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70 Castings Practice: The 10 Rules of Castings

(a)
ingots for subsequent working, he was able to
look into the crucible and into the mould,
observing the transfer of the melt as the rotation
of the mould progressed. In this way he could
ensure that the rate of rotation was correct to
avoid any disturbance of the surface of the
liquid. During the whole process of the transfer,
careful control ensured that the melt progressed
by `rolling' in its skin of oxide, like inside a
Mould
Melting crucible rubber sack, avoiding any folding of its skin by
disturbances such as waves. The most sensitive
part of the transfer was at the tilt angle close to
(b)
the horizon tal. In this condition the melt front
progresses by expanding its skin of oxide, while
its top surface at all times remains horizon tal
and tranquil.
In the USA, Stahl (1961) popularized the
concept of `tilt pouring' for aluminium alloys
Metal level into shaped permanent mould castings. The
too low
Persistent
gating designs and the advantages of tilt pouring
Initial
surface oxide over gravity top pouring have been reviewed
Metal on
turbulence flow
brink of pour
and summarized in several papers from this
tube
Metal starts source (Stahl 1963, 1986, 1989).
pour at steep A useful `bot tom-gated' tilt arrang ement is
angle of tilt shown in 2.47c, d. Here the sprue is in the drag,
and the remainder of the running and gating
(c) system, and the mould cavity, is in the cope.
Care needs to be taken with a tilt die to ensure
that the remaining pockets of air in the die can
vent freely to atmosphere. Also, the die side that
retains the casting has to contain the ejectors if
they are needed. The layout in Figure 2.47c illus-
trates a unique benefit enjoyed by tilt casting:
a single operator can fill both pouring cups from
a large ladle prior to starting the tilt. Static
gravity casting would require two pourers to fill
two pouring basins.
In an effort to understand the process in
some depth, Nguyen and Carrig (1986) simu-
(d)
lated tilt casting using a water model of liquid
metal flow, and Kim and Hong (1995) carried
h1
out some of the first computer simulations of
Casting
the tilt casting process. They found that a
h2 Ingate combination of gravity, centrifugal and Coriol is
forces govern tilt-driven flow. However, for the
slow rates of rotation such as are used in most
Down-runner
or sprue
tilt casting operati ons, centrifugal and Coriol is
Cross
runner effects contribute less than 10 per cent of the
effects due to gravita tional forces, and could
therefore normally be neglected. The angular
Figure 2.47 Tilt casting process (a) Durville;
(b) Semi-Durville; (c) twin-poured tilting die (adapted velocity of the rotating mould also made some
from Nyamekye et al. 1994); and (d) outline of tilt contri bution to the linear velocity of the liquid
running system design at the critical moment that metal front, but this again was usually negligible
reaches the far end of the `sprue'. because the axis of rota tion was often not far
from the centre of the mould.
originally conceived by Durville, the metal is However, despite these studies, and despite
its evident potential, the process has continued
melted in the same crucible as is used for the tilt to be perfectly capable of producing copious
machine. No pouring under gravity takes place at volumes of scrap castings.
all. Also, since he was casting large, open-ended