# Code No: RR420305

Set No. 1

IV B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, May 2008 ROBOTICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Discuss the following future manufacturing applications of robots: i. Assembly applications ii. Arc-welding applications iii. Flexible manufacturing systems. (b) What are the characteristics of future robot tasks? Explain. 2. Discuss the motor selection in the design of a robotic joint. [10+6] [16]

3. For the information given in the mechanical gripper design of ﬁgure 3. Calculate the required actuating force Fa. [16]

Figure 3 4. In a roll-pitch-roll convention, roll stands for rotation (δ) about z-axis, pitch for rotation (λ) about new y-axis, and roll again (α) about new z-axis. The roll-pitchroll geometry can be represented by Euler angles. Show that the overall rotation matrix RRP R (δ,  α) is given by λ,  CδCλCα − SδSα −CδCλSα − SδCα CδSλ RRP R (δ, λ, α) =  SδCλCα + CδSα −SδCλSα + CδCα SδSλ  −SλCα SλSα Cλ 1 of 2

Code No: RR420305

Set No. 1

where Cδ = cosδ, Cλ = cosλ, Cα = cosα, Sδ = sinδ, Sλ = sinλ, and Sα = sinα. [16] 5. Solve the inverse position kinematics for the cylindrical manipulator of ﬁgure 5. [16]

Figure 5 6. (a) Deﬁne a geometric Jacobian. (b) Compute the Jacobian Matrix for a planar R-R robotic manipulator. [4+12] 7. Calculate the parameters for a two-segment linear spline with parabolic blends with acceleration in blend region to be 30 deg/s2 and duration of each segment as 3 seconds. The three path points for the joint are 150 , -50 and 300 . Plot the trajectory. [16] 8. (a) Diﬀerentiate between incremental encoder and absolute encoder. [4+4]

(b) For an absolute optical encoder with 10 tracks, determine the value of the encoder constant. If the shaft angle of the encoder were 0.73 rad, determine its output value. [8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR420305

Set No. 2

IV B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, May 2008 ROBOTICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) With the help of an example discuss the application of robot in pick-and-place operations. (b) What are the general considerations in robot material handling? Explain. [10+6] 2. Describe the following basic conﬁgurations of robotic arms with neat sketches. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the conﬁguration show also the work space of the arms. (a) SCARA (b) Cartesian. 3. (a) In what ways do end eﬀectors diﬀer from the human hand ? (b) A vaccum gripper is to be designed to handle ﬂat plate glass in an automobile windshield plant. Each plate weighs 175 N. A single suction cup will be used, and the diameter of the suction cup is 125 mm. Determine the negative pressure required to lift each plate. Use a safety factor of 2 in your calculations. [4+12] 4. (a) Find the rotation matrix correspondent to the set of Euler angles ZXZ. (b) What do you mean by equivalent angle and axis? Explain. 5. A robotic manipulator is described by the joint parameters given in Table. (a) Completely set up and draw the coordinate frames with a proper scale. (b) Solve the inverse kinematics problem for the joint angles θ1 , θ2 , θ3 , θ4 , θ5 , and θ6 . [16] Table: Joint i θ 1 θ1 2 θ2 3 θ3 4 θ4 5 θ5 6 θ6 α −900 00 00 −900 900 00 a 0 a2 a3 a4 0 0 d d1 0 0 0 d5 d6 [8+8] [8+8]

6. (a) Develop the general expression for the Kinetic energy of a Robot manipulator. 1 of 2

Code No: RR420305

Set No. 2

(b) Using Newton-Euler forward recursive equations compute angular velocities and accelerations, linear accelerations of joints and linear acceleration at the centre of mass for links of a planar R-R manipulator. [4+12] 7. The trajectory for a joint’s motion between start and goal position in a pick-n-place operation is determined by dividing the motion in two segments. The interpolating polynomial for each segment is cubic and the acceleration is continuous at the via point. Determine the coeﬃcients for the two cubics. [16] 8. (a) Under what circumstances is the closed loop operation of stepper motor desirable? Give a simple schematic for the closed loop operation of a stepper motor. [3+3] (b) A DC tachometer is to be used as the velocity feedback device on a twisting joint. The joint actuator is capable at a maximum velocity of 0.75 rad/s, and the tachometer constant is 8.0 V/rad/s. Determine : i. The maximum output voltage of the tachometer if it rotates with twice the angular velocity of the joint. ii. The output voltage of the DC tachometer if the joint rotates at a speed of 250 /s. [5+5] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR420305

Set No. 3

IV B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, May 2008 ROBOTICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss in detail the three classes of industrial automation. [16]

2. Show the function line diagram representation of stanford arm actuated by dc servomotor with position and velocity feedbacks. Explain the function of each and every element in the function line diagram. [6+10] 3. (a) What is an end eﬀector and what function does it serve? (b) A part weighting 40 N is to be held by a gripper using friction against two opposing ﬁngers. The coeﬃcient of friction between the ﬁngers and the part surface is 0.3. The g factor to be used in force calculations should be 3.0. Compute the required gripper force. [4+4+8] 4. (a) Compute the basic rotation matrix representing rotation about X-axis by an angle 600 . (b) Given the point auvw = (7, 1, 4)T with respect to the rotated OUVW coordinate system, determine the corresponding point axyz with respect to the reference coordinate system if it has been rotated 300 about the OY-axis. [6+10] 5. For a general six-axis robotic arm, the inverse kinematics equations for the six unknowns θi , i = 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, the joint vector are the following  equations:[16] 3, of 12  nx ox ax px Cθi −CαSθi CαSθi ai Cθi  ny oy ay py  6  Sθi Cαi Cθi −Sαi Cθi ai Sθi     Π   nz oz az pz  = i=1  0 Sxi Cxi di  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Table gives the joint coordinate parameters. Not that all values of αI , ai , and di are assumed to be known. Find as many solutions as you can for the problem. Joint 1 2 3 4 5 6 θ θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 θ5 θ6 α α1 α2 α3 α4 α5 α6 a a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 d d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6

6. (a) Deﬁne an analytical Jacobian. (b) Compute the Jacobian Martix for a three link planar arm with Revolute joints. [4+12] 1 of 2

Code No: RR420305

Set No. 3

7. The joint in Example has initial and ﬁnal velocity of 1.0 deg/s and 1.2 deg/s at θs = 300 and θg = 1050 , respectively. Determine the smooth trajectory polynomial for the position of the joint. [16] 8. (a) What is the function of potentiometer in robotics. Explain the working of potentiometer with the help of neat sketch. [3+3] (b) A certain potentiometer is to be used as the feedback device to indicate position of the output link of a rotational robot joint. The excitation voltage of the potentiometer equals 5.0 V, and the total wiper travel of the potentiometer is 3000 the wiper arm is directly connected to the rotational joint so that a given rotation of the joint corresponds to an equal rotation of the wiper arm. i. Determine the voltage constant of the potentiometer. ii. The robot joint is actuated to a certain angle, causing the wiper position to be 380 . Determine the resulting output voltage of the potentiometer. iii. In another actuation of the joint, the resulting output voltage of the potentiometer is 3.75 V. Determine the corresponding angular position of the wiper and the output link. [3+3+4] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: RR420305

Set No. 4

IV B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, May 2008 ROBOTICS ( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Discuss a combined single and series robotic assembly system with the help of an example. [16] 2. (a) What special requirements exist for the motors of the mechanical arm. (b) Discuss about the load carrying capacity of robot arms. 3. (a) Give the classiﬁcation of wrist mechanisms. (b) A part weighing 40 N to be held by a gripper using friction against two opposing ﬁngers. The coeﬃcient of friction between the ﬁngers and the part surface is estimated to be 0.3. The orientation of the gripper will be such that the weight of the part will be applied in a direction parallel to the contacting ﬁnger surfaces. A fast work cycle is anticipated so that the g factor to be used in force calculations should be 3.0. Use a safety factor of 1.5. Compute the required gripper force for the speciﬁcations given. [6+10] 4. (a) Compute the basic rotation matrix representing rotation about Y-axis by an angle 300 . (b) Given the point auvw = (4, 2, 7)T with respect to the rotated OUVW coordinate system, determine the corresponding point axyz with respect to the reference coordinate system if it has been rotated 450 about the OX-axis. [6+10] 5. (a) What do you mean by symbolic Notation? Explain. (b) Derive the Denavit and Hartenberg 4×4 transformation matrix. 6. (a) What do you mean by Internal Singularities? (b) Compute the Jacobian of the cylindrical arm shown in ﬁgure 6. [6+10] [6+10] [8+8]

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Code No: RR420305

Set No. 4

Figure 6 7. The trajectory between two points is divided into ﬁve segments and ﬁve-cubic polynomial interpolation is to be used. The boundary conditions that the polynomials must satisfy are (a) position constraints at start, lift-oﬀ, set-down and goal positions, and (b) continuity of velocity and acceleration at all the path joints. Determine the polynomial for each segment. [8+8] 8. (a) Discuss about the locomotive devices employed in robots. (b) What type of transmissions are employed in industrial robots? Explain brieﬂy. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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