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. The banking system of India should not only be hassle free but it should be able to meet new challenges posed by the technology and any other external and internal factors.For the past three decades India's banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit. The most striking is its extensive reach. It is no longer confined to only metropolitans or cosmopolitans in India. In fact, Indian banking system has reached even to the remote corners of the country. This is one of the main reason of India's growth process. The government's regular policy for Indian bank since 1969 has paid rich dividends with the nationalisation of 14 major private banks of India Not long ago, an account holder had to wait for hours at the bank counters for getting a draft or for withdrawing his own money. Today, he has a choice. Gone are days when the most efficient bank transferred money from one branch to other in two days. Now it is simple as instant messaging or dial a pizza. Money have become the order of the day. The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are as mentioned below:
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Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms after 1991.
To make this write-up more explanatory, I prefix the scenario as Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. Phase I
The General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Next came Bank of Hindustan and Bengal Bank. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established which started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders. In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935. During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures between 1913 and 1948. There were approximately 1100 banks, mostly small. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up with The Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949 as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. 23 of 1965). Reserve Bank of India was vested with
extensive powers for the supervision of banking in india as the Central Banking Authority. During those days public has lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath deposit mobilisation was slow. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal department was comparatively safer. Moreover, funds were largely given to traders. Phase II
Government took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. In 1955, it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scale specially in rural and semi-urban areas. It formed State Bank of india to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all over the country. Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in 1960 on 19th July, 1969, major process of nationalisation was carried out. It was the effort of the then Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. 14 major commercial banks in the country was nationalised. Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried out in 1980 with seven more banks. This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India under Government ownership. The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in the Country:
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1949 : Enactment of Banking Regulation Act. 1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India. 1959 : Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries. 1961 : Insurance cover extended to deposits. 1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major banks. 1971 : Creation of credit guarantee corporation. 1975 : Creation of regional rural banks. 1980 : Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore.
After the nationalisation of banks, the branches of the public sector bank India rose to approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11,000%. Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith and immense confidence about the sustainability of these institutions. Phase III This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in its reforms measure. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up by his name which worked for the liberalisation of banking practices. The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. The entire system became more convenient and swift. Time is given more importance than
money. The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from any crisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countries suffered. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, the capital account is not yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers have limited foreign exchange exposure.
Functions of Commercial Banks The functions of a commercial banks are divided into two categories: i) Primary functions, and ii) Secondary functions including agency functions. i) Primary functions: The primary functions of a commercial bank include: a) accepting deposits; and b) granting loans and advances; a) Accepting deposits The most important activity of a commercial bank is to mobilise deposits from the public. People who have surplus income and savings find it convenient to deposit the amounts with banks. Depending upon the nature of deposits, funds deposited with bank also earn interest. Thus, deposits with the bank grow along with the interest earned. If the rate of interest is higher, public are motivated to deposit more funds with the bank. There is also safety of funds deposited with the bank. b) Grant of loans and advances The second important function of a commercial bank is to grant loans and advances. Such loans and advances are given to members of the public and to the business community at a higher rate of interest than allowed by banks on various deposit accounts. The rate of interest charged on loans and advances varies depending upon the purpose, period and the mode of repayment. The difference between the rate of interest allowed on deposits and the rate charged on the Loans is the main source of a bank¶s income. i) Loans A loan is granted for a specific time period. Generally, commercial banks grant short-term loans. But term loans, that is, loan for more than a year, may also be granted. The borrower may withdraw the entire amount in lumpsum or in instalments. However, interest is charged on the full amount of loan. Loans are generally granted against the security of certain assets. A loan may be repaid either in lumpsum or in instalments.
ii) Advances An advance is a credit facility provided by the bank to its customers. It differs from loan in the sense that loans may be granted for longer period, but advances are normally granted for a short period of time. Further the purpose of granting advances is to meet the day to day requirements of business. The rate of interest charged on advances varies from bank to bank. Interest is charged only on the amount withdrawn and not on the sanctioned amount. Modes of short-term financial assistance Banks grant short-term financial assistance by way of cash credit, overdraft and bill discounting. a) Cash Credit Cash credit is an arrangement whereby the bank allows the borrower to draw amounts upto a specified limit. The amount is credited to the account of the customer. The customer can withdraw this amount as and when he requires. Interest is charged on the amount actually withdrawn. Cash Credit is granted as per agreed terms and conditions with the customers. b) Overdraft Overdraft is also a credit facility granted by bank. A customer who has a current account with the bank is allowed to withdraw more than the amount of credit balance in his account. It is a temporary arrangement. Overdraft facility with a specified limit is allowed either on the security of assets, or on personal security, or both. c) Discounting of Bills Banks provide short-term finance by discounting bills, that is, making payment of the amount before the due date of the bills after deducting a certain rate of discount. The party gets the funds without waiting for the date of maturity of the bills. In case any bill is dishonoured on the due date, the bank can recover the amount from the customer.
ii) Secondary functions Besides the primary functions of accepting deposits and lending money, banks perform a number of other functions which are called secondary functions. These are as follows a) Issuing letters of credit, travellers cheques, circular notes etc. b) Undertaking safe custody of valuables, important documents, and securities by providing safe deposit vaults or lockers; c) Providing customers with facilities of foreign exchange. d) Transferring money from one place to another; and from one branch to another branch of the bank. e) Standing guarantee on behalf of its customers, for making payments for purchase of goods, machinery, vehicles etc. f) Collecting and supplying business information; g) Issuing demand drafts and pay orders; and, h) Providing reports on the credit worthiness of customers. Different modes of Acceptance of Deposits Banks receive money from the public by way of deposits. The following types of deposits are usually received by banks: i) Current deposit ii) Saving deposit iii) Fixed deposit iv) Recurring deposit v) Miscellaneous deposits i) Current Deposit Also called µdemand deposit¶, current deposit can be withdrawn by the depositor at any time by cheques. Businessmen generally open current accounts with banks. Current accounts do not carry any interest as the amount deposited in these accounts is repayable on demand without any restriction. The Reserve bank of India prohibits payment of interest on current accounts or on deposits upto 14 Days or less except where prior sanction has been obtained. Banks usually charge a small amount known as incidental charges on current deposit accounts depending on the number of transaction. Savings deposit/Savings Bank Accounts Savings deposit account is meant for individuals who wish to deposit small amounts out of their current income. It helps in safe guarding their future and also earning interest on the savings. A saving account can be opened with or without cheque book facility. There are restrictions on the withdrawls from this account. Savings account holders are also allowed to deposit cheques, drafts, dividend warrants, etc. drawn in their favour for collection by the bank. To open a savings account, it is necessary for the depositor to be introduced by a person having a current or savings account with the same bank.
Fixed deposit The term µFixed deposit¶ means deposit repayable after the expiry of a specified period. Since it is repayable only after a fixed period of time, which is to be determined at the time of opening of the account, it is also known as time deposit. Fixed deposits are most useful for a commercial bank. Since they are repayable only after a fixed period, the bank may invest these funds more profitably by lending at higher rates of interest and for relatively longer periods. The rate of interest on fixed deposits depends upon the period of deposits. The longer the period, the higher is the rate of interest offered. The rate of interest to be allowed on fixed deposits is governed by rules laid down by the Reserve Bank of India. Recurring Deposits Recurring Deposits are gaining wide popularity these days. Under this type of deposit, the depositor is required to deposit a fixed amount of money every month for a specific period of time. Each instalment may vary from Rs.5/- to Rs.500/- or more per month and the period of account may vary from 12 months to 10 years. After the completion of the specified period, the customer gets back all his deposits alongwith the cumulative interest accrued on the deposits. Miscellaneous Deposits Banks have introduced several deposit schemes to attract deposits from different types of people, like Home Construction deposit scheme, Sickness Benefit deposit scheme, Children Gift plan, Old age pension scheme, Mini deposit scheme, etc. Different methods of Granting Loans by Bank The basic function of a commercial bank is to make loans and advances out of the money which is received from the public by way of deposits. The loans are particularly granted to businessmen and members of the public against personal security, gold and silver and other movable and immovable assets. Commercial bank generally lend money in the following form: i) Cash credit ii) Loans iii) Bank overdraft, and iv) Discounting of Bills i) Cash Credit : A cash credit is an arrangement whereby the bank agrees to lend money to the borrower upto a certain limit. The bank puts this amount of money to the credit of the borrower. The borrower draws the money as and when he needs. Interest is charged only on the amount actually drawn and not on the amount placed to the credit of borrower¶s account. Cash credit is generally granted on a bond of credit or certain other securities. This a very popular method of lending in our country.
ii) Loans : A specified amount sanctioned by a bank to the customer is called a µloan¶. It is granted for a fixed period, say six months, or a year. The specified amount is put on the credit of the borrower¶s account. He can withdraw this amount in lump sum or can draw cheques against this sum for any amount. Interest is charged on the full amount even if the borrower does not utilise it. The rate of interest is lower on loans in comparison to cash credit. A loan is generally granted against the security of property or personal security. The loan may be repaid in lump sum or in instalments. Every bank has its own procedure of granting loans. Hence a bank is at liberty to grant loan depending on its own resources. The loan can be granted as: a) Demand loan, or b) Term loan a) Demand loan Demand loan is repayable on demand. In other words it is repayable at short notice. The entire amount of demand loan is disbursed at one time and the borrower has to pay interest on it. The borrower can repay the loan either in lumpsum (one time) or as agreed with the bank. Loans are normally granted by the bank against tangible securities including securities like N.S.C., Kisan Vikas Patra, Life Insurance policies and U.T.I. certificates. b) Term loans Medium and long term loans are called µTerm loans¶. Term loans are granted for more than one year and repayment of such loans is spread over a longer period. The repayment is generally made in suitable instalments of fixed amount. These loans are repayable over a period of 5 years and maximum upto 15 years. Term loan is required for the purpose of setting up of new business activity, renovation, modernisation, expansion/extension of existing units, purchase of plant and machinery, vehicles, land for setting up a factory, construction of factory building or
purchase of other immovable assets. These loans are generally secured against the mortgage of land, plant and machinery, building and other securities. The normal rate of interest charged for such loans is generally quite high. iii) Bank Overdraft Overdraft facility is more or less similar to cash credit facility. Overdraft facility is the result of an agreement with the bank by which a current account holder is allowed to withdraw a specified amount over and above the credit balance in his/her account. It is a short term facility.
This facility is made available to current account holders who operate their account through cheques. The customer is permitted to withdraw the amount as and when he/she needs it and to repay it through deposits in his account as and when it is convenient to him/her. Overdraft facility is generally granted by bank on the basis of a written request by the customer. Some times, banks also insist on either a promissory note from the borrower or personal security to ensure safety of funds. Interest is charged on actual amount withdrawn by the customer. The interest rate on overdraft is higher than that of the rate on loan. iv) Discounting of Bills Apart from granting cash credit, loans and overdraft, banks also grant financial assistance to customers by discounting bills of exchange. Banks purchase the bills at face value minus interest at current rate of interest for the period of the bill. This is known as µdiscounting of bills¶. Bills of exchange are negotiable instruments and enable the debtors to discharge their obligations towards their creditors. Such bills of exchange arise out of commercial transactions both in internal trade and external trade. By discounting these bills before they are due for a nominal amount, the banks help the business community. Of course, the banks recover the full amount of these bills from the persons liable to make payment. Agency and General Utility Services provided by Modern Commercial Banks You have already learnt that the primary activities of commercial banks include acceptance of deposits from the public and lending money to businessmen and other members of society. Besides these two main activities, commercial banks also render a number of ancillary services. These services supplement the main activities of the banks. They are essentially non-banking in nature and broadly fall under two categories: i) Agency services, and ii) General utility services. i) Agency Services Agency services are those services which are rendered by commercial banks as agents of their customers. They include : a) Collection and payment of cheques and bills on behalf of the customers; b) Collection of dividends, interest and rent, etc. on behalf of customers, if so instructed by them; c) Purchase and sale of shares and securities on behalf of customers; d) Payment of rent, interest, insurance premium, subscriptions etc. on behalf of customers, if so instructed; e) Acting as a trustee or executor; f) Acting as agents or correspondents on behalf of customers for other banks and financial institutions at home and abroad.
ii) General utility services General utility services are those services which are rendered by commercial banks not only to the customers but also to the general public. These are available to the public on payment of a fee or charge. They include : a) Issuing letters of credit and travellers¶ cheques; b) Underwriting of shares, debentures, etc.; c) Safe-keeping of valuables in safe deposit locker; d) Underwriting loans floated by government and public bodies. e) Supplying trade information and statistical data useful to customers; f) Acting as a referee regarding the financial status of customers; g) Undertaking foreign exchange business.
What Does Securitization Mean? The process through which an issuer creates a financial instrument by combining other financial assets and then marketing different tiers of the repackaged instruments to investors. The process can encompass any type of financial asset and promotes liquidity in the marketplace.
Securitization Mortgage-backed securities are a perfect example of securitization. By combining mortgages into one large pool, the issuer can divide the large pool into smaller pieces based on each individual mortgage's inherent risk of default and then sell those smaller pieces to investors. The process creates liquidity by enabling smaller investors to purchase shares in a larger asset pool. Using the mortgage-backed security example, individual retail investors are able to purchase portions of a mortgage as a type of bond. Without the securitization of mortgages, retail investors may not be able to afford to buy into a large pool of mortgages.
Pooling and transfer
The originator initially owns the assets engaged in the deal. This is typically a company looking to either raise capital, restructure debt or otherwise adjust its finances. Under traditional corporate finance concepts, such a company would have three options to raise new capital: a loan, bond issue, or issuance of stock. However, stock offerings dilute the
ownership and control of the company, while loan or bond financing is often prohibitively expensive due to the credit rating of the company and the associated rise in interest rates. The consistently revenue-generating part of the company may have a much higher credit rating than the company as a whole. For instance, a leasing company may have provided $10m nominal value of leases, and it will receive a cash flow over the next five years from these. It cannot demand early repayment on the leases and so cannot get its money back early if required. If it could sell the rights to the cash flows from the leases to someone else, it could transform that income stream into a lump sum today (in effect, receiving today the present value of a future cash flow). Where the originator is a bank or other organization that must meet capital adequacy requirements, the structure is usually more complex because a separate company is set up to buy the assets. A suitably large portfolio of assets is "pooled" and transferred to a "special purpose vehicle" or "SPV" (the issuer), a tax-exempt company or trust formed for the specific purpose of funding the assets. Once the assets are transferred to the issuer, there is normally no recourse to the originator. The issuer is "bankruptcy remote," meaning that if the originator goes into bankruptcy, the assets of the issuer will not be distributed to the creditors of the originator. In order to achieve this, the governing documents of the issuer restrict its activities to only those necessary to complete the issuance of securities. Accounting standards govern when such a transfer is a sale, a financing, a partial sale, or a part-sale and part-financing. In a sale, the originator is allowed to remove the transferred assets from its balance sheet: in a financing, the assets are considered to remain the property of the originator. Under US accounting standards, the originator achieves a sale by being at arm's length from the issuer, in which case the issuer is classified as a "qualifying special purpose entity" or "qSPE". Because of these structural issues, the originator typically needs the help of an investment bank (the arranger) in setting up the structure of the transaction.
To be able to buy the assets from the originator, the issuer SPV issues tradable securities to fund the purchase. Investors purchase the securities, either through a private offering (targeting institutional investors) or on the open market. The performance of the securities is then directly linked to the performance of the assets. Credit rating agencies rate the securities which are issued in order to provide an external perspective on the liabilities being created and help the investor make a more informed decision. In transactions with static assets, a depositor will assemble the underlying collateral, help structure the securities and work with the financial markets in order to sell the securities to investors. The depositor has taken on added significance under Regulation AB. The depositor typically owns 100% of the beneficial interest in the issuing entity and is usually the parent or a wholly owned subsidiary of the parent which initiates the transaction. In transactions with managed (traded) assets, asset managers assemble the underlying collateral, help structure the securities and work with the financial markets in order to sell the securities to investors. Some deals may include a third-party guarantor which provides guarantees or partial guarantees for the assets, the principal and the interest payments, for a fee.
The securities can be issued with either a fixed interest rate or a floating rate. Fixed rate ABS set the ³coupon´ (rate) at the time of issuance, in a fashion similar to corporate bonds. Floating rate securities may be backed by both amortizing and nonamortizing assets. In contrast to fixed rate securities, the rates on ³floaters´ will periodically adjust up or down according to a designated index such as a U.S. Treasury rate, or, more typically, the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). The floating rate usually reflects the movement in the index plus an additional fixed margin to cover the added risk
Credit enhancement and tranching
Unlike conventional corporate bonds which are unsecured, securities generated in a securitisation deal are "credit enhanced," meaning their credit quality is increased above that of the originator's unsecured debt or underlying asset pool. This increases the likelihood that the investors will receive cash flows to which they are entitled, and thus causes the securities to have a higher credit rating than the originator. Some securitisations use external credit enhancement provided by third parties, such as surety bonds and parental guarantees (although this may introduce a conflict of interest). Individual securities are often split into tranches, or categorized into varying degrees of subordination. Each tranche has a different level of credit protection or risk exposure than another: there is generally a senior (³A´) class of securities and one or more junior subordinated (³B,´ ³C,´ etc.) classes that function as protective layers for the ³A´ class. The senior classes have first claim on the cash that the SPV receives, and the more junior classes only start receiving repayment after the more senior classes have repaid. Because of the cascading effect between classes, this arrangement is often referred to as a cash flow waterfall. In the event that the underlying asset pool becomes insufficient to make payments on the securities (e.g. when loans default within a portfolio of loan claims), the loss is absorbed first by the subordinated tranches, and the upper-level tranches remain unaffected until the losses exceed the entire amount of the subordinated tranches. The senior securities are typically AAA rated, signifying a lower risk, while the lower-credit quality subordinated classes receive a lower credit rating, signifying a higher risk. The most junior class (often called the equity class) is the most exposed to payment risk. In some cases, this is a special type of instrument which is retained by the originator as a potential profit flow. In some cases the equity class receives no coupon (either fixed or floating), but only the residual cash flow (if any) after all the other classes have been paid. There may also be a special class which absorbs early repayments in the underlying assets. This is often the case where the underlying assets are mortgages which, in essence, are repaid every time the property is sold. Since any early repayment is passed on to this class, it means the other investors have a more predictable cash flow. If the underlying assets are mortgages or loans, there are usually two separate "waterfalls" because the principal and interest receipts can be easily allocated and matched. But if the assets are income-based transactions such as rental deals it is not possible to differentiate so easily between how much of the revenue is income and how much principal repayment. In this case all the income is used to pay the cash flows due on the bonds as those cash flows become due.
Credit enhancements affect credit risk by providing more or less protection to promised cash flows for a security. Additional protection can help a security achieve a higher rating, lower protection can help create new securities with differently desired risks, and these differential protections can help place a security on more attractive terms. In addition to subordination, credit may be enhanced through:
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A reserve or spread account, in which funds remaining after expenses such as principal and interest payments, charge-offs and other fees have been paid-off are accumulated, and can be used when SPE expenses are greater than its income. Third-party insurance, or guarantees of principal and interest payments on the securities. Over-collateralization, usually by using finance income to pay off principal on some securities before principal on the corresponding share of collateral is collected. Cash funding or a cash collateral account, generally consisting of short-term, highly rated investments purchased either from the seller's own funds, or from funds borrowed from third parties that can be used to make up shortfalls in promised cash flows. A third-party letter of credit or corporate guarantee. A back-up servicer for the loans. Discounted receivables for the pool.
A servicer collects payments and monitors the assets that are the crux of the structured financial deal. The servicer can often be the originator, because the servicer needs very similar expertise to the originator and would want to ensure that loan repayments are paid to the Special Purpose Vehicle. The servicer can significantly affect the cash flows to the investors because it controls the collection policy, which influences the proceeds collected, the charge-offs and the recoveries on the loans. Any income remaining after payments and expenses is usually accumulated to some extent in a reserve or spread account, and any further excess is returned to the seller. Bond rating agencies publish ratings of asset-backed securities based on the performance of the collateral pool, the credit enhancements and the probability of default. When the issuer is structured as a trust, the trustee is a vital part of the deal as the gatekeeper of the assets that are being held in the issuer. Even though the trustee is part of the SPV, which is typically wholly owned by the Originator, the trustee has a fiduciary duty to protect the assets and those who own the assets, typically the investors.
Unlike corporate bonds, most securitisations are amortized, meaning that the principal amount borrowed is paid back gradually over the specified term of the loan, rather than in one lump sum at the maturity of the loan. Fully amortizing securitisations are generally collateralized by fully amortizing assets such as home equity loans, auto loans, and student loans. Prepayment uncertainty is an important concern with fully amortizing ABS. The possible rate of prepayment varies widely with the type of underlying asset pool, so many
prepayment models have been developed in an attempt to define common prepayment activity. The PSA prepayment model is a well-known example A controlled amortization structure is a method of providing investors with a more predictable repayment schedule, even though the underlying assets may be nonamortizing. After a predetermined ³revolving´ period, during which only interest payments are made, these securitisations attempt to return principal to investors in a series of defined periodic payments, usually within a year. An early amortization event is the risk of the debt being retired early. On the other hand, bullet or slug structures return the principal to investors in a single payment. The most common bullet structure is called the soft bullet, meaning that the final bullet payment is not guaranteed on the expected maturity date; however, the majority of these securitisations are paid on time. The second type of bullet structure is the hard bullet, which guarantees that the principal will be paid on the expected maturity date. Hard bullet structures are less common for two reasons: investors are comfortable with soft bullet structures, and they are reluctant to accept the lower yields of hard bullet securities in exchange for a guarantee. Securitisations are often structured as a sequential pay bond, paid off in a sequential manner based on maturity. This means that the first tranche, which may have a one-year average life, will receive all principal payments until it is retired; then the second tranche begins to receive principal, and so forth. Pro rata bond structures pay each tranche a proportionate share of principal throughout the life of the security.
Structural risks and misincentives
Originators (e.g. of mortgages) have less incentive towards credit quality and greater incentive towards loan volume since they do not bear the long-term risk of the assets they have created and may simply profit by the fees associated with origination and securitisation
Motives for securitisation
Advantages to issuer
Reduces funding costs: Through Securitisation, a company rated BB but with AAA worthy cash flow would be able to borrow at possibly AAA rates. This is the number one reason to securitize a cash flow and can have tremendous impacts on borrowing costs. The difference between BB debt and AAA debt can be multiple hundreds of basis points. For example, Moody's downgraded Ford Motor Credit's rating in January 2002, but senior automobile backed securities, issued by Ford Motor Credit in January 2002 and April 2002, continue to be rated AAA because of the strength of the underlying collateral and other credit enhancements. Reduces asset-liability mismatch: "Depending on the structure chosen, Securitisation can offer perfect matched funding by eliminating funding exposure in terms of both duration and pricing basis." Essentially, in most banks and finance companies, the liability book or the funding is from borrowings. This often comes at a high cost. Securitisation allows such banks and finance companies to create a self-funded asset book.
Lower capital requirements: Some firms, due to legal, regulatory, or other reasons, have a limit or range that their leverage is allowed to be. By securitizing some of their assets, which qualifies as a sale for accounting purposes, these firms will be able to lessen the equity on their balance sheets while maintaining the "earning power" of the asset. Locking in profits: For a given block of business, the total profits have not yet emerged and thus remain uncertain. Once the block has been securitized, the level of profits has now been locked in for that company, thus the risk of profit not emerging, or the benefit of superprofits, has now been passed on. Transfer risks (credit, liquidity, prepayment, reinvestment, asset concentration): Securitisation makes it possible to transfer risks from an entity that does not want to bear it, to one that does. Two good example of this are catastrophe bonds and Entertainment Securitisations. Similarly, by securitizing a block of business (thereby locking in a degree of profits), the company has effectively freed up its balance to go out and write more profitable business. Off balance sheet: Derivatives of many types have in the past been referred to as "offbalance-sheet." This term implies that the use of derivatives has no balance sheet impact. While there are differences among the various accounting standards internationally, there is a general trend towards the requirement to record derivatives at fair value on the balance sheet. There is also a generally accepted principle that, where derivatives are being used as a hedge against underlying assets or liabilities, accounting adjustments are required to ensure that the gain/loss on the hedged instrument is recognized in the income statement on a similar basis as the underlying assets and liabilities. Certain credit derivatives products, particularly Credit Default Swaps, now have more or less universally accepted market standard documentation. In the case of Credit Default Swaps, this documentation has been formulated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) who have for a long time provided documentation on how to treat such derivatives on balance sheets. Earnings: Securitisation makes it possible to record an earnings bounce without any real addition to the firm. When a Securitisation takes place, there often is a "true sale" that takes place between the Originator (the parent company) and the SPE. This sale has to be for the market value of the underlying assets for the "true sale" to stick and thus this sale is reflected on the parent company's balance sheet, which will boost earnings for that quarter by the amount of the sale. While not illegal in any respect, this does distort the true earnings of the parent company. Admissibility: Future cashflows may not get full credit in a company's accounts (life insurance companies, for example, may not always get full credit for future surpluses in their regulatory balance sheet), and a Securitisation effectively turns an admissible future surplus flow into an admissible immediate cash asset. Liquidity: Future cashflows may simply be balance sheet items which currently are not available for spending, whereas once the book has been securitized, the cash would be available for immediate spending or investment. This also creates a reinvestment book which may well be at better rates.
Disadvantages to issuer
May reduce portfolio quality: If the AAA risks, for example, are being securitized out, this would leave a materially worse quality of residual risk. Costs: Securitisations are expensive due to management and system costs, legal fees, underwriting fees, rating fees and ongoing administration. An allowance for unforeseen costs is usually essential in Securitisations, especially if it is an atypical Securitisation. Size limitations: Securitisations often require large scale structuring, and thus may not be cost-efficient for small and medium transactions. Risks: Since Securitisation is a structured transaction, it may include par structures as well as credit enhancements that are subject to risks of impairment, such as prepayment, as well as credit loss, especially for structures where there are some retained strips.
Advantages to investors
Opportunity to potentially earn a higher rate of return (on a risk-adjusted basis) Opportunity to invest in a specific pool of high quality assets : Due to the stringent requirements for corporations (for example) to attain high ratings, there is a dearth of highly rated entities that exist. Securitisations, however, allow for the creation of large quantities of AAA, AA or A rated bonds, and risk averse institutional investors, or investors that are required to invest in only highly rated assets, have access to a larger pool of investment options. Portfolio diversification: Depending on the Securitisation, hedge funds as well as other institutional investors tend to like investing in bonds created through Securitisations because they may be uncorrelated to their other bonds and securities. Isolation of credit risk from the parent entity: Since the assets that are securitized are isolated (at least in theory) from the assets of the originating entity, under Securitisation it may be possible for the Securitisation to receive a higher credit rating than the "parent," because the underlying risks are different. For example, a small bank may be considered more risky than the mortgage loans it makes to its customers; were the mortgage loans to remain with the bank, the borrowers may effectively be paying higher interest (or, just as likely, the bank would be paying higher interest to its creditors, and hence less profitable).
Risks to investors
Liquidity risk Credit/default: Default risk is generally accepted as a borrower¶s inability to meet interest payment obligations on time. For ABS, default may occur when maintenance obligations on the underlying collateral are not sufficiently met as detailed in its prospectus. A key indicator of a particular security¶s default risk is its credit rating. Different tranches within the ABS are rated differently, with senior classes of most issues receiving the highest rating, and subordinated classes receiving correspondingly lower credit ratings.
However, the credit crisis of 2007-2008 has exposed a potential flaw in the Securitisation process - loan originators retain no residual risk for the loans they make, but collect substantial fees on loan issuance and Securitisation, which doesn't encourage improvement of underwriting standards. Event risk Prepayment/reinvestment/early amortization: The majority of revolving ABS are subject to some degree of early amortization risk. The risk stems from specific early amortization events or payout events that cause the security to be paid off prematurely. Typically, payout events include insufficient payments from the underlying borrowers, insufficient excess Fixed Income Sectors: Asset-Backed Securities spread, a rise in the default rate on the underlying loans above a specified level, a decrease in credit enhancements below a specific level, and bankruptcy on the part of the sponsor or servicer. Currency interest rate fluctuations: Like all fixed income securities, the prices of fixed rate ABS move in response to changes in interest rates. Fluctuations in interest rates affect floating rate ABS prices less than fixed rate securities, as the index against which the ABS rate adjusts will reflect interest rate changes in the economy. Furthermore, interest rate changes may affect the prepayment rates on underlying loans that back some types of ABS, which can affect yields. Home equity loans tend to be the most sensitive to changes in interest rates, while auto loans, student loans, and credit cards are generally less sensitive to interest rates.
Contractual agreements Moral hazard: Investors usually rely on the deal manager to price the Securitisations¶ underlying assets. If the manager earns fees based on performance, there may be a temptation to mark up the prices of the portfolio assets. Conflicts of interest can also arise with senior note holders when the manager has a claim on the deal's excess spread.
Servicer risk: The transfer or collection of payments may be delayed or reduced if the servicer becomes insolvent. This risk is mitigated by having a backup servicer involved in the transaction.
Meaning of NPAs An asset is classified as Non-performing Asset (NPA) if due in the form of principal and interest are not paid by the borrower for a period of 180 days. However with effect from March 2004, default status would be given to a borrower if dues are not paid for 90 days. If any advance or credit facilities granted by banks to a borrower becomes non-performing, then the bank will have to treat all the advances/credit facilities granted to that borrower as nonperforming without having any regard to the fact that there may still exist certain advances / credit facilities having performing status. Though the term NPA connotes a financial asset of a commercial bank, which has stopped earning an expected reasonable return, it is also a reflection of the productivity of the unit, firm, concern, industry and nation where that asset is idling. Viewed with this perspective, the NPA is a result of an environment that prevents it from performing up to expected levels. The definition of NPAs in Indian context is certainly more liberal with two quarters norm being applied for classification of such assets. The RBI is moving over to one-quarter norm from 2004 onwards
Dealing with NPAs involves two sets of policies 1. Relating to existing NPAs 2. To reduce fresh NPA generation. As far as old NPAs are concerned, a bank can remove it on its own or sell the assets to AMCs to clean up its balance sheet. For preventing fresh NPAs, the bank itself should adopt proper policies. Causes for Non Performing Assets A strong banking sector is important for a flourishing economy. The failure of the banking sector may have an adverse impact on other sectors. The Indian banking system, which was operating in a closed economy, now faces the challenges of an open economy. On one hand a protected environment ensured that banks never needed to develop sophisticated treasury operations and Asset Liability Management skills.
On the other hand a combination of directed lending and social banking relegated profitability and competitiveness to the background. The net result was unsustainable NPAs and consequently a higher effective cost of banking services. One of the main causes of NPAs into banking sector is the directed loans system under which commercial banks are required a prescribed percentage of their credit (40%) to priority sectors. As of today nearly 7 percent of Gross NPAs are locked up in 'hard-core' doubtful and loss assets, accumulated over the years. The problem India Faces is not lack of strict prudential norms but i. The legal impediments and time consuming nature of asset disposal proposal. ii. Postponement of problem in order to show higher earnings. iii. Manipulation of debtors using political influence.
There are several reasons for an account becoming NPA. * Internal factors * External factors
Internal factors: 1. Funds borrowed for a particular purpose but not use for the said purpose. 2. Project not completed in time. 3. Poor recovery of receivables. 4. Excess capacities created on non-economic costs. 5. In-ability of the corporate to raise capital through the issue of equity or other debt instrument from capital markets. 6. Business failures. 7. Diversion of funds for expansion\modernization\setting up new projects\ helping or promoting sister concerns. 8. Willful defaults, siphoning of funds, fraud, disputes, management disputes, misappropriation etc., 9. Deficiencies on the part of the banks viz. in credit appraisal, monitoring and follow-ups, delay in settlement of payments\ subsidiaries by government bodies etc.,
External factors: 1. Sluggish legal system Long legal tangles Changes that had taken place in labour laws Lack of sincere effort. 2. Scarcity of raw material, power and other resources. 3. Industrial recession. 4. Shortage of raw material, raw material\input price escalation, power shortage, industrial recession, excess capacity, natural calamities like floods, accidents. 5. Failures, non payment\ over dues in other countries, recession in other countries, externalization problems, adverse exchange rates etc. 6. Government policies like excise duty changes, Import duty changes etc., Concluding Remarks A strong banking sector is important for a flourishing economy. The failure of the banking sector may have an adverse impact on other sectors. Over the years, much has been talked about NPAs and the emphasis so far has been only on identification and quantification of NPAs rather than on ways to reduce and upgrade them. There is also a general perception that the prescription of 40% of net bank credit to priority sectors have led to higher NPAs, due to credit to these sectors becoming sticky. Managers of rural and semi-urban branches generally sanction these loans. In the changed context of new prudential norms and emphasis on quality lending and profitability, managers should make it amply clear to potential borrowers that banks resources are scarce and these are meant to finance viable ventures so that these are repaid on time and relevant to other needy borrowers for improving the economic lot of maximum number of households. Hence, selection of right borrowers, viable economic activity, adequate finance and timely disbursement, correct end use of funds and timely recovery of loans is absolutely necessary pre conditions for preventing or minimizing the incidence of new NPAs.
Brief History of Urban Cooperative Banks in India The term Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs), though not formally defined, refers to primary cooperative banks located in urban and semi-urban areas. These banks, till 1996, were allowed to lend money only for non-agricultural purposes. This distinction does not hold today. These banks were traditionally centred around communities, localities work place groups. They essentially lent to small borrowers and businesses. Today, their scope of operations has widened considerably. The origins of the urban cooperative banking movement in India can be traced to the close of nineteenth century when, inspired by the success of the experiments related to the cooperative movement in Britain and the cooperative credit movement in Germany such societies were set up in India. Cooperative societies are based on the principles of cooperation, - mutual help, democratic decision making and open membership. Cooperatives represented a new and alternative approach to organisaton as against proprietary firms, partnership firms and joint stock companies which represent the dominant form of commercial organisation. The Beginnings The first known mutual aid society in India was probably the µAnyonya Sahakari Mandali¶ organised in the erstwhile princely State of Baroda in 1889 under the guidance of Vithal Laxman also known as Bhausaheb Kavthekar. Urban co-operative credit societies, in their formative phase came to be organised on a community basis to meet the consumption oriented credit needs of their members. Salary earners¶ societies inculcating habits of thrift and self help played a significant role in popularising the movement, especially amongst the middle class as well as organized labour. From its origins then to today, the thrust of UCBs, historically, has been to mobilise savings from the middle and low income urban groups and purvey credit to their members - many of which belonged to weaker sections. The enactment of Cooperative Credit Societies Act, 1904, however, gave the real impetus to the movement. The first urban cooperative credit society was registered in Canjeevaram (Kanjivaram) in the erstwhile Madras province in October, 1904. Amongst the prominent credit societies were the Pioneer Urban in Bombay (November 11, 1905), the No.1 Military Accounts Mutual Help Co-operative Credit Society in Poona (January 9, 1906). Cosmos in Poona (January 18, 1906), Gokak Urban (February 15, 1906) and Belgaum Pioneer (February 23, 1906) in the Belgaum district, the Kanakavli-Math Co-operative Credit Society and the Varavade Weavers¶ Urban Credit Society (March 13, 1906) in the South Ratnagiri (now Sindhudurg) district. The most prominent amongst the early credit societies was the Bombay Urban Co-operative Credit Society, sponsored by Vithaldas Thackersey and Lallubhai Samaldas established on January 23, 1906..
The Cooperative Credit Societies Act, 1904 was amended in 1912, with a view to broad basing it to enable organisation of non-credit societies. The Maclagan Committee of 1915 was appointed to review their performance and suggest measures for strengthening them. The committee observed that such institutions were eminently suited to cater to the needs of the lower and middle income strata of society and would inculcate the principles of banking amongst the middle classes. The committee also felt that the urban cooperative credit movement was more viable than agricultural credit societies. The recommendations of the Committee went a long way in establishing the urban cooperative credit movement in its own right. In the present day context, it is of interest to recall that during the banking crisis of 1913-14, when no fewer than 57 joint stock banks collapsed, there was a there was a flight of deposits from joint stock banks to cooperative urban banks. Maclagan Committee chronicled this event thus: ³As a matter of fact, the crisis had a contrary effect, and in most provinces, there was a movement to withdraw deposits from non-cooperatives and place them in cooperative institutions, the distinction between two classes of security being well appreciated and a preference being given to the latter owing partly to the local character and publicity of cooperative institutions but mainly, we think, to the connection of Government with Cooperative movement´. Under State Purview The constitutional reforms which led to the passing of the Government of India Act in 1919 transferred the subject of ³Cooperation´ from Government of India to the Provincial Governments. The Government of Bombay passed the first State Cooperative Societies Act in 1925 ³which not only gave the movement its size and shape but was a pace setter of cooperative activities and stressed the basic concept of thrift, self help and mutual aid.´ Other States followed. This marked the beginning of the second phase in the history of Cooperative Credit Institutions. There was the general realization that urban banks have an important role to play in economic construction. This was asserted by a host of committees. The Indian Central Banking Enquiry Committee (1931) felt that urban banks have a duty to help the small business and middle class people. The Mehta-Bhansali Committee (1939), recommended that those societies which had fulfilled the criteria of banking should be allowed to work as banks and recommended an Association for these banks. The Co-operative Planning Committee (1946) went on record to say that urban banks have been the best agencies for small people in whom Joint stock banks are not generally interested. The Rural Banking Enquiry Committee (1950), impressed by the low cost of establishment and operations recommended the establishment of such banks even in places smaller than taluka towns. The first study of Urban Co-operative Banks was taken up by RBI in the year 1958-59. The Report published in 1961 acknowledged the widespread and financially sound framework of urban co-operative banks; emphasized the need to establish primary urban cooperative banks in new centers and suggested that State Governments lend active support to their development. In 1963, Varde Committee recommended that such banks should be organised
at all Urban Centres with a population of 1 lakh or more and not by any single community or caste. The committee introduced the concept of minimum capital requirement and the criteria of population for defining the urban centre where UCBs were incorporated. Duality of Control However, concerns regarding the professionalism of urban cooperative banks gave rise to the view that they should be better regulated. Large cooperative banks with paid-up share capital and reserves of Rs.1 lakh were brought under the perview of the Banking Regulation Act 1949 with effect from 1st March, 1966 and within the ambit of the Reserve Bank¶s supervision. This marked the beginning of an era of duality of control over these banks. Banking related functions (viz. licensing, area of operations, interest rates etc.) were to be governed by RBI and registration, management, audit and liquidation, etc. governed by State Governments as per the provisions of respective State Acts. In 1968, UCBS were extended the benefits of Deposit Insurance. Towards the late 1960s there was much debate regarding the promotion of the small scale industries. UCBs came to be seen as important players in this context. The Working Group on Industrial Financing through Co-operative Banks, (1968 known as Damry Group) attempted to broaden the scope of activities of urban co-operative banks by recommending that these banks should finance the small and cottage industries. This was reiterated by the Banking Commisssion (1969). The Madhavdas Committee (1979) evaluated the role played by urban co-operative banks in greater details and drew a roadmap for their future role recommending support from RBI and Government in the establishment of such banks in backward areas and prescribing viability standards. The Hate Working Group (1981) desired better utilisation of banks' surplus funds and that the percentage of the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) & the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) of these banks should be brought at par with commercial banks, in a phased manner. While the Marathe Committee (1992) redefined the viability norms and ushered in the era of liberalization, the Madhava Rao Committee (1999) focused on consolidation, control of sickness, better professional standards in urban co-operative banks and sought to align the urban banking movement with commercial banks. A feature of the urban banking movement has been its heterogeneous character and its uneven geographical spread with most banks concentrated in the states of Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. While most banks are unit banks without any branch network, some of the large banks have established their presence in many states when at their behest multi-state banking was allowed in 1985. Some of these banks are also Authorised Dealers in Foreign Exchange
Recent Developments Over the years, primary (urban) cooperative banks have registered a significant growth in number, size and volume of business handled. As on 31st March, 2003 there were 2,104 UCBs of which 56 were scheduled banks. About 79 percent of these are located in five states, - Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Recently the problems faced by a few large UCBs have highlighted some of the difficulties these banks face and policy endeavours are geared to consolidating and strengthening this sector and improving governance.
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