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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be 1)

A) sweat glands that increase secretion.
B) temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus.
C) regulatory centers that send commands to an effector.
D) effectors that cause blood vessels to dilate.
E) sweat glands that act like effectors.

2) Which of the following is not considered an abdominopelvic region? 2)

A) upper
B) right inguinal region
C) left lumbar
D) left hypochondriac
E) right hypochondriac

3) Identify the correctly spelled term describing the organ that separates the ventral body cavity into 3)
superior and inferior cavities.
A) diaphram
B) mediastinum
C) diafragm
D) diaphragm
E) mediastienum

4) Cardiovascular physiology is an example of 4)

A) systemic physiology.
B) organ physiology.
C) histophysiology.
D) physiological chemistry.
E) pathological physiology.

5) The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the 5)
A) thoracic and abdominopelvic.
B) pelvic and thoracic.
C) cranial and sacral.
D) lateral and medial.
E) dorsal and ventral.

6) The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the ________ from the ________. 6)
A) abdominal cavity; pelvic cavity
B) thoracic cavity; abdominopelvic cavity
C) pleural cavity; mediastinum
D) pericardial cavity; pleural cavity
E) pericardial sac; pericardial cavity

7) Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the endocrine system? 7)
A) important homeostatic system
B) releases chemical messengers called hormones
C) produces an effect that involves several organs or tissues at the same time
D) produces a more rapid response than the nervous system
E) produces effects that last for days or longer

8) Terms of anatomical direction are used to describe 8)

A) living matter.
B) one body part in relation to another.
C) a supine position.
D) surgical procedures.
E) the nervous system.

9) The study of the first two months of development is termed 9)

A) cytology.
B) histology.
C) pathology.
D) organology.
E) embryology.

10) The heart is ________ to the lungs. 10)

A) distal B) proximal C) medial D) posterior E) lateral

11) Anatomy is to ________ as physiology is to ________. 11)

A) structure; form
B) function; form
C) form; structure
D) structure; function
E) growth; form

12) Which plane divides the body into right and left parts? 12)
A) sagittal
B) frontal
C) proximal
D) transverse
E) orthogonal

13) An imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce views inside the body 13)
is the
A) radiograph.
B) ultrasound.
C) CT scan.
D) MRI scan.
E) angiogram.

14) Which of the following regions corresponds to the buttocks? 14)

A) pelvic B) cephalic C) thoracic D) gluteal E) lumbar

15) Which organ system includes the spleen and the tonsils? 15)
A) nervous
B) digestive
C) lymphatic
D) cardiovascular
E) endocrine

16) A midsagittal section would pass through the 16)

A) kidney. B) leg. C) heart. D) spleen. E) lung.

17) Lungs are to the respiratory system as the liver is to the ________ system. 17)
A) digestive
B) cardiovascular
C) urinary
D) lymphatic
E) both B and D

18) The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ________ system. 18)
A) lymphatic
B) cardiovascular
C) endocrine
D) digestive
E) respiratory

19) The urinary bladder is found in the ________ quadrant and the ________ quadrant. 19)
A) left upper; left lower
B) left upper; right upper
C) right upper; right lower
D) right upper; right lower
E) right lower; left lower

20) Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream? 20)
A) respiratory
B) digestive
C) lymphatic
D) endocrine
E) cardiovascular

21) All of the following are true concerning enzymes, except that they 21)
A) affect only the rate of a chemical reaction.
B) are proteins.
C) lower the activation energy required for a reaction.
D) are consumed during the reaction.
E) function as biological catalysts.

22) A high-energy bond in ATP is present 22)

A) between adenine and phosphate group.
B) between adenine and ribose.
C) between the first and second phosphate group.
D) between the second and third phosphate group.
E) both C and D

23) Fructose 23)
A) is an isomer of glucose.
B) is found in male reproductive fluids.
C) is a hexose.
D) all of the above
E) A and B only

24) Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called 24)
A) isomers.
B) isotypes.
C) isomoles.
D) isotopes.
E) isozymes.

25) The structure of RNA differs from DNA in that 25)

A) DNA contains purines but not pyrimidines.
B) the backbone of RNA contains ribose.
C) RNA contains pyrimidines but not purines.
D) DNA contains pyrimidines but not purines.
E) RNA contains purines but not pyrimidines.

26) If an isotope of oxygen has 8 protons, 10 neutrons, and 8 electrons, its mass number is 26)
A) 8. B) 16. C) 12. D) 26. E) 18.

27) Glycoproteins and proteoglycans are combinations of amino acids and 27)
A) fatty acids.
B) lipids.
C) nucleic acids.
D) carbohydrates.
E) none of the above

28) If a substance has a pH that is greater than 7, it is 28)

A) acidic. B) alkaline. C) neutral. D) a salt. E) a buffer.

29) A side chain on an amino acid is sometimes called ________. 29)

A) a polypeptide chain.
B) nucleic acid.
C) an R group.
D) fibrous or globular.
E) an isozyme.

30) Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are classified as 30)

A) organic molecules.
B) inorganic molecules.
C) bases.
D) salts.
E) acids.

31) Continuous breakdown and replacement of cellular molecules is termed 31)
A) anabolic turnover.
B) catabolic turnover.
C) metabolic turnover.
D) metabolism.
E) both A and C

32) In an aqueous solution, sodium ions would move toward 32)

A) the bottom.
B) a positive terminal.
C) a negative terminal.
D) a pH terminal.
E) an organic terminal.

33) One mole of any element 33)

A) has the same weight.
B) has the same mass.
C) has the same number of atoms.
D) has the same number of electrons.
E) all of the above

34) Identify the product formed from the phosphorylation of ADP. 34)
A) adenine
B) adenosine diphosphate
C) adenosine triphosphate
D) ribose
E) deoxyribonucleic acid

35) Radioisotopes have unstable 35)

A) isotopes.
B) ions.
C) protons.
D) nuclei.
E) electron clouds.

36) Compounds that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body are 36)
A) organic compounds.
B) nutrients.
C) enzymes.
D) inorganic compounds.
E) metabolites.

37) The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration 37)
gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins is called
A) facilitated diffusion.
B) active transport.
C) endocytosis.
D) osmosis.
E) exocytosis.

38) The potential difference across the cell membrane is due to the separation of 38)
A) cations and anions.
B) phospholipids and proteins.
C) acids and bases.
D) water molecules.
E) carbohydrate molecules.

39) These molecular motors carry materials in opposite directions along microtubules. 39)
A) actin and myosin
B) dynein and myosin
C) dynein and kinesin
D) dynein and actin
E) kinesin and myosin

40) Components of the cytoskeleton may include all of the following, except 40)
A) thick filaments.
B) microfilaments.
C) microsomes.
D) microtubules.
E) intermediate filaments.

41) Breathing faster and deeper eliminates more carbon dioxide from the body than normal breathing. 41)
Under these circumstances
A) the amount of carbon dioxide diffusion will remain unchanged.
B) less carbon dioxide will diffuse out of the blood.
C) less carbon dioxide will diffuse into the blood.
D) more carbon dioxide will diffuse into the blood.
E) more carbon dioxide will diffuse out of the blood.

42) The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called 42)
A) osmosis.
B) endocytosis.
C) active transport.
D) an ion exchange pump.
E) facilitated transport.

43) A membrane transport process is found experimentally to have a saturation limit. Which of the 43)
following is a possible property of the process?
A) active transport
B) cotransport
C) carrier-mediated
D) energy-dependent
E) all of the above

44) If the concentration of sodium chloride in the interstitial fluid surrounding cells decreases and the 44)
concentration of other solutes remains constant,
A) the fluid outside of the cells will become isotonic.
B) the cells will swell.
C) the cells will not change.
D) the fluid outside of the cells will become hypertonic.
E) the cells will shrink.

45) In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, an exchange pump ejects ________ ions from the cell and 45)
imports ________ ions.
A) calcium; sodium
B) sodium; calcium
C) sodium; potassium
D) potassium; calcium
E) potassium; sodium

46) A unit in messenger RNA consisting of a set of three consecutive nucleotides is termed a(n) 46)
A) tRNA.
B) anticodon.
C) codon.
D) amino acid.
E) gene.

47) Most of a cell's DNA is located in its 47)

A) ribosomes.
B) Golgi apparatus.
C) lysosomes.
D) nucleolus.
E) nucleus.

48) Microfilaments 48)

A) are found in the cytoplasm radiating away from the centrosome.
B) are usually composed of myosin.
C) anchor the cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the cell membrane.
D) interact with filaments composed of tubulin to produce muscle contractions.
E) are hollow, filamentous structures.

49) Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to 49)

A) blood.
B) epithelium.
C) fat.
D) neural tissue.
E) bone.

50) Damage to a joint cartilage is affecting which type of tissue? 50)

A) dense connective tissue
B) supporting connective tissue
C) loose connective tissue
D) adipose tissue
E) fluid connective tissue

51) Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by 51)

A) a reticular lamina.
B) proteoglycan.
C) interfacial canals.
D) a basal lamina.
E) keratin.

52) Adhesions of abdominopelvic organs occur when 52)
A) synovial membranes are damaged.
B) nerve cells are damaged.
C) muscle is damaged.
D) serous membranes are damaged.
E) any of the above

53) The study of cells shed from epithelial surfaces, often for diagnostic purposes, is termed 53)
A) physiology.
B) exfoliative cytology.
C) histology.
D) embryology.
E) anatomy.

54) Connective tissue fibers are produced mainly by 54)

A) melanocytes.
B) fibroblasts.
C) macrophages.
D) adipocytes.
E) mast cells.

55) Epithelial cells exhibit modifications that adapt them for 55)
A) conduction.
B) secretion.
C) contraction.
D) support.
E) circulation.

56) Close examination of an organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain 56)
any blood vessels and one surface of the cells is open to the internal cavity of the organ. This tissue
is probably
A) neural tissue.
B) epithelium.
C) fat tissue.
D) muscle tissue.
E) connective tissue.

57) ________ attach skeletal muscles to bones, and ________ connect one bone to another. 57)
A) Ligaments; aponeuroses
B) Tendons; ligaments
C) Ligaments; tendons
D) Aponeuroses; tendons
E) Reticular tissues; tendons

58) The serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity is the 58)
A) perichondrium.
B) peritoneum.
C) pleura.
D) periosteum.
E) pericardium.

59) The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found 59)
A) surrounding the genitals.
B) on the chest.
C) in the axillae.
D) on the palms of the hands.
E) on the upper back.

60) Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands. 60)

A) sebaceous
B) apocrine sweat
C) ceruminous
D) merocrine sweat
E) mammary

61) If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed, 61)

A) the follicle will lose its blood supply.
B) the color of the hair will become lighter.
C) the hair produced by the follicle will change from terminal to vellus.
D) hair production will not be affected.
E) the texture of the hair will become coarser.

62) While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it 62)
remains peaked. This is a sign of
A) hydration intoxication.
B) water intoxication.
C) advanced skin cancer.
D) malfunctioning elastin.
E) dehydration.

Figure 5-1 The Components of the Integumentary System

Use Figure 5-1 to answer the following question(s):

63) Which tissue is located in the region labeled "2"? 63)

A) adipose tissue
B) reticular connective tissues
C) stratified squamous epithelium
D) areolar connective tissue
E) cartilage and blood

64) The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury. 64)

1. blood clot/scab formation

2. cellular migration
3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
4. epidermis covers scar tissue

The correct order for these events is

A) 3, 4, 1, 2. B) 4, 3, 2, 1. C) 1, 2, 3, 4. D) 4, 3, 1, 2. E) 2, 4, 1, 3.

Figure 5-1 The Components of the Integumentary System

Use Figure 5-1 to answer the following question(s):

65) Which layer contains most of the epidermal derivatives? 65)

A) 2 B) 4 C) 3 D) 5 E) 1

66) The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of 66)
A) melanin
B) hemoglobin
C) keratin
D) sebum
E) carotene

67) In general, the nervous system does each of the following, except 67)
A) directs very specific responses.
B) helps to maintain homeostasis.
C) directs long-term responses to change.
D) responds rapidly to change.
E) both B and D

68) If a response increases a disturbance, the system is classified as a ________ feedback system. 68)
A) deficit B) neutral C) positive D) polarized E) negative

69) Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells? 69)
A) muscular
B) cardiovascular
C) urinary
D) digestive
E) respiratory

70) The thoracic cavity contains the 70)

A) coelom.
B) pericardial cavity.
C) pelvic cavity.
D) pleural cavities.
E) both B and D

71) The analysis of the internal structure of individual cells is called 71)
A) physiology.
B) cytology.
C) anatomy.
D) histology.
E) embryology.

72) This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal. 72)
A) neutral
B) positive
C) negative
D) depressing
E) all of the above

73) Oxygen is required in biological systems for 73)

A) storage of energy.
B) serving as catalysts.
C) chemical messengers.
D) serving as structural components of bone.
E) cellular metabolism.

74) Muscle proteins are destroyed after 17 days and then replaced. This is an example of 74)
A) metabolic turnover.
B) surveillance.
C) specificity.
D) surface tension.
E) disease.

75) Alaska Natives have a lower incidence of heart disease even though their diets are high in fat and 75)
cholesterol. This may be due to the large amount of ________ in their diets.
A) vitamins
B) prostaglandins
C) omega-3 fatty acids
D) triglycerides
E) oleic acid

76) AB A + B is to decomposition as A + B AB is to 76)
A) exchange.
B) replacement.
C) combustion.
D) synthesis.
E) metabolism.

77) An example of an organic substance is 77)

A) sucrose.
B) sodium chloride.
C) oxygen.
D) carbonic acid.
E) nitric oxide.

78) Messenger RNA is vital to the cell because 78)

A) mRNA can leave the nucleus.
B) mRNA cannot leave the nucleus.
C) DNA can leave the nucleus.
D) DNA cannot leave the nucleus.
E) both A and D

79) Many proteins in the cytosol are ________ that accelerate metabolic reactions. 79)
A) messengers
B) ions
C) carbohydrates
D) enzymes
E) lipids

80) Which of the following about cytoplasm is false? 80)

A) the material that fills a cell
B) includes cytoskeleton
C) includes cytosol
D) extracellular fluid contains more protein
E) semi-rigid texture

81) The mRNA sequence that is complementary to the sequence ATC on DNA is 81)

82) Epithelia specialized for providing sensations of smell, taste, sight, equilibrium, and hearing are 82)
known as
A) multilaminar epithelia.
B) protective epithelia.
C) psychoepithelia.
D) neuropsychoepithelia.
E) neuroepithelia.

83) Which of the following statements about tissue swelling that occurs during inflammation is true? 83)
A) triggered by heparin
B) triggered by histamine
C) caused by increased endothelial permeability
D) both A and C
E) both B and C

84) The junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the 84)
A) gap junction.
B) tight junction.
C) desmosome.
D) hemidesmosome.
E) zonula adherens.

Figure 5-1 The Components of the Integumentary System

Use Figure 5-1 to answer the following question(s):

85) Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards? 85)
A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5

86) A child who skins his knee in a fall has a(n) 86)
A) laceration.
B) incision.
C) contusion.
D) puncture.
E) abrasion.

87) The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the 87)
A) stratum spinosum.
B) stratum corneum.
C) stratum lucidum.
D) stratum granulosum.
E) stratum germinativum.

88) A person is lying on the bed gazing at the ceiling. She is in the ________ position. 88)
A) supine
B) caudal
C) prone
D) dorsal
E) anatomical

89) Which of the following organs is located between the peritoneum and the body wall? 89)
A) urinary bladder
B) stomach
C) spleen
D) large intestine
E) kidney

90) Oppositely charged ions in solution are prevented from combining by 90)
A) heat capacity of water.
B) water's nonpolar nature.
C) free radicals.
D) hydration spheres.
E) hydrogen bonding.

91) Of the following choices, the pH of the least acidic solution is 91)
A) 4.5. B) 2.3. C) 12.0. D) 1.0. E) 6.0.

92) The complex structures of DNA and protein found in the cell nucleus are 92)
A) nucleoplasm.
B) mitochondria.
C) histones.
D) nucleases.
E) chromosomes.

93) Transitional epithelium is found 93)

A) lining the ducts that drain sweat glands.
B) lining the urinary bladder.
C) at the surface of the skin.
D) lining kidney tubules.
E) lining the stomach.

94) Merocrine sweat glands 94)
A) secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin.
B) increase in number and activity with aging.
C) primarily function in lubricating the hairs.
D) produce organic secretions that are metabolized by bacteria to produce body odor.
E) are compound alveolar glands.

95) Organ physiology is to ________ as gross anatomy is to ________. 95)

A) balance; equilibrium
B) equilibrium; macroscopic anatomy
C) imbalance; microscopic anatomy
D) macroscopic anatomy; unbalance
E) cell physiology; microscopic anatomy

96) Elements that have atoms with full outer shells of electrons 96)
A) will normally form cations.
B) are inert gases.
C) will form many compounds.
D) will normally form anions.
E) frequently form hydrogen bonds.

97) Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through 97)
A) channels formed by integral proteins.
B) defects in the lipid layer of the membrane.
C) peripheral carbohydrates.
D) lipid channels.
E) peripheral proteins.

98) What type of cell makes up almost half the volume of blood? 98)
A) platelet
B) phagocyte
C) leukocyte
D) monocyte
E) erythrocyte

99) Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ 99)
A) active
B) latent
C) sensible
D) insensible
E) inactive

100) An anatomical term that means the same as ventral: 100)

A) anterior
B) inferior
C) superior
D) posterior
E) abdominal