FASHION ILLUSTRATOR

Bethan Morris

Laurence King Publishing

INTRODUCTION
Who is Chis bookfor? What is in the bookr G 6

5

HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY FASHION ILLUSTRATION
Th e beginnings of Iashion illustration 82

INSPIRATION
[)b;covel'ing sources

1

CONTEMPORARY FASHION ILLUSTRATION SHOWCASE
01' inspiration 14
18 lO

93

ltcsearcht

r1g

themes

TUTORIIALS
Hand embroidery 160 154-

6

Worki ng sketchbooks

2

Painting
Drawing 24· theory and practice 48

162
with ink

THE FIGURE
Drawing from life Templates 32
Ilody proportions:

Collage 166
Adobe

machine embroidery Illustrator ]70 Adobe Photoshop 172
Computerized

168

3

ARTISTIC TECHNIOU ES
Art materials and eq uipmern Colou [' 3fi
F:lhric rendering

THE FUTURE: GUIDANCE
48
60

7

and pattern reproduction

presentation 176 The future: making choices HlO Interviews 185
Portfolio Stephanie Pcsakoff-cillustratton agen t 185 186 192 David DOWI1LOI1-fashLol1 Lysiane de Rovcre=rrcnd illustrator forecaster

4

PRESENTATION
(~8

FOR FASHION DESIIGN

Mood boa !'CIs

lcflrcy PuJvlmmi-commCI'cial

190 fashioli illustrator

Design roughs and range bullding 70 Flill:oi unci spcciflcation drawings 76 l-ushlon-deatgn prescruauon 78

•••
Purthcr reading 1i-Jri

Tmde publicauons Useful addresses
Glossary Index Picture 202 204 sources

and magazines
199

] 9:J

and credits ts 20B

207

i\cknowlcdgcmen

PulJlisl'led in 2006 by Laurence King PulJlisl'iing Ltrl email: enQ u lr es(fillaure ncekl ng .co.uu
www.lauronccdr-q.co.uk

© 2006 8etllan MOITis Tile moral rl(Jllt of Hie author has been essertec All rlC;illts reserved. No part of tnls publkstlon may be recronucec 01" transmitted in any form or by Gny means, electronic 01' mechenlca! including phctocopv, rocordino or any lntornatlon stOl"aoe and retrieval svs.ern wlthcut prior permission in writing from the publisher, A catalogue record for this book is evailehle from tl1e Ell'ltlsll Library ISBN-13: 9781 856694476 ISBN-IO: 1 85669447 X Designed by David Tanguy, Praline Picture rsseeren by tile ~uthOl' ClnclPetel' I~ent PI"jntNI in chlna FI'(:illlispi(!(;c K~reem Illiya

'~7I'OmCOIiel' Rooer(' Wa<;lt Back cover Rebecca Antoniou

INTRODUCTION

~l

Pashlon-lllustraiion

titles line the shelues ofbookshops, magazInes often illustrate

leawres rather than use photographs, {mel illustration is a noputar medium for fashion aduertising. '[he art rdfasf1iol'l illustiution is once again in vogue, but will
this trend continue? The answer
11WSt

he yes, In an age ofincreasing standardization

and automation, we yeai'll Io!' Ilw individuality expressed I.7Y ine rww !Hmd-seuing image-makers. Pasiuon illustrators who experiment skilJltlly with unusual media and innovative design are warmly welcomed, Whlle{ashion illustration continues to develop and offliil'Ji'eshinterpretarions, its place in the futiu« commercial world is assured.

WHO IS THIS BOOK FOR?
For the purpose ofthis book the term "fashion illustration" is broad, It covers a wide range of artwork created by fashion designers and lashlo n tllustrarors. Under' the umbrella or fashion ill ustration, this book I'oc.;u~[;)" the fundamentals on of Iashlon drawing and presentation throughout the design process: As the fashion-design student must present fashion ideas to gain employment 011 graduation, Fashion tliusuatot explores tho skills required to create an effective portfolio, Imaginative research directions are revealed, as well as how to illustrate fashion ideas, how to represent garments technically and how to com pi! e Il1 cod boards, While Fashlon lllustran» provide" a valuable knowledge base lor the lashicn designer, marry successful designers only design clothes, It is common for such designers to employ fasbion illustrators to present (heir collectluns and promote thelr labels. The fashion-illustration student's portfolio will there lore be geared towards advertising and promotion. I\. flexible approach is required for working to briefs 1'1'0111 a variety of cl len ts, so Fash ion l!.IItSU'CI (.01' reveals how to experiment effectively with colour, how to use art materials and equipment, and how to select the appropriate artistic style, character and media JOI' a particular client. Whether you want W be a fashion designer OJ' a fashion Illustrator, the most irnportnm skill to master is drawing tile human fig ure, Fashion JlluSiraIDI'dedlcates a practical chapter to the figure that should be referred to regularly throughout your studies. Covering the broud ureu of fushion Hlusrratlon and prcscntatlon, this book will prove invaluable lor both Iashion-design and fashlon-tllusrmtion students. Many books aim to teach the skills required [0 Illustrate lashinn, and these manuals arc displayed alongside showcase books featuring edited collections of illustrators' promotional fashion artwork, These categories have traditionally been separate, but t-ashion Illustrator combines a how-to approach wi til u visual overview of historical and contemporary fashion illustration, By explaining the Jundamentals 01' lashlo n illustration and presentation, and bringing this rewarding creative process to 111"0 with rich detail, Pashion tllustratovsevves as a valuable resource and teaching aid, ]( is useful 1'01'anyone with an interest in fashion, design and illustration.

6

WHAT IS IN THE BOOK?
Enriched by case studies, example illustrations; practical exercises and tips, Fashion Illustrator covers all aspects of fashion illustration and presentation. It explores how artists lind inspiration in the world around them, and how I;hey usc t11i8inspiration In the creation of thelr work. Fashion lllusttatot encourages tenders to challenge themselves by experlmenung with varied media such HS collage, different drawlng tools, digital enhancement and embroidery Through this exploration all understanding of the figure and experimentation with dtfferent illustrative styles,

A digitally

enhanced Antoniou.

[aS1110n illlustration

by

Rebecca

7
\

,

cia thed human form artlstically Examining ihc WOI'k of both past- and present-day lashlcn lllustrators encourages students to gain the confidence and skills to push the boundarles of their OWl' work. In-depth disl:lI~,~io!l~ with leading contemporary fashion illustrators provide insights that lnsplrc students to think beyond graduation to a career in fashion illustration ordesign. The content of Pashion Illustrator is presented ill an easily accessible format wlth each colour-coded chapter broken down logically into subheadings, Each chapter can be read iiI tsolauon and the book can be read in uny order so lhal the render can clip in and out to locus 011 current concerns, Chapter One, "Inspiration", explores the things that inspire the creative mind, revealing how LO fii,d rewardrng ideus. understand visual expression and produce lnuovntive fashion illustratlons, sketchbooks and artwork, The chapter begins by discussing the importance of looking [01' sources 01' inspi ration from which
!ho reader will learn how to presen l the
10 develop ideas, With this in mind, the reader is encouraged to look at the world with fresh lnterest, Inspiration for fashion illustration call be found through travel, music, television, film, museum and gallery visits-even product packaging. The

varied processes for cap turing Ideas and Investigating themes on paper are abo explained to help the budding fashion illustrator tackle the daunting blank page, Artlsrs are invariably avid co llectors 0 r what, to the unini tiated eye, looks like junk, Chapter One emphasizes that uccumulating anything and everything of interest is a lasclnaring way to build an ideas bank for future designs or artwork.

Compiling ideas in a sketchbook is also an essential pari. ofbolh a designer's and <i11 Illustrator's development. Practlcui advice is given on completing useful sketchbooks lhat provide a SOurce of rewarding inspiration. Chapter Two, "The Figure". focuses on basic druwing skills, providing a solid understanding of anatomy and the physical stru cture of the human form. Thro-ugh a series of observational exercises the reader learns [0 draw the nude and clothed figure from life and photographs, understand correct proportions and draw features of' the body accurately The use of a template and the effective exaggeration uf the proportions ora fashion figure are also explained dearly. Chapter Three, 'Artistlc Techniques", gives a technical overview of how to use (li'l equipment and materials, experiment with colour and render vartous fabrics, This guidance is visually enriched by a series 0(' informative sketches and relevant fashion illustrations. Chapter [lour, "Presentation 1'01' Fashion Design", reveals how Iashroc illustration is used in the design industry It explores the process of producing design roughs to build rasluon ranges. It also explains the pu rpose of specification drawings, Ilars ami mood boards, and their signiJ'icance in a fashion designer's portfolio. Chapter f"ive, "Historical and Contemporary Pashlon Illustration", describes the social journey of fashion illustration over the IUbllOO years. The illustrative styles of the twentieth century's most Influential illustrators are discussed by decade. III11SIl'HlOl'S 01' today Inevitably look to the past rot' lnsptrution and this section also features work that demonstrates this synthesis of pust styles and modem techniques. TI1e second part of the chapter showcases work by 36 leading intcrnutlonal tashlon illustra tors from 14 countries. Each IIlLIstra lor defines his or her work and career by answering u series of interview-style questions. All offer interesting advice and lnsplrution to students who me thinking of following similar paths: Chapter Six, "TUlUI'i.(\b", explains how the illustrauve styles indcntlfied in the previous chapter can be realized through a series ofstep-by-step tutoriuls. This chapter encourages the reader III build fashion lllusrrations in stages, experimenting with new l chili ques. The tutorials fOCLIS on collage, embroidery, tradltloual painting and dl'nwiI1t(! ethods, and digital manipulation. Finally Chapter Seven, "The Future: Guidance", HIkes the reader through the final part of the fashion illustration journey by outlining effective portfolio presentru ion techniques. There is also instruction 011 self-presentation. interview techniques, applying lor further aducauou and embracing a careerin lushlon illustration. The 1'0 Ie of the illuslration agentis clearly descrlb 'i.l and other industry specialists speak exclusively about their fashion-illustrutlon careers. David Downton offers advice on captu ling the magic of couture shows with pen and ink. Lysianc de Royere 01' Prornosryl describes the tole of the fashion illustrutor in publications for casting future trends. and lclfrcy Pulvirnari describes how his doe-eyed girls have wooed Madonna and are taking the fashion world by storm, and w i see examples of his highly successful commercial product packaging. At the end of the book you will fin J II further reading guide, a list or I rade publications and magazines, useful addresses, EI glossary, and an index, and in addition the picture credits, which include contact derails lur the illustrated 31'1iS18.

NS IRATION

1

This hook glues a solid grounding on all (1SpeC!:) offcrohion illustrauon. bu: it is

only a guide W hel!?)Ion: ot! yourjoUi'ltfdjl, Sometimes embarking on thatjourney is tite hardest part. Creating something new from scratdi is a daunting prospect
for arty artist. This chapter will. heip you ensure tnatyonr portfolio stands
[rom the crouul. You will
01.11

discouer

liol[) /0 find

inspiration

and how to

use

u.

DISCOVERING

SOURCES OF INSPIRATION

1-

[0

"'"
V>

'" ~ "" ":!i

Taking photogrllph5

of, or sketching,
:;I

people

you

see in the street gives \'01.1

!-ewsrdlng VElriety
illustrations, This

0'1tloures and stances

for your

girl in a busy Paris street

steed alit

because ()~
coordinatinq potnt

hl?r brlghl'I\' cotoured umbrella anc
outfit. The image provldes
for a fashion tllustretlon.

an Ideel ~tel'tlng

American painter cteOl"ge Bellows (1882-19251 once stated.r'The artist is the person who makes life more interesting or beau tiful, more understandable or mysterious, or probably, in the best sense, more wonderful.' This is a 1<\11rder for the arnsi. With o such expectations YOlla1'0 not" alone if you feel daunted by the prospect of creating artwork, ami not the only one who finds it hard 1:0 know where to begin, Th help you to discover a starting point, this chapter reveals how to rille! inspiration, bow to make visual usc the world. around you and how to apply your observations in creating innovative lashlon lllustratlons, designs and artwork. Whars exactly do you look rot' insptrationv As British designer Sir Paul Smith says: "YOLI can rind inspiration hi everything ... ami ifyou can't. you're not Iooking properly-so look again," This is good advice. Insplration for creative artwork is everywhere. Begin by wandering around your home, looking at it with fresh eyes. You will be surprised how rnundane. everyday objects suddenly have new meaning and potential. The olel wallpaper in the sitting mom could be a good background Ior an Hlustrarlon, 01' a photograph of your sister may supply (he perfect fashion Ilgure silhuucue fur a template, The illustration all the laclng page has been drawn directly onto old-Iashioncd wallpaper, When YOLl open yOUI' eyes in tho world you will discover that it is overflowing with potential (0 triggcr your unuglnarlon. Don'l be pu l 0['1' if you find thai your ideas already exist somewhere else, The rruth is that few ideas aru entirely new. us Pablo Picasso said: "Everything you can ilYll\gilie is real." However, when you bring to the ldcu yotn: own personal response, YOLIprovide an original interprerarlon. Like all artists, designers ami illustrators look ]'01' SNii\;I,;S ofinsplration to develop their work and Focu~ Oil absorbing 11UW ideas ull (he lime. Read n variety of books and magazines, farnlliarlzlng yourscllwith interior trends, music nnd lifestyle edltorlals, as well as fashion. Theatrical costume and set design lun nlso stimulate interesting ldeas, Nevel' be wuhou I a camera or sketchbook to capture and record lnspirntlonal scenes, objects or people, Experiencing other environments through travel stimulates creative imagination and need not involve the expense of golng overseas, If you live in the clty, vtsir ihe countryside, and vice versa, II'you arc lucky enough to travel abroad, visn locu' markets and communities, observe tradl tlonal CWiLUinu8 Wid everyday clothing. eat new foods and l'ecngni7,1;: ultural dlfferences.By c embracing the experience, you. will come away from your trip with a wealth ofinsplration. Keep up to date with the news and world events, television und tllm releases, Monitor changes and behavioural shifts in big cities around the world, watching for new trends in cities such aa New York, London, Tokyo, IJarig and Copenhagen, FOI' example, bow might you apply rhe trend for knitting cafes in New YOLk or permanent spray cosmettcs (whereby colours are applied permanently like a tattoo) in Tokyo to your artwork? And never undcrestlmare the importance of'visulng gallor.es and museums, No matter how seemingly irrelevantto fashlon contemporary art exhibitions III iglu so meumes seem. it is worth visiting them. Often the exhibition you least expect to enjoy delivers the 1110st inspiring results,

or

Here the tllustretor has been inspired by a patternerl wallpaper, drawinq a 1a511iol1 figure directly backqrour pattern onto It. To complement artist An lnqsnious No artist a knowledge books, of other trends the wallpaper has "sect ~ subtle is to allow the fabric Cfeativ@ and touch c, this student

colour" pal~lte. of thl? garment. ideas without from a wide variety

tll~

of the wallpaper

to become

can produca advar ilssrnar-ts,

base of ide85 gai~ed Keep up to date

rnaqaznss,
tl19 latest

sources.

wlt!l

and open your mind

to new sources of inspiratior.
-It'"

.....
\ ~ {lJ

I' ~'

,

.I' r-

,I'

1]

ancfacrs and memorabilia awaits yOUI' urtistlc i ntcrprctation. Nostalgi;;l [or the past will always captivate us, In fashion, I'DI' example, today's garments clute quickly yet bygone ems are always a source of i uspiratinn. Every decade sees a revival of rhe style of a past decade, ft seems that il is second nature lor U51n draw lrom the past to lllustratc the future. As an artist, designer or illustrator you are always open to visual stimulation in your normal day-to-day life. I::ven a trip I'D the supermarket can awaken new ideas as yOLI look at the variety or vibrant packaging on the shelves. Your:journey horne might lake you past architecture, landscape or gardens whose intriguing shapes and textures trigger your imagination, YOLlI' thoughts might be awakened by listening to compelling music, an lrnuge in a maga-Jne might tnsptre a newtdea, an absorbing rolcvlslon documentary might activate yOUI' creative energy or a favourite poem conjure up engaging imagery, This type of inspiration is all around you waiting to he discovered.
In museums, LaD,a wealth COLLECTING INSPIRATIONA.L ITEMS

or lnsplrlng

Be<1C~1 nuts sean on an AUstraiian beecl1118ve
added intsrastinc snorelil'le. accents of colour to the

oramsttc

Tiiis ocerle

could be used

in a fashion

illustretion or it could bs that tM coiours ilispire future artwork,

Artists are invariably avid collectors of what to the uninitiated eye looks like J unk, Accumulating anything and everything ofinterest is a fascinating way to build un ideas-bank I'm future design or artwork. Keep everything that captures your imagination, as you never know when it might be useful in the future. Arguments about the amount of clutier you possess might occur with those who share YOLlr home, but stand your gtoundl This clutter could one day make you a famous Cll"tJstthinkTracy Ernln's "Bed", Art materials, unusual papers, wrapping packaging and scraps of fabric are worth storing as you may well be able to utilize them in yO~I!'

/l,

building's

interior for

structure

can be ~~ much lllustr a tlon

a SOLIrCE 01 inspiretion

as that of the exterior.

Interesting ltnss

r~s!llon dE'sl~n cr

can be seen in tile timber

structure of thls

wooden root

A trained eye can
in almost envthinq.

spot artistic Lock closely

potentia
at the colours, orightlv

snaees Me! details of tl1ese I"DWS of

coloured banules. and see now they inspire l'lw NjC!i~round for this fashion ! llustratlon, Th~ striped clothino also reflects the brightly

corou reel rows,

12

artwork, In Chapter Five you will find the work of Pi;:LCI' Clark, who uses found papers, such as maps and cigarette packets, to create delightful collaged Iashlonilh .. strauons, r People collect all sons Dr unusual items, either because thoy get pleasure from looking at them or bC(;aU5C they C<1I1 see creative POICl'it!1IJ In them. Many illustrators look For interesting stamps, cigarette curds, key rings, handbags. film memorabilia, calendars, buttons and so on in car-boot sales, jumble sales and charity shops, They then put their own original slant on the ideas generated by their collections, The trained eye call spot artistic paten li nl in almost anything. A collectlon 01'bungles above, lor example, m ~!k0Sa marvellous starting point rOI' n fashion Illustration. Look closely at the colours; shapes unci details, and III ink how they could be Incorporated into <I piece ol'work. Books [01'111 a parucularly useful collection, providing a constant and varied source or inspiration. The Further Heading gLiide on pages '196-98 gives 8 list of Iashlon and lashlon-lllusrrarion titlesworth finding. Bur remember that books Oil ali sorts of other subjects might spark ideas, too ..Look in secondhand bookstores for older, out-of-print titles as well as keeping Lip W date with new titles, broadening your collection so that it offers anever-expandlng variety of ideas, Collecting books is costly so it is worth becoming Iamlllar with your local llbrary. JLI~t browsing through the shelves ill H peaceful envirnnm 12111 can be a stimulating process. If you take a sketchboo k along you could even practise making some observational figure drawings whil.e you are choosing which book to borrow,

Invest in other forms ofprinted

media,

too, such as magazines,

journals

and

II/mile
Visit as many cxhibiticr s as possible because you never know which one mighl provide valuable inspiration. If the 8xhibitiDil catalogue is too eostlv for you, buy postcards of vour favourite lmaqss, This pcstcard was bought

postcards. As magazines 81'e printed more regularly than books their content i~ usually "of'thc moment". Such\.lp-to-dale tmagcs C~!I~I Inform and lnsplrc your artwork, Postcards lrorn galleries can also be an economical way 0 ttaklng home
H

liule piece of inspiration,

particularly

if you can', afford

all

exhibition

catalogue,

Mnny artists have boxes or postcards saved lrom a lifctirno of visiting exhihluons i 11mthey Lise repeatedly as inspirational references tor fashion illustration, Maintaining a lively interest in the world i.s vital. 1'01' the fashion illustrator, who il1U:,;1 ccmblne keen observatlo rial sktlls with creative i ruerpretatton ..

at the Roy"i Academv of Arts, in t.ondon, dLi!'!Ii\)
the exhibition /,ej"l (i/oJglu 11/'1;;'111/:;\
//"iI'OSjJlicJ!lir.

This fashion i!lu5tralion has IJGen cl~ated
In i;I mor-otone POlI~Ue to l"I~flect th~ black-andwhite photoqraph of a Giorgio Arrnani dress, Tile flol'<ll design of the tabrtc Is Instrumental to the artwork

RESEARCHING
arriving Alben However, starting anything station much selective, continue associated A butterfly while of research
['0

THEMES
0

There is no doub t that one of [he most d :'1.111 ti n g aspects being faced wl th a blank page, The prospect at an original a knowledge artistic
801u[io11

r creativity

I'DI' the artist is

of plucking

new ideas ou l of th i 1'1 ail' and This is why it is important than knowledge". from their imagination This can be
011

can be unnerving.

to develop

base from which creative can begin to produce

ideas call grow, artwork

E,il'1.steln said that "imagination before most artists

is more important

they need to establish thai interests walls-the stimulate

the knowledge

base from which they will work, The simplest to investigate Japanese resources and develop. silk fan to graffiti art
eS!L

point fur this is to select a theme range
0

you, from an antique f Inspirational

train-

in the world Is end] indecisive. you. Your chosen its creative

With so must

your imagination, themes

it is easy to become

The key is to be theme

only choosing

thai uuly inspire while you explore
1[S

to hold your attention with the theme, theme is explored

elements.
01'

A good starting point i.1lthe investigative This is known
01'

process

is to form a list of words that are "brain-storming". a number that spring to mind having a weal til a new investigation. artistically, Notice The textures butterfly of their through varieties,

"mind-mapping"

(facing page) by listing the words idea, of a butterfly.

concenrratlng on
with

the image,

The words create

a venues to Ioll ow, the i nitial s ubject of a butterfly

of associations, The images

almost

every word capable

of inspiring patterns,

below show how a theme patterns

can also be investigated

1.4
<=>
Ol:i

how the bu nerflies painting

have been used to create repeat
clCrDSS

wings and the symmetrical and drawing, The popularity This exploration designers

them have been represented in fashion who Illustrate

Colour studies

have heel; made of many theme

of the bUILCI.'ny as decoration shows how a butterfly illustrators

has also been emphasized their garments,

can be used to tnsplre fashion

=< c::

as well as the lashion

'-"

c:::

::

FOLir studies inv@stiga\iI19 tl'ie butterfly

a. ~ theme show dfflerent media, il1cll,Idi!l'J
collage, painting, drawing <in.;!Gut-outs from mag.nines, mounted onto handmade pap~r The irnaqes dernonstrete 11 visual eXPloratioll cl the buttEI-fiy theme, revealing its divsrsitv as a research diret tion.

feathers
idles
birds r~irie5

caterpillar
moths

svrnmstrv

colour

psttern
summer

I.ejl This mind-map

01 words pettarr of words produced in 'this way can inspire many ideas
Sl10W5 a selection
theme. A linhed to a buttsrtlv illustrations.

tor lashion

wings

II iglit
natural

Below

Ti,e fole of tr~e Imagli'latlon
as that of knowlecna

iJeroplalies repeat

pattern
delicate soft

faslliOll<lOle decoration

!-~SeOlrch materiel
estebllshed, created

is as significant ones inspiration is found, collected and a trlel't1e
conceives a wealth

the illustrator

of Imaginative ideas. This luustrstlcn has been
using i'l mix 01 tradltlcr al drawing

Jewellery treosrorrnetlcn:
ugly-beautiful fantasy

tecnnleues for tlierigure

and PMi<J5Mp

narmress
mystical

accessories

collaqe to add ths butterflies.

1:1

,

I, \,
\

INVENTIVE

INSPIRATION

An interesting way to find inspiration for a fashion Illustratinn is to invent a story around found objects, Try carrying out the exercise demonstrated OJ; [his page and see how your ideas differ from the Illustrator's finished artwork, Start by looking carefully at the objects, Certain aspects will appeal to you more than others, You may find that a particular detail sparks off a tl'<lin of ideas for a fashion illustration, The objects were chosen because they are commonly linked by age and colour-all have an antique, aged feel and date back as far as ]90[3. Focus your attention on the objects to absorb as much information as possible before you begin your illustration.

AiJ(Jlil}

16

The donee card is an Interestlnr;! object. In vesrs gone by, women used it to record the names of the men who asl~ed tham to dance. This Innocent means of flirting and dating GOuld inspire em lllvstratlen basad on nostalgic romance. Almost one hundred years Old, this hilndbag ls decorated with the sort of ha nd ernbro.derv that has enjoyed a revival nurlnc the recent resurcencs In lradltlonal cratt techniques for fashion and interiors. Such embroidery could inspire decor. live clothing in a f~shion illustration, or be used as a medium for the srtwor« itself. Tfw f!ol'~1 buttons could be ell-awn onto fashion qarrnents, or tile flowers utilized somehow in tile lllustrctron. R~tro qr aphics on the packaging could also stimulate creative thinking. The cottons provide <I tonal colour palette thet links the objects and ~iv<-)sa sts: ling point for colour cbolces in tile illustration. It is often difficult to mall" colour choices wrlSn llilisLratillCj <lM msnv irnaqss am spoilt by usillg too rnenv colours, Consider IhOil most people d"ess In a limited palette. and bear in mind, therefore, that it is oriel' advisable to limit vour tashion lllusl ratlon Lo a r@w cornpterr enterv shedes. Rig!! I Altliough MtlilliQ elates 11101'1:: qUICI~ly than Iashion, objects or the mare remote past are endowed with nostalclc imagel'Y !i1at can lnsptre contsmpo-arv artwork. This illustration has been created using haM-c!i'awilig methods and enhanced usinq a computer, rabrks of a similar

COIOUi'jjalette to the lnsolratlenal

objects above
OInliQlle

hsvs bssn scanned and comu ned with tile Iland-

d rswn esrmsnts. The b~cl~grOlJi;dand

frame w@I'ealso added using a computer,

'Ii)ji Ifill A close-up pfloto~r.;Jpll of trashlv ceuqht macl~erel from Aberporth beach in wsst Wal ..s orovdos an Inspiring sti;lFtin9 paint for stimulating creatlve ldees, Notb~.

tor e~~mpl~, tllQ ligllt'fGfl9ctive and interestinq liattern5,

tsxturas

Top rijihl In ~ mixed"medl~ COII<lIN, ~jl\ler fall r~~resents the shiny texture of the reflective fish scales, ~nd tl19 ~Il~pe Qf the svss Is recre-iltecl wit!,
.rensperent coloured discs and

rnetallc

paints,

Le}")

Tiwse shoes !,ave be~n designed with ti,e
fish-eyE' patterns
of tile illuslratlon in mind usillg marker psns.

To create the effect of weter. the bsckqround
is Ci"@al:@cl using wax resist

Si1C! Inll,

17

IMAGE INSPIRATION IAIIH.)\1ou have found a theme lhn! lruercsts you. explore it further to discover your y (IWn personal artistic response. [lor example, look closely at the patterns, textures, shapes and colours in an image that you find appealing, then experiment by rcproduclng and j n I orprcung thorn [Ising u variety of media and techniques. Tile three images above show how simple it is 10 work using <1 theme, The starting point is a close-up photograph of freshly caught mackerel. H was selected as 0 source Ill" lnspirauon because of the many dements it offers 1'01 creative development, For example, the shapes created by the fish eyes wars the designer's inspiration 1'01' the putlcrns on the shoe. while the reflective C010lll'S and 'l.C;<lUI'CS depicted in the study hcl ped the illustrator decide on the "hoe's tonal contrasts.

WORKING

SKETCHBOOK

A sketchbook is a visual notebook or dlary.It is H personal response to the world and can assume many different guises, varying Irorn being a portable scrapbook in which to collect interesting pieces of'fabric or pictortal references, to a book: of observauonal drawings and ideas, AIlIl1HY, one day, provide that essential spark of lnspiratton. 1\ sketchbook provides you with the opportunity to practise design, drawing and lllustrarlon skills at any lime and In [lilY place. You Call develop tigure studies by sketching the people you see at EL local park, or 011 it train, or even by siUing Or1 (:1 bench in the high street and drawing the shoppers. Sketching scenery such as interesting architecture, also helps to create ideas
['01'

illustration

backgrounds,

If!

!!PIWIile, collated

/oj)

R@seaFcll for the therr-c oli[1

"1-101Metal"

was

mounted lnte a si(etci1i)Ool,

lor C'BSYreference, and to provide inspiration

for f"utllre designs eM illusb'1!tions, Th~ !)!ac!<
paq@s act as a slrong manipulations, backnround for rough

meuszlne cut-cuts, te~tile 3MTlPling, Iabrlc
sketches. photccrapns.

designs and perscnai retlectlons,
()I!/)(}.'il~,
II('/O!/)

/(1)
tashion collection based on the

A worr-enswear

"Hol Metal" theme lias been drawn to orcduce wrist is lmown ill tile industry as a "line-up", In which a de.lqner views the collectton on one paqe to see If tile garments worl< together as 1! whoie. T!,e or!~ilnal deslcns were chotococled
onto qold paper

0Pllosi/e, uetou. rig/Ii To continue till? theme, "Hot Met~I" fashion illustrations have been presented on sheet aluml-ilurn. Till? tloures have been painte,1 ,mel their ctothes added with fabric cottene. The
fashion

Most artists keep sketchbooks in which they experiment with ideas and collect lnslghtful imagery Picasso is said to have produced 178 sketchbooks in his Iifeti me Ilc~ often used his sketchbooks to explore themes and make compositional studies until he found tho subject and concept for a larger painting on canvas, Like Picasso. you will have numerous sketchbooks throughout your education and career, So III a you will LIse for researching specific themes while others become constant cornpunions for recording ](ICfl8 that will provide future inspiration. Producing useful working sketchbooks is an essential part of ElI1 art student's development. Academic design and illustration briefs often request 11 sketchbook containing appropriate research to be submitted for assessmentIdeally, (he sketchbook presents an explorative journey around a chosen subject area. A working sketchbook should be impulsive, experimental and ln CDllstaI1IIJSC, becoming an accumulation of ideas arid research rrorn whtch In di'nw tnsptration for design and illustration. Sadly, this advice is frequently ignored and sketchbooks are produced whoso dunn pages are decorated with neat cuttings, ordered sketches and unused material [rom presentation boards. Generally this i nethod 01' wOJ'kiiig results in tedious sketchbooks of carefully planned pages, often with Post-it notes acting as a reminder 10 I'illblank Jlctges By organizing a sketchbook into a precious album ill which the artist arranges experlruentul work at the end of a project, creative spontaneiry is of len los 'I, The sketchbook then becomes i.I useless tool rather than II rich resource 1'01· Il1luginaliv() artwork. The" Hot Metal" ske tchbook research (fadng page) ga vo the designer pic Illy or scope to create a collection ol'womcnswcm. The design roughs show how the colours explored in the research, and rho woven, metallic labric experiments. were Interpreted in the garments, Much of the research imagery of rusting metals und soldered cars is also reflected ill rho garment shapes, Inspiruticn Irorn the research also CWTiQR through into rho fashion lllusrratlon. Instead of the obvious white paper. sheet aluminium was usedus a background t'OI' [he artwork. The figures were sketched in permanent marker and paint, wirh thc clothing added scparutcly, Heated co pper W,lS used 1.0 create [I bodice and skin while other outf 1:8 ale made Lip or appllqued leather and denim, Topstltchlng und garment details WGl'!? drawn using silver pen. AU of these techniques, first explored inthe research, demonsuute the vuluc 01' rcsenrching And exploring a theme in yOUI' sketchbook.

illustrator or dsslcner

Is alwavs

open

to experlrneruine

with new materials.

Beicn: /e<O
Find a theme to oxp'ore
il nel r..search

The best way to begin creating n useful sketchbook
it,

I:; to guther research IT1<l[arinl

using vour sketcnbook for experlrnental worll and to collect ins.pirational material. This sl(etc110001\ page 15I!lie a mini mood
Q 0;:1 rei

rro!n

II

variety of sources, This can include any or all of the lollowlug: drawing

(se~

• observational

p. 68); sllowing 110W tile t110m!? bael weather of

was InvestlOtlteci thrcuun a serles or magazine
cut-outs end reterencas to oriqinal artwork. Be/oll'l'ighl

• painted

visual studios

• colour studies • photographs
j

Ex~er!rnent with various meela in vour
sketchboc«. Here; lightning has b~~n roprccucad onto a neWSnOlI)er backorouno with coloured inllS and metallic glittl~r pcrs,

collage
cut-outs

• relevant imagery, for example from magazine • fabric swatches • found objects -Intcmct research
• exhibiuon information

• artist/designer references • postcards ;; htstoncul references (text or visual) • personal rccellcctlons

zn

Sketchbooks arc available in a variety of sizes. Some am small enough to fit into yo Ill' pocket '1.'01' convenient location drawing, while the bigger ones can be ussd I'DI'
100q;{CI'-scale artwork.

l1('/w1rh:fl

The paper used in most sketchbooks is <I good-quality while C<Jl'lridge paper, but you call also choose brown or black paper; or paper for a spcctllc medium such as warsrcolour or pastels" Buy a durable sketchbook with ,1 hard buck and strong binding, lnvesting in sklllChbooks that will last a lifetime is WOI"\,hil-ill years to come YOLII'visual studies mighl inspire yUli [0 produce new work Keeping sketchbooks abo gives you the pleasure of looking back through them to see l1UW your skins have progressed, These pages (facing page and below) show how an artist has investigated the theme ofweather, in partlcularrnin and thunderstorms. This research 11m;not yet I1I::Cl'l 'Used for any Iorrn of llnlshcd art; but the potential for future work is evident. ElT id the artist can refer ITl the sketchbook HL any rime 1"01' lnsplratlon, Ask yourself what artwork you might produce using the diverse anti experlmentul work from l he sketchbook pages as your starting point.

Pre[lClI'inCJvour sl<etcllOOoi\ paqss so that you can work on them at a later date reduces the feal- racter of tile I;ol;;mk Wl1itfl page. KGGp in mind tile themes you are exploring-foi' example. this [lage has Men Ill'epOlred usln\l;) watorcorour wash to produce a rain effect, B&/()lIIl'igl"i1 Practise drawing from maqazlnes with ~ mn~G of media to improve your sklts. Here, pastels and silver ink are used to 1!lustrate a woman in wetWGlatll@r clothes sp.ashinq In a puddle.

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This series 01 sketchbook paces shows how a desiqner hes planned a collection to progress

from two-dlmenslonal

sketches to three-

dimensional garments. lNorlling on graph paper

througi10lJt, the (iesiQner Ileeps to tM same
colour palette. On tile firs! PElCJ@ ('/bp lefl) the

design is 11igl'lilghteci by 8 line c1r8wlng ti1at
reveals the outfit's silhouette. '/"opriglll

Marl,er I~ens Bre usactc Illustrate tl'lis (j<!rment,
1lltilOUI;JI1 beck view is showr on a mannequin its in B pll0togr.,pll, TI~e designer' unks tM Im~ges cleverly with a broken line drawn arounc the

Make your sketchbooks working tools that you add to and update continually. The pages beJow, from a fashion-design student's sketchbook, map th!':)stages from completing initial research to garment design clearly As gnrrnents me finished, the designer has placed photographs ncxr ro the original drawings to compare the twodimensional and rhree-dimansional versions. The pages also show how Ihe designer planned each outfit Ior the catwalk: show; listing details of the garments and the models, Creating a photomontage or the outfits in the collection, the designer links this to the other pages ill the sketchbook with colour, The r'igui'es are placed on the page to provide aunlque layout. Snapshots from behind the scenes 0[" the fashion show complementthe two-dirncnslonnl designs and llnlsh the story.

outfits,
/;~!r.JiV

f~JI
paqe on which tile designer has listetl

A ptennlnc

tiw Itell1£ that m~l(e lrp tile outfit, This 15for the
model and dresser at the catwalk show.
/1('/rJlI1(:(,II/ni

A Pl1otoll1ontage of tile collection shows
photoqraphs placed at tile top and bottorr of the Il<1Cje, which Is an unusua' errsnqernent. Most people use the centre of a page as B starting polr-t, but tile Qr-!qlna.lily of this dlsplav is far- more interesting ror the viewer; lidolllri,giil i3ellin(Hhe-sr.enes snacshots rr0!11lhe 1<1S!11011 Sl10W display finished garments next to tile initial

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111 the skstcbbock.

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Central

to [asnton

lilustrarlon and jashiou destgn is the jl.gllre, AI1 understanding

a/the accurate proportions o/the human body and IWIIl i/ is constructed ls uitatfor producing conuincing jClshlon ill I tstia tio us and garment dasig!!s. '111 is I.JWpf!!/' proviae: essentia! information (mel advice, and easy-to-remember tips, thai you will find usefut tnrouguout yOt~r artistic camel: 70 understtuid tne jigure beneath the

clothes, practise

aw

exercises described on the follou/utg pnges

i'@f(I.lhii'ly,

DRAW:ING FROM LIFE
The figure has occurred throughout art h.iSLOl'y as a centraltheme for explorationdrawing the nude figure from life has been practised in art academies lot' centuries, Clothing brings further challenge and diversity to drawing the figure and, /'1'0111 this, the art of rashiun illustration has developed, lfyou ore relatively new to figure drawing, you may feel daunted by the apparent complexity of the subject: H j:,; a common belief that drawing the figure is the hardest artistic talent to develop, How many times have you hO~.H'{1 phrases such as "~Ican't draw faces" or "I can't draw hands"? In ('acl, good drawings of figures are not so much the most difficult to achieve as the easiest to judge, We know the layout and proportions of our bodles 50 wcll that we notice Inaccuracies instantly, The result is that, unless a drawing is remarkably accurate, it is deemed poor and the artist loses confidence. At its most basic, a drawing is nothing more than a series of marks made on a surface by one person rhat another can understand, In fashion illustration, drawi 11g the figure is more about developing your own style, and creating individual studies that convey personality and mcanlng. than about accuracy, However, this is not an excuse to draw a figure with, say, a dlspmportionately large head because you ,,1'1J
Lejt Leon1!rdo

24

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1490. Charcoal

on papel',

Uigiil MicI1<;llan~elo, SlIIdy oIalv/a/e Nude ,~'lJ'~II'i/i;!H U,JII!W'cis, sixtl?entll century, Cl1aik on paper,
To create a fasllion lltustrstlcn, yOL! need

)
)

I:Ilat lie belle~th tile clothes. Till? ltsllan Reilaissar1c~ artists beonardo do Vinci and Micilelangelo made many rigorous studil!ls of the m!(le rl~l)re in which thev acutelv observed anatomy before Il.Jlntlnq clothed figur!!s.

to b.. aware or the body shapes

body proportions

correctly An illustrator must understand accurate before it is possible to create a unique style, Through drawing we learn to see, We may think we know the human l'igUl'IC until asked LO describe it accurately. By recording a figure on paper, we cannot help uuuble to assess proporuons IJIII understandit better. Our drawings vary because we all see things differently Look with fresh eyes

l,cI~

aM

Pablo Picasso; Tivo Ntide WOlllelJ, 1902·03. pencil on card,

Inl\

wun eCMol'f!ic<illine

Ill'

1.0 achieve an honest drawing, and never rely Ol1 memory what experience tells you is correct. Free yourself trorn what your mind already ;,knows" and draw only what your eyes see.

allCl a limitee! colour pelette, Picasso captures tile main lines and forms of two reclining nudes in this uncornpllreted image, His lerhniqus is bold and decisive.
Illglll Pal)lo Picasso, Femnie 1111(] fllrrmgr'e, 1955, Paper collage and oil On ,~nV;;l~. Expt;>rimQi1!lilQ witll mixed rnedi~ without a fI~ed idea of the outcome is a way ol acllievinq unpre(Jict~i)le .ncI0xc!t!ng results, <ISP!CilSSO demonstrates in this image, He uses hephezerc

THE NUDE FIGURE
The nude human illustrauon.
II

figure must serve as the basis for all ligure study and fashion

:)
=>

1

is impossible to dl'QIN the clothed figure without knowledge ofthe structure and form of the body underneath, In the twenty-first century, artists and illustrators no longer tend to study anaionry as ran of their fnrrnal training, l lowuvcr, 0 ROUiiU knowledge how the body is constructed can only increase your perception, When thlnklng about the figure you may lise in a fashion illustration, I'(lIlsidul' the body shapes that lie beneath the clothes. It is inspirational to look at lhe work of Michelangelo arid Leonardo cia Vinci (lacing page) whose observation or nnutorny in pen and ink captures tile reality and the beauty of the hLtm811 body. To broaden your knowledge of anatomy, visit a natural-history InU5eUm or refer to bunks to make studies olthe skeleton, and the joints and muscles that operate ui move the bones. By galnlng an understauding ofhow jolnts move and which 11011e8 I'lt together, you can create morcrcalisuc figure drawings. 1\ clear understanding of anatomy allowed Pablo Picasso to base a signiflcunr

~1()CI\~of POlt~erne~'lp@iJIi'rand corour to express
his ideas, the finislled lmpl~nl,ecl, effeclmost likelv

or

'" ... w ""
f-

amount

of his work around

the nude human

1:'01'111.

The works selected

here (this

puge) outline lmpcnant lessons fur the HI.l student, Tuio Ntuie Womon demonstrates Picasso's economic LIse of line, Bothwomen are 10SI in thought, and Picasso captures
tnclr mood with decisive pen-and-ink strokes, The nudes
01'8

drawn

01.1 a

coloured

bnckgroun d, using only a limited palette, enhancing the purity of line und Iorrn. In Femme nue allongee Picasso uses mixed media to create blocks of colour and P;] item, hls expertrnental approach enrich ing the artwork. (L is doubtful rhar Picasso knew what result he would achieve when he started this piece, once ,,>ayi.ng:"II'yO\! know exactlywhat you arc going to do, what is the point of dcing it?iI

obselving the' Ilum<Jn f' fa Slion illuslT8t _ I' iqure is vital f _ t In c, CJt, Ke~" ~ 01 11e vcur Ilag and draw f c, small sl(etcllbool' _aVG! th e opportunit _ rom lif'e whenever _ 11 as pen and wa v, using portable ~ou T11G!train statl sh, or pencil and wal e_i'Mdla such lil these 5 on Is ~Inexcellent ,G!I colour, while lea ketches we see a wo t eiace to beqin. waitln nln9 on her i)<lg a ,man roadinq () room. ' ncJ a man in the

211

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I
F'I'actise by . dC!tail to iI1C~~I~~lgqu_icl\ sketches of cl constructl vcur U[l(lerst . othlng 1011 and the way clotl Mdl~g of garment 18S Sit on 1he body,

A

A

THE CLOTHED FIGURE
/\11

understanding of how fob ric drapes around the body is vital 1'01' drawing I IIi..: lothed figure convincingly, us i::: It knowledge or hllw seams, gal hers , pleats c and darts affect the fit of'garmcnts on the figure, You do not need to know bow !D sew to illustrate, bu tit hel ps £0 be aware of the construct ion of clo thing, jus t <I~ i I docs [0 understand the structure of the body. Make detailed studies of sections fir clothed figLII'CS [0 build your awareness of the ways in which clothes fit ~\I1c1 drape on the bodybefore you begin 1:0 illustrate, Ari important aspect of drawing the figure it awureuess ofits scale in relation III its setting. Consider how figures m into their surroundings, and how much their appearance is dictated by the scene in which they are set, Focusing on scale, com position and clothing, practise drawing flgures iii various locations: child rcn playing on a beach, CU.Stoll1l;L'S shopping, teenagers playing football, a couple dilling in a cafe, a person curled up ln un armchair 01' asleep Oil a sola, employees ill a meotmg, friends watching television, passengers on a bus or old ladies chattl ng all a park bench. T·l1.isLype of sketching increases yOUI' ablli ty Lo create 1I sense of perspective, and to draw figures to scale in their environments, 13y sketchlng on locatlon, you will also gain ideas lor background", and settings
10 r' yum fashion illustratlons.

By

hQlcling il pencil

at arm's

lEngth

and rocuslnq

on your subject, you can rneSHlre the 'figure in front of you Close one eye, and Ll5(> th~ pencil
point and

say, @ !"g

in relation

your thurno as markers to rneasure, to another- part of tile body,

MEASURING THE FIGURE AND USING A VIEWFINDER
When drawing the nude or clothed f'igUi'() from life, the most difficult skill to I11mlOI' is lhul or correct body proportions, To enhance their :;;k.ills,maIlY artists usc a pencil to measure the figure arid ~Iviewfinder £0 frame 8 model and give pruportionute width to height. By holding a pencil at aim's length and [:0 cusln g on your subject you can 1118HSUI'e the rig-lire in lront of you, Close one eye, then use the pencil point and your thumb ;!~ markers to measure each part ofthe figlll'c in relation 1.0 uno thor, You cnn also hold you!" pend] nt rho same angle as die figure's a rill , then transfer this angle 1'0 your drawing. This method allows you 1.0 :18SBSS npprcximately relatlve angles of puns [)I'~he body that would otherwise be difficult to draw correctly i\ viewfinder is a piece ofcard wlih a window cut into H of the same proPOI'LlOIlS a~ your drawing paper. Hold the viewfinder in front ofone eyc 10 frame the figure, 1\ viewfinder helps YOLI to disregard the Iigure's wider surroundings and draw only what is inside the window Il allows you ro try out di tlcrcnt framing OpliO'1S 1'01' your picture, including more or less ol the :;~l.ljilg around the tlgurc,

A viewfinder

is a slmcle-to-rnake

device

that hotps you to select

how muCh of

aflgui'I?'s

sorrounolnns you
tho confines works best.

want to 1!ICI~rde within

of your picture, By rnovinq tile viewfir1der, you can select ths view that

111'111111',:/1
Life clr.;JwinQ on a large scale can be bold find dramatic, This artist brlrlgs drama and

LIFE DRAWING
to the work by usinq intense
lines, shapes and patterns

atmosphere
WIOUI-,

and strong

using

eMr-coal ilnd pencils,

1l1'/1l/11/'('lrlrC'

Experimcilt from life,

with va riad media

when dl-awing tor

While

CllClfcoal is a popu lar choice

many artists because it encourages bold, exprcsslve lines, this study hes been created
with oil pastels on brown paper, Oil pastels additional

richly colourse interest
"1'/IIII!

and have a dense,
to provide

w. xy texture

are

The best way to represent Ilgurcs confidently is (0 draw from life [is often as you can, Mally local art centres or an schools offer life-drawing classes, Altcnding )IOUI' tlrsi Ilfc-drawlng session cun be a frightening prospect, Wherc will you sir? Whnt materials should you user Will you reel embarrussedr Where do you t;tart'? Many artists advise that ln life-drawing classes the best way 1:0 proceed is to view the nuda figure as f.l series of lines and shapes and Forget that there is a person in Iron: olyou. Drawi ng the nude figure is the ultimate test in observation and understand i ng, and demands your full concentration, so you will fincl il easier than anriclpated to dlsrniss other thoughts. To practisu drawing the clothed figure, make the most or oppurtunltlcs such as family or Irlcnds watching television, Most peopl SLay fairly still For about 15 minutes when relaxing, Public 11'3nspOl'1'also offers an excellent opportunity for capturing interesting poses. Always (;EllTY a small sketchbook when uavclling on u train or bus, 0]" artendrng "11 event WI,1G)'e there are lots of people to d 1'(1W, The sketchbook page opposite shows how Francis Marshall, although famous for couture-show sketches of Baiendaga, Jacques FaLh and Dim, bas always found time 10 practise figure drawing.

that can be exploited

In a fl(Jure drewinq.

riglll Here, a single pag~ Il<lS I,eell used fOI- a series of qulck stuules, Worhing wllll pencil, til€' artist concentratss Oi~ sever1l1 poses in order to bUllel an understancilncJ of the fiqul'e and
tile way it n10VIE,

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To improve Ills !~Ieilt for capt,lrln9 catwall, stvtes, Francis Marshall drews trequentlv from observation. His sl,etc!ll)OQK p~~es show women wciliili'lg, deteilezl pencil drawings of facia I f',olurGs Qn(1 cloUllng sceesscnes.

These s(udili1$, In cl'l!)rco~1 and pencil, demonstrate how dl-awing trorn life can help you to ~,~If1vill,lable knowledge of tile flgl.ire l,)iili1~atll the clothes, Perfect Iln.shed artwork is not iilU""1Ptec!; Inste~CI tile a rust hastccussd on under~lallclincJ particular parts 01 the body,

OBSERVATIONAL

DRAWING .AND INTUITIVE

EXERCISES

Drawing 1'1'0111 life is also known as "objective" 01' "nbs rvaunna!" drawing, meaning an imuge that is created to represent what is seen during direct observarion. The aim is to show the figure (or object) truthfully, exactly as it appears, IJl.'awil1t5 in this way is about bell evmg and trusting your visual judgement as you record what YOLl see, Before embarking on more elaborate studies of the f'igllre, try some simple exorcises using intuitive observation, The purpose of these exercises is to trai n your mind to accept what your eyes-rather than your preconceptions 01' your mind's tntcrpretatlons-edeern to be true, exercise Focus all -ou r attention on the figure in front of you and draw exactly what you see, Do not examine the drawing once you have sturted=-lust 1001< at the figure and recreate its shapes 011 paper. Try 110t to use your critical judgement, Concentrate on the con lours of the figure and the shapes contained within, This lype of drawing is about forgetting what you think you know, and believing ill what you sec, When you look at a fjgure, your brain interprets "01' you what you should see.The result is (hat you may draw tile figure as you belieue it to btl, rather Ulan how it actualty looks, By checking your drawing constantly it i:; tempting to COlT::.CI what you think are mistakes, Trust your eyes, ami you will produce a truth l'u1 drawing,

The "don't-look-back"

The "dcn't-loos-oeck"

exercise encourages you to focus your thoUc,ihts entirely on the figure you are d rawlnq, ThE aim is to craw wllhout 1001,lnq at your P~Q(i,The result is not supoosed to be il pertect artwork. but ;J valuabie lesson in concentration and confident Expression.

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exercise Work.illg 1'1'0111 observation, make a conunuous Iinc d !"awing of the figure, As YOLI l'IIJk at your subject, keep your hand moving constantly so that the line remains unbroken, You can complete this exercise using unvmedium=harcoal, pencil 01' pen, Avoid the temptation to create accurate details. such us those ofthe race; with lots (If smull llnes. The purpo .e of this exercise is to record all in lormatlon with one single, llowing line, The illustrarions opposite (below left and right) have been created using COJ1[ini,JOliS lin ·8, They me extremely free images only refined by (J hint of colour added digitally I t is a good idea to experiment wi til free-hand drawlng and the computer to create unique effects.

conttnuous-linc

;11,0I!~h~/l
A master captures 01

tile

outline

technlque.

Matisse

this figure

(1949) with only a fl:!w

simple lines so that the viewel comprehends
il entirely, ;I!JOIJ(' I'ig/II

Tills line cJrawinQ, by British designer ossle
CiaI'll, trorn a sketchbook of c. 1970, provides ciesion

Just snounh detail 10 appreciate the
of the clothes

The outline exercise 1\ useful skill to acquire when learning to draw the figure frnrn lire is to look 1I<I(-;l the detail to con .entrate on the shape as a whole, Simplify what you see, llaucnlng the figure in your mind's eyc so that YOLI focus on its ourlln , Learn to pay close uucntion to "negative spaces't=-rhe areas or background enclosed by parts of the llgurc. II' you concentrate on drawing these shapes, the figure should emerge with some accuracy into the foreground ofyour illustration. Look at the back view 1)1' the l:1guL'edrawn by Matisse (above left). The lines are simply rhe outline ofthe shape he sees, Likewise, Ossle Clnrk shows off his designs with strong outlines. The space around the figure is vital to the outline,

0PIJlJ,~iIC, belau. //ij't Line clrawinQ has been a mojo! lntluence in this
fashion illustration outline even thouqh to thE'riQurI'!, interconnecting to finish tllel'e is no

obvious
up from amount

rnanv

tnstead, it is marie lines. A ~1'Ii~11
digitally at tile the illustration.

of colour

has been adrled

end of the process

OPIHMilr',

iJ"/iJiii 1'11'.111
exercise and colour hanos. involves blocked creating

The

continuous-line drawillg with

a

tiqure

()ne, flowln~

line. This one In cligitally

has Ileen scaMed
to emphasize

tile

Hig/II Copvinq a liqurs, 01-fig'lres. from a onotoorapn 01 rnC1CJClzine form the foundation of a can Iashlon illustration. Even an ordinary photograph of C1 couple on a motorbike wearing tull laathers can bo used as il st.,rtinq point.
"(n'/,igill

TEMPLATES
TRACING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
Tracing is not always cheating. Sometimes maki ng a simple copy of a figure from a photograph is the most helpful way to start a Iashlon illustration. You ar already working with a two-dlrnenslonal image, which is easier than w(ii'king directly Irorn a rhree-dtmenstonal figure. Moreover, iJyou do not have access to a life .model at the appropriate time, drawing a figure acc!..lI"uldy from memory is not a common skill. Most people need a SOlll'CI;) of inspiration to begin a drawing. Trace the outline

or Each figure by placing your papsr over tlw photocreph on OJ ligllt box.
Tr~ce the main lines
lie/mil

tnsplred by tile photocreph, this is th@ final fashion illustration. AIUlO(.J(Jh life cirawing is necesssrv to understand the human body. it is still valid to use d two-dirrwnsional image as the I)BSisfor your figure.

or;l figure from a photograph or magazine to give yourself a starting point, then apply your own illustrative style as you develop the artwork. Place the photograph on a light box, Dr light tracer, or against a window so that ynll can see the most important features oft-he figure clearly. Decide 011the main lines that define the figure's shape, then trace them carefully, Use a sharp pencil 10 avoid lines becoming fuzzy and confusing,

HOW TO USE A TEMPLATE
that give a clear indication ofbody slHlpes and proporttons. your tracings can be used as the basis for a rashien-figure rem plate, A figure template is a tool used by fashion designers to help them speed up the design process: ft is placed under semi-transparent layout paper upon which I he designer draws the garments, moving 'the template along the.pags to repeat the Ili'OCllSS, The template is used as a guide only When the clothes are sketched in, llll' template is removed and the artwork completed, Depending too heavily on templates can inhibit a fashion designer's creativity, a common mistake being III design only clothes that flt the templates, Likewise, the illustrator must bear ill mind that the template is a useful tool but not a means of creating a unique piece 01·artwork. The constant use of a template to initiate an illustration tends to lead
ltl stilted

Ifyrm select photographs

from a magazine

results.

~11l urrwork

Copying a template from a Iasluon-tllustrauon book as your starting point for is not I'CCO mmcnded , Often, those who view your work will recognize the pose, It is 1':]1' better to create your own figure using the techniques suggested below,

JlrHl/H1,

CREATING A TEMPLATE
photograph, place layuu: paper over it and trace the image, Now simplify the drawing to create ,I clear outline, ensuring: the proportions 0 [' different parts 01' tile body me correct ill rolunon to one another. Suggest the tacc and hairstyle but do nOI draw every h ulr and eyelash, Unless you arc addin g accessories, the hands and feet also need unly be implied, You may adapt the pose 10 YUlI)' own requirements. A simple front and back view (I r a lrorn-faclng figure will. enable you to design quickly and precisely; but vary your templates so your work does not become predictable, 'I'he easiest method is to
S(~IcClone! ofyol-i" own figure drawings
01'

illl) iii!! This female-figuI"e template Can be UsNI ti-aditiclrll;llly Oil paper, {)I- scanned 101-use on the computer,

a suitable

magazine

AbO/Ie, ioi: right Tile temillate 11~S b~ell scanned lind CIOtilill\J added using the computer, Fabric was scanned tllen copier! onto tll~ gEI!'!llellts,
A/JO!N

A

full collection

template aM liiuma!ion process IN ..sen

line-up, which uses the same ligeil"e,

cll'vciop your first template; repositioning the legsand arms to create a variety or poses, Think about the stance of the templates, too, The way a flgure is standing can 11I'tenl'etlec( the mood or a collection. Study models in magazines and try to recreate similar poses and gestures in your templates, Drawing a line down the centre or the u-mplate, front and back, creates C1 marker against which design details, 81Ich as Inmon plackets, pockets and seams, can be positioned correctly II:'H template is too hll'ge;. it can be scaled. down by hand <JL by using a photocopier or scanner. Wl'J(:Hi you have H selection oftemplates, you could reduce their size to repeat H series of poses rlCl'OSS <'I page, When creating your templates, consider the market for you!' illu suntions Dr' designs, For example, an expensive evunlngwear collection will net look right if I cmptates developed from SU'I;l(,;!, I"igures are used as a starring point, Collect a number 0[: templates with varied looks and character. Templates me used as an aid to freehand design, but they can <11:;0 adapted be Iorthe C(HTIPl1l'I;i', cali a template and use il as a foundarton S for your artwork, adding to it with a program that allows you to make decisions on colour and pattern,

veriea] Templates are created by reducing the body
to a clear, simple outinc.
Thev enable tli@

°

designer to worli fastel', using tl,e template as a guide. To show qarrnents from front, back anel sldas, trll~ designer creates a range of templates, Templates for design ,H~ usually realistic and body p!'Oporlions ore 110t exaggerated,

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L.LI

1-

35

BODY PROPORTIONS:
THE HUM.AN FORM

THEORY AND PRACTICE

The human

figlll"i~ call IJe dlvl,lecJlnlo 11 besic parts, which assists ill seeinn tile body as a sorias of .sll~p~ s,

When druwing [Ill) fashion I'jgllrc, it is hnportant to know the standard proportions 01" the human form, as well as bearing in mind that people vary greatly in shape and size, Clothing the body is a means of self-exprcsslon ami an opportunity for creativity, so the lrnpression created by a fashion lllustratlon must be based on careful observations. Fashions change from culture to culture, and from decade In decade, Por example. a curvaceous figure and short W1lVY hair was desirable in the 19508, while n decade later a thin figure and poker-straight hair was most admired. The lashion illustrator often alms to GX[:1I'ess the features that society currently perceives as beautiful, and may choose to highlight these features through exaggerated illustration. So, while body shapes and proportions may vary from person 10 person and the rw,i1ioi1ublo idea! may change; the artist must keep in mind the essential components outlined in the following diagrams, The easiest way to begin your study of the human body is to see it as a series of shapes. POI"sirn pltcity, iiiiagin.e that il is
made

up

of 11 basic purrs (see below):

HEAD NECK AND SHOULDEHS UPPER ARM UPPER TORSO LOWER TORSO LOWER ARM

HAND
THIGH KNEE

LOWER LEG

FOOT

These bask parts can be muuipulated to create different poses, Prucilsc this liy adjusUng the parts or J wooden mannequin and drawing il ru different angles (llI~l[)w), Your objective is to notice the way the 11. body shapes move in rclarton to l'11cll other, Then, once you understand how all the body pans tlt rogother. fO(.:~IS nil rememhering their proportionate sizes. Til ls exercise is <II) important preparation for fashion illustration. as it will allow you to experiment with poses before you begin to concentrate on tho derails DJ" the clothing.

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~I'actise drawin(j poses from a mannequin, observing how th .. 11bcdv I)~I-Is IT1I;lVe in rel.ticn to each other,

_j

I

:-IB

These cliegi".ms show how the Ileiqllt of the body can be divided into eiqht equal parts, escn equivalent to the height 01 the head. This fairly accurate system, inventec by tile AneieM GreeKs. is stlu usee by artists today.

TRADITIONAL

MEASURING METHODS

The Ancient Greeks invented an ingenlous m thod of m asuring the height 01' the human body. 'rhey used the length of the head as a unit of measure, then counted the number of times it fitted into the body's total height, During Classical Greek and Renaissance ilrncs. the Ideal number wus eight., which was the standard for perfect PI'OP01'liol1s. This simple way of measuring is still used today, Try it yourself'by using a tape measure to lind out how many limes yOUI' head length fils approximately into your body height, from crown to toe.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN
Men's and women's body proportions dlffer greatly, and men are generally taller. W[)1I1 en's shoulders are narrower and slope downwards, whereas men's are broad find Fairly straight Women have proportionately wider hips than men, who have wider necks. The most C0l111110n exaggerations iii fashion illustration are 1'01' the f male l'ig\,ii'e to be drawn with longer lcgs and a smaller waist, and for the mule to huvs broad shoulders and muscular, LOlled arms. The following diagram dcm nstrates useful facts Ior the illustratorto keep in mind when drawing the flgure.

lnA pupil is always

Tile eyes BI-e

The

ears CJnd eyes are

l.eJ!
A few useful body-proportion facts that a fashion illustrator should always keep ill mind Me 51101'11'1

partlv covered by tlw
IJIJIJer eyglid

usuallv

in the

c"n\re

In line with eaell other

of the face

between the eyebrows
~n!l tile nose

In tills dlaW<lrrL

II,€ eyes ;;Ire set
~j)proximaleIY one

The upper lip often

aocears In Sh<ld~ <IS
it curves ill towards

0yc-widt h ~I~<lrl

the teeth

The
011

hlp tilts

down tho

Hands a re often thrl;e"q~OIrters of the head size (that

the leg tliat e8rrving

i~ riot

i.Jo(iV weight

IS, capable of covering

the lace)

111 adults, tile le~. 101m at least half the total 11el~hl

When arms are

relaxed, the fllloertlllS
reacr hattwav clown

tile thigh

Iw biq

tOG

is

,1llproximMely

1l11,'-quJrtGr of tile
who.e foot

the sale of tile foot, 11QI Including the toes, is equal to tile size of

IlI'lolI' Althot.qh accuracy is important wilen uncerstendlnc the human form, fCishion i llustration sometime. exaggerates particular Ieatures. Here, tile neck and l1airstyle have !~een exaQger<lted to m~~t~ an appropriate
cheracter for the fashion collection,

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EXAGGERATION FOR FASHION
Although lt is important to gain a thoroughunderstanding ofhow the body is mllstl'lICLed, a fashion illustration is not always all accurate rcprcscntatiou of'rcality I':xnggl!nll ing some aspect of the I'.igure can add interest and character If'J the work. I':Ishion designers and illustrators often elongate the Ilgure to give it more elegance ami grace, 'lo elongate a fashion figure, L1SC the traditional measuring technique but inrroasc the amount ofheads used in the hody length. Forexample, n ngure could IH' stretched to tell or more heads in height, When stylizing a drawing by increasing II !I~ height of the figure, fashlon illustrators usually emphasize the length of thelegs. In keep proportions relatively sensible, calculnto thu legs as making Lip two thuds, 1':11 her than half, of the total height, The step-by-step exercise on the following page I ruches you how 10 exaggerate leg length and fit the tall figure on a page, Use a figure lrorn one of your life drawings, or fro 111 a magazluc, for the exercise rather thai' ;lllt'll1pting to draw lrorn lmagluation. Today. leg elongation is not as common as lt used to be in tashion illustration, which is employing a greater variety of figure shapes and body proporuons. (:Ol1tel11 po I'<U'Y i IIU3l1'<ltor3 arc not afraid to po rtray reality and challenge Iantusy Illustration is not only about elegance and beauty, but crearing a character that rornplements the clothes. However, given that exaggeration has dominated fashion illustration decade after decade, it may be worth exploring the very technique that lidS served illustrators 1-'01' decades,

.....

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...

~-...

1---

4()

L)
SI<etcllln to allow

[)
2 Sl~,etcl, In outlines line rlecorative details 1'0[ tile clothes and decid~ whlch ami any 3 Compllite appropriate important the two-thirds IQg. of

1 Divicle the paqo into thr@i;> ",qual ssctlcns.

tile walslli~'litly at YOLI to elongate thG

corcurs

!iw tasnton
l'esWl'es,

illustration,

usinq and other

media for tile clothes

Then,

!TI,lrli the posltlons

01 the

tile flqure, heso shoulders

to use,

and feet, anel mal'l( a centra: 01 the Ilgll('e,

line dow" (IHI !¥!<;jtl, Ely ol',"wing simple guidElines; you

make sure that the wllol!~ fl~ur~ the feet

fits

Oil lilt? page,

It Is iii COmnNi1 mlSlal\e to run out of space for
You can erase tllG IlLiidelln<'lS Wileil your

draw'nq

Is cornntete,

DECIDING ON A POSE
'1'0 best promote

This Ieshion

illustratiol1

combine,

realistic

faces

tile garments in a fashion illustration, consider the stance oryour ligure. The way a person stands expresses much about their mood or emotions, Fm example, a figure with head Lilted and hands behind the back may be thought coy 01' damu 1'8, while a figure with hands on hips and feet apart may be seen as ~L rong or bold. Think carefully about the type of fashion you arc promoting. POl' ('x(lmplc. is it your OWl1 collection, or are you lllustruting ['oj' n high-street clothing company 01' designer with a particular client baser This will help Y0l! to decide ou the ITI03t appropriate pose for yom figure. Build a collection ofposes from magazines that you call refer lO rOI' yourwork. Collect i magasi .rom a range of magazines, includi ng fashion, photography and sports magazlnes-s-you rnuy be rcqu i red to draw action poses :1'01' a sportswear runge, Look back, too, at your own Ilfe drawings and photographs for lnspirai ion.

rnanlputaton to show tho Q<lI-m@nts to best advantage, Tile figul'es have
and fiGures with digital erawn a in pencil Men an,1 tile CIQ\hiI19 addsd in a montaue by that cornputar. contains coss-uos in a line-up Tnev are arrenqeo

r11nge
andfull

of

poses,

Front ailel b~Ck

VIGlWS.

fiqLlr~s have been placed

urat illustrates

tile collection

from

~II anqlas.

HOT SPOTS-FACE,
I)[)

HANDS AND FEET

you leave out the face i.ll an illustration because you are scared of ruining I i1l~ unage by drawing i~in~ Do you tuck hands into pockets so that you need not illustrate them? Perhaps you draw the figure off the puge 10 avoid tackling the l'lllJt? It is true that one small Iinc i 11 the wron g place can spoi I.all otherwise perfec t lushion illustration, bur tho best Illustrators avoid the temptation [0 hide these dllflcult fcaturcs, By practising until you can approach these de!IlCI1IR with conviction, your illustrations wiJI gain in diversity and sophlstlcatlou. lndlcutlng these hot spots nuthcntically can be II daunting prospect for the novice, but it need not be, Il i~ increasingly acceptable to suggest features imaginatively, rather than always to represent them correctly On the Iollowlng page~ me tips on cornhiulng <Ill accurate rendering wi rh an imaginative upproach to create an illustration that you are happy with.

Advtce for drawing the head and face • A ball, egg or SQuare sl~ape can be used
to construct the cranium, the head the facial bones and the jaw to define the position to The heacl divides into tl,I'ee masses: • Draw in guidelines • The guidelines in different

of the eyes, nose and mouth can be poslttonec

represent the planes of the face looking
directions lias thicker eyebrows, jaw line than
1 First, outline the head. This willl)!"ol)ai)ly close to an oval N egt:) in sh1q:>e. be

A male figure a larg~r mouth

and squarer

tile female
• The face provides a focal point for an

lltustretlon. but must harmonize with
the rest of the bodv rather than standlnq out trorn it • When drawing profiles, svmmstrv does not need to be considered A I)01(lly drawn face can ruin an otherwise good illustration

a Divide the lieall in hal!' vertically enc I1Orizontally. thcr divds tile bottom half innalt again in a horizontal direction, ThO's€: uidellnes u
can be erased later.

42

3 Mel) out the eyes On tile top hcrlzor tel line. Leave a space of one eY0 width in IlG!tWG!G!i1 Illg

eves,

Dl"iilW

I

i1

tile evebrows,

4 The base of the nose shoi, lei fit 011 tlw 111?xl 110ri7.O!ltal line, Draw in tile ears: their size is
usually the distance bG!twG!en thG! gvo>brow ~Ild

tM bottom of tM nose.

5 Divide the bottom half of the face aqai nand use I11E'IOWE'sl horizontal lin.;> as ;;I guicle for the rnoulh. Tile 101) !iI' USl!t111y sits ebove the line end the bottom lip below

G Finally, draw in 1110hair, In fashion illustration It i~ llSlI<!lly bsst to attempt to draw the overall shape the hair creates, rother than each Indlvl(I!.Ial 11.11'.

''Bt~\l\ fi: )i

Advh..:e for drawing features • Suggest the features and, if in doubt, don't draw them in • Featul-es are usually smaller then you expect. For' example, a hand can cover
the face easily Ears anel eyes are in line with

~~cr) other

betwssn the eyebrows anel tile nose Eyes are at the Mlrway point or tile head length-it is a common mistake to draw
them hlqher up · Most commonly in tM centre of tl18 face, eyes are set aile eve-width apart • The iris of the eye is always partly coveredbv the upper eyelid, creating a shadow on the eyeball

Eyelashes on both lids become
progressively thicker
the

toward tl18
althouoh

outer

corners of

eyes,

the bottom

lashes are shorter The upper lip often appeal-s in shade

as it curves in towards tile teeth • Tile bottom lip is usually fuller than tile
lop one • Lips stretch

horizontally around tile curving face, so do not drew them in a straight line
than draw each individusl
teeth bv

• Ratllet

tooth,

suggest

drawing a shadow

bstwssn them • Tile nose starts at the for@ne;;d and has
an indentation where tile bone ends and

the cartilage begins
• Maele up of planes that form the sldes. top and the base, the nose has a IJal1 at the bottom and wings Oil elther side wher-e tile nostrus flare

Advice

['01'

drawing

hall'

, Lines for tile Ilair should flow awav rrorn tile scalp and centlnue in the directlons sst by I he chosen style , Try not to msks tile hail' too unltcrrn or like a list

• Rather than attempting
individual hair, outline

to clraw every large tufts

• The female t'lail'line- ls usually hiuher

than the male, emphasizing roundness of tile forehead
more flowing

tile

• A female's hair is drawn wltn lonqer, llnas than the shorter strokes of a male's hair • Hair should vary ill lone, havinq highlights and definition, rather than be treated as a single mass • Hair call be styled in all sorts of ways: tied back, neat, wild, trenely, bobbed, wavy, lone, curlv.trinoed, cropped, strelqh; short, sp1iW, plaited, ami so on

Advice for drawing hands The surface of the hands reveals the sll@ieton ben~<ltll • It is a common mistake to draw the hands too small • The hand should COVei' thetace outstretched-its of the chin • Tile palm is concave, the back of the when length is about ecual

to the face from hairline to the base

Mild

Co!W€~

Simplify the dr-awing of hands in a fashion illustration-vou need to indicate every knuckte and flnuernail clo not

Advice for drawing feel and shoes
• The bodv's weigllt rests mainly on the heel Md the outside ~dge of

1M foot

• Not including the toes, the sole of the foot is equal 10 the length of the head

· The big toe is apcroxlmatelv
of the whole foot

one quarter

· Shoes and boots must be in proportion to the rest of the body-a fall over figure with tiny feet looks as though it might

• W~len drawing footwear with a heel, ensure that the heel and sole are 011 the
same plane
01'

surface hiqher tile heel, tile

• The fashion foot is usuallv drawn long
and slender-Ihe lonqer the foot appears

• The higtliei the shoe, the greater the
angle in tile arch of tile foot

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RTISTIC ECHNIQUES

3

Once YOII naua S1.(1 I' tedjindlng inspiration, researching themes, using a slcetchboolc and practising [igure dratoing, YOll will be keen to experiment ioi til clUFnerli an maierials. ln this chapteryou willfind our. uihich art mater ials to IIse!O achieve particular effects, how to conueyjahric reallsticaliy and iioiu in select a COIOIlI palette, Euen professional ariists canfind these aspects uf lllustration challenging. To prouide

a usefu! reference source, 1/7& chapter divides into sections ttuu YOII cal? cUp in and out o/easily IOFnd the tnformation you need.

ART MATERIALS

AND EOUIPMENT
available to lllustrators and artists today

The range of materials and equipment

is vast and can be a little overwhelming at times, Searching for appropriate matertals in an art suppliers can feel like being surrounded by irresistible confectionery in a sweetshop, To the creative eye, everything looks tempting and the correct choice ofmedium is difficult to make,
Findi.ng a medlu Iii that suits your own particular method of working and your style ls the best way to proceed, YOLl should feel comfortable enough with it 10 produce work confidently. Consider your personaltty when selecting your artistic tools. 1f you are a careful, meticulous perfectionist you may be most at ease with precise art materials such as a pencil or pen, tf you have a more energeric, fast-andfurious approach ['0 Illustrntlon, you may enjoy the freedom of oil pastels, charcoal or paints. Fxperunentlng Frequently with new materials will encourage YOLl to be more innovative in your work, Brand-new pots of ink, sharp, COIOlJi'l\d pencils and acrylic tubes just waiting LObe squeezed may look inviting but, to a beginner, they also hold an element of anxiety The next section covers bow H) lise an materials and equipment in fashion illustration, so that you can make YOl!!' selection with confidence.

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PAPER
T11@ quil-liy Figur~s in this ill,lstr;]tion WI?i'e

cl'eatetl usinG mixed media, combiiinq hand drawing witll photocopied papsr ci.t-outs

"" ""

In

B

colrace.

Paper is the first. olcment ro consider when beginning a fashion illustration, There are many types to choose trom, available in various colours and thicknesses. All Can be used as a surface on which to work 01' as a material from which to create a collage, Carttidge paper is one 01' the most baslc, commonly used papers, and is suitable for drawing and dry artwork, lt is not generally recommended for painung 01' heavily rendered work, <IS it is made of'wood pulp, so that moisture causes it to buckle, It can he made suitable I'clr patntlng by souklng it with n wet sponge and stretching it over a drawing board. Secure the edges with brown gum tape, then allow (he PHPI;:)I' to dl'Y thoroughly before beginning yo UI' pairtti ng. Layout paper is u fine, semi-opaque paper thai' allows you to see an image faintly beneath it. Suitable 1'01' roughs, marker drawings and colour LCSL~, it is often bleedresistant so that colours do not run, Tho translucency of luyout paper enables you 10 trace OVCI' it '10 produce one rough from another, It is also suitable for mounting onto background papers and. cards fa I.' fashion-presentation purposes, Unlike smooth cartridge paper, paste! paper has a grain running through h. Soft ar rnarertals such a~ pastel and charcoal pick up the grain, and the artist can exploit this effect In the lllustration. This paper is often tinted ln tonal rangus upon which black-charcoal lllustrarlons look particularly effective, the background colour
adding increased iii leiisily.

Trocing paper and acel,clle me clear sheets that Eirealso excellent for usc on presentation boards, You can photocopy rmages onto them, then overlay the images-the rranspurency of the sheets means that tbe image beneath is not

I.ejl A selection
others

of papers. Some are printed,
textures.

while

l1i;lvr; unusual

obscured completely. Drawing and painting directly on acetate creates a unique olfact, with light shining through the image. Wrr./el'culottl' paper's are supplied ill many weights and textures. Good-quality watcrcolour paper is a must, as cheap, thin paper makes colours look. flat and Iiinless. With its ability to absorb liquid, watercolour parol' can be used with marry wet media, such as lnk, paints or watersoluble crayons.
Tissue paper,

Righ'
Coloured, trensperent overlaid papers have been cut iii means

intrlcetely ano
this illustration, the cut-out

to create ti1e outfits

Using such a technicue position,

thst your (Ies!g!!s change every time you overlav
in a diff!;~mnt

card, coloured
I' pa.ckaging

backing

papers,

wrapping

pane); uuulpapei; sweel illusunuons. Usc your

'19

II//'appel's and o tile

can all he used in fashion

lmagtnallon as to huw Loincorporate them into your work.

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PENCILS I'.Very artist-even painters, sculptors and prlntmakers=bcncllt from being skilled ~1ldrawing with a pencil. The pencil is a convenient find. expressive means of evolving a composition and of recordlng visual lnforma lion quickly l'ul' LJ'aJislaU011 i 1110 another medium later on, Most works of art begin with a pencil drawing. Lead pencils <He available either ill the form 0[' traditicual wood-cased pencils
(II'

'" '" '"

>=

~

.. ...

in a mechanical

pop-up style, The advantage ora mccbunlcul pcncll 1:5thai il ls

thicknesses for this type 01 pencil ranging 1'1'011'1 0.3 to 0.9, Pcncilleflcls me graphite and they are made in several grades ranging from hard (I-I) to soft (n-lhc "11" stands for bluck). The hardest make fine, pale-grey Lines and the softest produce thicker, black lines, The grades are usually designated as follows: 9[ I, an, 7H, GEL, 51-1,3J~I)2H, H, [,-LB, S, 2B, ::I B) 413,SB, RB, 7]3, p, !lB, 9H,HB and F (which stands for flne point) we midway between hurd and soft. Soft pencils are ideal for rapid sketches and exprcssivcllnc-and-tone drawings, Tiley work especially well 01.1 textured paper, but take Cat'1O when using them, because they smudge easily Hard pencils best suit artists with a confident, clean mid accurate style of drawing. Try experimenting with several grades of pencil 10 create a rich iuteraction ofline and tonal contrasts in your fashion illustrarlous. Many illustrators mid texture and detail to fil,ished painrings, especially watercolours, using pencil, (;I'Qpflile sticks tire made of compressed and bonded graphite. They glide aCi'OSS 111epage to produce the boldest and most expressive drawings. You can change the marks they make by uslng lhe potnt, side or the flartened edge 01' the Slick.

~llwtlys sharp. You can also select a variety oflead

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'.
Left
A selection of pencils, ranging from chunl<v

grapi;ites to coloured oencus.
Hif{ht To create soft-pastel the effect colouring of smudged is ideal. make-up, 1i cornblnatlon

"

of le8GI pencil (J1'~wing with

50

The watersolubl . versions produce beautiful, silvery grey washes, Graphite sticks are especially popular for life druwing and lothed-figure drawing becau theyallow a fluid technique, Coloured pencils UI'C mad from a mixture or pigment, clay and llllcr bound together and soaked in wax before bctng encased in wond. Coloured pencils arc not just a safe drawing medium ['01" children, The fashion illustrator can 1I~() them LO make a varied range or 111;1l'ks, while controlling the finished effect, YOLI C'1I1 Lise them like H graphite pencil to shade urcus, ol11y ill col(JL1I".You cal) also blend shades together carefully with a paper Slump (a tightly rolled, tipped paper), eruser or your llngcrs. As wiLl11111 pencil drawing, tonal areas C<1n be buill up with hatching [short parallel lines drawn clos ely together) 01' crosshatching (a Ilne mesh of criss-crossing IirH3S that builds depth ofshade), .olourcd pencils are particularly useful in the early stages of developing Y[JJ,H' abilif ies, because they allow you 10 build confidence with a controllable mcdi L1111, WATERSOLUBLE ART MATERIALS Wate/'soluble pencils offe I' the advantages of coloured pOI1\;i IS, bu I.I hoy have ,1 watersoluble ingredient ill the lead. This means that YOLI can apply the colour dry, but create H subtle watcrcolour effect hy loosening the pigment wi th brushstrokcs
of'water, II. controllable
III

-dlurn, watersoluble

pencils are useful

1'01' bridging

tho

illustration skills. WaJf'fsolubl" crayons work in the Wille wny ;1S lhe pencils, but are softer and more malleable. They create bolder marks and denser hatching, making them mOI'1,)of a painters tool. The advantage or bath waicrsolublc pencils and crayons is that they are eH~Y to carry with you, alluwillg you LO sketch figures quickly on the SII'ClGL01' catwalk. You can develop a picture further with puint when YUlI return (0 y01l1' home or studio, if you so wish,

gllp beiwe

n drawing

and painting

when developing

WAX CRAYONS
technique might seem like revisiting yOUI' childhood, but it produces some interesting effects. Drawing with it WC!X crayon. then ovcrpainting with watercolour is an effective means of creating a textured finish on clothing ln c fashion illustration. The wash of colour Is repelled by the wax but soaks in 1"0 the unwaxed paper to leave a unique pattern. Try also the umc-honoured lcchnique of colouring a sheet of paper with wax crayons, shading" over the top with black crayon, then scratching oUL your figure, which will appear in a rainbow (lr colours.
Ixp 'l'illlenLil1g with the wax-resist

,I

CHARCOAL
Made lrorn twigs charred at high temperatures in airtight kilns, charcoal usually comes in the form of sticks of varia \.IS thicknesses about 10-15c111 long. It is fragile, tends to snap easily and can be messy towork with. However, this soft medium is ideally suited to blending and smudging, and creating strong dramatic line. Charcoal sticks are most commonly used for life drawing, but could just aseasily lend themselves to drawing monotone fashion illustrations. A charcoal drawing is lull of atmosphere and life, and therefore ideal 1'01' fashion illustration. Drawing with charcoal encourages a freedom or creative expression that you do not get with <I pencil. It is excellent 1'01' adding shadows, depth, rnovem nt and texture to your tushinn illustrauon, too. There are also charcoal pencils made from compressed charcoal encased in wood, which are slightly easier to handle, and cleaner to work with, than sticks. The pencils have a har fer texture and the tips can be sharpened for more precise line work,

Watersolubl@ coloured of wax crayons.

pencils and B mixture

Charcoat sttexs /ilt'e @vallaljle in a variety of thlcknesses, It is also possible to buy charcoal In ponctt torm.

5]

PASTELS
Considered both a drawing and a paintlng medium, pastels arc made from finely J,!;1'oul1d pigments mixed with chalk and bound together with gum to form H bard stick. They are available in a wide range or colours because, although they can be hk-nrled, pastels cannot be mixed to make new colours. An opaqu medium, pastels work best on coloured backgrounds that unlfy the artwork, or on textured surfaces such as a h av)' watercolour paper. .<i(}{i pastels arc creamy and popular fur their vibrant coloLlrs.i-iard paetel« are rusler to handle as their consistency makes them. less fragile, Pastel pencils provide n greater clew co: of control, as they do not break and crumble as easily as the crayons. 'l'hcy ure good for outlining and crisp, detailed work, and call be used ill combinulkm with other types of media. Po I' an lllustrntor, tho dusty, dellcare surface of the picture is lil(l disadvantage of using pas leis, When you complete (he illusuutlcn, remove excess dustwith a tissue and C01'1'0 I the edges ofyour work with an eraser Apply fixative CHUliously-i I' your application is 1'00 heavy ir will chango the .olours of the tliusrrauon.

A selection

of paststs.

pastels are waxy, creating a waterproof resist when applied to paper. l1.ich in colour. they can be used to create wonderfully evocative lllusuatk ns, Applied thickly, lhey leave a paste-like residue 011 tile surface that adds a unique texture to a fashion illustratlon, Scratching through a layer of oil pastel is an effective means of creating pauems 1'0 represent fabrics.

oa

!.ejt

Black Indian Illk has b"Ii1f1l"Js~d here
on watercoour shades. paper, and the ink diluted with

water to Pi'ovlde different

monochromatc

INK
Wben drawing with ink, tho ril'st aspect to consider is whether 01' nor it is waterproof Black waterproofIridian lnk ls tbe first choice uf most illustrators as washes can be applied over a shiny line drawing, A monochrome illustration is then created using a dip pen, brush or bamboo suck. By varying your drawing tool, you can achieve a range of wonderful effects. No 1"1.. rvatel'/?rrJo/ink sinks into the paper and dries with a matt finish, Diluting it produces a wide range of lighter tones, You can enjoy expertmenting with nOI1waterproof' inks by dropping them onto paper soaked in water, Theink disperses in the water, creating beautiful patterns and ICXlllI'CS on the paper surface, Painted lines will be fuzzy rather than sharu as the ink spreads, Inks me available in a wide range DC colours. nut jU81 black, so tile more you experiment, the 11101'0 diverse the effscrs you can create for your ill ustratlous.

UsinQ inll, you can vary your drawinG

too! fOI' a I"ange of !nte!"i~stinq Ii1ffects.

52

High!
Inll can be epplied here a in a verietv

of Woys,

We see nib·

selectloi1

of dip pliin. wlth diffel"l;!nt

sizes end a bamboo 5tick., Inks are oVClIIClbie In
a wide r~n(ie of C(lIO~FS <i110 can be waterproof.

PAINT
Manyillustrators favour H particular paint, btu it is sometimes difficult to decide which type will most suit the style of you I' work. Qualities of the different paints available arc described below to help you make a sclcctton. veatercotour is often the most popular choice as it is so convenient, You only need H paint box, brush, paper lind w<1ICi' to gel started, while being so portable makes it ideal for location work, Walercoloul paint is sold in tubes or pans. Tubes are available in IT'HlI'Y sizes and are recommended because you can mix stronger colours in larger quantities. ParIS me small slubs of sclid paint that l'it into easy-to-carry boxes, the box lidusually acting as a palette tor mixing colours. Applying watercolour to yOU1' lllusrrauons js not as easy as it looks, hOWCVCI', Using the correct watercolour paper aud quality brushes Is Important, but YOLI must also know when an illusrration is finished. Overworking canlead to mistakes that all: difTiClllll.O correct Watcl'coloLtl' is the perfect medium for adding subtle colour to pencil fashion illustrations. (t I:,;also excellent for applying washes to pen-and-ink drnwlngs and lor addi ng coloured details to sketches. You can explott i ts natural properties by allowing

I\

,I

t hill WElsh to run and clri p over your fashion figure, add ing a sense of movernc n l

1(1

versatile as they can be appl ied straight from the tube, latter creating a dense texture, Produclng HI rong 1.:010U rs, acrylics dry with a tough, plastic waterproof skin, '.ll'y pain tlng rashion figures onto fabric in acrylics. Once dry, LIse a sewing machine to add deco ra tiva stitching, Oils are historically the professional painter's medium, ThG buttery consistency of the paint arises from a high concentrau Or) of plgmcn l mixed with the finestquality oil. Although rarely used in laahlon lllustration today, oil paint is not as eli lficult to handle as you may think, You can buy water-mixable oil paint thai can be thinned with water rather than turpentlne. Alternatively, oil stlcks give you the surne control as with pastels and charcoal bUI also the rich, vibrant colours of oil pnint: The advantage of oil paint is that YOLI can model i.t on the canvas, moulding the textures you want ill your fashion illustration and even creau n g a three(Ii mensional effect by applying the paint with a kn ire, Gouache is a type of watercolour that has been mixed with while to make il opaque, II Is excellent ['01' laying Hat solid colour U8 it dries without streaks, and is popular ror illustration because its strong, matt colours are suited to reproduction. 1'0usc the paint creatively, apply the colours boldly iii undiluted 1'01"111. lmaglne yOlll' Illusrrarlons <IS poster art, making them powerful and eye" catching, Spray puitu gives unexpected results, and is therefore the medium La have lun with, YOLI can buy fairly cheap cans of spray paint for arttsttc use In a wide range ClI' colours. It is excellent for stencilling and adding finishing touches to your
III'

the illusrrauon. Acrylics are incredibly

diluted,

using a brush or knil'e-the

lashion

illustrations.
AiJQrle rradrtone

palntlnq skil.s

BI'e

combined

with

aecureie observation to render this ill sc I-Vilcs on ca rvas,

flqure

L~Ji
I'oinls are avallable In
I-iQI'G!

11I81W IOI'ms, a palette

are tubes of oil and gouache,

of

watel'colours

ane cans of sorev paint
are UH)d 011 of watercolour

U/lposi((!, belou:
Walercolour and tinaliner

a coloured paper to create tllis vivid, prlnted
dress, The briqht trenslt.cencv f~bric,

paint is perfect for conveying the patterned
with det;,!il 8(lcleo using the finelil1@r, in this f~shion so bes b~en I~ft out to place on tile cress. The (ace is unlrnpurtant illustl'~\ion empilBsi5

"

'. '>

PENS
There am all sorts of markers, including a variety of felt- ami fibre-tip pens ..Highquality markers can btl costly but give good, non-blotchy results, They are usually supplied in packs of toning colours or sold singly, Tho best types have a variety of nibs=-wide, medium and fine. Wider nibs are useful for blocking in areas of CO]OLli' evenly. Skin-tone markers me invaluable 1'01' fashion illustration, giving a realistic flesh colour. HOWCVCI', while using markers is a quick, convenient way of' adding colour, it takes a confident illustrator to apply [hen; with conviction. Ballpoints, although not ulways considered an art material. are worth cxpcrtmcntlng with, Working in a single colour with a line quality that does not alter can produce interesting results. II ballpotnt is often easily at hum! and doodling in a relaxed atmosphere provides a perfect creative environ rnent. Pineiiner pens arc wonderful fa I' emphasizing fine details, such as intricate em b roidery 01' kn ltted textures, in I'ashion illustrauons. A non-permane nt type CHn also be watered down to create a [lowing line, EMBROIDERY THREADS

-

cation is the most popular type, and the strands can be separated to give you the Lhick'10SS you want, Silk, wool, linen, synthetlc and metallic tbrcads are ulso available, giving YOLI a variety of options ranging trcm smooth, shiny stitches to textural, matt 0118S. Machine embroidery threads are presented on reels and also vary in co Iou r, thickness and finish. USlJ;;\lIy made ofrayon or cotton, they come ill a wide range of single colours or variegated shades, matt, shiny and metallic, To embroider, me tho needle as a drawing tool on rhe fabric, Thoro is a great variety of different embroidery SI i rches yO,I, can use to create patterns on the fabric, demonstrating creative Hair ill your fashion illustration. EDUIPMENT The seuiiug machine is nn important piece of equipment 1'01' many fashion illustrators. If' possible, yours should offer a nurn bel' or em broi dory Hi tchos, Many now have computer-so ltware programs chat link the sewing machin c to your computer, allowing you to stltch a design created on screen. To cui ourmount boards and papers, the steel rule!' is useful as both a measuring and a cutting tool. 11 IS preferable lo a wooden U! plastic ruler, as it is I11CHe difficult to slice into steel and create unwanted hrcgularltles along the cut edge, A cuuing mal provides <I sara, steady surface for cutring with a sharp scalne! or leniflt, The most useful blndcs ,'11'011;080 with HI1 angled top over a straight cutting cdge. A light Vox is a handy tool. for the illustrator, It is simply a screen HI 1'1'0111 below 'that allows you to see through paper placed over photographs and magazine cuulngs, so that you can trace figures 01 other elements. As light boxes arc fairly expensive, you might PICI'ICI' to L1SC a window for the same purpose. However, iI'yOll can afford a light box, you will own ii forever ..They an'! 8.180 useful for looking at details ill photographs 01' transparencies, Spray adhesiue is an essentlal lor the lllustrator.It should be applied evenly to nile surface in a well-ventilared room, He careful to protect areas you want to remain free from glue, as spray adhesive can be messy It docs, hllWCWI, provide the most professional results when producing presentation boards, collages and illustrations. Masking tape is essential for fixing paper ro a drawing board, and it peels easily off the board and YOLlr artwork when you have finishecl.

Hand emiJH)iciery threads offer a vast choice of col om. Stranded

A photocopier; OJ' Xerox nuuih ine, ClIlI save you lime by enlarging und reducing unages or by providing you wi.th repeated copies for collage, You CHn cxporunent with colour ill your illustrations by altering the tones on the copier to, say, make a red gorll1ent green, You can also set the copier [0 "I'l;VCI'~C":'I.O that .11 copies all dark lines and areas light, end vice versa, allowing you to create, for example, a white line drawing 011 a black background. Some copiers are 11101'0 sophisticated than others, hut be creative wirh what is available to you, and experiment with the results, J\ compute!' is becoming increasingly po pu I011' Ior fashion lllustratton. Many creative software programs are on the market to help you draw, manipulate images und alter photographs, rhe best-known belng Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. There are tutonals in Chapter Six that will inspire you to create lashlon tllusrrarions using these programs.

o/JjiOgUi!,ji'()1'!I

top

Tlii5 line drawiilg has been eornplatac in bl~ck ~nd pink ballpoint pens, AlthOUgll not always seen as an art !Iliilteri91, ballpoint Dens are (;Iasily available and allow you to sketch freely, A selection of pens, rangln\l from !iliilrl\ers

and ballpoints to fil1@liI1ers, A cornllutel'lzecl
different sewing machine with embrolderv options Is a useful 1001 for the ltlustratcr. This illustration wesIirst drawn ami scenneo, TIle scannedlrnace was then embrQI,ler",1 in red thread onto a linen fabric using a sewing machine, Embroiclery threads are bought 0!1 a spool for use on 0) sewlnq 1'1l,;I(;hin8or as indivldual skeins for hand embroidery, AI)ow A iigilt box, CUW!1(1e([llipl11ent and adhesivevaluable tools fOI' allY artist, /"'li Usil1\) a black bsckcrounc gives drametic @fkct to this mixed-media illustration. Ph<:itocopiM hnaqes dll(1 coloured-pencil dl'<lwinCj are combined with some digital manipulation,

COLOUR
In our dally lives we arc surrounded by colour and make choices about it regularly In [he way we dress, decorate uur homes, even when WI,; buy a CHI', llaving elll eye for which colours work well together is essential fur the fashion designer or illustrator. whether you are choosing a scheme: I'or a portlollo project, planning U colour-themed collection 01' selecting colours for u dramatic fashion ill ust rati 011 ,
yellow

THE COLOUR WHEEL
the basc principles of colour how to apply colours, willll@lp boost your confidence as ~ f.shlon Illustrator. ri,e simplest way to learn about tile theorv is to study the colour wh .... I, Wilen tile sun shines on a r'~iny clay, a rainbow often forms, Tile basic colour-s In ;J r.lnbo"'! are red, 01'8nge, yellow, green, blue, incligo and violet. The colour- wheel is CI simplified version of thts spe,:tnH"11 (exCluoin[) indigo) and arranges six colours into a circle, Till? wheelis then rmde up o~ cerours that fit into thE! following cetecortes: primar-y, secondsrv, tertlarv, warm, cool an[1 co,,,pler,,enlar-y, Understandirlq

theory, and I(nowin~

violet

PRIMARY COLOURS
~Flm81'Y colours are OM~ tlltlt cannot be made IJ1 mixing other cclours. Tile tI,r!?", 1.)r-jmJry cctcurs ¥E' red, yellow and blue, They are equidistant on the colour- Wll,WI.

Tile secondarv COlOUr'S are orange, green end violet. They are produced by mixing two erlrnarv colours. Wilen rnlxed, red and yellow make oranqe blue anc yellow rneka green, and rQd ~nd blue 11100ke violet. The seconderv colours are also equidistant on the colour wheel, in betweer1111e primary colours.

SECONDARY COLOUrRS

TERTIARY COLOURS
colour- with its adjacent colour en t!ie wheel produces a tertierv colour, For example, mixing Fed Mixing a primary

seccrcsrv

wi!il or~ilge creEltes I'ed-orange and red with violet creates red-violet. Ag<rill, these sr~ equidist;)nt 011 tile wMel,

ora nge-yellow

-

violet-blue

blue-ween

---------

vellow-qreei

WARM AND COOL COLOURS
1\11 colours have associations. Wal'll1 colours such as I'CU~) ranges and yellows are o

n~~(]Ciflled with sunlight and fire, They tend to stand out in an illustration ami seem closer than cool colours, which recede into the background, Cool colours include 111(;blues of (he sky and wale I', and [he greens of roltl ng htlls and landscape. Bearing ill mind how warm and cool colours affect the viewer enables you to enhance the llll110sphere ofyour artwork, COMPLEMENTARY COLOURS The opposite colours on the colour wheel are contrasting partners called COlllpi.cmentmy colours, The partners consist of one pl'imary al1d one secondary colour. The pairings are red and green, blue and orange, and yellow andvlolet, IhlJYappear brtghtest when placed next to each other. When mixed together corn plernentary colours produce a grey, neutral tone. To make a colour darker, add its complementary partner rather than shading with black. For example il'YOLl would Iikea darker yellow, add a hint of'vloler. USING COLOUR-WHEEL THEORIES Mixing colours yourself in your chosen medium is the best way to discover how the colour-wheel theories work, Start with three primary colours=red, yellow arid blue, VI/hen the primaries are mixed together they produce a muddy black. Experiment by mixing the secondary colours, then the reruary colours, The amouni orally one colour added to the mix affects the shade produced, Make notes on how you mix the colours so [hat you can recreate them in the future. Three distinct churacterisucs nccount lorthe appearance of"colours: hue, value ,1I1e1 saturation. I~ach 01' these can be manipulated by colour mixing Dr) more subtly, hy nltoring the context in which H colour appears . .I-JII.e is the name of a colour=for example, red) green or blue-that id()III ifies i I in the colour spectrum. value is the rl'lHI ive qual ily of lightness 0 I· cia rkncss ill a colou r. Til ls varies 011 H scale ofblack to wh i In. Saturatiau, also known as intensity, ls the relative purity of hue present in a colour. A highly saturated colour will give II strong ~C:)!i~C of hue, und a luw suturarion will have a weaker presence,
Thc result of rnlxlng a colour with white ls known
<I~

57

a tint.

tone. Mixing a colour with black creates a shade.
H

I'v1 lxlng grey with a colour is known as

HLie

------... I ~

---

-

Value

-,

,.

r.'~T ' r··· .

,

I

%lLJl'ation
)

.

"

i1I!/1J1IJ hijl Rcrl1erni;)er thOlt the white of Ihe I~~(je'<in be used as pari of tile illustration, Here, tile white p~ge has been allowed 10 show thrcuuh for Ille
SIlOW,

COLOUR FORECASTING
Have you eve!' wondered how the colours 1'01' fashion. interiors. cosmortcs and even con; seem \0 complement each. other every ~[J~lS011'{ How do fashion designers all decide that say, green j8 this summer's colour? Or lIt~11 our homes will be decorated in brown? The answeris lhat there are teams of professicnals-eknown as "colour forecasters't-e-annlyzlng data to provide colour predictions for up to two years ahead, Chapter Seven contains :'111 interview with Promostyl, a lashionand colour-prediction house, The company has a series of agents that travel the world co research upcornlng trends, Prornostyl then produces seasonal boob recording their predictions, which am sold as reference sources to designers and businesses worldwide.

hair andlur

coat. The strong

baclqrouncl

shade of the sky is also IJlclled LlI) In tile face, providing a good balance of colour, Visual irr pad ts achleved with ~ simple cclour palette. Thl? pink is used as an accent colour on tile lips and tJloves. This illustration Wi3S createcl LISim) paint ami Adobe PIlOt05110P, Bctoiv 1"i::;11I
Tllg artist dasirsd Il~S limltsd the COlour palette to afl1w complementary eff",,!. shades

to create a particular,
sl(etchillq

By

mi~inQ iI?,cl-penCII

paint, subtle colours are crsatsd which ccntrlbuts to a ~alml nq atmosphere in what seems to be a fantasy lend.

with wetercclour

USING COLOUR IN FASHION ILLUSTRATION
In the fashion industry colour palettes t'01' clothing chango fro in season (0 ~C<'1Ron. When designers produce new collections they me aware of the season's predicted colours through attend lng trad e shows ami. seeking- advice from fashion and colourprediction agencies. Howe vel', the illustrator is [me to seloci a personal paleuc lor fashion artwork. Although lt is important to describe the garments, using colour confidently is preferable-to paying Loa much aucntion to the seasonal colour trend. Be bold with colour, keeping in mind the way that children splash C010l.i I' onto a page and expcrlrnent with bold brush strokes and strung shades, Not adding colour lor fear 01' I'Lii ning a perfectly drawn flgurc is sclf-Ii miling 1'0], an illustraror. Think about the viewer and what you waru the eye to be drawn to in your illustration. r.imiling your colour palette, then using au accent colour cleverly is one

5[)

..,.,
e

~
LLJ

""
:I:
l-

b:1
t..>
iL/l

;::::

"" ""

lIJI'

the computer. of tile strong woman PDrtrayed. ThE' 1~I<!ckbackqrcund
Oil

Le.f! In thts tllustratton, created
colour underlines

tile power

ano altitude colours

is inter.ected

with bold; bright

that

create a strilling Impression.
Ilig/if
Figures

have been drawn

directly

onto a pa 110wanted

lemon backcround paper, wlth colours stronger
in 111~placss is a briobter where the illustrator

totocus attention,
orenqo,

Ti112

llair, tor e~ail!r~le,

and 111@ serns technique

is usee tor
ey~ throucf been

tM ctotnes
inc!ualr,Cj .. l.

to clr~w
pesters,

tM

viewei"s
m .. dia heve paint

tl1@ illustration.

MixE!d

uSM,

pencils,

and [harm

arcessorles
1>O[[Ol11,

way of comrolliug what the viewer notices. By adding a f(!w, CQI'()I\lIlyplaced til the accent colour, you CUll create fl flow HCLDS1:i the page from
illustratinn.

top to

59

len to right, In this way the accent colour guides rile viewer's eyes over the

FOI' example, think oran illustration of Q man in u black suit wearing red belt, red bat and red shoes, The led would draw the viewer's eyes to follow it uVCJ' the ensemble bUI without detracting trorn the predominant hlack suir, POi' further lnspiratlon, look at how other artists und illustraturs use colour iii rhelr WOl·1\, for example in the contemporary illustrations on these pages. Try similar techniques yourself", adding your own fresh, individual response, The subtle ((JICllI!'!> usedin I he fashion illustruuon (raGing page, right) produce a [':1i111 atmosphere for the viewer. The image is dominated by patterns 01" colour, The halls in the sky are created with a marbling technique and their colours reflected in the patterns onthe garment. This serene image uf a woman srnoklng a clgarettels 111 sturk contrast to the nextillustration (above left), in which tile dramatic pose 01' tile woman creates a powerful atmosphere, Here, the bright colours stand out from the hlack background and her outllt Filb the whole page. The remaining illus!i',HiOil [ab(lve right) uses the same technique to create a strong image that puts the clothes rvnrrc stage, This illustrator has chosen to work on a lemon background paper rather (han white. The images, therefore, me bonded by subtle shades and tones, tho colours stronger in areas the illustrator wanted to draw attention to, The brighter orange of the hair is repeated in the clothes to move the viewer's eye through the illustration, and the Ilgures cheeks me highlighted with red as (11'8 her paintedlips. f\ lai'ge area of dominant colour distinguishes this illustration, Demonstratl 11g a powerful way Df using colour in illustration, this i mage shows the benefit of experimenting wuh it in your work. 1I

60

FABRIC RENDERING
Depicting ill ustrarlon
I,(~/) F"erdilland Amid, Ctrt t» a l1<,d 011'1,\',',1917, Oil on canvas, liip;11I Gustav KII mt, l'ortmi! ()!,'irJll.irl Oil on canvas,

AND PATTERN REPRODUCTION
brings authenticity
ndard
0

the qualities
,.To achieve

of labnc accuratcly a professional
R ta

10 0,

fushlon
rio
11,

FFabric represents

develop

<In

Knip«, 1898,

Studying how artists CDIW~Y tile qualities of parttcuartabrtcs Is a fasclr'l1)ling WiOYto learn about renderino 511i115, These oil paintings by Andri ~il(II(limt Sl10W cliffe,inQ methods of cOlweyillg tile characteristics of shaer tebrlc
wh!!11

fubrlcs lind observe the way ill which they drape andfatl on the body, 'I'he best way to gain this knowledge is to sketch clothed figures, Notice the shapes the fabric makes around the body, rarely lying nat but moulding itself around the COliIOU]'~ o! the figure, Observe the way thai looser garments hang while tighlt:l' lnbrlcs stretch all [he body, and practise drawing the effects. It would be uscful ro collect H range of tabrlc samples n 11d practise drawing them, observing the way they told and fall, fI it> ulso worthwhile visiting a museum or gallery and undorstanding or different
sketching from [:igu,ativc sculptures in heavy stone.visit I'abi'k, chiffon dresses that each artist style, In /\ndi'i 's
1'0 discoverhow

fine fabrics

are

cleverly
how these

rendered

the old-master

puil~Ciligs,

teo, to observe

artists skilfully represented The oil paintings has portrayedin ofthe chiffon a corurastlng

worn bV

<I

fQ!l1ai~

fl~lJi'El,

above show two very different, hy allowing

Girl iii a Red Dress the transparency

or red,

the sheer sleeves and neckline to reveal the flesh bcnoutu the fabric with such realism (11<11 lt is almost Ilks looking at a photograph, The urea where the undergarment is apparent is a dense!', darker shade
is rendered and this contrast lrself serves to ernphustze the sheer quality and accurately
111

01' I he sleeves,

Every [old arid crease in this dress hus been observed

rendered;

and

even the girl's silk stockings

shine with reflected llgh],

1<11111t'1) Portrait a/Srmja

"/lips, the pink dress is made from
dress evident b revealed in the opaque on the shoulders,

ruched,

pleated

paintwork.

The delicate,

chlffon, the many layers of the sheer quality of the fabric may be highly
or outfit.

cuffs and at the hem of the dress,

Always keep in mind that, although
crcu rive and individual. the intention
l'L'OI11

yoUI' Iashlon illustrations
ofthe artwork

is to convey a garment

The representation of the fabric a slgniflcant role in your artwork Stripes and checks
when drawing strlpcs,

which the clothing is constructed

must play

keep in mind that

they

move with the body, Stripes run

Strlpe(! aile! Checked fabrics

the body, regardless oftheir width 01' the direction of the print. A common mistake in fashion Illustration is to render stripes using straight, purallel lines, lfyou luok at 11 horizontal- striped jumper offthe body, then the lines or rhe stripes arc indeed straight. IIowevcr. imagine a person wearing that jumper, The strlpes will wrap around the torso and arm" so mustbe drawn with curved llncs. The correct way to draw stripes is to begin at the centre of a garment, then follow the lines of the stripes over the curves of the body, LIp to the shoulder and clown over I he hips to the hem, It is a mistake to start 1"1"0111 the top or bottom, as the dlrectlon or the stripes will become confused with the shift in hip and shoulder positions or the figure, When you plot your stripes from the centre of the garment, (3nSLJI'e they me of equal proportion if that istrue of the fabric. Some striped fabrics have uneven stripes that are not symmetrical. Stripes may run ill a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction, Checks, or plaids, are stripes running in two directions, Like stripes they can he drawn straight or on the bias (diagonally) to form either repeated "+" 0]' "x" shapes. Again, checks me made up of stralght lines that will curve with the body. These lines usually run down the centre front of a garment and are equidistant 1'1'0111 each other, Plan your drawings with f'ninl pencil lines before yrlll begin 10 render xl ri ped lind checked fabrics, Accuracy at this stage is vi tal itthe finished artwork is to look professional.

ucruss, down or around

Wool!eli fabrics

61

Wllol
Woollen rabrics arc generally woven in a variety ofweights, and include example, flannel, tweeds, g<lbardille, fleece and mohatr, They can also bo pnrtumod-e-fur

pinstripes ami herringbone, Wools are best rendered in a solt medium that will pmdllce one base colour and a darker shadow because, unless it is textured, a drawn woollen surface olton appear's llat. Mark"li'S are excellent fur drawing flat lubrics, ~rl)d you can soften the edges with a non-permanent Iinclirrcr. sweeping a wet brush over the outline, Other art materials that work well for rendering woo] are pencils,
Tryapplying the base colours with paint and the in pencil. Textures and weaves can be rendered with a dry-brush technique. in which H raiL'ly limited amount of almosr-dry paii1l is applied.Ieuviug part of the page white, You could also try scratching directionallines into the surface of wet paint Tweeds and herringbones can be represented with inks and markers, which convey the lnks, watcrcolour and

gouache,

highlights

Or

shadows

lluidltv

or the pattern, To create lhcin(i'ico;)cies of the weave, crosshatch

wuh lwo

ormore

colours.

Sheers Sheer fabrics are 80 fine that a single layer is transparent, and you call see skin [one through it. With the exception of lingerie, most garments in shear fabrics are made lip of many layers, or include undergarments. Sheers can be categorized into two groups: the softer sheers, such as chiffon, voile, gcorgona find some laces, and the stiffer types, including organza, tulle, net and organdie. To rerder transparent fabrics, begin by upplying skin tones to your rash] DI1 illustration, Add the colour of the fabric over the top of the skl 11 with al ight touch in either pencil 01' marker, avoiding heavy outlines, The skin must be visible under the fabric, so be careful not to choose too dark a colour. Where sheer fabric tou .hes the body, shading should be darker. Where it !lOCHS freely, use lighter tones. This technique also applies if you are rendering manylayers of chtffon-c-tho more layers, the denser the shading, For lace Or net. the appearance of the fabric as it llcs over the skin must, likewise, be rendered sensitively, These mesh-Like fabrics call he represented with fine crosshatching that becomes darker where the fabric ['0 Ids. For lace, you can build up the l~loral patterns and embroidery by using a fincliner to indicate the details. Your drawing lines for such a delicate labric should he fluid 1111d without sharp corners. The edges of' lace may be scalloped and heavily patterned, but it will be impossible to draw every intricate detail Simply suggesting the style is perf ctly acceptable In fashion illustration, Organza and orgundle have a stirrer consistency than the sheers discussed above, Garments made from these fabrics stand out lrom the body and create a sense of drama, They Cal] be rendered with the same techniques lIsed for other sheers, but there is a difference in the way that they fall and catch the light, \N11en sketching them, try overlapping blocks of colour to show where one fold of fabric lies on top of another. The deeper shading conveys the double thickness ofthe fabr) c. Shiny fabrics To illustrate shiny tabrtcs, observe where the light source falls on the garment. Clever rendering will create th 'illusion or reflected light. To add ;;I highlight to the garment, draw on a white shimmer line or leave the while of the page to shine through, Shiny fabrics divide into three categories, First, there me the light-ron clive types, including lInn fabncs such as taffeta, satin and leather, [111(1 softer velvet and velour. Secondly, there arc the decorative fabrics with a sheen, which arc usually beaded, aud sequinned lames.The third category includes heavily patterned reptile skins and brocades Shiny fabrics arc usually rendered in three shudes, The darkest shade is for the c medium shude 18 for the general garment colour ~U1dthe lightest for the highlights, The lightest shade, USLIHlly white, often surrounds the dark shadows, and touches of it should be added til the edges of the garment. Add highlights where the body juts out rrOIT! the fabric, at the chest'. arms or legs, for example. Choos , any art material for these thr ie shades, but focus 011 imitating shine. Softer sheens such as that on velvet should be approached in the same way, only without areas of solid colour OJ' solid outlines. Instead, create fbI:! thery edges. A soft, dry medium such as p:lswl is idonl for creating a velvety Sl1100th surface to your fashion illustration, Treat' the shimmer or lame, sequins and beads as a pattern, stippling with H hard brush using fairly d ,y palm and creating sharp wh i re highlights, Alternatively, tap all over the drawing with U medlurn-uibbcd marker, To give your i1IUSII'(lliOIl extra sparkle. IIS(:; metallic pens,
folds and shadows,

Sileel' fabrics

Shiny fabrics

62

f'cathel's and fur Bo th natural and imitation feathers and fur are difficult 10 render realistically, lL is a common error to overwork these pans of art illusi ration by 8!<,Ji!'lchi,ng in too many Ilncs. The best method is to ~iSC watercolour paper, dampening the page then adding illk or paint in light touches: This creates fuzzy. soft lines that represent the delicacy or feathel's and fLII' well. ]-;01' white teathers or fur, palm a dark background then use bleach to add fine lines. Knit 'rills fabric has 11 texture created by its looping and twining threads, Knit differs trorn WOVEln fabric in its stretch as well as its texture, Knitted garments are either rcnstructed byhand 01' machine, and produced in various wools find yams, such as angora, cashmere. mohair; chenille, boucle and metallic. Gain awareness of' knitwear variatlons. because they demand very dlffsrent rendering techniques. To render kn ilwear d i rr0i'rcH1 u y lrom a woven. fabric you need to draw in the rib, Rib. 01' ribbing. is the term used Lo describe a series of'raiserl rows in knitted fabric, Hibbing is often found around the neck, cuffs and edges or a garmon I. and can be indicated with repetitive line, You will abo need to master authentic: representation or the stitches used in knit. For example, cable and braiding can btl indicated with a cornbinauon of CLlI'V0d and straigbt l' nes in a rope pattern, while Purl and garter can he rendered with a series olloops and ellipses, Knit patterns ofteninclude geometric shapes, raised textures and flowers. These are usually known as J~ail'Isle 0]' Argyle uud arc best shown by blocking ln the patterns before adding texture undcolour.

Feathers andtur

Knitted fabrics

PaHel'n and print lnshion Iabrlcs call tie printed with almost any design or motif. including floral, abstract. animal and polka dot.A design (hat is duplicated 01' copied is called ~I repeat pattern. In addition 1.0 rho repeat, you need to bear in mind scale, l'or example, a llfeslze floral fabric must be reduced to fit into the proportions ul' H cI rawn llgurc, The sl L1.1ple5L to calculate this is ro hold the fabric lip way 10 the centre ofyour body and count the repeat in the dirocuons or the side senm and along the waist. To achieve-the scale, ITt the same count into your drawn ligure. When you reduce <'I tussy print, remove some ofthe detail as it can look overworked Oil a smaller scale. Bender some oruie pattern und disguise UU:lUS with soft shadows, using a limited COIOlIl palette. Emhelltshed and embroidered fabrles Nut nil fabrics cue the same through their length: some vary in texture. l landrnadc lnbrlcs are often embroidered 01' otherwise eruhellished, and you will need to chango your rendering style accordrngly Embellished fabrics are often munipuluted through stitching. For example so me are raised with padding 01' wadding, then decorated with hand- or machine-stttched patterns, To capture such techniques on paper, the labric must look raised from its background. Bmbelllshrnents will appear c1O~(Jr to llll! viewer ifworked in light colours 011 a darker background, Embroidery thread also catches the light, so again this should be rendered with highlights, It is impossible to record every detail, but draw in elements every now and 8goin 'to indicate the presence of de corative stitchi ng. Denim, a heavy, woven fabric, is often adorned with ropstltchlng, rivets find prominent seams, all of'whtch can be rendered by the Illustrator. Ifyou look carefully

Pallerned and printed Iabrlcs

~ITllJellished Clnd ernbroldered fabrics

[)4

' 11\1 «
.' I

65

~

','

these illustrations 118VQ oli1en ereiilt~d using t!1<!1i'eMering techniques descrleed iii (lie Ilrececlil'lg sectlcn.

J

at a piece of denim,

you will see that it is made

up or," series of diagonal watersoluble pencils

lines broken shades

up by the weave, Copy this effect using sharp,

of varying

of blue. Use darker shades for the diagonal Itnes and paler OI'H~Sfor the weave. Por areas where the denim is worn, dilute the pencil marks with water to create the
effect. Denim pen or broken jewelled rivets me often metallic Hlghllght the tcpstltching and can be rendered to include illustrator effectively embroidery, with a metallic using a simple, rips, print and to.

paint

in areas where it is prominent,

line. Today, denim accessories,

is often customized

all of which the fashion

must draw attention

Fabric reference exercise
To make the most of the intonnation discussed in this section, experiment by

rendering
various

fabrtcs yourself

to

create a set of-reference illustratlons.

Divide a sheer

of plain paper

into a grid of blank squares. Place a viewfinder with a square view over fabric samples, Try to create the same effects that you can see through the
in YOUI'

viewfinder
to remind
jn

squares,

ExpcriJilCIi

t

wtth a range of media until you find the best
renderings up a library of authentic

way to represent

each ofthe

fabrics. Make notes next to your accurate similar effects again. Building aid when creating

you how to create

rendering techniques is certain to be a useful
the fu turc,

f<18h101:1 Illustrattoris

[16

I

RESENTATION OR ASHION ESIGN

4

Throughoutyoureducation and career as a jashion designer. you. will/wed to present )'01/.1' design ideas, technical drawings, mood boards and promotionai fashion illustrations in (1/1 BJfec:tiveway. This chapter looks at how 1,0 UW )Iou/' initial inspiration. and sketchbook ideas in creel/Itoiiginat designs and build ranges. It will show you how to present your ideas to a professional standard without limiting

your cteatiuefiait: and lun» to gear your presenta lion sr:ylr.: 0 suit a particular client 1
or market,

MOOD BOARDS
Creating of designs creative a mood board is

an

excellent

way to organize captures

your research

and ideas for a set ill the

at the beginning process.

or a projecl. An effective

A mood beard mood

the style and theme

by displaying

images,

fabric:" and colours

that are to be influential statement direction,

board will make a clear, cohesive of your design as a story, or concept, board.

to the viewer; who gains an understanding is also sometimes known in the industry

A mood board

Below is a useful checklist
t

of ltems co gather when compiling

a mood board:

Mount board imagets)

• Definrng

• Backing papers , Poam board • Spray adhesiv • Cutting equipment • Colour samples • Fabric swatcbes • Textile samples

08

• Text [to include title and season)
Mood boards based on a thflnlG of traditional btueend-wnlte china disiliay imaGes that define <I classic, tlmolcss stvls. with colour palettes and fabrics also represented.

First, layout
define

all your research
101'

material

und decide

which image, or images, best
images can be photocopies

the mood or theme

your design ideas. These

Lejl

TI1e design of tl11s .tl'lp~d trouser
inspired

SU!t

was

by the colour, of the china in the p,'evlous mocd bO'iI"I;!,Tile tashtcn illustration
has beer photocoplec displayed
011

complementary to provide with fabric

mount

boare. Pl'inled f~br!, 11ii1S"en COIQUI' b
onto acetate

a b@cl(groYnd, Fiat dl'~wlil9S of tlw qarmsnts
have also besn mounted samples.

if/gin

Thl~ phOtfJ~rapl1 shows tile completed suit beinq
motlalsd on ths catwalk in a fashion
51l0W.

The hecdol'ess was lnsplred by ti,e fioral

designs

to

011tile blus-and-whlts
ill yOUI" portfolio.

cl1in,;l, 11is important

display jjI'HJto~II'lIPI1Sof yow' creations

magazine cuttings or photographs. If you U:5G more than one irnage there should be a common llnk between the colours, paucrns or themes. The images all need to tell a stmtlar 8(0I'Y. ['ay attention to prevailing co Imini i'I.~ you select images. Colour choices must he coherent throughout the project, so think about them as you compile your mood board, When you have selected your colour palette, decide bow to display it rrearlvaly Various means include cutting out paint-swatch cards, wrapping threads uround card 01' painting your own samples, Limit the amount of colours you display otherwise the board will become confusing and difficult to read, Pabric samples should complement the Images in colour and theme. Think about how 10 display these samples, too, Unlidy, jagged and lrayed edges will spoil your mood board. Frame your tabrics, stretching thorn over card, 01' neatly sewing the I:!<.iges,lrear any textile sampling, such as embroidery or fabric manipulation, ' in the sumo way, llyou Wfllit [0 apply text to yOUl' mood hoard, avoid doing so by hand, Unless handwriting is patlcularly beautiful, il can make a mood board look amateur, Use a computer to print text, 01' use Letratonc. The next step is to plan the layout (Jr the mood board for rnaximurn impact. Make some rough sketches to sec how best [0 arrange your items, and decide on the colour of the mount board and hacking papers you will use, The mood board tfucmg page) shows ideas for a refined collection based on blueand-white Spode china. The presentation colours nave beenlimited to shades of blue and cream, with images mounted onto foam board to give a three-dimensional effect. The selected fabrics have also been ptnned 011, It is easy for the viewer to appreciate the theme of this mood board, A prornotlonal fashion illustranon (above left) for the collection demonstrates how decisions made in the mood-board process can be applied when illustrating. The artist has continued the theme by linking the colours, and by using rile same mount board to frame the illustrations, The mood board and illustrat ion show how vital It is to think ahead and plan carefully when presenting your artwork. The final outfit (above right) seen OIl the catwalk demonstrates how the theme moves through the whole process,
lrnm a sketchbook,

=

000000

000

[]66
CJ CI CJ CJ ICJ
diagrams of possible elements layouts plan Example lor mood

boards show tll~t It Is essentlal to
ideas before fastening

your

In place. Use the For example, images that

shaees In tIK!H! dlacrems 10 represent the tllings
you will place all your mood tile larger rectangles board.

tile boxes represent tl1e colour Il~iettes ~nd
the defining

illustrate your mood or theme,

DESIGN ROUGHS AND RANGE BUILDING
Fashion designers I reduce a series of connected ideas that are later realized in their clothing range, While garments work as pan uf individual outfits, they share linking clements such as colour, fabric, shape and styling so that, when viewed together, they create a cohesive collecrion. When EL collcctlon is shown on the catwalk it is easy to wonder how fashion designers produce so many new garments, 1:-10w do their ideas get from paper to the bright lights of ihe fashton show, and how many designs do they complete to present a full mage? Also, how do they create the story or their collectlonr 'I'he simple answer to alJ these questions is "careful planning". The first stages of planning should include H thorough breakdown of the design brief. Gain an understanding of wljo you are deslgnlng for, identifying your target market and customer profile, Ask questions such as who will be wearing the clothes you design-how old are they, and are thcy male or Iemaler 1 inpoint the budg ts and price points you are aiming rUI', 18 il a couture clothing range 01' a collection for a h igh -street store? Arc you producing a casual range or occaslonwearr What season ls the collection dcstlneo for? It is only whcn you are clear on all these points lhal you can begin to design, Remember the lessons lrom previous chapters wh 11 planning your fashion range. From discov ·ry of sources of inspiration, and the exploration of ideas iii yow' sketchbooks, will often spring the theme for your collection. This foundation work provides a starting point for experimental fushion sketches, known in the industry as "design roughs" when representing your thought processes on paper, forget about perfectlon and let your ldens nll\N rn~ely. !-lave the confidence at this stage to draw !'(l ugh sketches wi thout worrying about mistakes and btld designs, although do keep in mind correct body proportions, In this way, you me most likely to col11l1!L1 unique ideas to paper. :';0 me designers draw ideas onto the figure using a templ.s!.e (below) while others prefer to design Hat (facing page), drawing garments directly onto tho page, Find the method that best suits yClLI!' personal design style, again always using correct body propo rtions.

0ppo;'i/(1
Thasatash.on onto layout flat without by drawing designer might pencil desiqns have been drawn template directly end

pBper,

Thsv have b,"en cssiqned OCGIsionally, but this

the aid of a fiqure

oT1ly lie gannen(.
includes

the

part of tile figure,

is drawn iree-llaM tile desigrlel"S
to recortl

to sMw

wnat

the qarment

look like on the body, You can almost

see

lm:,;n worklllq
these design

tasrsr

than

the

rouqhsl

7l!

iJl!luil1

To prcducs tl'l(~se f01shlon de-signs, t11Q desicJllel' drew dir@ctly onlo a fi\lul'e template tl1en 1110ve(1 it ,1101l(] unoer U',e layout p<lper for Qflcll new figLlre, creatinu a new design on top of It. Set'vlf1(] only as a rOllgli CJlJirJe,tlw tsrnptato docs not
influence the shape and design of

the

cloth

s,

-

7L

,: __ ,:I:

(\ ..~':~,j, ") ,.r", )
~'."

72
lie
c..J

~
vo

'"

""
e

9

:.:

~

"'" E ""
~
b!.I

t:l

"" ... ""

A design rough dOGS not have to be well executed or a perfect piece of art. Faces and figure details are not important when designing at this stage, Do not worry about creau ng beautifully finished sheets-the purpose of design roughs is 1.'0 assist yo u on your design journey, I\s your skills continue ('0 improve, your presentation style will develop,
will be made from, Source fabrics by visiting shops
To produce your own design rouqhs. plan tll@ laorics and trims from whlch veur carments will be !'f\@de,This design rough clearly SllOWS tll@ differences between the rOlorl'S In both outfits,

Wh eli producing design roughs, decide wh lch fabrics an d trims yo ur garments arid contacting factories that supply via mail order, For specific fabrics, look 011 the Internet, Always ask to see a sample and check that you like the way the fabric handles before buy: ng, Artach

small pieces of your chosen fabrics to your designs as YOLi draw. to enable you

10 see which

fabrics and designs

complement

each ether. When dcsigntng,

avoid how

prlrtraying

flat, lifeless fabric. Instead, sec it as three-dlmensional,

consldering

il will drape and hang all. the body Take into account any embellishments you might add, For example, if you intend to embrolder ormanipulate (he fabrics, add
c)i.pel'imcntal The design
nul

samples
1'0

10

yom

design roughs. tbe differences between the fabrics in both which only have that allows This method collection often the texture of the knlt using many close, wavy

ugh (facing page) shows has drawn

fits dearly, This student

Iines in direct contrast To develop you totrace adapting

to the smooth

fabric of the other garments,

paint applied in the areas 01" shadow.
your designs, use a layout pad, This is a pad of thm paper underneath the related template encourages about outlines, ideas easily Place a template design but keeping of designmg a page and design over the top,

the original 'this process

or working
ncpeanng

not only saves you time, but allows you to see the range doveloplng. over a template declslons a cohesive

or designs.
(;~111

At the rough-design lise a limited palette shades

stage, stan making when building

colour, Designers harmonize

a range so that colours

and outfits usiug subtle

be co-ordinated. The design roughs
of

(below) have been pamted

wurercoloui
highlights,As designs produce
VQL1I

creams

and browns,

with greens ami pi nks acting as your ideas will flow like these, and your Importance should be placed on the on
These [Ieslgns are all drawn onto fairly
unrealistic propornons

you produce rather fashion

design roughs

should

be linked by colour and shape. illustration,

clothes themselves, a polished

than on the figure, At this stage you should

not aim to all attention

flqures.

Howevel',

tile

smal!

of ths heads Il@lp to emphasize

rather

an image (hat focuses

tile exeqqerated in t!-Ie collection.

size of the padded qarments
Walgl'colour has been usetl

designs.
into a range. As you select outfits, through your choices. Repetition The designs overleaf you will is an design themes running

The next step is 10 build your designs notice common important variatlons necklines tool in creating of a similar change a cohesive

to add detail to the deslons and to sUQQesl 8 CoIQ~II'1J~lette for the range. The paint runs
and splashes perfecting out it d()e~n'l

seem

to matter,

collection.

sbow how

TI1is student did not spend hours rr eticulouslv
the fi~ure5 rcuqns or a painting captures

gurrnent

have been tried. Sleeve lengths

vary, and the

style, vet

In tile !%slgn

til@ cliaracter

with each design. To encourage

your ideas I"() flow like this, try

of tile collection,

(1~~ ~ -,"<, ',;:---_

(
(\ I

)
I
"j

! II
~

I

ij!\
.....

\1

{I

\

sketching about six garments on one theme. For example, incorporate frills into H series of garments. changing one feature with each r1!:)W design. Repeat this process or design experimentation until you have a store or fashion designs from which you can build your range. The easiest way to make a selection fur your range is to layout all your design roughs and choose the outfits that look good in their own right, but which also sit well with others when mixed and matched. You may need lu include a selection of balanced separates such as skirts. tops, trousers. dresses and outerwear. A complete, interchangeable wardrobe such as that shown below, in which gann ems work in harmony with each other, is often the ideal. When you have built your range, draw it onto one page so that it can be easily viewed as a complete coli cnon, Depending on the size uf yOUI' I'ange, you may need to reduce your designs on a photocopier or scanner to fit them ontu ;:1 single page. Think creatively about how to present your collection at this stage because it is the tirst time you me telling its story, The images on the fa ing page show various

7!1

AlJe)li!'
These design developments hsve been presented

In all unusual stvle: joined in the centre by a split
pin, the outfits can be fanned out and

rearranged

to clscover which look good
Iii,,/!!
These design rapetltlve options. Is

together.

rough, show the

benefit

of r.letail such

clesiqn in exploring

dlffel-ent

Note how the basic shace or sleeves

or the top

tile

same throuqhcut,

yet small slements cllan(Je with eaen

as the neckline

new deslqn,

TOil
This collection uncomplicated backqround IJd/OW

line-up
patterns

is shown subtle

in a clean. colours <Inc! designs,

style with

e"r'lancino the

.

,

-

FOI' clarity

of unnerstendinq, is acccrnpanled

this fashion

".

,

illustraticn
~• I

p.

1'i,.J

j

garl'T1ents, TI,e preciston
Md allows the illustration

flat designs 01 the of the tlats (see next

by

page) enhances understanclno

or

the designs

to be Freer In style.

1

~I

!{ J \

I

l

J\

I l /,

J\

~..2... .

r
,\

,,~

,'" _:I

\ :,l

'"

.'\' .

I
.'

,t,.
~


<t ":
I

75

"" "" '"
LLI Q

~.

IMl/~V
L

---~ -1J?,
\, ',-

r-[
~ ~,
!
1"

"'" 52
~
0

I '\-'-~'
-o;~_""-

'_"

/

, ,

'\

"
,1

,
". ....

,

"I
\.1
I

'" '" c= "" e
~
Z

.1

......

"" "" ... "" ....

methods of displaying 0 collection. The tlrst i 111 age (top) pres nts the range in a simple but offcetlve outllt llnc-up. Background paucrns and colour choices arc subtle but clearly emphasize a cohesive collection, The whole collection has hecn prescn ted 011 one page, a nd Ihe viewer can clearly see h ow the outfi ts fi t log ither. The poses are simple, with various stances showi I1g off the front of the garments. and the back views could be treated in the same way on anotherpage of your portfolio, The second im,\ge shows both the front and back views of the garment, and focuses Oil the clothes in greater detail. The figL~n~ accornpurued is by Hut designs, which allow the viewer a bcucr understanding 01' the shape or the garments, Even the pattern detail or the fabric has been emphasized in the circles, The block or colour III the bottom or tile page gives it grounding, ensuring that th -. figures look as if they are standing on the floor rather than floating in mid-air.

FLATS AND SPECIFICATION

DRAWINGS

76

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:!! <=I

Ej ..,., ""
LL.

'" ~
;::::

"" "" ~ :3 "" ..,.,
LU

o

'"' c::
"-

OPJl(),silU, {()p lell Flat desi~ns can <lISObe done on the computer, servlnq the same purpose as hanc-drewr fl~ls in allowlr q the d~,lgnei' to explaln teClinical aspects of the garments. ()PIJOsi/(!, {oJ} righ.! All accurate spe,ificalloll o'r a eeat drawn to scale has been worked ustnq Fim>lim'rs of varying thickness. Marl? complex ports of H,e C]al'!w~rit, such as the couar, are clearly explained.

Opposite. be/oil!
A mach example of an Industry-style

specIIIC<it!on sheet produced using CAD/CAM software, based on th~ SC!lle driJwlng above it.

A variety ofterrns are used lO descrrbe the drawing 01' II detailed garment specification, Fluts.working (or technical) drawings, specs (or schematics) all describe the dlagrammanc styles of represenrlng an Item of clothing. They ,11"e twodimensional drawmgs of garment construction, showing front, back and side views with technical descriptions, They also show design detalls such as topstirching, trims and pockets, This style of lim wing ls most often used to accompany a lashron illustration, giving the viewer more Information about how the garment is made to back up its visual description, Wc saw (on p. 75) how the Hats interpreted the lllustratlon. Without them, it would be difficult to imagine the shapes that make up the outfit, Some designers actually WOI'k out their design roughs in this way if they find it easier to design ranges flat, rather than on a figure, in order to consider technical aspects <IS they work The image (facing page, top left) shows a series 01'11at designs, created on computer. accompanying an illustration. Drawings for Hats should be clean, sharp <Inc!precise, This style of accurate drawing is difficult for those who like to draw freely using sketchy lines, Practise drawing clothes lrom yourwardrobe and, to enhance your understanding of'your own designs, from your design roughs, coo. You wlll learn about the coustruction of garment details by drawing 1 hem. In parucula I', pracuse drawing more complicated details such as Li'OLiSOI' seats, collar revers, pleats, pockets and unusual sleeves. The simplest way to produce a nat ls to sketch a garment in pencil, then draw over the top in black ink. ['or this purpose, buy a set of FiIidiners made up olthree different nih rhicknesses. Use the heaviest to outline the garment, the medium line for the garment structure and the Ilncst to emphasize the details, Tho working drawings (facing page, top right) [(]I' a coat have hoen created In this way, its seams and topstuching clearly idontified on both the front ami back views ..A detailed sketch shows a close- Lip of the collar const ruction and the bu non position ing luddan beneath the lapel. Notice that the proportions are or a realistic body size-scale and accuracy are rmportant for the purpose of this type ofdrawing and exaggeratloo is 110t appropriate, In industry and the commercial world, the details lndtcarcd in the Ilal are also shown in a more precise version known us a spec (specification), or schernarlc, drawing, for this, a garment's COITCCt specifications a 1.'8 mapped OI../t 10 the last millimetre, Accurate measurements are added to the drawing, along with details about lining, inms, threads. F1.I.~i.J1g fastenings. A sample specification sheet used and in factories [such as the one on the lacing page, below) will even have mcnculous derails about darts, pleats, pocket placement, pattern matching, hems, buttonholes <mel prossing, Compiling this inforrnurion 011.1 sheet, with n detailed spec, means a sample muchinist is able La make a garment simply ['1'OITI the lnformau 0 n provided. Creating the design from an HIUSIL'Htjon would be almost impossible, with the machlrust havtng LOmake crucial decisions about Ihll garment consuuctlon that could differ from the designer's ideas, Specs provide 11 safety net tor all and eliminate the possibility of errorThey me also viral ill the costing process, F["()!1l. spec, a it is possible to work (Jut ull the mmerlals required 1.0 make H gHrment ami cost its production accordingly Much of this informutlon ls compiled using n computet system often known as CAD/CAM (computer-alden dcslgn/computer-aided manufacture), CAD/CAM systems speed up many or the manual-design procedures and uperate speclallst-rnanulacturlng machinery efficlen tly, Specific training is required to be a CADJCAM operator, but with ~V(~i'y detail ofthe garment logged, it should be simple enough ['01' the garment to be produced anywhere in the world.

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These
fashion designs,

ligures

Me ldeal Inr

sl10wing

certa.n

FASHION~DESIGN
As a fashion-design

PRESENTATION
you are expected.
011

qarrnents,

such

<IS street"

or sporlsweM,

student,

completion

ofa

project

brief

but would be lnapp-cprlate for more formal such as tailorinq or worl~wear,
O,Jposite, top /ej"i

to present

not only a fashion lllustrai ion but all the design work leading lip to it, in a portfolio. If YDU have planned carefully (hen the same COIDUI' palette, characters,
media and so on

will

have been used to work through

the project,

building

011tl~is meed board are displayed some of tile defining images that determined the collectlen d~sl9ns shown In the Iollcwinq pictures. Notice the linl15 between element~ on tile mood board ano Ule fll1isl,ed garments" Opposite,
Tne front

a cohestve project

theme

for the final artwork. {facing page) show a select: on ofpieces lt is possible to establish The mood board displays some defining from a design student's some common images

The four images the work together. influenced

brief, rmrnedtatety

fearures
that have

chat Ii 11k

un: centre
and beck views of the

csrments

are

designs. The same character runs throughout all Yom pieces, A similar colour palette links the artwork, and the computer bas been used
throughout The promotional fashlon

the collection

OI"<lWI1 to Si)flCif[COItiM, image showing 011tile figure,

with a small thumbnail

Illustra

uon doc" nor rcqu ire accurate and describing

front

and back of' each about.

whet the qarrnant will look llks

views of the garments, outfit in the collecnon, of [he customer

as the designer Creating

has produced

spcclflcations the personality professional.

an atmosphere

0P/JIJ.\·illJ, top right
This illustration, of tll~ customer accompanies fOI" eaeh cI@scribill~J the Pfll'son"lIltv

who will weal' the clothes is crisp, original

is what this ill ustra lion is primarily and, most importantly,

The overall presentation
LO

who
in

will wear tile clothes, specifications collection,

tile ac(ural.e

When you work i)1 the industry one specific style of presentiug

as a designer,

you will have to make presentations
10 realize

o\!trlt

the

buyers lrom all types of companies,

It doesn't take long
designs

that. if you have
[0

your fashion

and always stick

it, you will company

o!Jr}(}Sitf, ['elute
The fashion collectlon linll@d Ilas I~@en presented six outfits that the use of B sirntlar the pose provides as ~ cleer 1111e"llp, leaturinG are stylistically fiQ"re slight

soon be out of a job! Be adaptable

in your approach presentation

1.0 you]' work. For example,

the fun FlgUtes below are highly appropriate but not for a tail Dring firm" YOUI' design by a client's market,

for a street-,

surf- or skatewcar always be driven

by template, Altel'ing

should

variations,

7fl

__ a

iilil.

C:W~TOIr1Ul~lo:rmVlLUlc.L~

-s-

nn, (III

1111....(:kIIlO· an n~

Alit:. !:iU~l:tirtClI I'Oli

MI!.NI

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I:.r-rl!t:! ri(!n.'lI:l:tt ~V('Gr8'fLO /III!) ~rauin(1 utif.lIJR TH~ 1,I!IOi\'J. ~,.AtI(lAI1D~ or ~.rl:fJiC[
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or rJ!lm:.~1

1I1'Vt11 ,run ~I tli " .,,,. "'I'~~I

m~'f IH! !:IIICa-vGllld, llntal'fM'''' r::_.'r\.gIIlIlo,,'" ~I lilftl .(r'I'~I"iI,,1 In I', (I,I'{1 ,.,~ Lot

\Wik fa
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Tilt

30

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t<:

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o u,

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An illustration aimed at sQlling all ountt one

should

give

the buyer comprehensive
in a clear layout-this

8 ...,
"" ......
"-

information

...

answers Its purpose IJerfectlY.
Rig/II
B~ lrnaqlnative remember is presented recetpts that in YOLlr' thsre presentation, 81'1Cl are ITIEiny alternatives of old

to the blank white and bills.

page, This final clesil;Jn

011 top 01 a collection

The layout 01' the design board (above left) ls easy tor a buyer to understand. clearly on a figure, but also the from and back details on small flats, The fabrics for the garments have been scanned on computer and could be presented to the buyer 011 separate labrlc cards. An oval background frames the designs, allowing the viewerto focus on each outfit. This final design (above light) is enlivened by the humorous approach of usl 11 go Id recelp rs and bi lis from the auturnotl ve world instead of a blank page 1'01' the background. The stance of the figure conjures a relaxed mood for the collection. Detailed specs describe the front views of the garm nts. Don't forget to include back views too, because a buyer' requires every garment consrrucrlon detail. Always provide rhe viewer with as much informal ion about yOUI' designs U{5 possible. The presentation ofyour fashion designs could mean the dlllercnce between securing a job 01' not. It is vital that you adopt a professional approa '11 to your work 01 all limes.
It shows the nutfit

ISTORICAL ND ONTEMPORARY ASHION LLUSTRATION

5

TI;c story o!fashiorl illustration is one ojchanee. 'turougl: the lasr century alone, distil ic; changc« in lllustratioe styles, cuul the p(JjJu In rity of the illustratedfigure, haue taken place, D~tlere/ll drawing siyh~s haue emerged, encouraged by the development ofnetu media. Fashions have evolve: CO/IS/[! ntiy and the representation of 1II(>.f(r shion .figurr<has altered dramaucalty. This chapter will examine '~I)IIYthese changes occurred and, more signijican tty, how slyles/iNn I PCISI still influenc« illnSII'(IWr8' work mda)" he

THE BEGINNINGS

OF FASHION ILLUSTRATION

'I'hroughout the centuries, artists have been insplrcd by costume and I'abl'ic, Fashion Illustrators have depicted the latest lushiuns, publicizing not only the garments but their creators, A~ early as the mid-seventeenth century the detailed and descriptive etchings by Wenceslaus Hollar represented the beginnings u[fushi()11 il I !,nW8 ti on. 13y the eighteenth century, Fashion ideas began to circulate via newspapers and magazines in Europe, Russia and North America, The first engraved fashion plates were published in The Lady's Magazine in 175\:Jand, by the nineteenth century, technical lrn provernents in print meant fashion, and the outward expresslon of wealth it conveyed, was never out of the pJ.'~S8, t\1 the turn of the twentieth century, fashioll illustrators were strongly influenced by art movements such a~ Art Nouveau, Art Deco nne! Surrealism. These were instrumental in determining new styles 01' illustration, During the same period, artists such as MaliRSO, Degas, [lali and Toulouse-Lautrec demonstrated a keen interest in what their subjects wore, Their work also had n vast impact. on the WHy that fashions were illustrated.

PRE-1900s
82

Before the turn or the twentteth ceuuny, Alphonse Mucha and Charles Dana Gibson 1.1Hd both begun 10 make their names for painting beautiful women, and would go 011 (0 become famous illustrators of fashion in the new century Their drawings had a profound effect un llli~ lasluons of the time, Alphonse Mucha created posters in the style ofArt NOlIVt)(lU with ~wil'ling, nuatiii g and twisting lin es, and derailed pattern s. Mucha's women were langukl. with flowing hair and drumauc elegance, and many society women tried to imitate the beauties he portrayed in their styling and dress hi the ~i1rjie way, others

(Ilarles Dana Gibson Illustrated for INIt;)OIZiI18S such as 'IIm(', UF' and /-/(11'1)('1':;' Bnzoar, but it

was tile creation of tile "Gibson Gil-I" that meds
hirr most famous, This cl1aracter was tall and slandsr, and said to be based on hls li10l'OLlqllly modern wile, She was realized on stene endorseo products for rnsnu'acturars ~1l(1 even inspired 50ng5, Women evervwhere tried to ellll.ll<lle tlw "Gibson Girl" by cOpyill1;J 11@1[10111(15, hairstyles and rner-nerlsrns, This truly snows tile intlusntial power ottashlon illustrat'on at the time,

Puchoir Images from tile Mali Les Chosen de PUII.I
PO(!'e/

by Georges l.epape. This technique
stencilling

of

simple

ortctnated

in

Jape/i,

I
/

.. I

II

1\\

'.I

I, /.1,\, '

........

"1

!

I

1)3

emulated the clothes, hairstyles and mannerisms of the tall slender "Gibson Girl" Cleated by Charles Dana Gibson, Gibson fi.I"SIworked with paper cut-outs and
silhouettes before becoming such as famous fur his pen-and-ink drawings, He illustrated rut' magacines

Time, Li;{eand Harper's Bazaar

THE EARLY 19005
I'h8 First 30 years or so of the twentieth
C81Tllll'Y

were the golden

years for rash Ion

illustration, These were the decades before the photographer and camera took. over the task of showing fashion to the world, In the cady 19008, illustrators such as Leon 11~lht and P,lLIJ Iribe captured the true spirit of the new fashion trends ami portrayed thorn in an individual mariner, conveying the mood and hopes of the tlme,
The elaborate An Nouveau, come, Tbrough influencing Ballets Russes ami its costume designer, challenging influenced Leon Bakst, introduced the subtle fashion shades of

brightly coloured oriental fashions to the world,
The vivid colours the couturier highlighted means

of his drawings

Bakst; an enthusiasm

for Orientnlism

for years to was introduced to fashion,

in the colourful fashion

Paul Poiret to produce his innovative designs. These feature Illusrrattons of Georges Lepnpe, many ofwhlch were line through finely cut stencils, today, This technique,

drawings,

with watercolour of

known as pochoir, originated
still a popular

in Japan, Stencilling

is a simple form of' printing

that I:;

adding

colour to <:111 illustration

". I."""
'''' ~ _ i ...

r,~ -

N

,

'-

I,,~h I ""

I

I"

I

U'jt
Jeanne Lanvln walklnq dress (1914) for La (;tl.zetlu (Iu bon tou by Pierre Bris5aLiCl, til cousin of Georges 6~rlller and another advocate of the /me/wi!' style, His illustrations often contained more tlclM one fl~llre anc depicted social scenes. l1ig/1I Todav's illustrators are also Icnu of 5110wing U1~ir fashion flqur~s 111 busy snvironrnant. Marcus Chin's lllustration shows a weu-cressee WOI1r"n at a music 1)1<;1 sipping iJ glass of wine. surrounded by other revellers,

THE TEENS
Coruemporarl S of the illustrators discussed above, .eorges Barbier and Pi ITe Brissaud were French illustrators working for all early fashion magazine called La Gazette chi bon ton, eventually acquired by Conde asr, Many of the Illustrators later went on to work rm the COIll parry's prestigious fashion magazine, Vogl.J(? GeoJ'ges Barbier was the chief illustrator, His style owes much to oriental ballet, theatre and the sinuous lines of Art Nouveau. I Ie also g'eatly admired the work of Aubrey Beardsley, whose influence can be seen in Barbier's strong outlines and bold figures, The lllustrative styles or the decade From 1900 to ]:-)10 were landmarks in the development of twentieth-century illustrauon. Many illustrations now showed
fashions illustrators. illustration, in busy social scenes, including a trend followed by some of toduy's fashion Marcus Chin, AI'I"0 co design also began to feature heavily in ubist geometry influenced IhH work of iiiustrators such as Charles Martin. Similar Cubist shapes were rcvlsired in the 19808 by fashion iJIlIStT810l'S such

B4

,I

and

as Mats Gustafson

and I .o 1'10 11;.'.0 Mattatnui.

The ~,'il'SI World War had a significant tmpact on fashion illustration. Printed journals and magazines declined as a vehicle Iorlashion Illlustratlon, but the film industry grew dramatically During this decade Illany tashion and costume designers for stage and film hit the headlines, the most famous b Ing a Russian-boru painter known as nne. Perhaps b st known for his elaborate costumes at the Polies RCl'gel'es in Paris, Ertc '1150 designed mn ny lavish COSlLIll1.BS 1'0], American movies. His life's ambition to become a fashion illustrator was lul ltllcd when he signed up with I-larper's Bazaar, where he continued to COIl tribute fashion drawings Fur the next 20 years.

paz

THE TWENTIES
WOI'ldW",-1'W'tS a period of great social upheaval, which had n drurnauc [nfluence on culture and the arts, The emancipation of worn en resulted in a new rem ale image that rejected unnecessary flounces of fabric and impractical ornate Irills, Two of the most influential women in the fashion world at this time were Coco Cilanellmd Madame Vlonner, Chanel's simple styles, teamed with compulsory cos nunc jewellery, and Vlonnet's bias-cut dresses defined a new era, Both designers opened shops in 'lhls decade and went on 1.0 clothe WOl11011 for many 1110re, Until the twenties, the illustrated fashion rtgure had been drawn with fairly realistic proportions. However, as artwork and fashions became simplified, angular und linear in (he twenties, so too did the fashion silhouette, Illustrations now f[>utured longer and leaner figures Exaggermed fashion figures appeared in the works ofEduardo Garcia Benito, Guillermo Bolin, George Plank, Douglas Pollard, lIclen Dryden and John Held Ir, In his many memorable covers for Vogue in the I wsntles, Benito captured the essence of the strong, cmanclparsd women that epiLomized the decade, His figures were elongated and somewhat abstract In style, appeuring In graphic designs enhanced by subtle colour contrasts. The "flapper' became an tcouic figure of the "roaring twenties", The cartoons of 101111 Held )1' du ri ng the "jazz age" adorned the covel's of The New Yorker ami Life mugnzlne. His style, featuring l'urHly dancing cartoon characters wil h bright backgrounds and humorous scenes, is sU11mlmicked today, and contemporary illustrators such as Stephen Campbell use character and humour ill their fashion illustrations 100,
111CFirst

fJl'lflwlr,!' The Cartoons of John Held Jr became iconic in the "roaring twenties" ane ancrned tile covers of society magazines, Belou. riglll Modern i uustrators SljCI1 as Steljh8n Campbell use personality and cttaractor to show off fashionable clothes, Campl)ell'5 preferred tool is the computer to create his popular cartoons,

BS

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,

't'" ,'i

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1'0

r-

THE THIRTIES
The beginning of the thirties saw lash ion magazines truly utilize fashion illustration, in both editorial and adv rtising formats. The fashion silhouette returned to a more realistic Icrnlnine form, and drawil1g line, were sutter, textural ami curved, A new romanticism was reflected in tile illustrations of Carl Erikson, Marcel vcrtcs, francis Marshall, Huth Crafstrom, Hene Bouet-willaumez and Cedi Beaton, Carl Erikson, known ,IS Eric, ernerg 'd in the thirties as a remarkable draughrsman who would become an influential fashion illustrator fbi.' th next three decades, Eric represented every detail of garmants wilh the lightest of'brusbsrrokes. An advocate of observing the human figure and capturing the beauty of real life, de drew only fro 111 life, never memory. vertes worked for Harper's Bazaar and Vnnily Fail; his illustrat ions chnra 'Iel'i<;ed by an economi ·ttl use of line and colour, lie also illustrated the advertising campaign fo; Schlaparelli perfumes. Todayfreelance lushlon illustrators still work for adveruslng companies: the image (above rlgh L) is all ndverusement Ior the UK high. street retailer, 'Iopshop, by David Downton, Cecil Beaton contributed amusing fashion sketches and cover designs to Vogue throughouttho thirties but be arne most famous for Oscar-winning costume designs for stag and screen, and his photogrnphs of Hollywood actresses, Towards the end of the thirties, the fashion photographer began to overtake the lllustraror as [he camera replaced the pauubrush as tho lavoured means of advertising fashions.

A/lOOt!

Ivji Eric, cover of British Voglle, 2 September 1936, Schiapareltl's tlarninq I'ed velvet hat anc cara ul [Iamb's wooll scarf streaked with blue-green owe their wit and inspiration to trll? SwrreOlilsts witll whom she was closely involved, Eric's association with V01:!rrf" lasted fOI' many y~ars, on both stdes

of rne Atlantic, Ahove rwht
Fashion illustrators still contricuts to advertlslnq todllY, This i,,,a~e shows an illustrative advcrtlslnq campaign lor ropsnop, by D<lvid Downton, Promotional postcards festurino his work w@r@available in ths store for customers

THE FORTIES
Dming the xecond world Well', many European tashlon illustrators went to the United States. where there were more work opportunities, and SOllie never returned. The early pan of the decade saw illustration styles corui nulng in the same romantic vein they had embraced ill the thirties. Dominating forties fashion illustration, along with Christian Berard and Tom Keogh, were thr c il lustra tors who coincidentally shared

to take

c

way

c

s a keeosake,

137

the na me Rene, Rene liollet- willaumcz worked 1'01'Vogue i 11 llit: th lrties but continued throughout tho lortles, uslng an Expressionist style influenced by Eric, R(')IH~ Bouche began illustrating exclusively in black and white, though in his later illustrat ions he developed a strong sense of colour, I-II:;decisive and accu rate drawing style W~IS derived from strict observatlnn, ami his images often appeared spread across double-page Vogue editorials. Rene Gruau is perhaps best known tor crentlng tho udverusemerus 1'0I' Cl1l'18Li<ll1
Dior's "New look.", establishing
<1

l.i>ji Rene 8ouet,WiliauITlez was intluencstl by Eric, but l"I~finli'd Ills own stVle tl1rOliCjrl E![iliEmtLJI'CUS use of colour, swift, sharp hatchinq and viqorous
Sll~dlll~, HI~

ulustratlons hsd

a orarnanc

5@nSe

of style and commanded ["'ti! iI' for many vssrs, ;1 I) fI!IC'

space on the pacas of

professional

relationship

with the Dk)1 design

house that lasted more than 50 years, TIe painted in a bold style, influenced by Picasso and Matisse, using black brushstrokos to outline the lorrn, minimal detail but a generous amount of movement and shape. Gruau's style gives the illusion of ~Jlelxl find hastlness. However, he adrniucd that he completed at least 30 preparatory sketches before creating an illustration.A leSSOI1 to us i111.

Rem! Bouclle had a firm and accurate drawing style 1I10lt d(1rivecl from strict ebservatlon. He used pen and ink or craven. and clsvarlv rnerqsd the character of me garments willi tMt or the wearer, as ill this exarnpla frol111945, BOLlchi2 had a strong S~ilge of colour aM he passed on his Imowleclge to Iashion illusf ratinn students at tile Parson's School of Deslgli In New YIiIII, where 118taugl1t during the tortlas

Ij]~S 111\111 SI]~N~)~S

THE FIFTIES
Following the war, the fifties were a time ofduvclopmeru and increased ullluence. Technological advances introduced plastic. Vel TO and Lycru. creating for illustrators the challenge of representing new synlh it!c fabrics, The glamorous lire depicted in the movies and on television showed up-to-date images or beauty and the use of illustration began to decline, However, many illustrators from previous decades continued to work in the llfties. while new artists slIch as Kiraz and Dagm.<ll' arrived

on the scene.

de Kil·az

\
III~N()iiJ,

A self- trai ned artist, Kiraz, who emerged in the G[lies, still illus tratcs fashion today, From Cairo, he moved to Paris WhCl'C he drew sexy, sophisticated Parisians as cartoon-style characters, His method ofillu rraring personality as well as fashion has influenced many contemporary illustrators such as Jason Brooks, who draws gorgeous comic-book girls with character. Dagmar had a simple, clear-cut and dir ct approach to representing fashion, She worked at Vogue for 20 years, her modest graphic approach dlstlngulshlng her from some of her predecessors,

THE SIXTIES
In the "swinging sixties", youth culture was predominant, and being young, caretr e and abandoned was the lashlonable ideal. The emergence ofthe teenager in the late fifties meant that rash ion acquired a younger, modern look, Illustration poses altered from demurs to witty and dynamic, However, the fashion illustrator had b ~ .oms l ss lmportan l lhun the photographer for magazlnes, so much so that photographers and models became cclcbrhlcs in their own right. IUSl one illustrator shone like the stars of lllusrrarion trorn prevtous decades= Antunlo l.opcz .. IIJ:,;vcrsatillty mcunt rhut hewent on to Illustrate for the next three decades, but il was in the hedonistic slxtlcs that he truly made his mark 'through his illustrations he portrayed the rebellious attitude 01' the young generutioo and reflected [ushlun us it look centre surge in this colourful, visual decade, His wide imagination led him to experiment in every possible style using u wealth of media and techniques, Each season he tried a new illustrative te i1niqu!.:, discurdlng styles us they be '{[IlII,; popular and were luken lip by 0 thers, He WHS, and still is, a great inllucnce 011 fashion illustrators,
/'/'0111

Illl
iil:

o
V>

~ ,""

:: ::

trip

Kiraz is a selt-tr'C1ined artist who emerged in the fifti@s. TI1@sexy, sophisticated 1.<:.'/>(Il'isl('lilil-'S cartoon characters from his boo cs became his
lraden-ark, as seen ill this CQVGr of 1953, and

11estill i llustrates
JaSOrl

Isshlon

today,

Brooks WOI'IIS c!igitally, yet draws trorn rnttuences such as KII-az to capture his Infamous corntc-book Qirls, This is a computergenerated flier fOI- the London nightclub Pushca.
historical

Cippostu:

In the lleclol1is(ic
illustl-ations

sixties,

Mtonio

Lopez's

showed

tlw rebellious

attitudes

1110111011 of

tile CJeller~tlo", His hUCJeIrnagillatlon meant that Ile drew ill everv style possrblc. using a wQaltll of meola and technlquea. Here, we see how the
backqround and Iurnlture play just as an

important part in his 1964 artworj

as the flQul' ,

1

Bfl

An illustration vtramontes for Valentino

in watorcclevr tcr an snvertlstnc couture.

by

Tony

campaign

90

TH E SEVENTI ES
fushlon editorials and advertising, and was joined by n v'"!i'iely or new illustrutors influenced by Pop An and IJsyched ella. In (he curly part of the decade, lllustratlons lcaturcd dramatic COIOUl"R and hold patterns, New ideas were developed by illustrators such us Lorenzo Mauatottl, Mats Gustafson and Tonyvirurnontes, WhUSl! striking images began to make their mark in the lushion world, By the latter pan of the seventies a highly finished leal ism emerged in illustration. This is evident in the WOJk 01' David Rcmfrey, whose pen-ami-ink drawings coloured with a faint watercolour wash show realistically rendered women, The artists straightforward tech I', iquo captures the sexy; bold women 01' lhe eru, Remlrey most recently illustrared the successful Stella McCal'l'n~~y advertising: cnmpaign with nostalgic, seventies-inspired drawings,
Antonio Lopez coruinuod 10 WUI"k, however,

In the seventies,

photography

still dominated

THE E.lGHTIES
T]; eighties S<:lW the emergence ofa style so distinctive i.t seemed impossible that fashion illustration would not return with a vengeance. Tile large shoulders and harsh angles 0 Fthe fasluonubly dressed were crying out to be drawn by the great

.1

illusm\l:ors of the decade. Make-up was expressive, and poses were theatricalperfect excuse for fashion illustration to creep back into magazine",
Antonio Lopez once again answered his calling to epitomize innovative to produce the men and women work. images materials

[Jilile

time. He did so alongside

illustrators such as Zoltan, Gladys Perlnt Palmer and
and experimental a series of fashion or organic

l-'erIl<mdo Botero who were all producing Zoltan was one of the first illustrators I'fll1g1ng from three-dimensional to recreate

photo-drawmg

montages

to collage with found

[J1)jecb. He used fabrics. flowers, gemstones

and inorganic

fashlon In the same way that illustrators had previously become more Iibcral in their choice of artistic materials. Palmer illustrated for magazines and various advertising campaigns furVivienne Westwood. Oscar de In Renta, Missoni
and Estee Lauder. A well-known I'rcnch fashion
W,-IS

artist in the eighties, featuring

when asked to capture voluptuous

the

collections

Pernando

Bo tero did not alter his artistic large, rounded,

style. The result
women,

a series offashion

illustrations

lie confronted

the view that "fat" can never be "beautiful"

by illustrating

high fashion

wi th delightful

results.

m

zouan !;eC8IM rarneus for hls three-dlmenstcnal
nhoto-tlrawinn montages and ccllaoss of found objects. He reoresenlee fashion witl, a creative choice of artistic meterias.

;l1}()11('

THE NINETIES
Rounl"llwait@'s real people strast Idds show how, illustration

Graham to depict

bv the 18te olnstles, lashior

began

ratllG!!" than fOCljslnQ

solely 011 the perlectlon of fBshion models, fliglll The digital age could not
outlined than by

oe more cl",~r!y
Ja50n
Smalls, 8nd recoqnizeble

tile

work of

92

His Pushes fliers became collGctJilll;lS,
his illustrative

stvle Is tnstentlv

even When you only see I@gs and feet!

By the end of the rwenueth century fashion illustration was no longer considered the POOl' relation of photography but instead a credible rival to it. Illustrators such as Jason Brooks. Francois 13erthnlcl,. Graham ROLll1thwaiLc., Ican-Phillppe Delhomme and Mars Cusrafson spearheaded illustration's comeback. Berthold created a series offashlon illustrations [hal challenged previous styles, I-Ie presented cropped illustratious so that tile head, shoulders, calves ami feel were missing, The viewer's full attention was thus given [0 the garments illustruted. Computer-generated Images and digital technology ill the nineties signified
boom-time for illustration. There wore illustrutors who created small subcultures

followings: Brooks produced his cornputcr-geneuued fllers I'm r11 nigh (dub Pushca, and Rou t1til wai te created [I Sui of New York street kids Q generated on a Mac. 1[is ads tor Levi's were projected onto huge billboards on Ilw side of build ings-a true liign that illustration was back in town, Moreover, lllustrauons ofthe emerging, couture-dad superrnodols by the likes ol'Duvid Downton were splashed across eV()I'Y newspaper and rnagazlnc,

with iIH<:1t1Sefashionable

ONTEMPORARY ASHION ILLUSTRATION HOWCASE
t'lie turn of this cell wry has bnmghl abou: (j new world/hat reftoct« on the old, tmumatic terrorist euents and natural disasters haue encouraged soctety to craoe 1'1113 comfort anti safely uII /-Iepast. There is an increasing desire to look back to oldIus/doller/
J1t.iIJ£lI/.crls in technology
II II!!IO (IS

values and explore bygolle days. will always improve Wid develop the anisiic pelfon1'WIlCe
reiUI'II In

oljasnion iilustrators. bu! the
dl'(,tlrAl1g, em.iJroidel'Y
01'

safe traditional methods has brought about

w(JY to work, Today:~ illusuruots

lise esttibushed nandcrafted techniques sucii collage and mix them with ttieir digital c()wUerI7Uf'IS

to create a modern meduun. Th« iWX/' sectton prouides (til in-deptt, look at a selection ojcon temporaryfusiiian iltustuttotsfroni the twel1ty·firs/' century. [I focuses on their 1JC/I'iedlise a/media (lilt! examines the IUny Ihey clothe the body in an. Through II series ojquestions and (I/lSl.UOI'S, INc illustrators exnlain umat inspires them, hour lfteycrBClIe tnei: toork. tuul udiat it means to them to be a.fasiltun illustratov:

RICHARD GRAY

What. inspires you?
My inspirations according change constantly is appropriate worl(ing I am currently to whatever

if it means there are mistakes, is hornoqeneous, with spont neily,

rather than but

sornethinq that may appear perfect

I Ii lIe to be able to work

to the commission inspirational

on, However, 1 would say that music is very when it comes

to

creating

a mood tor wade P.J. Harvey, t.ernb and Patti Smith are always good to work to. The artworks Leonora beautiful Antonio of Aubrey Beardsley, mid Dupas, of Benitot
01"

What, for you.makes fasbtonillustratlcnt
Something illustrator's creativity personality,

it

successful of the by the work. without

truly reflective of a designer's

inspired

carrtnctcn illustrations

the

Erte anel Lopez, are very lnsclretlonet I am
trlends

losing the essence of either,

luckv enough to have very creative

What artlstic tralnlng have
you undertakenj BTEC National Diploma in General Art and College of Art Design €It Great Yarmouth Middlesex University.

who an,' klnd enough to model for me, To work with them on projects Is always completely inspil·ing and

a

real pleasure.

and Design, and BA Hons in Fashion at

Me you interested in fashion?
I am very interestecl I studled fashion and, altliOugl, lnterest, it was in la5111011 design. University lwavs quite obvious was my main a career in fashion it is not and at Middlesex

U you could give one piece of advi 'e to a student, what would it be1
A good career is made from luck and opportunity. as much as it is from talent. accessible support to those and use Malie your illustrations who can appreciate, your work,

that fashlon lllu tratlon happy to have followecl of my tllustratlon confined fashion ccstcners true creativity creative work.

I would have been perfectly

design. Fashion is still the main locus work, althouqh to tashlon by any means. Great with real intuition for ambitious are incredible to wOI'I; witl1.

Describe yourself and greatest achievement.
I am fortunate a successful enough

yOUI'

They are such S catalyst

to have made

career from something

I CJreatly enjoy doing,

Describe your work,
My work is very narrative, logic of it is always apparent portfolio I have never felt it necessary worlling i 11 so many different whether the or net, My to confine ways.
lIse'{

has a broad range of styles in it.

rnvs If to a single style, when I enjoy

Which media and techniques do you
I use gouaclle, computer around, pencil. airbrush,
WQI'I\,

CollalJe there
WOI"II

and ink. I resolutely to do my is some incredible

do not use the AltllOUgll cornouter-basec

1 really need to plwsically

d raw to

a pencil line, or paint <t brushstroke, the plwsical creation of artwork,

make those clyn mlcs. I Il1UCl1prefer to see even

~'5

CLARK

PETER

What inspires Looliing

you? ancl 011 everything' From

what, for you, makes a successful
fashion [garment] illustration'? and hopefully adds movement in its execution. have to look One that gives a feel of tilE' hero and visual excitement What autsuc training you undertaken'[

everywhere

Tills Can fire one's imagination. gum on a pavement;

a cloud to a piece of squashed chewing colour next to colou r; Absolutely anything

or

people-watching,

looked at with an open eye. Are you interested is interesting in fashion? way clothes How different

I was given great encoursqement

Yes, the necessary constant changing
in itself-the sprinting, are worn or placed on a body can set one's imagination garments behaviour affect people and their is also fun.

and draw at p!'imary school. Secondary school then added belief in one's ability and also the first chance to deal with rejection. This was followed by a fabulous learning time of discovery at Manchester and technique

College of Art and Design. and animation

I then worked in television Describe you I' work.
I

in the UK and the USA befors developing collection of found my current Europe, workinq style in the UK and

U5~ a comprehensive

papers as my palette in my collages. These are coloured, patterned or textured

by
to a student,

their printed, written

0" worn surfaces.

With these media I "paint' my collages. I shade wlth density of print and create substance and movement with lines pluckec from old maps or manuscripts.

If you could give One piece of advice what would it be?

t.ook, draw and don't let anyone grind

you down.
Describe yourself Be patient-I'm andyour

My pieces try to Lise rnark-rnaktnu in an innovative and humorous wmy to create
a collection of clothinQ that exudes ella rscter and wit. Which media and techniques do yuu lise'? Paper collaqe is the source of my creativity. I prefer to use old paper and I prefer' tile colours and
USe fa bric

greatesl achievement,
not there yet'

because of the way that it can be manipulated, texture. I also occasionally

and metal, as nothing

is actually ruled out.

iP

87

.~
,I

-I
~

I

..,t,· ~i ..
I• ....., , I!

-I

"" --' "" --'
t;;;

REBECCA ANTONIOU

What inspires you?'
An eclectic mix of "gooel stuff", is up When my

Which media and techniques do yOllllse?'
I5redominantly Photoshop along with

eyes are open; anything

for

grabs"

p@nc;il, paper, photos, and fabric,

magazine any tiling

tsarsheets
I can scan

It's

<I

very cclcurtul

world

we

live in,

Basicallv

ill, sample and scrap" The computer

Are you Interested in l'ashiol11 My roots are ln teshlcn.
design for three designer

enables visually,

me to sample It's really

a lot it.

of things a collage

I studied fashion as a

like buildinq over

years and worked

and then painting

for seven, 50 really I came into illustration from a fashion perspective. Fashion, by natura, future is always about the

What, for you, makes a successful fashion lllustratlonz The same thinq that makes any
illustration you successful-it shculd make

and lool<lng aliead, so it's natural an lllustrator; to think in the same way. I'm always looking for something new, something different. From
for me. GIS a drawing illustrate standpoint. something it's much easier to when you understand

stop; make vou want to
II should a period style.

tear it

out

of CI magazine.
capture

evoke a mooel,

in time, or give you

~ sense of

out

overall image.

it

should

it, say how certain fabrics behave or how a garmell! would drape or fit. Willi Iashlon
illustration bit you definitely too. Without have to be a little this experience,

just be an arrestlnq

of a stylist today,

I don't

think my wOI-I, would be allY thing

What artistic training have you undertaken? One year in Fine Art at Nene
Northamptonshlre, Fasllioll

College,

like it is

Three years ill

Design at tile Kent Institute

98

Describe your work,
It's all amalgamation loved

of Art and Design,

of things,

I've always

the

beauty

and delicacy

of

Art

Nouveau spectrum,

and, at the other

end of 111e

the

bold

ness of constrvctlvlsn,
definitely

lf ycu could give une piece of'advice to student, what would it he? To not hold back, dOII't give yourself any

,I

In my work there's of each of

an element
patterns

boundaries,

It's easy to get lrnprtsored

these,

of intricate

and

by vcur
important

OWn style,

but artistically

it's
and

very qraphic

compositions,

I like to throw
all play

to I\eep pushinutcrward otherwise

a a

lot of elements nature

into my work. Colour, and ornamentation

developing,

your work just

texture,

becornes stO!gnont.
Describe yourself and
yO\II'

PSI"t. In the end. my

work

is a melting to see the influences,

pot greatest achievement.
I'm always restless for a new solution, and always searchlnq rve

and it's always interesting outcome

of all these different

of how you can bring opposites and create thing about something illustration

tog~tl'er
really

new. The wonderful is that there

cot

alot

more that yet

I WOint to do, 50 hopefully reschad my qreatsst

I haven't

are no boundaries.

achievement.

,

,
" '

,
{

.
" I

'l~~'~;
J

I ~~f
J \

.

\r,~

,(~

ROBERT WAGT

What inspires you?
Life. Are you inter sted in fashlcuj Not really.

What artistic training you undertaken? Art school (Minerva in Illustration

have Academy of Fine Art specializinQ

and Design, The Netherlands), and PhotoQraphy.

Descrfbe your work.
I think my Illustration fashion. graphics

If you could give one piece of adviee work has more
to a student. what would it be'? Never follow anvthlno, and do what you believe ill; it's in you, whatever you grasp for, You must 11<1ve love, insight and
GI

to do with style and gr'aphics than with I search for a solution in which stvllnq, wit. colours alid and so on are in perfect balance composition,

strong point of view.

with each other and create a sort of tension, Which media and techniques do Coll<lge, photoqraphv, computer, not necessarily

Describe yourself and your greatest achievement.

you use?

If I could describe

mY$elf, that would

ell-awing and in that order,

be my greatest achievement.

What. [01' you, makes a successful fashion illustration?

IO()

TilE' overall illustration

has to add getting

sornethlnc to the clothes without
a story and add atmosphere,

in the way of the tashlon It should tell

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