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PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN: INSTITUT PERGURUAN TEKNIK KUALA LUMPUR
HBSC3203: TEACHING SCIENCE FOR UPPER PRIMARY
NAMA : SIVAJOTHY SIVALINGAM 670728-10-5626 email@example.com
NAMA PENSYARAH : AZIZAH NGAH TASIR firstname.lastname@example.org
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Contents Definition constructivism
2-3 4 5-9 10 11 - 12 13 14 – 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 – 24 25 - 27
Twelve Principles of Constructivism Characteristics of Constructivism Types of constructivism Constructivism 5-stage model Role of teachers and students in constructivist classroom Lesson plan based on constructivist Card Activities ( Construct Model of Solar System ) Card Activities ( Games of Model of Solar System ) Diagrams Assessment on games Worksheet 1 Worksheet 2 Conclusion References
Definition Constructivism Constructivism is a theory of learning based on the idea that knowledge is constructed by the knower based on mental activity. Learners are considered to be active organisms seeking
a personal interpretation of experience.Conceptual growth comes from the sharing of multiple perspectives and simultaneous changing of our internal representations in response to those perspectives as well as through cumulative experience. One key to efficiency and effectiveness is simplification and regularization: thought is atomistic in that it can be completely broken down into simple building blocks. claims that reality is constructed by the knower based upon mental activity. . manipulating symbols in the same way. founded on Kantian beliefs. et al (1991) elaborate further: .this school of thought believes that the external world is mind independent (i.3 meaning..Consistent with this view of knowledge.. Duffy and Perry (1991) state the philosophy of objectivism as follows: Objectivism is a view of the nature of knowledge and what it means to know something. Cognition is the rule-based manipulation of these symbols. absolutely and unconditionally true or false. which can only be comprehended by the mind. Cunningham. is to communicate or transfer knowledge to learners in the most efficient... therefore is some entity existing independent of the mind of individuals...These symbols acquire meaning when an external and independent reality is "mapped" onto them in our interactions in the world. What the mind produces are mental models that explain to the knower what he or she has perceived. task analysis).. In this view.thinking is grounded in perception of physical and social experiences. the goal of instruction.. which form the basis of instruction.e. but will become increasing more complex. its structure and linkages forming the foundation to which other knowledge structures are appended. 10) Bednar.. This representation is constantly open to change. Knowledge can be completely characterized using the techniques of semantic analysis (or its second cousin. (p.... Bednar. objectivism. the same for everyone) and we can say things about it that are objectively. Knowledge. Humans are perceivers and interpreters who construct their own reality through engaging in those mental activities.. 91) Jonassen (1991) talks about constructivism as follows: Constructivism. It is impossible to discuss constructivism without contrasting it with its opposite. and is transferred "inside". based on our unique set of experiences with the world and our beliefs about them.. differentiated and realistic as time goes on.. We all conceive of the external reality somewhat differently... (p. Constructions of meaning may initially bear little relationship to reality (as in the naive theories of children). Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience.. from both the behavioral and cognitive information processing perspectives.. the mind is an instantiation of a computer.the learner is building an internal representation of knowledge. effective manner possible.
learning must be situated in a rich context. predict. for this constructive process to occur and transfer to environments beyond the school (p. Constructivist teachers use raw data and primary sources long with manipulative. While framing tasks. reflective of real world contexts. and create. constructivist teachers use cognitive terminology such as classify. 3. Twelve Principles of Constructivism 1. interactive. 2. Constructivist teachers encourage and accept student Autonomy and initiative . . 91-2). analyze.4 Consistent with this view of knowledge. and physical material.
and alter content. psychology and epistemology to the characterization of constructivist learning environments presents the challenge of synthesizing a large spectrum of somewhat disparate concepts. The presentation of characteristics in this section aims to remain true to this analogy in that it recognizes and attempts to represent the variety of ways in which constructivism is articulated in the literature. While the facets reflect the same light and form one part of a whole. 11. lessons. Constructivist teachers inquire about students' understanding of concepts before sharing their own understanding of those concepts. problem-based learning. Constructivist teachers allow wait time after posing questions. Constructivist teachers engage students in experiences that might engender contradictions to their initial hypotheses and then encourage discussion. An appropriate analogy for the way in which constructivist concepts have evolved is that of a prism with many facets. open-ended questions and encouraging students to ask questions to each other. Constructivist teachers nurture students' natural curiosity through frequent use of the learning cycle model. Constructivist teachers provide time for students to construct relationships and create metaphors. Situated cognition. both with the teacher and with other students. they nonetheless each present distinct and finely delineated boundaries. apprenticeship learning. 10. shift instructional 5.5 4. Constructivist teachers allow student responses to drive strategies. 7. Characteristics of Constructivism Moving from constructivist philosophy. exploratory learning: these approaches to learning are grounded in and derived from constructivist epistemology. constructivism. anchored instruction. 9. 8. generative learning. 12. . Constructivist teachers encourage student inquiry by asking thoughtful. Constructivist teachers encourage students to engage in dialogue. 6. Constructivist teachers seek elaboration of students' initial responses.
The following principles illustrate how knowledge construction can be facilitated: 1. 6. providing multiple representations or perspectives on the content. Create real-world environments that employ the context in which learning is relevant. Learning should be internally controlled and mediated by the learner. 4. From these applications. he has isolated a number of design principles: 1.6 Each approach articulates the way in which the concepts are operationalise for learning. (pp. 2.11-12) Jonassen (1994) summarizes what he refers to as "the implications of constructivism for instructional design". teaching or learning. Focus on realistic approaches to solving real-world problems. They provide the beginnings of an orienting framework for a constructivist approach to design. . The instructor is a coach and analyzer of the strategies used to solve these problems. 7. Provide tools and environments that help learners interpret the multiple perspectives of the world. 5. Instructional goals and objectives should be negotiated and not imposed. Evaluation should serve as a self-analysis tool. Stress conceptual interrelatedness. 3. Provide multiple representations of reality. 8. Jonassen (1991) notes that many educators and cognitive psychologists have applied constructivism to the development of learning environments. The researchers and theorists whose perspectives are listed below suggest links between constructivist theory and practice. 2. Represent the natural complexity of the real world.
7. 6. Use errors as a mechanism to provide feedback on learners' understanding. Embed learning in social experience. 4. (p. Provide for authentic versus academic contexts for learning. Present authentic tasks (contextualizing rather than abstracting instruction). Encourage self-awareness in the knowledge construction process. From these descriptions.35) Wilson and Cole (1991) provide a description of cognitive teaching models which "embody" constructivist concepts. 5. (pp. 3. Provide experience in and appreciation for multiple perspectives. Focus on knowledge construction. Embed learning in a rich authentic problem-solving environment. we can isolate some concepts central to constructivist design. (p. teaching and learning: 1. Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation. case-based learning environments. 5. Embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts. Enable context-and content dependent knowledge construction. 6. Provide for learner control. Provide experience with the knowledge construction process. 4.59-61) Honebein (1996) describes seven goals for the design of constructivist learning environments: 1. 2. 2. Foster reflective practice. 3. sensitivity toward and attentiveness to the learner's previous constructions. 8. 4.11) Ernest (1995) in his description of the many schools of thought of constructivism suggests the following implications of constructivism which derive from both the radical and social perspectives: 1. rather than pre-determined instructional sequences. 7. . not reproduction. Encourage the use of multiple modes of representation.7 3. Provide real-world. Encourage ownership and voice in the learning process.
attention to met cognition and strategic self-regulation by learners. Encourage self-awareness in the knowledge construction process. awareness of the importance of goals for the learner. such as the difference between folk or street mathematics and school mathematics (and an attempt to exploit the former for the latter). the use of multiple representations of mathematical concepts. Provide experience in and appreciation for multiple perspectives. Provide experience with the knowledge construction process. 2. 4. students' problem solving skills fall into three categories: 1. 4. 3. There were many . Encourage ownership and voice in the learning process. Awareness of the importance of social contexts. 7. 6. diagnostic teaching attempting to remedy learner errors and misconceptions. 3. skills that the student can perform with help Scaffolding allows students to perform tasks that would normally be slightly beyond their ability without that assistance and guidance from the teacher. skills which the student may be able to perform 3. skills which the student cannot perform 2. 6. Scaffolding is therefore an important characteristic of constructivist learning and teaching. 5.8 2. Encourage the use of multiple modes of representation. (p. 5. authentic activities. real-world environments these are just some of the themes that are frequently associated with constructivist learning and teaching. Embed learning in social experience. and the dichotomy between learner and teacher goals. Multiple perspectives. Embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts. Appropriate teacher support can allow students to function at the cutting edge of their individual development.11) An important concept for social constructivists is that of scaffolding which is a process of guiding the learner from what is presently known to what is to be known. (p. According to Vygotsky (1978).485) Honebein (1996) describes seven goals for the design of constructivist learning environments: 1.
environments. . The learner's previous knowledge constructions. The following section presents a synthesis and summary of the characteristics of constructivist learning and teaching as presented by the above review and as suggested by the previous section on constructivist theory. higher-order thinking skills and deep understanding are emphasized. Teachers serve in the role of guides. These are not presented in a hierarchical order. -reflection & -awareness. tools and environments are provided to encourage meta cognition. 13. collaboration and experience. 11. 5. tutors and facilitators. Exploration is a favoured approach in order to encourage students to seek knowledge independently and to manage the pursuit of their goals. 7. content and tasks are relevant. 3. Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the teacher or system. coaches. 2. 1. skills. 12. Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts and content are presented and encouraged. opportunities. self-analysis -regulation. Learning situations. realistic. 10.9 similarities between the perspectives of different researchers in this brief review of the literature. Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasized. The student plays a central role in mediating and controlling learning. Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-world complexity. Problem-solving. authentic and represent the natural complexities of the 'real world'. monitors. This construction takes place in individual contexts and through social negotiation. Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students' previous knowledge constructions. Activities. 9. 8. 6. 4. beliefs and attitudes are considered in the knowledge construction process.
Radical Coming to know is a process of dynamic adaptation towards viable interpretations of experience. 15. 4. Learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks.10 14. artifacts. 16. 3. 18. 17. Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning. Critical . The knower does not discover truth about the real world. Scaffolding is facilitated to help students perform just beyond the limits of their ability. Types of constructivism: 1. 2. and symbolic systems used to facilitate social and cultural interaction. Trivial or Personal Knowledge is actively constructed by the learner. Cultural The ways in which individuals think are affected by the tools. skills and knowledge acquisition. Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching. Collaborative and cooperative learning are favoured in order to expose the learner to alternative viewpoints. 5. sometimes with what is learned distributed throughout the collective more than in the mind of any one individual. Social Individuals participate in the learning of a collective. not passively received from the environment.
In this phase the students compare their original ideas with new ideas and reflect on the learning process that has resulted in changes to their ideas. In the phase of the use of ideas. students are encouraged to exchange ideas through a phase of the outbreak of the idea. Constructivism 5-Stage Model Teaching and learning model is proposed in the "Children's Learning in Science Project (Needham. In the phase of the restructuring of ideas. In this model. This phase can also develop metacognitive skills. students can use their new ideas to solve problems and explain phenomena related to those ideas.11 Myths that keep individuals from being empowered should be made visible and hence open to question. . Back reflection phase is the final phase. This phase can also stimulate the students review their original idea. teachers are encouraged to plan appropriate activities to help students change their original ideas. 1987). Is believed new idea is being built by the students themselves are more easily accepted by them if the idea is understandable and useful. Pupils are given the opportunity to challenge his own original idea and the idea of their friends. In this phase the students compare the original idea back reflection is the final phase.
or conversion idea and development To test the validity of new ideas developed Strengthening the idea that has IV Application been built in the new situation and the normal Aware of changes in student V Reflection ideas. Writing their own project work So that students and teachers aware of the previous idea To create awareness about the alternatives in the form of scientific ideas. Practical project work. Rating Identify alternative ideas and critically examine the existing ideas of their own Test the validity of existing ideas Modification. Pupils can make a reflection of the extent of their original idea has changed. Recognizing that existing ideas should be modified. film. small group discussions. discussion groups. Explanation and exchange ii. demonstration teachers Role of teachers and students in constructivist classroom . personal notes and other. Construction of a new idea iv. Methods Practical solution of real problems.12 Phases of the constructivist teaching model based on 5-phases as follows: No Phase I Orientation Purpose / Use Generate interest and provide an environment Brainstorming II Ideas Restructuring ideas III i. Exposure to conflict situations iii. Writing Self. readings. a demonstration by teachers. experiments. teacher input. expanded or replaced with a more scientific ideas . video and newspaper cuttings Practical. mapping and reporting concern Discussions in small groups and create reports Discussions.
David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments: Modeling Coaching Scaffolding Role of students in constructivist classroom To explore the learning environment in concert with others and construct meaning from learning experiences. the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject. To apply knowledge in personally meaningful contexts . Thus. the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion.13 Role of teachers in constructivist classroom In the constructivist classroom. LESSON PLAN BASED ON CONSTRUCTIVIST Class Subject : : 4 Adidev Science 40 pupils Total pupils : .
Mathemathical skills .lyrics Suggested Teaching Strategies : Constructivism 5-Stage Model Steps Content P&P Activities Note Orientation (induction set ) ( 5 minutes ) Introducing Solar System – Teacher had chosen 10 pupils as planets.14 Time Theme Topic : : : 1 hour Investigating Earth and Universe Our Solar System Learning Objectif : 1. Scientific skills and Thinking skills: Observation and sequencing . computer. Relating and inferring . Discussion Scientific Attitudes and Noble values : Being thankful to god .1 Understanding the solar system Learning outcomes : At the end of this lesson.State that planets moves around the sun. Being confident and indipendent • Pupils shoul realise that the use of science is a means to understand the solar system and be thankful to God for perfecting the Solar System Teaching and Learning Resources : Charts of the Solar System. The . one of them was chosen to represent Sun and remainders are nine planets. Planning and communicating .List the planets in the solar system in the Solar System insequence 3. Observation Skill Simulation – Model – Teacher distributed lyrics about solar system to all the pupils including the observers. LCD. pupils should be able to : 1. List the constituents of the Solar System 2. worksheet.
the teacher and the student sang the song together. – Then.materials . the teacher asked questions to the pupils regarding the lesson. The selected student had took their positions as nine planets and moved around the pupil who represent the sun.15 of solar system – Singin g song – – teacher had drawn nine concentric circles in the middle of school field using powdered chalk.LCD – Then. Brainstorming Ideas ( 15 minutes ) Members in solar system – The teacher provided a model of solar system to a student and asked the pupil to explain about the members in the solar system. Pupil was brought to the school worksheet . . Steps Content P&P Activities Note Restructuring ideas (15 minutes) Interpreting and analyzing the members in solar system – Teacher explained briefly to the pupils regarding the activities which going to be carried out in Simulation of Model Solar System -Communication skill – Guideline activity – – Rules of the activities was distributed for the pupils. Then. the teacher played animation related to the solar system in My CD and had discuss with the pupils.computer . – As the song finished the pupils stop moving around the concentric circle.
a few centimeters of square paper. which is tricky box containing the name of the planets was passed by around the circle by the pupils. Pupil construct the model of Solar System – – Pupils were divided into 3 groups. the pupils . the pupil who holds the box will pick up the name of the planet – Card activity Games ( attachment ) . – Naming the planets in the Solar System – Each group was provided with chalk pieces. As the teacher blew the whisel. used their thinking skill to construct the model of solar system using the materials provided. scissors and string for the activity planned.16 field. ( attachment ) Steps Content P&P Activities Note Application (20 minutes) ‘ Tricky Box ’ game – Teacher explained the concept of the game. and each group has 10 members. – The pupils cut strips and pieces of paper representing the diameters of the planets. With the help of instruction of teacher. Pupils used the chalk pieces provided by the teacher to draw nine orbits of the planets in the school field.
( Refer to the text book as a guideline ) 3. – Other pupils were questioned the presenter. – Membuat kesimpul an – Teacher guide the pupils to summarise the lesson of the topic. Build the centre of the Solar System. Provide the pupils with few centimeters of square paper. – Pupils were given chance to present their summary of the topic to the class. Pupils named the sequence of planets which is nearest from the sun. Cut the square papers representing the diameters of the planet which follows the size of planet. ( Use a ball as the sun ) . 2. to find out the achievement of learning objective.17 and will start searching for the position planet which picked by the pupil. – – The steps were repeated for other planets in solar system. Card Activities ( Construct Model of Solar System ) 1. – Reflection (5 minutes) Summary of the lesson Teacher gave chance to the students to summarise the learning topic. some pieces of string and pair of scissors. a ball. – Pupils went back to the class and start doing the worksheet distributed by the teacher.
18 4. Pupil were required to name the planet form the nearest to the sun to the farer. pick a name of planet and will look for the orbit of the planet which sketch by them. With the guide of the teacher. A box containing the name of planets were passed among the pupils in the circle. The model was arranged on the orbits according to their sequence in Solar System. 3. The game was repeated for several times. 7. Pupils were ordered to stand in circles. Sketch the orbits of the planet using the diagram of Solar System in the text book on the field. 4. orbits 2. ( depends on the P&P time ) Diagrams . 6. While the students passing the Tricky Box among them the teacher will blew the whisel The last person holding the box will. pupils sketch the centre of Solar System and the of the planet on the field using powdered chalk. The game was continued until the naming of the nine planets. Card Activities ( Games of Model of Solar System ) 1. 6. Name the planets according to their sequence from the planet nearest to the sun. 5. 5.
19 Assessment on games In this games. all the pupils were provided with assessment worksheet . where all the pupils required to complete the worksheet during the games carried out. The scientific skills involved in .
planning and communicating . Worksheet 1 . relating and inferring . teacher required the pupils to fill in the blanks according to the lesson they studied in the learning process. The thinking skill used in the games is for arranging planets in sequence.20 the activities are observation and sequencing . mathemathical skills and discussion. Members of Solar System Centre of Solar System First planet Second planet Third planet Fourth planet Fifth planet Sixth planet Seventh planet Eighth planet Nineth planet Name According to the graphic above.
How many planets and dwarf planets are in our Solar System?_________________ 2. Which planet or dwarf planet is farthest from the Sun?_______________________ 4. Which planet is the biggest?_______________________ 5. What is at the center of our Solar System?_______________________ 8.21 Name: _______________________ Class : _________________ The Planets Answer all questions: 1. Which planet is called the "red planet"? ______________________ Worksheet 2 Name: _______________________ Class : _________________ . Which planet or dwarf planet is nearest the Sun?_______________________ 3. What are the icy objects with huge tails that orbit the Sun? ______________________ 10. What is the name of the group of objects that orbit the Sun between Mars and Jupiter? ______ 7. most easily-seen rings orbiting it? _____________________ 6. Are the inner planets made of rock or gas? _______________________ 9. Which planet has the biggest.
It is an epistemological concept that draws from a variety of fields. and it is also a theory of knowing.22 Characteristics of Planet – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No moon Nearest to the earth The hottest planet No moon Second smallest planet Nearest to sun Has two moon Looks red Only planet has living things Has only one moon Smallest and coldest planet Farer planet from sun Has 20 moons Has three rings surrounding it Biggest planet Has 16 moons Has 8 moons Second farer planet from sun Looks greenish-blue Has 15 moons Name of Planet Conclusion “Constructivism is a theory of learning. . including philosophy. psychology.
1988. Hewson. Boyle and Monarch. 1995 p. who applied the biological concept of adaptation to epistemology (von Glasersfeld. 1996). when necessary. A constructivist view does not lead to a simple. provides constraints for their thinking. class extension in which existing concepts become cases of another subsuming concept.. and re-conceptualization in which nature of and relationship between concepts changes significantly (Dykstra. but it is actively built up by the cognising subject. Vygotsky. 23). not the discovery of an objective ontological reality. 2. Theories about conceptual change have been built on constructivist principles. and Piaget" (Danielson. 1996. plausible. p.. The teacher sets up situations that will cause dissatisfaction with existing ideas. uncontested set of rules for pedagogical practice. Knowledge is not passively received either through the senses or by way of communication. The teacher's role also includes introducing. After dissatisfaction with existing conceptions. especially the writings of Dewey. The teacher elicits students’ initial beliefs about the subject to be studied and about the nature of learning. Von Glasersfeld (1993. requirements for conceptual change are that the new conception be intelligible. p. 24) refers to his ideas as "postepistemological" because his radical constructivism posits a different relationship between knowledge and the external world than does traditional epistemology. requests from them evidence and justification. and gives them opportunities to represent their knowledge in a variety of ways. and fruitful (Posner. 1). Realizing that students' expectations affect their observations and that multiple approaches to problem solving are acceptable. Strike. 1982). The status of a conception is increased as more of these three conditions are met (Hewson. 83) His principles are built on the ideas of Jean Piaget. Constructivism "has become de rigueur in educational circles and . General agreement is that students need interaction with the physical world and with their peers to stimulate meaning-making. & Gertzog. the teacher monitors students' understandings. stems from a long and respected tradition in cognitive psychology. p. Ernst von Glasersfeld's basic principles of radical constructivism are the following: 1. The function of cognition is adaptive and serves the subject's organization of the experiential world. Conceptual change can be subdivided into differentiation in which new concepts emerge from more general concepts. 1996).23 and science” (Walker & Lambert. (von Glasersfeld. 1992). Then the teacher guides and supports . new ways of thinking about phenomena and working with symbols.
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