physical aspects of places and regions to ap
praise their
development over time (e.g., urban growth) and how they are important to human
identity and
serve as symbols to unify or fragment society.
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HS.17.
Analyze the interconnectedness of physical and human regional systems (e.g., a ri
ver valley and
culture, water rights/use in regions, choice/impact of settlement locations).
HS.18.
Explain how migration, immigration and communication (cultural exchange, conve
rgence and
divergence) lead to cultural changes and make predictions and draw conclusions a
bout the
global impact of cultural diffusion.
HS.19.
Analyze the impact of human migration on physical and human systems (e.g., urb
anization,
immigration, urban to rural).
HS.20. Evaluate how differing points of view, self‐
interest, and global distribution of natural resources
play a role in conflict over territory.
HS.21.
Analyze the impact on physical and human systems of resource development, use
, and
management and evaluate the issues of sustainability.
HS.22.
Relate trends in world population to current events and analyze their interrelations
hip.
HS.23.
Analyze how humans have used technology to modify the physical environment (e
.g., atom
bomb, tractor, housing types).
HS.24. Analyze patterns of distribution and arrangement of settlement.
Civics and Government
HS.25. Analyze and critique the role of the Bill of Rights.
HS.26.
Describe elements of early governments (i.e., Greek, Roman, English, and others)
that are
visible in United States government structure.
HS.27.
Define and compare/contrast United States republican government to direct demo
cracy,
socialism, communism, theocracy, oligarchy.
HS.28.
Examine functions and process of United States government, legislation, taxation,
and
regulation.
HS.29.
Evaluate how governments interact at the local, state, tribal, national, and global l
evels.
HS.30.
Examine the structures and functions of Oregon’s state, county, local and regional

governments.
HS.31.
Analyze the roles and activities of political parties, interest groups and mass medi
a and how
they affect the beliefs and behaviors of local, state, and national constituencies.
HS.32.
Describe United States foreign policy and evaluate its impact on the United States
and other
countries.
HS.33.
Examine and evaluate documents and decisions related to the Constitution and S
upreme Court
decisions (e.g., Federalist Papers, Constitution, Marbury v. Madison, Bill of Rights,
Constitutional amendments, Declaration of Independence).
HS.34.
Examine and analyze Supreme Court, Presidential and key leader speeches (to inc
lude, but not
limited to, Martin Luther King, Jr., suffragists, presidential addresses).
HS.35. Explain the role of government in various current events.
HS.36.
Investigate a current issue or problem, determining various perspectives on the is
sue and
problem and proposing solutions or supporting actions.
HS.37.
Analyze tribal sovereignty and how it affects historical and current events at the lo
cal, state,
and national levels.

Financial Literacy
HS.38.
Identify sources of credit and the advantages and disadvantages of using them an
d explain the
significance of developing a positive credit rating and describe the advantage it ca
n provide.
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HS.39. Explain the kinds and costs of insurance.
HS.40.
Explain how consumers can protect themselves from fraud, identity theft, bankrup
tcy, and
foreclosure.
HS.41.
Compare and contrast tools for payment (e.g., cash, credit, check, debit card) and
explain the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
HS.42.
Explain how the stock market offers opportunity for investment and draw economi
c
conclusions from market data.
HS.43. Analyze the relationship between voting and economic policies.
HS.44.
Describe a citizen’s responsibility to pay taxes and demonstrate the ability to prep
are and file
simple state and federal tax forms.
Economics
HS.45.
Distinguish between fiscal and monetary policies, and describe the role and functi
on of the
Federal Reserve.
HS.46. Describe and calculate Production Possibilities Frontier.
HS.47.
Explain how the global economy has developed and describe the involvement of fr
ee trade,
comparative advantage, IMF, WTO, World Bank, and technology.
HS.48. Explain economic challenges to growth in developing countries.
HS.49. Compare and contrast market structures.
HS.50. Compare and contrast methods of business organization.
HS.51.
Explain how economic indicators (including, but not limited to GDP, unemploymen
t, inflation)
describe the condition of the economy.
HS.52.
Explain how supply and demand curves represent economic activity and describe
the factors
that cause them to shift.
HS.53.
Define economic terms (e.g., elasticity, substitution, regulation, legislation) and id
entify
examples of them in the current economy.
HS.54.
Explain how the American labor system impacts competition and trade in domesti
c and world
markets.
HS.55.
Explain how the United States’ Stock Market indicates and influences expansion a
nd
contraction of the U.S. economy.
Social Science Analysis
HS.56.
Define, research, and explain an event, issue, problem, or phenomenon and its sig
nificance to
society.
HS.57.
Gather, analyze, use, and document information from various sources, distinguishi
ng facts,
opinions, inferences, biases, stereotypes, and persuasive appeals.
HS.58.
Demonstrate the skills and dispositions needed to be a critical consumer of inform
ation.
HS.59.
Analyze an event, issue, problem, or phenomenon from varied or opposing perspe
ctives or
points of view.
HS.60.
Analyze an event, issue, problem, or phenomenon, identifying characteristics, infl
uences,
causes, and both short‐ and long‐term effects.
HS.61.
Propose, compare, and judge multiple responses, alternatives, or solutions to issu
es or
problems; then reach an informed, defensible, supported conclusion.
HS.62.
Engage in informed and respectful deliberation and discussion of issues, events, a
nd ideas.