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GREEN TECHNOLOGY FOR NEXT-

GENERATION
2
Green Technology for Next- Generation

By Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


Page no.(i)

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, A.E.S.


MSc, PhD, MIAMP (Germany), FRAS (Lond.), MWASET, MFFS (USA), MIBC (UK), MNPSS
(USA)

Assistant Professor, Res: “Anjena Manzil”, Kadomtola,


Dept. of Mathematics, Modhupur, P.O. Modhupur,
Diphu Govt. College, Diphu, Dist: Nagaon, Assam, India
Karbi Anglong, Assam, India Pin - 782001
Pin- 782462, M- 9435166881 Ph- 03672-256327
************************************************************************

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Page no.(ii)

PREFACE ABOUT THE AUTHOR

As available on website: http://wpedia.goo.ne.jp/enwiki/User:Drabrh/Dr.A.B.Rajib_Hazarika

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" A.B.Rajib Hazarika" redirects here. For Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, see Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika.
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika
[[File:Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika & his two kids.jpg [1]
|frameless|alt=]]
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika with Laquit(son) and Danisha(daughter)
Azad Bin Rajib Hazarika

Born July 2, 1970 (age 40)

Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India


Residence Nagaon, Assam, India
Nationality Indian
Ethnicity Assamese Muslim
Citizenship India
Education PhD, PDF, FRAS
University of Jodhpur
Jai Narayan Vyas University
Alma mater Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology
</ref>http://www.iasst.in/]
Kendriya Vidyalaya[1] http://www.akipoonacollege.com/
Assistant Professor (Lecturer), Diphu Govt. College ,
Occupation
Diphu,Assam,India
Years active 2004- onwards

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


4
Green Technology for Next- Generation

Diphu Government College


Employer
Government of Assam ,Assam Education Service
Lecturer ,Assistant Professor,Mathematician,
Known for Academician ,Fusion,Astronomy

Home town Nagaon, Assam, India


Salary Rs 40000 per month
Height 6 feet and 2 inches
Weight 100 kg
Title Doctorate, Dr., FRAS (London), Assam Education Service, AES
Member of Scientific and Technical committee & Editorial
Board review board of Natuaral and Applied sciences World Academy
member of of Science ,Engineering & Technology</ref>
http://www.waset.org/NaturalandAppliedSciences.php?page=45
Sunni Islam,
Religion

Spouse Helmin Begum Hazarika


Children Laquit Ali Hazarika(son), Danisha Begum Hazarika(daughter)
Rosmat Ali Hazarika@Rostam Ali Hazarika@Roufat Ali
Parents
Hazarika and Anjena Begum Hazarika
Call-sign Drabrh or Raja
Website
http://www.facebook.com/Drabrajib
http://in.linkedin.com/pub/dr-a-b-rajib-hazarika/25/506/549
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Drabrh
http://www.diphugovtcollege.org/

http://www.karbianglong.nic.in/diphugovtcollege.org/teaching.html

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika,PhD,FRAS,AES (born July 02, 1970, in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India) is
Assistant Professor(Lecturer) Diphu Government College ,Diphu in KarbiAnglong district , Government of
Assam[2], [3] , KarbiAnglong,Assam's largest conglomerate by Government of Assam . He is also the
Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society[4],London ,Member of International Association of Mathematical
Physics, World Academy of Science ,Engineering & Technology , Focus Fusion Society, Dense Plasma
Focus, Plasma Science Society of India, International Biographical centre, Assam Science Society, Assam
Academy of Mathematics,International Atomic Energy Agency,Nuclear and Plasma Society,Society of

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


5
Green Technology for Next- Generation

Industrial and Applied Mathematics,German Academy of Mathematics and Mechanics,Fusion Science &
Technology Society,Indian National Science Academy,Indian Science Congress Association,Advisory
Committee of Mathematical Education, Royal Society,International Biographical Centre.

Contents

• 1 Early life
o 1.1 Early career
 1.1.1 Currently working
• 2 Career
• 3 Research
• 4 Patent & Innovation
• 5 Research Guidence
• 6 Personal life
• 7 Quotes
• 8 Awards and recognition
• 9 References

• 10 External links

Early life

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika was born into the famous Hazarika family, a prominent family belonging to Dhing's
wealthy Muslim Assamese community of Nagaon district. He was born to Anjena Begum Hazarika and
Rusmat Ali Hazarika. He is eldest of two childrens of his parents younger one is a Shamim Ara
Rahman(nee Hazarika)daughter .

Early career

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika completed his PhD degree in Mathematics from J N Vyas University of Jodhpur in
1995 with specialization in Plasma instability, the thesis was awarded “best thesis” by Association of
Indian Universities in 1998 and the Post-Doctoral Fellow Program from Institute of Advanced Study in
Science & Technology [5] in Guwahati Assam in 1998 as Research Associate in Plasma Physics Division
in theory group studying the Sheath phenomenon. As a Part-time Lecturer in Nowgong college, Assam
before joining the present position in Diphu Government College ,Diphu in KarbiAnglong district [6],[7]
He is a member of the wikipedia[8], [9].
He is Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society [10],member of International Association Mathematical
Physics [11], member of World Academy of Science,Engineering & Technology [12], [13],member of
Plasma Science Society of India [14] , [15] ,member of Focus Fusion Society forum [16] ,member of Dense
Plasma Focus [17], Member of Assam Science Society [18], Member of Assam Academy of Mathematics
[19]

Currently working

He joined the Diphu Government College[20] in July 2004 as Lecturer in Mathematics (Gazetted officer)
through Assam Public Service commission[21] in Assam Education Service [22] ,AES-I. [23] now
redesignated as Assistant Professor.

Career

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


6
Green Technology for Next- Generation

In May 1993, Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika was awarded Junior Research Fellowship, University Grants
Commission, National Eligibility Test and eligibility for Lecturership ,Govt. of India and worked as
JRF(UGC,NET) in Department of Mathematics and Statistics of J N Vyas University in Jodhpur. Later on
in May 1995 got Senior Research Fellowship(UGC,NET) and continued research for completion of PhD on
27th Dec 1995 .From 1993 onwards taught in Kamala Nehru College for women, Jodhpur and in Faculty of
Science in J N Vyas University in Jodhpur up to the completion of PhD .In 1998 May joined Plasma
Physics Division of Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology in Guwahati as Research
Associate for PDF in theory group to study the sheath phenomena of National Fusion Programme [24] of
Govt. of India . Then joined Nowgong College as a part-time Lecturer after which in 2004, July joined the
present position of Lecturer in Diphu Government College which is redesignated as Assistant Professor.

Research

During PhD </ref> http://www.iopscience.iop.org/1402-4896/51/6/012/pdf/physcr_51_6_012.pdf


</ref> http://www.iopsciences.iop.org/1402-4896/53/1/011/pdf/1402-4896_53_1_011.pdf
</ref> http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/abstractingjournals/isa_1jul08.asp
</ref> http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wikitionary:Sandbox
</ref> http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhyS..53...578

during PDF the research was based on Astronomy, Astrophysics, Geophysics , for plasma instability with
the title of thesis as “Some Problems of instabilities in partially ionized and fully ionized plasmas” which
later on in 1998 was assessed as best thesis of the year by Association of Indian Universities in New Delhi.
His current interest lies in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Geophysics, Fusion Plasma, and innovation of fusion
devices, design of fusion devices, simulation codes and theoretical mathematical modeling.He is known for
his theoretical research work on Gravitational instability and gravitational collapse M=23/2 Msun as a new
formula for Chandrasekhar limit now known as Bhatia-Hazarika Limit , when the rotating neutron star,
pulsars are formed .When the mass of the star is more than this limit a neutron star shrinks or abberates due
to gravitational collapse up to a point size in space. As it is known that when the star passes limit of the size
of old star more than three times that of mass of sun it passes the Schwarchild radius and there on is a black
hole from where we can receive no more information as its gravitational field is too intense to permit
anything , even photons to escape.Research at Diphu Govt. College </ref>
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Contributions/Drabrh/File:Drabrhdouble_trios_saiph_star01.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drabrh_bayer_rti.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Columb_drabrh.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drabrh_double_trios.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drabrhiterparabolic2007.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drabrh_mctc_feedbackloop.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drabrh_tasso_07.pdf
</ref> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abstracts.pdf?page=2

Patent & Innovation

Applied for patent in US patent and trademarks office has innovated three future fusion devices Double
Tokomak collider (DTC), Magnetic confinement Tokomak collider (MCTC) hub, Duo Triad Tokomak
collider (DTTC) hub .A Hall thruster as diffusion associated neoclassical indigenous system of Hall
assembly (DANISHA)is designed applied for international application No.PCT/IB2009/008024 in World
Intellectual Property Organisation[25].He has innovated a new simulation code Fuzzy Differential
Inclusion Code in 2003 for fusion process.[26], [27]

Research Guidence

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


7
Green Technology for Next- Generation

Research guidence is given to two students in Mathematics for MPhil degree

Personal life

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika has a metallic Scarlet red Tata Indigo CS of Tata motors make and loves to drive
himself.

Quotes

• "Fakir(saint) and lakir(line) stops at nothing but at destination"


• "Expert criticizes the wrong but demonstrates the right thing"
• “Intellectuals are measured by their brain not by their age and experience”
• “Two type of persons are happy in life one who knows everything another who doesn’t know
anything”
• “Implosion in device to prove every notion wrong for fusion”
• “Meditation gives fakir(saint) long life and fusion devices the long lasting confinement”

Awards and recognition

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika got Junior Research Fellowship,Government of India


Senior Research Fellowship,Government of India
Research AssociateshipDSTGovernment of India
Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society [28]
Member of Advisory committee of Mathematical Education Royal Society London
Member of Scientific and Technical committee & editorial review board on Natural and applied sciences of
World Academy of Science ,Engineering &Technology [29]
Leading professional of the world-2010 as noted and eminent professional from International Biographical
Centre Cambridge

References

1. ^ http://www.kvafsdigaru.org/
Poona College of Arts, Science &Commerce

• Template:Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:contributions/Drabrh

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Drabrh/Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika

• [30]
• Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's profile on the Linkedin Website
• [31]]]

dr ab rajib hazarika aes 19:01, 16 October 2010 (UTC) dr ab rajib hazarika aes

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


8
Green Technology for Next- Generation

Categories: Jai Narayan Vyas University alumni | Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology
alumni | List of Indian mathematician | List of Indians by state | List of people of Assam | PhD | PDF |
Assamese | Nuclear fusion people | Hazarika family | Poona college of Arts ,Science & Commerce alumni |
Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society | 1970 births | Living people | Sunni Islam people | Kendriya
Vidyalaya alumni | Academician | Indian Sunni muslim

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ごはんに塩が「通」な食べ方?

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


9
Green Technology for Next- Generation

Green Computing
Carbon-free computing
(Credit: VIA)
Energy Star logo Chapter-1
Green technology

One of the VIA Technologies’ ideas is to reduce the "carbon footprint" of users — the amount of
greenhouse
Many gases produced,
governments worldwidemeasured in unitsenergy-management
have initiated of carbon dioxide programs,
(CO2). Greenhouse gases naturally
such as Energy Star, an
The field of "green technology” encompasses a broad range of subjects — from new energy-generation
blanket the standard
international Earth andforareenergy-efficient
responsible forelectronic
its moreequipment
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that was created byAntheincrease
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green-computing,green
techniques to the study of advanced materials to be used computer technology
in our daily life. Greenviatechnology
intel sugarfocuses
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Other the main Agency
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— isreduces
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Earth's increasing temperature,
a product which could
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VIA aims tostandby


Worldwide, offer thepower
world'sisfirst PC products
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of global amounts
greenhouse
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international arena,fuels, reducing
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Nanotechnology is alsoofbeing
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product’s
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at the nanometer scale; scientists are hoping it can transform manufacturing on a global level, from
Green technology is gaining more and more public attention through the work of environmental
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organizations and government
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been a key VIAissue
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its eco-impact. it can make. use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)
company’s
technology in its manufacturing, and strained silicon capping films on transistors (known as “dual stress
VIA Technologies Greenliner”
Computing
technology), have contributed to reduced power consumption in its products.
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES
VIA Technologies, a Taiwanese company that manufactures motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and other computer hardware, introduced
Solar Computing
10
Green Technology for Next- Generation

Organic Solar
Related Printing in
Concentrator
News Green
Developed

Related Hydrogen
Driving On Air
Pictures Powered Bike

Chapter-2

India’s Hydrogen Roadmap: 1M Hydrogen Vehicles and 1,000 MW


Hydrogen Power by 2020
21 November 2005

The Indian national steering group on hydrogen energy, headed by industrialist


Ratan Tata, has developed a roadmap to have 1 million hydrogen-fueled vehicles
—combustion-engine as well as fuel-cell vehicles—on Indian roads by 2020 and Tata Handing Over the H2
to generate 1,000 MW of power through hydrogen-fueled plants. Roadmap

Tata presented the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, which entails an investment of Rs 25,000 crore
(US$5.5 billion) to the Minister for Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Vilas Muttemwar.

The whole world, and certainly India, will face increasing shortage of hydrocarbons and so we have to look
at alternative forms of energy. The document reflects the problems and attempts to define a roadmap.

—Ratan Tata

The Road Map examines different aspects of the problem including production, storage, transport, delivery,
applications, safety, standards and codes, capacity building and awareness.

The Road Map has proposed two major initiatives: the Green Initiative for Future Transport (GIFT) and the
Green Initiative for Power Generation (GIP).

The Green Initiative for Future Transport aims to develop and to demonstrate hydrogen-fueled internal
combustion engine and fuel-cell vehicles ranging from small two/three wheelers, cars and taxis, to buses and

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


11
Green Technology for Next- Generation

vans.

The Green Initiative for Power Generation envisages developing and demonstrating hydrogen-powered
internal combustion engine/turbine and fuel-cell based decentralized power generating systems.

The roadmap highlights hydrogen production as a key area of focus, noting the need for urgent development
of hydrogen production from coal gasification, nuclear energy, biomass, biological and renewable energy
methods in addition to existing methods of steam methane reformation.

Of the projected cost, the majority (about 96%) would be allocated for creating infrastructure for hydrogen
production, storage, transportation and distribution for meeting requirements of hydrogen under GIFT and
GIP initiatives. The Road Map has recommended strong public private partnership covering the total
hydrogen energy system for the implementation of its proposals.

The Steering Group under the Chairmanship of Shri Ratan Tata was constituted on 23rd February, 2004
during the first meeting of the National Hydrogen Energy Board.

India ranks fifth in the world in terms of energy consumption, and experienced an average annual growth rate
in energy consumption of about 6% during 1981–2002. India is also one of the sixteen founding members of
the International Partnership on Hydrogen Economy, established in November, 2003.

HYDROGEN VEHICLES AND HYBRID CARS IN INDIA

Indian Government plans a million hydrogen vehicles by 2020, doesn't mention hybrid cars

Excellent idea, from the Steering Group on hydrogen. While India is on its way to that amazing future,
will someone take a look a hybrid cars too?

15 February 2006
MUMBAI, INDIA

The Indian government is planning to ensure that at least a million hydrogen-fuelled vehicles hit the roads by
2020 - and this would require generating 1,000 MW from hydrogen. The Steering Group on hydrogen,
chaired by Ratan Tata, has estimated an investment Rs.250 billion over 15 years in India to make this
achievable. The group has also strongly emphasized the importance of public-private initiatives.

So far, India has not seen any hydrogen-fuelled car at all - and the only hybrid car India has seen to date has
been the hybrid SUV Mahindra Scorpio unveiled in January at the Auto Expo 2006 in Delhi. The Scorpio
hybrid should hit the streets sometime in 2008. Hybrid cars - using an electric motor in in conjunction with a
regular internal combustion engine is considered a good compromise on the way to a hydrogen economy.
Hybrid vehicles are massive fuel-savers too - something which can make them a hit in a value-conscious
country like India.

However, there is no mention of any hybrid cars at all - and this is surprising. It is almost impossible to make

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


12
Green Technology for Next- Generation

a complete switch from petrol and diesel to hydrogen and a decade or more of hybrid vehicles which can be
produced immediately and will serve to reduce the country's fuel needs are an excellent stopgap arrangement -
even for the consumer. Hyundai India has expressed its interest in producing hybrid cars for India - but added
that they would require subsidies from the government. Mahindra has promised the Scorpio hybrid to India as
soon as possible, at a slightly higher price point than the regular Scorpios.

According to Dr. Arun Jaura, VP of Engineering and R&D, Mahindra and Mahindra, the company that
unveiled the unveiled Scorpio Hybrid and a 3-wheeler hydrogen vehicle (HY-Alfa), hybrid cars would lead to
a better fuel economy, lesser pollutants, a cleaner environment and national energy security. Muttemwar also
added that "The urgency of making the transition to hydrogen energy economy from the present hydrocarbon
energy economy has been recognised globally and large-scale efforts are in progress not only in advanced
countries but also in developing countries like India, China and Brazil."

The Steering Group, which made its recommendations to the Indian Non-Conventional Energy Sources
Minister Vilas Muttemwar, said that at least Rs.240 billion would be required in order to create the
infrastructure for hydrogen production, storage, transportation and distribution. Additionally, Rs.10 billion
would go into development, research and demonstration of technology. The Hydrogen Steering Group is
confident that India can achieve this goal, despite key challenges in terms of cost of production of hydrogen
and its safe storage and use in gaseous, liquid, and solid states.

According to Muttemwar, "India is poised to be in the forefront of hydrogen energy technologies because the
country is uniquely endowed with a strong science and technology base and advanced industrial
infrastructure."

Referring to government plans to put India on the road to hydrogen cars, he said, "The roadmap has proposed
two major initiatives - the green initiative for future transport (GIFT) and green initiative for power
generation (GIP)."

The GIFT is aiming at the development of a hydrogen-powered engine, as well as fuel cell-based
automobiles, including two- and three- wheeled cars and buses. The GIP will work towards the development
and demonstration of a hydrogen powered engine and turbine and fuel cell-based decentralised power
generating systems to target 1,000MW generation capacity by 2020.

Hydrogen is freely present in the atmosphere - an obviously tempting energy source. Harnessing it is not so
easy though, and fuel cells are the most preferred option. There is a global shift towards an economy driven
by hydrogen energy from hydrocarbon energy. Currently, hydrogen fuel cell technology is being heavily
researched internationally, as well as in India.

However, RK Pachauri, head of The Energy Research Institute (formerly the Tata Energy Research Institute)
has rubbished the government roadmap. Speaking to Mumbai daily DNA, he said, "I am amazed how a group
of people like this can come up with such a ridiculous road map. This is completely unrealistic, unfeasible.
Not a single country anywhere in the world has considered anything like this possible."

As for as, we do not consider the roadmap unrealistic - thinking big and out of the box is a necessity
nowadays. However, we have our doubts about a strategy which focuses solely on hydrogen and does not
mention hybrids at all. Maybe it is not part of the Hydrogen Steering Group's mission - the question is, then
whose mission is it?

The Future of Green Transportation -

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Solar Airplanes
Will there actually be solar airplanes in the future? Have you ever sat and wondered what our future will be
like? Will we continue on the same course we are on, or will alternative energies take be a larger solution to
some of our energy needs? Where will the future of solar power and alternative fuels take us? Will there be
solar energy planes? That is an interesting question, one that many of us who are environmentally friendly
ask.

In essence, solar energy is the constraining and using of energy, but energy that is produced by the sun in the
form of electromagnetic radiation. Today solar technology has allowed us to use solar power for many of our
everyday power needs. For instance, we can use solar power for heating, home electricity, and even vehicular
transportation. The future of solar energy is bright, but how far will it take us.

This is all well and great but is it possible to use solar energy for aircraft transportation?

Well after some research, it appears that alternative fuel testing to power aircrafts has been tested, and some
have worked. For instance, did you know that in 1935 aircraft steam engines were manufactured, tested and
found to work?

NASA has made great inroads in the hydrogen cell for aircrafts and there has been a solar aircraft
manufactured that stayed in the air for a full 30 days. So solar powered aircrafts are feasible, but the
technology is still in its testing stages and there are still issues that arise.

What are the Possibilities of Having a Fully Solar Powered Commercial Airplane Some Day?

Actually the probabilities are pretty good. Some day we may be able to fly in a completely solar powered, or
even solar powered combined with steam powered energy.

The Issues Involved

Of course, you have to manage to keep the Aircraft flying in a certain direction, and you need to keep the
solar mirrors pointed at the sun, as well as keep it reflecting the sun's beam as it turns, climbs, or decreases in
altitude. There are also drag issues, especially if there are any sharp edges that are not aero dynamical.

How Will Solar Powered Energy Aircrafts Affect the Environment?

Solar energy is environmentally friendly. There is nothing harmful emitted into the air. There is no carbon,
and nothing harmful added to the environment. It is very cost effective, and can be used anywhere on the
entire planet. You don't have to live in the tropics or somewhere that is extremely warm. Solar energy is just
as effective in cold climates as it is in warm ones.

When will we have Solar Powered Aircrafts?

So, all of this is good news, right? Of course it is, but it still doesn't specify when, or if ever, we will have
feasible, working, commercial aircrafts. Maybe it's not a matter of when, but what we ask, and how we
demand feasible responses from our government and the private corporate world.

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Organic light-emitting diode

Demonstration of a flexible OLED device

A green emitting OLED device

Sony XEL-1, the world's first OLED TV.[1]

An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive
electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emit light in response to an electric current.
This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of
these electrodes is transparent.

OLEDs are used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable system screens such as mobile

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs are also used in light sources for
general space illumination and in large-area light-emitting elements. Due to their comparatively early stage of
development, they typically emit less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LED point-light
sources.

An OLED display functions without a backlight. Thus, it can display deep black levels and can also be thinner
and lighter than established liquid crystal displays. Similarly, in low ambient light conditions such as dark
rooms, an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD screen using either cold cathode
fluorescent lamps or the more recently developed LED backlight.

There are two main families of OLEDs: those based upon small molecules and those employing polymers.
Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a Light-emitting Electrochemical Cell or LEC, which has a slightly
different mode of operation.

OLED displays can use either passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix addressing schemes. Active-matrix
OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off, and can
make higher resolution and larger size displays possible.

History

The first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials were in the early 1950s by A. Bernanose
and co-workers at the Nancy-Université, France. They applied high-voltage alternating current (AC) fields in
air to materials such as acridine orange, either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films.
The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons.[2][3][4][5]

In 1960, Martin Pope and co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode
contacts to organic crystals.[6][7][8] They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work
functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in
all modern OLED devices. Pope's group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under
vacuum on a pure single crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963[9] using
a small area silver electrode at 400V. The proposed mechanism was field-accelerated electron excitation of
molecular fluorescence.

Pope's group reported in 1965[10] that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in
anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole, and that the conducting
level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965, W. Helfrich and W. G.
Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination
electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting
electrodes,[11] the forerunner of modern double injection devices. In the same year, Dow Chemical researchers
patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high voltage (500–1500 V) AC-driven (100–
3000 Hz) electrically-insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground
anthracene powder, tetracene, and graphite powder.[12] Their proposed mechanism involved electronic
excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules.

Device performance was limited by the previously poor electrical conductivity of organic materials. However
this was overcome with the discovery and development of highly conductive polymers. [13] For more on the
history of such materials, see conductive polymers.

Electroluminescence from polymer films was first observed by Roger Partridge at the National Physical
Laboratory in the United Kingdom. The device consisted of a film of poly(n-vinylcarbazole) up to 2.2

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micrometres thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. The results of the project were patented in
1975[14] and published in 1983.[15][16][17][18]

The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke in 1987.[19]
This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers
such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. This resulted in a
reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency and led to the current era of OLED research
and device production.

Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes et al. at the Cavendish
Laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100 nm
thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene).[20]

Working principle

Schematic of a bilayer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive
Layer, 5. Anode (+)

A typical OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials situated between two electrodes, the anode and
cathode, all deposited on a substrate. The organic molecules are electrically conductive as a result of
delocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over all or part of the molecule. These materials have
conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, and therefore are considered organic
semiconductors. The highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of
organic semiconductors are analogous to the valence and conduction bands of inorganic semiconductors.

Originally, the most basic polymer OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer. One example was the first
light-emitting device synthesised by J. H. Burroughes et al., which involved a single layer of poly(p-
phenylene vinylene). However multilayer OLEDs can be fabricated with two or more layers in order to
improve device efficiency. As well as conductive properties, different materials may be chosen to aid charge
injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile, [21] or block a charge from reaching the
opposite electrode and being wasted.[22] Many modern OLEDs incorporate a simple bilayer structure,
consisting of a conductive layer and an emissive layer.

During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the
cathode. A current of electrons flows through the device from cathode to anode, as electrons are injected into
the LUMO of the organic layer at the cathode and withdrawn from the HOMO at the anode. This latter
process may also be described as the injection of electron holes into the HOMO. Electrostatic forces bring the
electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine forming an exciton, a bound state of the
electron and hole. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

generally more mobile than electrons. The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy
levels of the electron, accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The
frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material, in this case the difference in energy
between the HOMO and LUMO.

As electrons and holes are fermions with half integer spin, an exciton may either be in a singlet state or a
triplet state depending on how the spins of the electron and hole have been combined. Statistically three triplet
excitons will be formed for each singlet exciton. Decay from triplet states (phosphorescence) is spin
forbidden, increasing the timescale of the transition and limiting the internal efficiency of fluorescent devices.
Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spin–orbit interactions to facilitate intersystem
crossing between singlet and triplet states, thus obtaining emission from both singlet and triplet states and
improving the internal efficiency.

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a
high work function which promotes injection of holes into the HOMO level of the organic layer. A typical
conductive layer may consist of PEDOT:PSS[23] as the HOMO level of this material generally lies between the
workfunction of ITO and the HOMO of other commonly used polymers, reducing the energy barriers for hole
injection. Metals such as barium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions
which promote injection of electrons into the LUMO of the organic layer.[24] Such metals are reactive, so
require a capping layer of aluminium to avoid degradation.

Single carrier devices are typically used to study the kinetics and charge transport mechanisms of an organic
material and can be useful when trying to study energy transfer processes. As current through the device is
composed of only one type of charge carrier, either electrons or holes, recombination does not occur and no
light is emitted. For example, electron only devices can be obtained by replacing ITO with a lower work
function metal which increases the energy barrier of hole injection. Similarly, hole only devices can be made
by using a cathode comprised solely of aluminium, resulting in an energy barrier too large for efficient
electron injection.[25][26][27]

Material technologies

Small molecules

Alq3,[19] commonly used in small molecule OLEDs.

Efficient OLEDs using small molecules were first developed by Dr. Ching W. Tang et al.[19] at Eastman
Kodak. The term OLED traditionally refers specifically to this type of device, though the term SM-OLED is
also in use.

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Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic chelates (for example Alq3, used in the organic
light-emitting device reported by Tang et al.), fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes and conjugated
dendrimers. A number of materials are used for their charge transport properties, for example triphenylamine
and derivatives are commonly used as materials for hole transport layers.[28] Fluorescent dyes can be chosen to
obtain light emission at different wavelengths, and compounds such as perylene, rubrene and quinacridone
derivatives are often used.[29] Alq3 has been used as a green emitter, electron transport material and as a host
for yellow and red emitting dyes.

The production of small molecule devices and displays usually involves thermal evaporation in a vacuum.
This makes the production process more expensive and of limited use for large-area devices than other
processing techniques. However, contrary to polymer-based devices, the vacuum deposition process enables
the formation of well controlled, homogeneous films, and the construction of very complex multi-layer
structures. This high flexibility in layer design, enabling distinct charge transport and charge blocking layers
to be formed, is the main reason for the high efficiencies of the small molecule OLEDs.

Coherent emission from a laser dye-doped tandem SM-OLED device, excited in the pulsed regime, has been
demonstrated.[30] The emission is nearly diffraction limited with a spectral width similar to that of broadband
dye lasers.[31]

Polymer light-emitting diodes

poly(p-phenylene vinylene), used in the first PLED.[20]

Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED), also light-emitting polymers (LEP), involve an electroluminescent
conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage. They are used as a thin film for
full-spectrum colour displays. Polymer OLEDs are quite efficient and require a relatively small amount of
power for the amount of light produced.

Vacuum deposition is not a suitable method for forming thin films of polymers. However, polymers can be
processed in solution, and spin coating is a common method of depositing thin polymer films. This method is
more suited to forming large-area films than thermal evaporation. No vacuum is required, and the emissive
materials can also be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial inkjet printing.[32][33]
However, as the application of subsequent layers tends to dissolve those already present, formation of
multilayer structures is difficult with these methods. The metal cathode may still need to be deposited by
thermal evaporation in vacuum.

Typical polymers used in PLED displays include derivatives of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and polyfluorene.
Substitution of side chains onto the polymer backbone may determine the colour of emitted light[34] or the
stability and solubility of the polymer for performance and ease of processing.[35]

While unsubstituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) is typically insoluble, a number of PPVs and related
poly(naphthalene vinylene)s (PNVs) that are soluble in organic solvents or water have been prepared via ring
opening metathesis polymerization.[36][37][38]

Phosphorescent materials

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Ir(mppy)3, a phosphorescent dopant which emits green light.[39]

Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes use the principle of electrophosphorescence to convert electrical
energy in an OLED into light in a highly efficient manner, [40][41] with the internal quantum efficiencies of such
devices approaching 100%.[42]

Typically, a polymer such as poly(n-vinylcarbazole) is used as a host material to which an organometallic


complex is added as a dopant. Iridium complexes[41] such as Ir(mppy)3[39] are currently the focus of research,
although complexes based on other heavy metals such as platinum[40] have also been used.

The heavy metal atom at the centre of these complexes exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling, facilitating
intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states. By using these phosphorescent materials, both singlet
and triplet excitons will be able to decay radiatively, hence improving the internal quantum efficiency of the
device compared to a standard PLED where only the singlet states will contribute to emission of light.

Applications of OLEDs in solid state lighting require the achievement of high brightness with good CIE
coordinates (for white emission). The use of macromolecular species like polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquioxanes (POSS) in conjunction with the use of phosphorescent species such as Ir for printed OLEDs
have exhibited brightnesses as high as 10,000 cd/m2.[43]

Device Architectures

Structure

• Bottom or top emission: Bottom emission devices use a transparent or semi-transparent bottom
electrode to get the light through a transparent substrate. Top emission devices [44][45] use a transparent
or semi-transparent top electrode emitting light directly. Top-emitting OLEDs are better suited for
active-matrix applications as they can be more easily integrated with a non-transparent transistor
backplane.

• Transparent OLEDs use transparent or semi-transparent contacts on both sides of the device to
create displays that can be made to be both top and bottom emitting (transparent). TOLEDs can
greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight. [46] This
technology can be used in Head-up displays, smart windows or augmented reality applications.
Novaled's[47] OLED panel presented in Finetech Japan 2010, boasts a transparency of 60-70%.

• Stacked OLEDs use a pixel architecture that stacks the red, green, and blue subpixels on top of one
another instead of next to one another, leading to substantial increase in gamut and color depth, and
greatly reducing pixel gap. Currently, other display technologies have the RGB (and RGBW) pixels
mapped next to each other decreasing potential resolution.

• Inverted OLED: In contrast to a conventional OLED, in which the anode is placed on the substrate,
an Inverted OLED uses a bottom cathode that can be connected to the drain end of an n-channel TFT
especially for the low cost amorphous silicon TFT backplane useful in the manufacturing of
AMOLED displays.[48]

Patterning technologies

Patternable organic light-emitting devices use a light or heat activated electroactive layer. A latent material

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

(PEDOT-TMA) is included in this layer that, upon activation, becomes highly efficient as a hole injection
layer. Using this process, light-emitting devices with arbitrary patterns can be prepared.[49]

Colour patterning can be accomplished by means of laser, such as radiation-induced sublimation transfer
(RIST).[50]

Organic vapour jet printing (OVJP) uses an inert carrier gas, such as argon or nitrogen, to transport
evaporated organic molecules (as in Organic Vapor Phase Deposition). The gas is expelled through a micron
sized nozzle or nozzle array close to the substrate as it is being translated. This allows printing arbitrary
multilayer patterns without the use of solvents.

Conventional OLED displays are formed by vapor thermal evaporation (VTE) and are patterned by shadow-
mask. A mechanical mask has openings allowing the vapor to pass only on the desired location.

Backplane technologies

For a high resolution display like a TV, a TFT backplane is necessary to drive the pixels correctly. Currently,
Low Temperature Polycrystalline silicon LTPS-TFT is used for commercial AMOLED displays. LTPS-TFT
has variation of the performance in a display, so various compensation circuits have been reported.[44] Due to
the size limitation of the excimer laser used for LTPS, the AMOLED size was limited. To cope with the
hurdle related to the panel size, amorphous-silicon/microcrystalline-silicon backplanes have been reported
with large display prototype demonstrations.[51]

Advantages

Demonstration of a 4.1" prototype flexible display from Sony

The different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to several advantages over flat-panel displays
made with LCD technology.

• Future lower cost: Although the method is not currently commercially viable for mass production,
OLEDs can be printed onto any suitable substrate using an inkjet printer or even screen printing
technologies,[52] they could theoretically have a lower cost than LCDs or plasma displays. However,
it is the fabrication of the substrate that is the most complex and expensive process in the production
of a TFT LCD, so any savings offered by printing the pixels is easily cancelled out by OLED's
requirement to use a more costly LTPS substrate - a fact that is borne out by the significantly higher
initial price of AMOLED displays than their TFT LCD competitors. A mitigating factor to this price
differential going into the future is the cost of retooling existing lines to produce AMOLED displays
over LCDs to take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by mass production.

• Light weight & flexible plastic substrates: OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic
substrates leading to the possibility of Organic light-emitting diode roll-up display being fabricated
or other new applications such as roll-up displays embedded in fabrics or clothing. As the substrate

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

used can be flexible such as PET.[53], the displays may be produced inexpensively.

• Wider viewing angles & improved brightness: OLEDs can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio
(both dynamic range and static, measured in purely dark conditions) and viewing angle compared to
LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light. OLED pixel colours appear correct and unshifted,
even as the viewing angle approaches 90 degrees from normal.

• Better power efficiency: LCDs filter the light emitted from a backlight, allowing a small fraction of
light through so they cannot show true black, while an inactive OLED element produces no light and
consumes no power.[54]

• Response time: OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. Whereas
LCD displays are capable of a 1 ms response time or less[55] offering a frame rate of 1,000 Hz or
higher, an OLED can theoretically have less than 0.01 ms response time enabling 100,000 Hz refresh
rates.

Disadvantages

LEP display showing partial failure

An old OLED display showing wear

• Lifespan: The biggest technical problem for OLEDs was the limited lifetime of the organic
materials.[56] In particular, blue OLEDs historically have had a lifetime of around 14,000 hours to
half original brightness (five years at 8 hours a day) when used for flat-panel displays. This is lower
than the typical lifetime of LCD, LED or PDP technology—each currently rated for about 60,000
hours to half brightness, depending on manufacturer and model. However, some manufacturers'
displays aim to increase the lifespan of OLED displays, pushing their expected life past that of LCD
displays by improving light outcoupling, thus achieving the same brightness at a lower drive current.
[57][58]
In 2007, experimental OLEDs were created which can sustain 400 cd/m2 of luminance for over

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

198,000 hours for green OLEDs and 62,000 hours for blue OLEDs.[59]

• Color balance issues: Additionally, as the OLED material used to produce blue light degrades
significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors, blue light output will decrease
relative to the other colors of light. This differential color output change will change the color
balance of the display and is much more noticeable than a decrease in overall luminance. [60] This can
be partially avoided by adjusting colour balance but this may require advanced control circuits and
interaction with the user, which is unacceptable for some users. In order to delay the problem,
manufacturers bias the colour balance towards blue so that the display initially has an artificially blue
tint, leading to complaints of artificial-looking, over-saturated colors. More commonly, though,
manufacturers optimize the size of the R, G and B subpixels to reduce the current density through the
subpixel in order to equalize lifetime at full luminance. For example, a blue subpixel may be 100%
larger than the green subpixel. The red subpixel may be 10% smaller than the green.

• Efficiency of blue OLEDs: Improvements to the efficiency and lifetime of blue OLED’s is vital to
the success of OLED’s as replacements for LCD technology. Considerable research has been
invested in developing blue OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency as well as a deeper blue
color.[61][62] External quantum efficiency values of 20% and 19% have been reported for red (625 nm)
and green (530 nm) diodes, respectively.[63][64] However, blue diodes (430 nm) have only been able to
achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies in the range between 4% to 6%.[65] This is primarily
due to two factors. Firstly, the human eye is less sensitive to the blue wavelength compared to the
green or red, so lower efficiency is expected. Secondly, by calculating the band gap (E g = hc/λ), it is
clear that the shorter wavelength of the blue OLED results in a larger band gap at 2.9 eV. This leads
to higher barriers, so less efficiency is also expected.

• Water damage: Water can damage the organic materials of the displays. Therefore, improved
sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing. Water damage may especially limit the
longevity of more flexible displays.[66]

• Outdoor performance: As an emissive display technology, OLEDs rely completely upon


converting electricity to light, unlike most LCDs which are to some extent reflective; e-ink leads the
way in efficiency with ~ 33% ambient light reflectivity, enabling the display to be used without any
internal light source. The metallic cathode in an OLED acts as a mirror, with reflectance approaching
80%, leading to poor readability in bright ambient light such as outdoors. However, with the proper
application of a circular polarizer and anti-reflective coatings, the diffuse reflectance can be reduced
to less than 0.1%. With 10,000 fc incident illumination (typical test condition for simulating outdoor
illumination), that yields an approximate photopic contrast of 5:1.

• Power consumption: While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying
an image which is primarily black, for the majority of images it will consume 60–80% of the power
of an LCD - however it can use over three times as much power to display an image with a white
background[67] such as a document or website. This can lead to disappointing real-world battery life
in mobile devices.

• Screen burn-in: Unlike displays with a common light source, the brightness of each OLED pixel
fades depending on the content displayed. The varied lifespan of the organic dyes can cause a
discrepancy between red, green, and blue intensity. This leads to image persistence, also known as
burn-in.[68]

Manufacturers and Commercial Uses

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Magnified image of the AMOLED screen on the Google Nexus One smartphone using the RGBG system of
the PenTile Matrix Family.

A 3.8 cm (1.5 in) OLED display from a Creative ZEN V media player

OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital
media players, car radios and digital cameras among others. Such portable applications favor the high light
output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight and their low power drain. Portable displays are also used
intermittently, so the lower lifespan of organic displays is less of an issue. Prototypes have been made of
flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs' unique characteristics. Applications in flexible signs and
lighting are also being developed.[69] Philips Lighting have made OLED lighting samples under the brand
name 'Lumiblade' available online.[70]

OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung colour cell phones, as well as some HTC, LG and
Sony Ericsson models.[71] Nokia has also recently introduced some OLED products including the N85 and the
N86 8MP, both of which feature an AMOLED display. OLED technology can also be found in digital media
players such as the Creative ZEN V, the iriver clix, the Zune HD and the Sony Walkman X Series.

The Google and HTC Nexus One smartphone includes an AMOLED screen, as does HTC's own Desire and
Legend phones. However due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays, certain HTC models
will use Sony's Super LCD technology in the future.[72]

Other manufacturers of OLED panels include Anwell Technologies Limited,[73] Chi Mei Corporation,[74] LG,
[75]
and others.[76]

DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with
a new printing technology. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing, then the total cost of OLED
TVs would be greatly reduced. Dupont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology
can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight hour day.[77][78]

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Handheld computer manufacturer OQO introduced the smallest Windows netbook computer, including an
OLED display, in 2009.[79]

The use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Eastman Kodak, DuPont, General Electric, Royal
Philips Electronics, numerous universities and others.[80] There are by now literally thousands of patents
associated with OLEDs, both from larger corporations and smaller technology companies [1].

Samsung applications

By 2004 Samsung, South Korea's largest conglomerate, was the world's largest OLED manufacturer,
producing 40% of the OLED displays made in the world,[81] and as of 2010 has a 98% share of the global
AMOLED market.[82] The company is leading the world OLED industry, generating $100.2 million out of the
total $475 million revenues in the global OLED market in 2006.[83] As of 2006, it held more than 600
American patents and more than 2800 international patents, making it the largest owner of AMOLED
technology patents.[83]

Samsung SDI announced in 2005 the world's largest OLED TV at the time, at 21 inches (53 cm).[84] This
OLED featured the highest resolution at the time, of 6.22 million pixels. In addition, the company adopted
active matrix based technology for its low power consumption and high-resolution qualities. This was
exceeded in January 2008, when Samsung showcased the world's largest and thinnest OLED TV at the time,
at 31 inches and 4.3 mm.[85]

In May 2008, Samsung unveiled an ultra-thin 12.1 inch laptop OLED display concept, with a 1,280×768
resolution with infinite contrast ratio.[86] According to Woo Jong Lee, Vice President of the Mobile Display
Marketing Team at Samsung SDI, the company expected OLED displays to be used in notebook PCs as soon
as 2010.[87]

In October 2008, Samsung showcased the world's thinnest OLED display, also the first to be 'flappable' and
bendable.[88] It measures just 0.05 mm (thinner than paper), yet a Samsung staff member said that it is
"technically possible to make the panel thinner".[88] To achieve this thickness, Samsung etched an OLED
panel that uses a normal glass substrate. The drive circuit was formed by low-temperature polysilicon TFTs.
Also, low-molecular organic EL materials were employed. The pixel count of the display is 480 × 272. The
contrast ratio is 100,000:1, and the luminance is 200 cd/m². The colour reproduction range is 100% of the
NTSC standard.

In the same month, Samsung unveiled what was then the world's largest OLED Television at 40-inch with a
Full HD resolution of 1920×1080 pixel.[89] In the FPD International, Samsung stated that its 40-inch OLED
Panel is the largest size currently possible. The panel has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1, a colour gamut of
107% NTSC, and a luminance of 200 cd/m² (peak luminance of 600 cd/m²).

At the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010, Samsung demonstrated a laptop computer with a
large, transparent OLED display featuring up to 40% transparency[90] and an animated OLED display in a
photo ID card.[91]

Samsung's latest AMOLED smartphones use their Super AMOLED trademark, with the Samsung Wave
S8500 and Samsung i9000 Galaxy S being launched in June 2010.

Sony applications

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Sony XEL-1, the world's first OLED TV.[1] (front)

Sony XEL-1 (side)

The Sony CLIÉ PEG-VZ90 was released in 2004, being the first PDA to feature an OLED screen. [92] Other
Sony products to feature OLED screens include the MZ-RH1 portable minidisc recorder, released in 2006 [93]
and the Walkman X Series.[94]

At the Las Vegas CES 2007, Sony showcased 11-inch (28 cm, resolution 960×540) and 27-inch (68.5 cm, full
HD resolution at 1920×1080) OLED TV models.[95] Both claimed 1,000,000:1 contrast ratios and total
thicknesses (including bezels) of 5 mm. In April 2007, Sony announced it would manufacture 1000 11-inch
OLED TVs per month for market testing purposes.[96] On October 1, 2007, Sony announced that the 11-inch
model, now called the XEL-1, would be released commercially;[1] the XEL-1 was first released in Japan in
December 2007.[97]

In May 2007, Sony publicly unveiled a video of a 2.5-inch flexible OLED screen which is only 0.3
millimeters thick.[98] At the Display 2008 exhibition, Sony demonstrated a 0.2 mm thick 3.5 inch display with
a resolution of 320×200 pixels and a 0.3 mm thick 11 inch display with 960×540 pixels resolution, one-tenth
the thickness of the XEL-1.[99][100]

In July 2008, a Japanese government body said it would fund a joint project of leading firms, which is to
develop a key technology to produce large, energy-saving organic displays. The project involves one
laboratory and 10 companies including Sony Corp. NEDO said the project was aimed at developing a core
technology to mass-produce 40 inch or larger OLED displays in the late 2010s.[101]

In October 2008, Sony published results of research it carried out with the Max Planck Institute over the
possibility of mass-market bending displays, which could replace rigid LCDs and plasma screens. Eventually,
bendable, transparent OLED screens could be stacked to produce 3D images with much greater contrast ratios
and viewing angles than existing products.[102]

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Sony exhibited a 24.5" prototype OLED 3D television during the Consumer Electronics Show in January
2010.[103]

Further reading

• P. Chamorro-Posada, J. Martín-Gil, P. Martín-Ramos, L.M. Navas-Gracia, Fundamentos de la


Tecnología OLED (Fundamentals of OLED Technology). University of Valladolid, Spain (2008). ISBN
978-84-936644-0-4. Available online, with permission from the authors, at the webpage:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/13325893/Fundamentos-de-la-Tecnologia-OLED
• Shinar, Joseph (Ed.), Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Survey. NY: Springer-Verlag (2004). ISBN 0-
387-95343-4.
• Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices, Volume 1-3.
American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2003). ISBN 1-58883-010-1. Volume 1: Organic Light-
Emitting Diodes
• Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Organic Electronics and Photonics, Volume 1-3. American
Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2008). ISBN 1-58883-095-0.
• Müllen, Klaus (Ed.), Organic Light Emitting Devices: Synthesis, Properties and Applications. Wiley-
VCH (2006). ISBN 3-527-31218-8
• Yersin, Hartmut (Ed.), Highly Efficient OLEDs with Phosphorescent Materials. Wiley-VCH (2007).
ISBN 3-527-40594-1

v•d•e
Display technology

Electroluminescent display (ELD) · Vacuum fluorescent display


(VFD) · Light emitting diode display (LED) · Cathode ray tube
Current
(CRT) · Liquid crystal display (LCD) · Plasma display panel
generation
(PDP) · Digital light processing (DLP) · Liquid crystal on
silicon (LCoS)

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) · Surface-conduction


Video electron-emitter display (SED) · Field emission display (FED) ·
Laser TV (Quantum dot laser · Liquid crystal laser) · Ferro
liquid display (FLD) · Interferometric modulator display
Next generation (iMoD) · Thick-film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) ·
Quantum dot display (QD-LED) · Time-multiplexed optical
shutter (TMOS) · Telescopic pixel display (TPD) · Organic
light-emitting transistor (OLET) · Laser phosphor display
(LPD)

Electromechanical (Flip-dot · Split-flap · Vane) · Electronic paper · Rollable ·


Non-video
Eggcrate · Nixie tube

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Stereoscopic · Autostereoscopic · Computer generated holography · Volumetric


3D display
(Swept-volume) · Laser beam

Static media Hologram · Movie projector · Neon sign · Rollsign · Slide projector · Transparency

Display examples · Free-space display · Large-screen television technology ·


Related articles
Optimum HDTV viewing distance · High dynamic range imaging (HDRI)

Comparison of display technology

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

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The GFT Hydrogen Generator® works as an add-on with existing fossil fuel technology that
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the market. Other add-on hydrogen units are like "Brown's Gas" science experiments in comparison. This
unit has been engineered and re engineered to be the best of its kind. Unlike all other units, it is refilled with
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15 (More) Future Wonders of Green Technology: From Spinning Towers to Seawater Greenhouses

Architecture & Design, Green Technologies, Urbanism

(Check out our complete collection of Green Art, Design and Technology.)

As the world increasingly focuses on sustainable initiatives, green architecture is a booming industry.
Everything from single-family residences to giant 1.2-million-square-foot complexes complete with giant

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

skyscrapers is getting the green treatment, and the innovation that iss going into these plans is more complex
than ever. Some of these structures will debut as early as the fall of 2008 while others present a view of what
100 years from now may hold, but all represent amazing leaps in green technology that push the boundaries of
what we’ve ever thought possible.

Architect David Fisher has proposed a plan for rotating towers that produce all of their own energy through
wind power. The Rotating Tower would be built by stacking platters on a central concrete core with wind
turbines located between each of them. Each floor will rotate 360 degrees about once every 90 minutes; as the
floors will rotate independently, they will create a constantly changing silhouette in the sky. Inside the
concrete core will be elevators, emergency stairs and lobbies. The Rotating Tower will be built in Dubai in
the next six months.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

As water becomes an even hotter commodity in the future, engineers are looking for ways to ensure a
continued supply of fresh water to meet the needs of the world’s growing population. Charles Patton is
tackling this problem with his Seawater Greenhouse, a carbon-neutral desalination method which is being
incorporated into the design of the Teatro del Agua. This Theater of Water will be a performing arts center in
Spain’s Canary Islands. It works by coupling a series of evaporators and condensers such that the airborne

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

moisture from the evaporators is then collected from the condensers, which are cooled by deep seawater.? The
center will operate almost entirely on renewable energy.

The Dice House is a zero carbon home, which can either stand alone or function as attached multiple
dwellings. Designed by Sybarite, a British architecture firm, the Dice House is a 9 x 9 meter cube that sits on
an octagonal plinth. Three levels inside the cube have large, plentiful windows to maximize views. A large
thermoplastic umbrella on the garden roof of the house shades and insulates the house and collects solar
energy.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

The new Las Vegas CityCenter is the largest privately financed development in North America. This $8
billion project is a joint venture between MGM Mirage and Dubai World. Designing the CityCenter will be

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

renowned green architects including Pelli Clarke Pelli, Foster + Partners and Rafael Vinoly. MGM Mirage
has trained over 10,000 construction tradesmen on green building practices to be put into place in the
structures. CityCenter, which will house hotels, casinos, restaurants, retail space, entertainment space and a
$40M public fine arts center, is touted by its developers as a model of sustainability. Recycling construction
waste, using environmentally friendly materials, emphasizing natural light and incorporating an onsite co-
generation power plant are just a few of the sustainability initiatives that will be put into place.

Architect Sheila Kennedy has designed the Soft House, a structure that harvests energy through solar-energy-
collecting textiles hung in the home like curtains. These thin-film photovoltaic textiles can create close to
16,000 watt-hours of electricity, providing about half of the home’s power. Though the high cost of this solar
technology makes the Soft House unlikely to become reality any time soon, Kennedy hopes that the design
will show others that renewable energy technologies can be incorporated into structures in creative and
unexpected ways.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

The world’s first passive house museum is set to be built in Ulricehamn, Sweden, functioning as a visitor’s
center. The building’s heat will be supplied entirely by the body heat of visitors and the equipment located
inside. Solar cells on the roof will provide part of the energy used to run electrical equipment and heat water.
The circular design of the structure will allow efficient circulation of air to enhance the passive heating and
cooling of the building.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

The Chicago Spire is an ambitious project currently under construction in the Windy City. At 2,000 feet, the
spire will be North America’s tallest free-standing structure and the tallest all-residential building in the
world. Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and managed by the Shelbourne Development
Group, the Chicago Spire was designed to mimic the natural form of a nautilus shell. The structure is
anticipated to have a LEED gold rating; it will be outfitted with rainwater harvesting systems, geothermal
cooling and high performance glass designed to protect migratory birds. The Chicago Spire is set to be
completed in 2011.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Frasers Broadway, a commercial, residential and retail complex, will be Australia’s most sustainable building.
The designers, including Pritzker Prize winners Foster & Partners and Ateliers Jean Nouvel, will incorporate
such eco-friendly features as a gas-powered co-generation electricity plant, green rooftops, a wastewater
recycling plant, smart metering and solar power into the design in an attempt to achieve carbon neutrality. The
250,000 square meter development will be located in the old Kent Brewery in Sydney.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Pelli Clark Pelli architects recently got approval for their design for a new green Transbay Transit Center in
San Francisco. The transit center will consist of a glass tower and a five-and-a-half acre public park, and will
be packed with sustainable features like green roofs, passive solar shading, wind turbines, a rain and
graywater recycling system and geothermal heating and cooling. The aim of the building is to centralize the
region’s transportation system while also providing a community space. The center will be completed by
2014.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

China’s population is exploding while its industrial ventures are producing more pollution than ever – a
combination that makes it difficult to be eco-friendly. A new sustainable housing project called Habitat 2020
aims to be one of the leaders in bringing environmental initiatives to this growing country. The Habitat 2020
building will feature an active skin: a membrane between the exterior and interior walls that will absorb air,
water and light from outside and dispatch it inside as clean filtered water, natural air conditioning and
electricity. The same funnels on the membrane that pull these resources in will also emit clean, CO2-free air
from inside the building. This urban megalopolis is set to be complete in 2020.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Another project that aims to act as a ‘living’ structure is the California Academy of Sciences museum set to
open in San Francisco this fall. The museum will have a 2.5 acre, undulating green roof that will integrate it
into the surrounding Golden Gate Park. The 400,000-square-foot, $484 million structure will likely be the
first public building to achieve a platinum LEED rating. Designer Renzo Piano has incorporated a
planetarium, a rainforest with free-flying birds, a coral reef home to 4,000 fish in a saltwater aquarium and a
natural history museum into the building.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Maul Dwellings designed the Landscape House, which won the AIA’s 2006 Committee on Design
competition to design “a house for an ecologist”. The house not only features a double roof for enhanced air
circulation, louvered shutters to harvest energy, a Water Pod to house efficient plumbing systems and a solar
dehumidifier unit to capture moisture from the air for drinking water, it also is designed for deconstruction
and reuse. Though this innovative structure wasn’t originally intended for widespread residential use, its
intelligent eco-friendly features make it a great source of inspiration for future green homes.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Kuwait will soon have its first LEED skyscraper. The Sabah Al Ahmed International Finance Center will be a
1.2 million square foot, 40-story tower that includes four stacked courtyard atriums ranging from 8 to 13
stories each. The tower will generate some of its own energy from a photovoltaic system as well as the wind
turbines that will crown the roof. Inside will be office space and a 4-star business class hotel. The
International Finance Center (ICF) has been precertified at the gold level under the LEED rating system.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

London-based Foster + Partners, who are also working on the aforementioned Frasers Broadway complex,
have another green complex in store. This one will be located in Singapore City, measuring 150,000 square
meters and set for multi-use functioning. The complex’s exterior will be covered with solar cells, and direct
sunlight will also be harvested by tall ribbon-like canopies rising into the skyline. The slanted design of the
facades will allow wind to flow into the building for a natural cooling effect, and vertical green spaces will
provide ambient temperature moderation. The building will also be equipped with a rainwater harvesting
system, geothermal heating, chilled beams and an ice storage system for cooling.

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

The furthest-reaching green wonder of the future is IwamotoScott Architect’s vision of San Francisco in
2108. This stunning winner of the History Channel’s City of the Future competition shows what a totally eco-
conscious San Francisco could look like 100 years from now, complete with algae-harvesting towers,
geothermal energy mushrooms and fog catchers to distill fresh water from the city’s foggy atmosphere.
Designed to make the most of the area’s microclimate and geology, Hydro-Net is a network of both above-
ground and underground systems that takes the need for alternative energy sources in mind with a connected
network of water, power collection and distribution systems. Carbon nanotube walls would collect and
disperse hydrogen produced by algae, which would be used to hover-cars in underground tunnels.

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CHAPTER-4

LHC and other accelerators Experiments Applications and Computing Particle Physics Theories for
tomorrow

How we accelerate particles


The LHC in general
The LHC machine
LHC and the environment

The LHC in general Large, powerful, unique

What does LHC stand for?

LHC stands for Large Hadron Collider. Large due to its size
(approximately 27km in circumference), Hadron because it accelerates protons or ions, which are hadrons,
and Collider because these particles form two beams traveling in opposite directions, which collide at four
points around the machine’s circumference.

Hadrons (from the Greek ‘adros’ meaning ‘bulky’) are particles composed of quarks. The protons and
neutrons that atomic nuclei are made of belong to this family. On the other hand, leptons are particles that
are not made of quarks. Electrons and muons are examples of leptons (from the Greek ‘leptos’ meaning
‘thin’).

When was it designed?

Back in the early 1980s, while the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was being designed and built,
groups at CERN were already busy looking at the long-term future. After many years of work on the technical
aspects and physics requirements of such a machine, their dreams came to fruition in December 1994 when
CERN’s governing body, the CERN Council, voted to approve the construction of the LHC. The green light
for the project was given under the condition that the new accelerator be built within a constant budget and on
the understanding that any non-Member State contributions would be used to speed up and improve the
project. Initially, the budgetary constraints implied that the LHC was to be conceived as a 2-stage project.
However, following contributions from Japan, the USA, India and other non-Member States, Council voted in
1995 to allow the project to proceed in a single phase. Between 1996 and 1998, four experiments—ALICE,
ATLAS, CMS and LHCb—received official approval and construction work commenced on the four sites.
Since then, two smaller experiments have joined the quest: TOTEM, installed next to CMS, and LHCf, next
to ATLAS (see also experiments and LHC milestones).

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How much does it cost?

The cost for the machine alone is about 4.6 billion CHF (about 3 billion Euro). the total project cost breaks
down roughly as follows:
} 4.6 billion CHF total cost of the accelerator
} 1.1 billion CHF total CERN contributions to the experiments (about 20% of the detector costs, supported by
large collaborations of institutes worldwide)
} 0.26 billion CHF total contributions to computing (manpower and materials and both CERN’s and external
contributions).
The experimental collaborations are individual entities, funded independently from CERN. CERN is a
member of each experiment, and contributes to the budget of CMS and Lucy at the 20% level, 16% for
ALICE and 13% for ATLAS. TOTEM is a much smaller experiment, with a total material cost of about 6.5
million CHF. The CERN share of this is, however, 30%.
NB: 1 billion = 1 thousand million.

Why large?

The size of an accelerator is related to the maximum energy obtainable. In the case of a collider or storage
ring, this is a function of the radius of the machine and the strength of the dipole magnetic field that keeps
particles on their orbits. The LHC re-uses the 27km circumference tunnel that was built for the previous big
accelerator, LEP. The LHC uses some of the most powerful dipoles and radio-frequency cavities in existence.
The size of the tunnel, magnets, cavities and other essential elements of the machine, represent the main
constraints that determine the design energy of 7 TeV per proton beam.

Why collider?

A collider (that is a machine where counter-circulating beams collide) has a big advantage over other kind of
accelerator where a beam collides with a stationary target. When two beams collide, the energy of the
collision is the sum of the energies of the two beams. A beam of the same energy that hits a fixed target would
produce a collision of much less energy.

The energy available (for example, to make new particles) in both cases is the centre-of-mass energy. In the
first case it is simply the sum of the energies of the two colliding particles (E=E beam1+ Ebeam2), whereas in the
second, it is proportional to the square root of the energy of the particle hitting the target (E ∝ √Ebeam).

Why hadrons?

The LHC will accelerate two beams of particles of the same kind, either protons or lead ions, which are
hadrons. An accelerator can only accelerate certain kinds of particle: firstly they need to be charged (as the
beams are manipulated by electromagnetic devices that can only influence charged particles), and secondly,
except in special cases, they need not to decay. This limits the number of particles that can practically be
accelerated to electrons, protons, and ions, plus all their antiparticles.
In a circular accelerator such as the LHC, heavy particles such as protons (protons are around 2000 times
more massive than electrons) have a much lower energy loss per turn through synchrotron radiation than light
particles such as electrons. Therefore, in circular accelerators, to obtain the highest-energy collisions it is
more effective to accelerate massive particles.

Synchrotron radiation is the name given to the radiation that occurs when charged particles are accelerated

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

in a curved path or orbit. This kind of radiation represents an energy loss for particles, which in turn means
that more energy must be provided by the accelerator to keep the beam energy constant.

Why is the LHC built underground?

The LHC re-uses the tunnel that was built for CERN’s previous big accelerator, LEP, dismantled in 2000. The
underground tunnel was the best solution to house a 27km circumference machine because it is cheaper to
excavate a tunnel rather than acquire the land to build at the surface and the impact on the landscape is
reduced to a minimum. In addition, the Earth’s crust provides good shielding for radiation.
The tunnel was built at a mean depth of 100m, due to geological considerations (again translating into cost)
and at a slight gradient of 1.4%. Its depth varies between 175m (under the Jura) and 50m (towards Lake
Geneva).

The tunnel has a slope for reasons of cost. At the time when it was built for hosting LEP, the construction of
the vertical shafts was very costly. Therefore, the length of the tunnel that lies under the Jura was minimized.
Other constraints involved in the positioning of the tunnel were:
} it was essential to have a depth of at least 5m below the top of the ‘molasse’ (green sandstone) stratum
} the tunnel had to pass in the vicinity of the pilot tunnel, constructed to test excavation techniques
} it had to link to the SPS. This meant that there was only one degree of freedom (tilt). The angle was
obtained by minimizing the depth of the shafts.

What is the collision energy at the LHC and what is so special about it?

Each proton beam flying around the LHC will have energy of 7 TeV, so when two protons collide the
collision energy will be 14 TeV. Lead ions have many protons, and together they give an even greater energy:
the lead-ion beams will have collision energy of 1150 TeV. Both collision energies have never been reached
before in a lab.
Energy concentration is what makes particle collisions so special. When you clap your hands you probably do
a ‘collision’ at energy higher than protons at the LHC, but much less concentrated! Now think of what you
would do if you were to put a needle in one of your hands. You would certainly slow your hands down as you
clapped!

In absolute terms, these energies, if compared to the energies we deal with everyday, are not impressive. In
fact, 1 Ted is about the energy of motion of a flying mosquito. What makes the LHC so extraordinary is that it
squeezes energy into a space about a million million times smaller than a mosquito.

What are the main goals of the LHC?

Our current understanding of the Universe is incomplete. The Standard Model of particles and forces
summarizes our present knowledge of particle physics. The Standard Model has been tested by various
experiments and it has proven particularly successful in anticipating the existence of previously undiscovered
particles. However, it leaves many unsolved questions, which the LHC will help to answer.
} The Standard Model does not explain the origin of mass, nor why some particles are very heavy while
others have no mass at all. The answer may be the so-called Higgs mechanism. According to the theory of the
Higgs mechanism, the whole of space is filled with a ‘Higgs field’, and by interacting with this field, particles
acquire their masses. Particles that interact intensely with the Higgs field are heavy, while those that have
feeble interactions are light. The Higgs field has at least one new particle associated with it, the Higgs boson.
If such a particle exists, experiments at the LHC will be able to detect it.

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} The Standard Model does not offer a unified description of all the fundamental forces, as it remains difficult
to construct a theory of gravity similar to those for the other forces. A theory that hypothesizes the existence
of more massive – Super symmetry could facilitate the unification of – partners of the standard particles we
know fundamental forces. If super symmetry is right, then the lightest super symmetric particles should be
found at the LHC.
} By using powerful telescopes, both on the ground and in orbit, we have found that all the visible matter
accounts for only 4% of the Universe. The search is open for particles or phenomena responsible for dark
matter (23%) and dark energy (73%). A very popular idea is super symmetric – yet undiscovered – that
dark matter be made of neutral particles.
} The LHC will also help us to investigate the mystery of antimatter. Matter and antimatter must have been
produced in the same amounts at the time of the Big Bang but from what we have observed so far, our
Universe is made only of matter. Why? The LHC could help to provide an answer.

It was once thought that antimatter was a perfect ‘reflection’ of matter—that if you replaced matter with
antimatter and looked at the result as if in a mirror, you would not be able to tell the difference. We now
know that the reflection is imperfect, and this could have led to the matter-antimatter imbalance in our
Universe. The strongest limits on the amount of antimatter in our Universe come from the analysis of the
‘diffuse cosmic gamma-rays’ and the inhomogeneities of the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
Assuming that after the Big Bang, the Universe separated somehow into different domains where either
matter or antimatter was dominant, it is evident that at the boundaries there should be annihilations,
producing cosmic (gamma) rays. Taking into account annihilation cross-sections, distance, and cosmic red
shifts, this leads to a prediction of the amount of diffuse gamma radiation that should arrive on Earth. The
free parameter in the model is the size of the domains. Comparing with the observed gamma ray flux, this
leads to an exclusion of any domain size below 1000 MParsec (3.7 Giga light years), which is not so far away
from the entire Universe. Another limit comes from analyzing the inhomogeneities in the CMB - antimatter
domains (at any size) would cause heating of domain boundaries and show up in the CMB as density
fluctuations. The observed value of ~10-5 sets strong boundaries to the amount of antimatter in the early
Universe.

} In addition to the studies of proton–proton collisions, heavy-ion collisions at the LHC will provide a
window onto the state of matter that would have existed in the early Universe, called ‘quark-gluon plasma’.
When heavy ions collide at high energies they form for an instant a “fireball” of hot, dense matter that can be
studied by the experiments.
According to the current theories, the Universe, born from the Big Bang, went through a stage during which
matter existed as a sort of extremely hot, dense soup – called quark-gluon plasma (QGP) – composed of the
elementary building blocks of matter. As the Universe cooled, the quarks became trapped into composite
particles such as protons and neutrons. This phenomenon is called the confinement of quarks. The LHC is
able to reproduce the QGP by accelerating and colliding together two beams of heavy ions. In the collisions,
the temperature will exceed 100 000 times that of the centre of the Sun. In these conditions, the quarks are
freed again and the detectors can observe and study the primordial soup, thus probing the basic properties of
the particles and how they aggregate to form ordinary matter.

Copyright CERN 2007 - LHC and other accelerators Experiments Applications and Computing Particle
Physics Theories for tomorrow

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The LHC machine Cooler than the outer space, it will


produce 600 million particle collisions per second.

What are sectors and octants in the machine?

The LHC is not a perfect circle. It is made of eight arcs and eight ‘insertions’ (IP). The arcs contain the dipole
‘bending’ magnets, with 154 in each arc. An insertion consists of a long straight section plus two (one at each
end) transition regions - the so-called ‘dispersion suppressors’. The exact layout of the straight section
depends on the specific use of the insertion: physics (beam collisions within an experiment), injection, beam
dumping, and beam cleaning.

A sector is defined as the part of the machine between two insertion points. The eight sectors are the working
units of the LHC: the magnet installation happens sector by sector, the hardware is commissioned sector by
sector and all the dipoles of a sector are connected in series and are in the same continuous cryostat. Powering
of each sector is essentially independent.

An octant starts from the middle of an arc and ends in


the middle of the following arc and thus spans a full
insertion. Therefore, this description is more practical
when we look at the use of the magnets to guide the
beams into collisions or through the injection,
dumping, and cleaning sections.

What are the important parameters for an accelerator?

We build accelerators to study processes whose probability varies with collision energy, and which are often
rare. This means that for physicists the most important parameters are the beam energy and the number of
interesting collisions. More specifically, in a collider such as the LHC the probability for a particular process
varies with what is known as the luminosity - a quantity that depends on the number of particles in each
bunch, the frequency of complete turns around the ring, the number of bunches and the beam cross-section. In

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brief, we need to squeeze the maximum number of particles into the smallest amount of space around the
interaction region.

What are the main ingredients of an accelerator?

In an accelerator, particles circulate in a vacuum tube and are manipulated using electromagnetic devices:
dipole magnets keep the particles in their nearly circular orbits, quadrupole magnets focus the beam, and
accelerating cavities are electromagnetic resonators that accelerate particles and then keep them at a constant
energy by compensating for energy losses.

Vacuum in the LHC: The internal pressure at the LHC will be 10–13?atm (ultrahigh vacuum), because we
want to avoid collisions with gas molecules. There is ~6500 m3 of pumped volume in the LHC, like pumping
down a cathedral!
Magnets: There is a large variety of magnets in the LHC, including dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles,
octupoles, decapoles, etc. giving a total of about 9300 magnets. Each type of magnet contributes to
optimizing a particle’s trajectory. Most of the correction magnets are embedded in the cold mass of the main
dipoles and quadrupoles. The LHC magnets have either a twin aperture (for example, the main dipoles), or a
single aperture (for example, some of the insertion quadrupoles). Insertion quadrupoles are special magnets
used to focus the beam down to the smallest possible size at the collision points, thereby maximizing the
chance of two protons smashing head-on into each other. The biggest magnets are the 1232 dipoles.
Cavities: The main role of the LHC cavities is to keep the 2808 proton bunches tightly bunched to ensure high
luminosity at the collision points and hence, maximize the number of collisions. They also deliver
radiofrequency (RF) power to the beam during acceleration to the top energy. Superconducting cavities with
small energy losses and large stored energy are the best solution. The LHC will use eight cavities per beam,
each delivering 2 MV (an accelerating field of 5MV/m) at 400 MHz. The cavities will operate at 4.5K (-
268.7ºC) (the LHC magnets will use super fluid helium at 1.9 K or -271.3ºC). For the LHC they will be
grouped in fours in cryomodules, with two cryomodules per beam, and installed in a long straight section of
the machine where the transverse interbeam distance will be increased from the normal 195 mm to 420 mm.

The following table lists the important quantities for the LHC.

LHC and other accelerators Experiments Applications and Computing Particle Physics Theories for
tomorrow

How we accelerate particles Vacuum, magnets and


cavities
What are the main ingredients of an accelerator?

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An accelerator is a machine where particles circulate in a vacuum tube and are manipulated using
electromagnetic devices: dipole magnets keep the particles in their nearly circular orbits, quadrupole magnets
focus the beam, and accelerating cavities are electromagnetic elements that accelerate particles and then keep
them at a constant energy by compensating for energy losses.

How many particle accelerators are there at CERN?

CERN has many particle accelerators and some have several beam lines. Only the LHC is a collider.

The accelerator complex at CERN is a succession of machines with increasingly higher energies. Each
machine injects the beam into the next one, which takes over to bring the beam to an even higher energy, and
so on. In the LHC—the last element of this chain—each particle beam is accelerated up to the record energy
of 7 TeV. In addition, most of the other elements in the chain have their own experimental halls, where the
beams are used for experiments at lower energies.

The brief story of a proton accelerated through the accelerator complex at CERN is as follows:
} Hydrogen atoms are taken from a standard hydrogen bottle. We get protons by stripping orbiting electrons
from hydrogen atoms.
 Protons are injected into the PS Booster (PSB) at energy of 50 MeV from Linac2.

The booster accelerates them


to 1.4 GeV. The beam is
then fed to the Proton
Synchrotron (PS) where it is
accelerated to 25 GeV.
Protons are then sent to the
Super Proton Synchrotron
(SPS) where they are
accelerated to 450 GeV.

They are finally transferred to the LHC (both in a clockwise and anticlockwise direction, the filling time is
4’20’’ per LHC ring) where they are accelerated for 20 minutes to their nominal 7 TeV. Beams will circulate
for many hours inside the LHC beam pipes under normal operating conditions. Protons arrive at the LHC in
bunches, which are prepared in the smaller machines.

Lead ions are produced from a highly purified lead sample heated to a temperature of about 550°C. The lead
vapour is ionized by an electron current. Many different charge states are produced with a maximum around
Pb29+. These ions are selected and accelerated to 4.2 MeV/u (energy per nucleon) before passing through a
carbon foil, which strips most of them to Pb54+. The Pb54+ beam is accumulated, and then accelerated to 72
MeV/u in the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), which transfers them to the PS. The PS accelerates the beam to
5.9 GeV/u and sends it to the SPS after first passing it through a second foil where it is fully stripped to Pb 82+.
The SPS accelerates it to 177 GeV/u then sends it to the LHC, which accelerates it to 2.76 TeV/u.

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How does special relativity impact the design of particle accelerators?

Particle accelerators have to take special relativity into account in several ways. We shall examine the case of
a) cyclotrons, b) linacs and c) synchrotrons.

a) In a classical cyclotron, operating at non-relativistic velocities, the particles experience a constant magnetic
field B, so that their revolution frequency, given by f=e.B/2pm, is constant. This allows accelerating the
particles with an electromagnetic wave of constant frequency. When particles are accelerated up to a
relativistic velocity, their mass increases and this concept thus has to be modified. There are two solutions:
1. keep the field constant and, during the acceleration, decrease the frequency of the accelerating wave
according to the relation f=e.B/2pm. This is the principle of the synchrocyclotron, CERN's first machine.
2. Shape the field in such a way that as particles are accelerated, the frequency is kept constant. This is the
principle of the isochronous cyclotron which has the advantage of delivering a continuous beam.

b) In a linear accelerator (linac), the electromagnetic wave is only seen by the beam between elements called
drift tubes, which shield the beam from the wave in those parts where the wave would be decelerating. The
tubes have an increasing length for the non-relativistic part of the accelerator, as the particles travel a longer
distance over a period of the wave when their velocity is larger. However, when the particles travel at a
velocity close to c, it does not increase much more and the length of the tubes becomes constant.

c) In high energy synchrotrons, the velocity of the particles is close to c already at injection, and the
revolution frequency f=v/2pR stays practically constant (a few % variations). This allows using wide-band
radiofrequency cavities to accelerate the beam, instead of having to tune the cavities to a varying frequency.

Why negative hydrogen ion sources are more popular than positive hydrogen ions, in particular with
reference to injection to a cyclotron?

The ejection out of a cyclotron is a problem as one has to make the particles escape the powerful magnetic
field of the machine. One elegant solution is to accelerate H- particles (= one proton bound with 2 electrons).
On the last turn of the spiral, one just has to place a stripping foil which will tear out the electrons. The
remaining proton will now be bent outwards by the magnetic field of the cyclotron, and will be guided
towards the extraction channel. This is called charge exchange extraction.
Note that the H- ions are quite fragile: they are vulnerable to electromagnetic stripping, i.e. the loss of the
least bound electron by interaction with the magnetic field. For this reason H- ions are usually not accelerated
in a synchrotron. Their use for a synchrotron is at injection: one can design a multi turn charge exchange
injection scheme into a synchrotron, the principle of which is similar to the previous one: in this case, the
stripping foil is located in the injection straight section, and converts the ions into protons.

What kind of fault reporting software does CERN have in place to track the progress of a fault and
monitor faults in any of the accelerator subsystems e.g. magnets cooling, RF, etc?

We use an in-house developed electronic logbook. For large breakdowns we have an interdepartmental tool
(also developed in-house) called GTPM (Gestion Technique des Pannes Majeures) where you can see the
implications of one breakdown on the rest of the systems. For example, one power station down will mean
some pumps not working, hence such and such magnet not cooled hence their power supply will trip...

Can we make a synchrotron in spiral form starting from bottom to top instead of circular form as it is
said that for larger energies we have to increase the diameter of synchrotron which is very
expensive to make?

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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Concerning your question, indeed for large energies, the diameter of a circular accelerator increases, almost
linearly. The scaling law is:
pc = q*B*r*c where p is the momentum of the particles, B the magnetic field, q the charge of the particles, c
the velocity of light, and r the radius of curvature. At very large energies the energy E is not very different
from pc, you can write that the diameter d, provided you neglect the straight sections (d=2*r), is given by: d =
2 E/ (B*q*c)

So it makes no difference whether the path of the particles is helicoidally: given a maximum magnetic field B,
the minimum external diameter of the machine will be of the order of 2 E/ (B*q*c)

Copyright CERN 2007

What is so special about the LHC dipoles?

The dipoles of the LHC represented the most important technological challenge for the LHC design. In a
proton accelerator like the LHC, the maximum energy that can be achieved is directly proportional to the
strength of the dipole field, given a specific acceleration circumference. At the LHC the dipole magnets are
superconducting and able to provide the very high field of 8.3 T over their length. No practical solution could
have been designed using ‘warm’ magnets instead of superconducting ones. Indeed, if the magnets were made
to work at a temperature of 4.5 K, they would produce a magnetic field of only 6.8 T.
The LHC dipoles use niobium-titanium (NbTi) cables, which become superconducting below a temperature
of 10 K (–263.2°C), that is, they conduct electricity without resistance. In fact, the LHC will operate at the

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still lower temperature of 1.9 K (–271.3°C), which is even lower than the temperature of outer space (2.7 K or
–270.5°C). A current of 11 700 A flows in the dipoles, to create the high magnetic field of 8.3 T, required to
bend the 7 TeV beams around the 27-km ring of the LHC. For comparison, the total maximum current for an
average family house is about 100 A.
The temperature of 1.9 K (–271.3°C) is reached by pumping super fluid helium into the magnet systems. Each
dipole is 15 m long and weighs around 35 t.
The magnet coils for the LHC are wound from a cable consisting of up to 36 twisted 15-mm strands, each
strand being made up in turn of up to 6400 individual filaments, each filament having a diameter as small as
7 micrometers (for comparison, a human hair is about 50 micrometers thick). The 27-km circumference of the
LHC calls for some 7600 km of cable, corresponding to about
270 000 km of strand — enough to circle the Earth six times at the Equator. If all the component filaments
were unraveled, they would stretch to the Sun and back five times with enough left over for a few trips to the
Moon.

What is so special about the cryogenic system?

The LHC is the largest cryogenic system in the world and one of the coldest places on Earth. Such a cold
temperature is required to operate the magnets that keep the protons on course (see question: “what is so
special about the LHC dipoles?”). To maintain its 27-km ring (4700 tonnes of material in each of the eight
sectors) at super fluid helium temperature (1.9 K, –271.3°C), the LHC’s cryogenic system will have to supply
an unprecedented total refrigeration capacity - some 150 kW for refrigerators at 4.5 K and 20 kW for those at
1.9 K. The layout for the refrigeration system is based on five “cryogenic islands”. Each “island” must
distribute the coolant and carry kilowatts of refrigeration over a long distance. The whole cooling process will
take a few weeks.
The refrigeration process happens in three phases:
1) cool down to 4.5 K (-268.7ºC),
2) filling with liquid helium of the magnet cold masses
3) final cool down to 1.9 K (-271.3ºC).
The first phase happens in two steps: first helium is cooled in the refrigerators’ heat exchangers to 80 K by
using about 10 000 t of liquid nitrogen. Then refrigerator turbines bring the helium temperature down to 4.5 K
(-268.7ºC), ready for injection into the magnets’ cold masses. Once the magnets are filled, the 1.8 K
refrigeration units bring the temperature down to 1.9 K (-271.3ºC). In total, about 120 t of helium will be
needed, of which about 90 t will be used in the magnets and the rest in the pipes and refrigerator units. Liquid
nitrogen is never directly injected into the LHC to avoid any possible source of asphyxiation in the
underground tunnel.

Why super fluid helium?

The choice of the operating temperature for the LHC has as much to do with the ‘super’ properties of helium
as with those of the superconducting niobium-titanium alloy in the magnet coils. At atmospheric pressure
helium gas liquefies at around 4.2 K (–269.0 °C), but when it is cooled further it undergoes a second phase
change at about 2.17 K (–271.0 °C) to its ‘super fluid’ state. Among many remarkable properties, super fluid
helium has a very high thermal conductivity, which makes it the coolant of choice for the refrigeration and
stabilization of large superconducting systems (see also question above).

In all, LHC cryogenics will need some 40 000 leak-tight pipe junctions, and 96 t of helium will be required by
the LHC machine to keep the magnets at their operating temperature of 1.9 K. 60% of the helium will be in
the magnet cold masses while the remaining 40% will be shared between the distribution system and the
refrigerators. During normal operation most of the helium will circulate in closed refrigeration loops.
Nevertheless, each year, a certain percentage of the inventory could be lost due to facility stops, leakage to
the atmosphere, conditioning of installations and operational problems.

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Why do we talk about bunches?

The protons of the LHC circulate around the ring in well-defined bunches. The bunch structure of a modern
accelerator is a direct consequence of the radio frequency (RF) acceleration scheme. Protons can only be
accelerated when the RF field has the correct orientation when particles pass through an accelerating cavity,
which happens at well specified moments during an RF cycle. In the LHC, under nominal operating
conditions, each proton beam has 2808 bunches, with each bunch containing about 1011protons.
The bunch size is not constant around the ring. Each bunch, as it circulates around the LHC, gets squeezed
and expanded—for instance it gets squeezed as much as possible around the interaction points to increase the
probability of a collision. Bunches of particles are measuring a few centimeters long and a millimeter wide
when they are far from a collision point. However, as they approach the collision points, they are squeezed to
about 16micrometres (a human hair is about 50mm thick) to allow for a greater chance of proton-proton
collisions. Increasing the number of bunches is one of the ways to increase luminosity in a machine. The LHC
has opted for a bunch spacing of 25ns (or about 7m), which introduces many technical challenges. (The
LHC’s predecessor, LEP, operated with as few as 4bunches).

The bunch spacing of 25 ns corresponds to a frequency of 40MHz, which implies that bunches should pass
each of the collision points in the LHC 40 million times a second. However, for practical reasons there are
several bigger gaps in the pattern of bunches, which allow time for example for the ‘kicker’ magnets to come
on in order to inject or dump beam. The average crossing rate is equal to the total number of bunches
multiplied by the number of turns round the LHC per second: 2808 × 11245 = 31.6 MHz.

How many collisions per second take place at the LHC?

Each beam will consist of nearly 3000bunches of particles and each bunch will contain as many as 100billion
particles. The particles are so tiny that the chance of any two colliding is very small. When the bunch crosses,
there will be only about 20collisions between 200billion particles. Bunches will cross on average about
30million times per second (see previous question), so the LHC will generate up to 600million particle
collisions per second.

How long do the beams last in the accelerator?

A beam might circulate for 10hours, traveling more that 10billion kilometers, enough to get to the planet
Neptune and back again. At near light-speed, a proton in the LHC will make 11245 circuits every second.

Chapter-6

Biogas

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Pipes carrying biogas (foreground), natural gas and condensate

Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of
oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. Biogas is produced by anaerobic
digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste,
green waste, plant material and energy crops This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon
dioxide. Other types of gas generated by use of biomass are wood gas, which is created by gasification of
wood or other biomass. This type of gas consists primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, with
trace amounts of methane.

The gases methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. Air contains
21% oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a low-cost fuel in
any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in modern waste management
facilities where it can be used to run any type of heat engine, to generate either mechanical or electrical
power. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles and in the UK for
example is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel Biogas is a renewable fuel,
so it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world.

History

Ancient Persians observed that rotting vegetables produce flammable gas. In the 13th century, the traveler
Marco Polo noted the Chinese used covered sewage tanks to generate power, while biogas technologies were
also referred to by 17th century author Daniel Defoe.

In 1859, an anaerobic digestion plant was built to process sewage at a Bombay leper colony. Biogas has been
used in the UK since 1895, when gas from sewage was used in street lamps across the city of Exeter

Production

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Main article: anaerobic digestion

Biogas is practically produced as landfill gas (LFG) or digester gas.

A biogas plant is the name often given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops.

Biogas can be produced utilizing anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as
maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. During the process, an air-
tight tank transforms biomass waste into methane producing renewable energy that can be used for heating,
electricity, and many other operations that use any variation of an internal combustion engine, such as GE
Jenbacher gas engines There are two key processes: Mesophilic and Thermophilic digestion In experimental
work at University of Alaska Fairbanks, a 1000 litre digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a
frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200–300 litres of methane per day, about 20–30 % of the output from
digesters in warmer climates

Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a landfill The
waste is covered and mechanically compressed by the weight of the material that is deposited from above.
This material prevents oxygen exposure thus allowing anaerobic microbes to thrive. This gas builds up and is
slowly released into the atmosphere if the landfill site has not been engineered to capture the gas. Landfill gas
is hazardous for three key reasons. Landfill gas becomes explosive when it escapes from the landfill and
mixes with oxygen. The lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper explosive limit is 15% methane
The methane contained within biogas is 20 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.
Therefore uncontained landfill gas which escapes into the atmosphere may significantly contribute to the
effects of global warming. In addition landfill gas' impact in global warming, volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) contained within landfill gas contribute to the formation of photochemical smog.

Composition

Typical composition of biogas


Compound Chem %
Methane CH4 50–75
Carbon dioxide CO2 25–50
Nitrogen N2 0–10
Hydrogen H2 0–1
Hydrogen sulfide H2S 0–3
Oxygen O2 0–0

The composition of biogas varies depending upon the origin of the anaerobic digestion process. Landfill gas
typically has methane concentrations around 50%. Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce
biogas with 55–75% CH4 or higher using in situ purification techniques As-produced, biogas also contains
water vapor, with the fractional water vapor volume a function of biogas temperature; correction of measured
volume for water vapor content and thermal expansion is easily done via algorithm.

In some cases biogas contains siloxanes. These siloxanes are formed from the anaerobic decomposition of
materials commonly found in soaps and detergents. During combustion of biogas containing siloxanes, silicon
is released and can combine with free oxygen or various other elements in the combustion gas. Deposits are
formed containing mostly silica (SiO2) or silicates (SixOy) and can also contain calcium, sulfur, zinc,
phosphorus. Such white mineral deposits accumulate to a surface thickness of several millimeters and must be
removed by chemical or mechanical means.

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Practical and cost-effective technologies to remove siloxanes and other biogas contaminants are currently
available.

Applications

A biogas bus in Linköping, Sweden

Biogas can be utilized for electricity production on sewage works, in a CHP gas engine, where the waste heat
from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester; cooking; space heating; water heating; and
process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, where it can fuel an
internal combustion engine or fuel cells and is a much more effective displacer of carbon dioxide than the
normal use in on-site CHP plants

Methane within biogas can be concentrated via a biogas upgrader to the same standards as fossil natural gas
(which itself has had to go through a cleaning process), and becomes biomethane. If the local gas network
allows for this, the producer of the biogas may utilize the local gas distribution networks. Gas must be very
clean to reach pipeline quality, and must be of the correct composition for the local distribution network to
accept. Carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide and particulates must be removed if present. If concentrated
and compressed it can also be used in vehicle transportation. Compressed biogas is becoming widely used in
Sweden, Switzerland, and Germany. A biogas-powered train has been in service in Sweden since 2005

Biogas has also powered automobiles. In 1974, a British documentary film entitled Sweet as a Nut detailed
the biogas production process from pig manure, and how the biogas fueled a custom-adapted combustion
engine.

Benefits

By using biogas, many advantages arise. In North America, utilization of biogas would generate enough
electricity to meet up to three percent of the continent's electricity expenditure. In addition, biogas could
potentially help reduce global climate change. Normally, manure that is left to decompose releases two main
gases that cause global climate change: nitrous dioxide and methane. Nitrous dioxide warms the atmosphere
310 times more than carbon dioxide and methane 21 times more than carbon dioxide. By converting cow
manure into methane biogas via anaerobic digestion, the millions of cows in the United States would be able
to produce one hundred billion kilowatt hours of electricity, enough to power millions of homes across the
United States. In fact, one cow can produce enough manure in one day to generate three kilowatt hours of
electricity; only 2.4 kilowatt hours of electricity are needed to power a single one hundred watt light bulb for
one day. State Energy Conservation Office (Texas). "Biomass Energy: Manure for Fuel." State Energy
Conservation Office (Texas). State of Texas, 23 April 2009. Web. 3 October 2009. Furthermore, by
converting cow manure into methane biogas instead of letting it decompose, we would be able to reduce
global warming gases by ninety-nine million metric tons or four percent. Webber, Michael E and Amanda D
Cuellar. "Cow Power. In the News: Short News Items of Interest to the Scientific Community." Science and
Children os 46.1 (2008): 13. Gale. Web. 1 October 2009.

The 30 million rural households in China that have biogas digesters enjoy 12 benefits: saving fossil fuels,
saving time collecting firewood, protecting forests, using crop residues for animal fodder instead of fuel,
saving money, saving cooking time, improving hygienic conditions, producing high-quality fertilizer,
enabling local mechanization and electricity production, improving the rural standard of living, and reducing
air and water pollution.

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Biogas upgrading

Raw biogas produced from digestion is roughly 60% methane and 29% CO 2 with trace elements of H2S, and
is not high quality enough if the owner was planning on selling this gas or using it as fuel gas for machinery.
The corrosive nature of H2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of an expensive plant. The solution is the
use of a biogas upgrading or purification process whereby contaminants in the raw biogas stream are absorbed
or scrubbed, leaving 98% methane per unit volume of gas. There are four main methods of biogas upgrading;
these include water washing, pressure swing absorption, selexol absorption and chemical treatment. The most
prevalent method is water washing where high pressure gas flows into a column where the carbon dioxide and
other trace elements are scrubbed by cascading water running counter-flow to the gas. This arrangement can
deliver 98% methane with manufacturers guaranteeing maximum 2% methane loss in the system. It takes
roughly between 3-6% of the total energy output in gas to run a biogas upgrading system.

Biogas gas-grid injection

Gas-grid injection is the injection of biogas into the methane grid (natural gas grid). Injections includes
biogas: until the breakthrough of micro combined heat and power two-thirds of all the energy produced by
biogas power plants was lost (the heat), using the grid to transport the gas to customers, the electricity and the
heat can be used for on-site generation resulting in a reduction of losses in the transportation of energy.
Typical energy losses in natural gas transmission systems range from 1–2%. The current energy losses on a
large electrical system range from 5–8%.

Legislation

The European Union presently has some of the strictest legislation regarding waste management and landfill
sites called the Landfill Directive. The United States legislates against landfill gas as it contains VOCs. The
United States Clean Air Act and Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) require landfill owners to
estimate the quantity of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted. If the estimated NMOC
emissions exceed 50 tonnes per year the landfill owner is required to collect the landfill gas and treat it to
remove the entrained NMOCs. Treatment of the landfill gas is usually by combustion. Because of the
remoteness of landfill sites it is sometimes not economically feasible to produce electricity from the gas.
However, countries such as the United Kingdom and Germany now have legislation in force that provides
farmers with long term revenue and energy security.

Development around the world

In 2007 an estimated 12,000 vehicles were being fueled with upgraded biogas worldwide, mostly in Europe.

In the United States

With the many benefits of biogas, it is starting to become a popular source of energy and is starting to be
utilized in the United States more. In 2003 the United States consumed 147 trillion BTU of energy from
"landfill gas", about 0.6% of the total U.S. natural gas consumption Methane biogas derived from cow
manure is also being tested in the U.S. According to a 2008 study, collected by the Science and Children
magazine, methane biogas from cow manure would be sufficient to produce 100 billion kilowatt hours
enough to power millions of homes across America. Furthermore, methane biogas has been tested to prove
that it can reduce 99 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions or about 4% of the greenhouse gases
produced by the United States.

In Vermont, for example, biogas generated on dairy farms around the state is included in the CVPS Cow

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Power program. The Cow Power program is offered by Central Vermont Public Service Corporation as a
voluntary tariff. Customers can elect to pay a premium on their electric bill, and that premium is passed
directly to the farms in the program. In Sheldon, Vermont Green Mountain Dairy has provides renewable
energy as part of the Cow Power program. It all started when the brothers who own the farm, Bill and Brian
Rowell, wanted to address some of the manure management challenges faced by dairy farms, including
manure odor, and nutrient availability for the crops they need to grow to feed the animals. They installed an
anaerobic digester to process the cow and milking center waste from their nine hundred and fifty cows to
produce renewable energy, a bedding to replace sawdust, and a plant friendly fertilizer. The energy and
environmental attributes are sold. On average the system run by the Rowell brothers produces enough
electricity to power three hundred to three hundred fifty other homes. The generator capacity is about three
hundred kilowatts.

In Hereford, Texas cow manure is being used to power an ethanol power plant. By switching to methane bio-
gas, the ethanol power plant has saved one thousand barrels of oil a day. Overall, the power plant has reduced
transportation costs and will be opening many more jobs for future power plants that will be relying on
biogas.

In the United Kingdom

In the UK, sewage gas electricity production is tiny compared to overall power consumption - a mere 80 MW
of generation, compared to 70 GW on the grid. There are currently less than 50 non-sewage landfill plants in
the UK.

In the Indian subcontinent

In Pakistan and India biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of manure in small-scale digestion
facilities is called gobar gas; it is estimated that such facilities exist in over two million households in India
and in hundreds of thousands in Pakistan, particularly North Punjab, due to the thriving population of
livestock. The digester is an airtight circular pit made of concrete with a pipe connection. The manure is
directed to the pit, usually directly from the cattle shed. The pit is then filled with a required quantity of
wastewater. The gas pipe is connected to the kitchen fireplace through control valves. The combustion of this
biogas has very little odor or smoke. Owing to simplicity in implementation and use of cheap raw materials in
villages, it is one of the most environmentally sound energy sources for rural needs. One type of this system is
the Sintex Digester. Some designs use vermiculture to further enhance the slurry produced by the biogas plant
for use as compost.

The Deenabandhu Model is a new biogas-production model popular in India. (Deenabandhu means "friend of
the helpless.") The unit usually has a capacity of 2 to 3 cubic meters. It is constructed using bricks or by a
ferrocement mixture. The brick model costs approximately 18,000 rupees and the ferrocment model 14,000
rupees, however India's Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources offers a subsidy of up to 3,500 rupees
per model constructed. Pakistan Dairy Development Company has taken a huge initiative to develop this kind
of alternative source of energy for Pakistani farmers. Biogas is now running diesel engines, gas generators,
kitchen ovens, geysers and other utilities in Pakistan.

In developing nations

Domestic biogas plants convert livestock manure and night soil into biogas and slurry, the fermented manure.
This technology is feasible for small holders with livestock producing 50 kg manure per day, an equivalent of
about 6 pigs or 3 cows. This manure has to be collectable to mix it with water and feed it into the plant.
Toilets can be connected. Another precondition is the temperature that affects the fermentation process. With

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

an optimum at 36 C° the technology especially applies for those living in a (sub) tropical climate. This makes
the technology for small holders in developing countries often suitable.

Simple sketch of household biogas plant

Depending on size and location, a typical brick made fixed dome biogas plant can be installed at the yard of a
rural household with the investment between 300 to 500 US $ in Asian countries and up to 1400 US $ in the
African context. A high quality biogas plant needs minimum maintenance costs and can produce gas for at
least 15–20 years without major problems and re-investments. For the user, biogas provides clean cooking
energy, reduces indoor air pollution and reduces the time needed for traditional biomass collection, especially
for women and children. The slurry is a clean organic fertilizer that potentially increases agricultural
productivity.

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES


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Green Technology for Next- Generation

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika, AES