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UNIT I

BIS - BUREAUE OF INDIAN STANDARDS

The Indian standard institution now designated bureau of Indian standards “Indian
standard code of practice for general engineering drawing” published in 1955 and
revised in 1960 as recommended the use of 3rd angle projection and in December
1973 the committee responsible for it left the option to engineers and in September
1986 it is received the matters and finalized in 1991 to use the 1st angle projection

1. 1. Welding
Welding is a process of fastening the metal parts together permanently. In
recent years welding is fast replacing riveting in structural fabrication and casting and
forging processes. Welding can join both the ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Using
appropriate symbols conveys all the technical details required for welding and the
specifications for the welded joints are discussed here.

Welding processes
Pressure welding or forge welding and fusion welding are the methods of
welding. In pressure welding, the two parts around the joints are heated to plastic
then joined together by applying external pressure. Wrought iron and low carbon
steel are the materials that can be pressure welded. In fusion welding, the parts
around the joints are heated to liquid state and then the weld metal called filler metal
is added in the molten state to fill the space between the parts being welded which
forms the joint when cooled. Gas welding and arc welding the methods of fusion
welding. Resistance welding employs both the pressure welding and the fusion
welding principles.
Welded joints

A B C D
Butt joint Corner joint Tee joint Lap joint

Elementary welding symbols


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1.2. Keys
Introduction

A machine runs by the power supplied by the prime mover such as, motor, engine,
etc. the power is transmitted from the prime mover to the machine through a coupler,
which couples the shaft of the machine and prime mover. Within the machine, the
power from the machine shafts is transmitted to its parts by machine elements, such
as gears pulleys and belts, sprockets and chains, etc. these elements have to be
mounted on the on their shafts such that there is no relative rotation between them to
effect the transmission from one to another.

The most commonly used method to connect a shaft and a part is to drive a small
piece of metal, known as key between the shaft and the hole made in the part
mounted over it. The key will be driven such that it sits partly into the shaft and partly
into the part mounted over it. To introduce the key, axial grooves, called key ways
are cut both in the shaft and the part mounted over it. While transmitting the power,
the key will be subjected to shear and crushing forces.

Keys are extensively used to hold pulleys, gears, couplings, clutches, sprockets,
etc. and the shafts rigidly so that they rotate together. They are also used to mount
the milling cutters, grinding wheels, etc. on their spindles.

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Types of keys

The various types of keys used in engineering practice are:

1. Sunk key
2. Saddle key
3. Flat key
4. Gib-head key
5. Feather key
6. Peg key
7. Single head key
8. Double head key
9. Spline shaft
10. Woodruff key
11. Pin key
12. Cone key

Classification of keys

Sunk Taper Keys

A sunk taper key is of rectangular or square cross section of width having its bottom
surface straight and top surface tapered. The key is driven between the shaft and the
hub with half of its thickness to fit in the flat key way made in the shaft and the other
half having the tapered surface to fit in the tapered key way made in the hub. This
type of key is generally used to transmit heavy loads. The proportions of the key are
as follows.

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Hollow Saddle Key

A hollow saddle key is o uniform width but tapering in thickness having its upper side
flat and its lower side hollow so as to sit on a shaft. Since the saddle key holds the
shaft and the part mounted on it only by friction, it is not suitable for heavy loads. The
key is used where there is frequent alterations in the position of the key on the shaft
is expected

Flat Saddle Key

A flat saddle key is similar to a hollow saddle key, except that it’s underneath
surface is flat. The key sits over the flat surface on the shaft and fits into the keyway
in the hub. When the shaft rotates, the key will be wedged between the flat surface
on the shaft and the keyway in the hub, and thus holds them rotate together. This key
cannot be used for heavy loads and will not be suitable for shafts, which frequently
change their direction of rotation. The proportions of this key are as follows:

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Gib-head Key

When a tapered sunk key is used, it can be removed by striking at its


exposed thin end. F this end is not accessible, a head called gib is provided integral
with the sunk taper key at its thicker end. When a gib-head key is to be removed, a
wedge is forced vertically in the gap between the head of the key and vertical face of
the hub. The proportions of the key are as follows:

Feather Key or Parallel Key

A feather key or parallel key permits axial sliding movement for the wheel
over a shaft when both of them are rotating together. This facility will be required in
several power transmitting applications such as, in gear boxes, loose pulleys,
clutches, universal and flexible type of couplings, etc.
A feather key is of rectangular or square cross section with uniform width and
thickness. The ends of a feather key are usually rounded and the key will be sunk
into the shaft for half of its thickness so that it fits snugly into the keyway recess in it
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with a press fit. The press fit prevents the key from moving axially over the shaft
when driven wheel slides on it. In cases of higher power transmission, the feather
key instead of press fit will be secured to the shaft by countersink set screws. The
proportions of the key are as follows:

Peg key

A peg key is a feather type of key having a peg provided in the center of the
top face of the key as shown in Fig. The peg fits into the hole drilled in the keyway in
the hub. The key is a sliding fit in the key way of the shaft. The proportions of the key
are as follows:

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Single Head Key

A single head key is also a feather type of key provided with a gib head at
one of its ends as shown in Fig. The key is connected to the hub by a screw. The key
is sliding fit in the shaft. The proportions of the key are as follows:

Double Head key

A double head key is also a feather type of key having integral gib head at its
ends. It fits tight in the hub and slides along with it in the key way in the shaft. The
proportions of the key are as follows:

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If D=diameter of the shaft in mm, T=thickness of key, h=height of the head,
b=width of the head,

Width of the key =0.25+2mm Height of the head=1.75T


Nominal Thickness=0.66W Width of head=1.5T

Spline Shaft

A spline shaft has a series of lengthwise rectangular grooves extending for a


small portion of its length leaving an equal number of feathers in between them.
These feathers engage with corresponding recesses provided in the hub. As
compared to a keyed joint, a splined joint offers the following advantages;
transmission of heavier loads, accurate centering of hub, increased strength of the
point.

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Woodruff Key

A woodruff key is not primarily intended to withstand shear forces and it is


used in light classes of work for holding the hub to the shaft so as to prevent it from
slipping. It has a uniformly thick curved-base disc of shape somewhat less than a
semicircle. It fits into a similarly shaped key way in the tapered shaft or the spindle.

The hub of the wheel has a tapered bore to suit the tapered shaft. The wheel is
driven on the tapered shaft until it fits tightly over it. When a nut is tightened up hard
against the outer face of the hub, the key grips the hub by the wedging action and
locks it on the tapered shaft. The pressure exerted by the nut therefore relieves the
stress. The proportions of the key are as follows:
If D=diameter of the shaft in mm, d= diameter of the key, h=height of the key,
W=width of the key,
Width of the key=0.25D
Diameter of key=4 W
Height of key= 1.75W

Pin Key

A pin key is either a plain or a tapered rod driven in the hole partly drilled in
the shaft and partly in the hub. Pin keys are used generally to hold small-toothed
wheels, hand wheels, levers, etc. on the spindles to prevent them from slipping.
Sometimes a pin key is also used with shrunk-on wheel hub. In such cases, the hub

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of the wheel is bored with a hole equal to or less than the diameter of the shaft. The
hub is then heated to expand slightly and is driven on the shaft when it is still hot. As
the hub cools, it contracts and grips the shaft. To provide extra positive hold a pin key
is also used. The proportions of the key are as follows:

If D=diameter of the shaft, d= diameter of pin,

Diameter of Pin=0.2D Taper 1:50

Cone Key

Cone keys are used when pulleys having holes larger than the shaft are
mounted on them. A cone key consists of three segments of a hollow conical bush.
The hub of the pulley will have tapered bore to suit that of the cone key. The
segments of the cone key are driven between the shaft and the hub so as to hold
them from slipping by the friction grip.

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Staking on

When a pulley with a hole in the hub larger than the diameter of the shaft is to
be mounted on the shaft, at least four or more number of flat keys is used. This
arrangement is convenient for fixing heavy wheels on the shafts in positions where it
would be difficult to move the wheel on or off, if the shaft is fitted tightly in the hole.
The staking on also permits the hole being made large enough to pass over any
enlarged part mounted on the shaft.

1.3. Fasteners

The following definitions refer to the various terms used in screw threads. The
various elements of a screw thread are shown in fig. The external thread cut on the
outer surface of a rod. The internal thread is the thread cut on the inner surface of a
hole.

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Root – It is the bottom portion of the surface of a thread, either flat or rounded, which
joins the side of the same thread.

Crest - It is the top portion of the surface of a thread, either flat or rounded, which
joins the side of the same thread.

Flank or Side – It is the surface of a thread that connects the crest with the root and
also it offers the surface contact with its counter part.

Depth of the thread – It is the distance between the crest and the root of threads,
which is measured normal to the axis on an axial plane. It is designated as h3.

Nominal Diameter – it is the diameter of the cylinder rod on which the threads are
cut. This diameter specifies the size of the screw.

Major diameter – It is the diameter of an imaginary coaxial cylinder, which bounds


the crests of an external thread of the roots of an internal thread. D and d denote the
major diameters of the internal and external threads respectively.

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Minor, or Core, or Root diameter – It is the diameter of an imaginary coaxial
cylinder which bounds the roots of an external thread, or the crest of an internal
thread. D1 and d3 denote the minor diameters of the internal and external threads
respectively.

Pitch diameter – It is the diameter of the thread at which an imaginary coaxial


cylinder that can be passed so as to cut the thread so that the width of the cut thread
will be equal to width of the groove. D2 and d2 denote the pitch diameters of internal
and external threads respectively.

Height of the fundamental Triangle – The imaginary equilateral triangle which


bounds a V- thread is called a fundamental triangle. In fig. The triangle ABC is called
the fundamental triangle. Its height is measured normal to the axis on an axial plane.

Pitch – It is the distance from a point on a screw thread to a corresponding point on


the next thread, measured parallel to the axis. It may be indicated as the distance
from crest to crest, or from root to root, but the former is the convention.
Lead – It is the axial distance advanced by a nut for its one full turn over a thread
rod. On a single start thread, the lead and the pitch are identical. On a double start
thread, the lead is twice the pitch, and on a triple start thread, the lead is three times
the pitch. Thus, the lead may also be defined as the product of the pitch and number
of starts

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1.4. Rivets and Riveted Joints

Application of riveted joints

A riveted joint is a permanent type of fastener used to join the metal plates of rolled
steel sections together. Riveted joints are extensively used in structural works,
boilers, etc. Although welded joints are best suited to several of these applications
than the riveted joints, however, riveted joints are also used when a non-metallic
plate and a metallic plate are to be connected together. They are also used when the
joints are not expected to be heated whole joining as in welding, which may cause
warping and tempering of the finished surfaces of the joints.

The disadvantages of riveted joints are: (i) more metal is removed while making of
holes, which weakens the working cross sections along the line of centers of the rivet
holes, and (ii) weight of the rivets increases the weight of the riveted members.

Differences between a bolt and a rivet

As a fastener, a rivet resembles a bolt, but differs from it in the shape and the
application as well. Although the shape of a rivet is similar to that of a bolt, unlike the
bolts, its shank end is not threaded. With regards to the application, it is used to its
axis, whereas a bolt is used as a temporary fasteners it withstand axial forces.

Rivet
A Rivet is around rod made either from mild steel of nonferrous material such as,
copper, aluminium, etc. with a lead any one of the shapers shown in fig. the length of
the shank of the rivet must be sufficient enough to accommodate the connecting
plates and also provide enough material for forming a head at its shank end. In
general, the length of the shank of the rivet will be equal to the sum of the thickness
of the connection plates plus 1.5 to 1.7 times the diameter of the rivets

If l = length of the shank of the rivet


d = diameter of rivet
t = thickness of each of the connecting plates
Then,
L = Σt + (1.5 to 1.7) d

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Unit II

INTRODUCTION TO DRAFTING SOFTWARE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

CAD is a term, which means computer aided design. It is flexible computer


drafting program that leads us to create 2D drawing models and should drawings.
The cad involves any type of design activity, which makes use of computer to
develop (or)
Modify an engineering design.
Modern CAD system is based on interactive computer graphics. It denotes a
user-defined system in which the computer is employed to create, transform and
display data in the form of pictures and symbols. The use in the computer graphics
design system in the designer who communicates data input (or) output devices.
The interactive computer graphics system in the combination of both hardware and
software in effect the interactive computer graphics system modify the power design.

IMPORTANCE OF CAD
1. To increase the productivity of designer
2. To improve the quality of designer
3. To improve the communication
4. To create the database for manufacturing

BENEFITS OF CAD
1. Productivity improved in design
2. It has a benefit of shorter lead time
3. It contains only few design errors
4. It has great accuracy in design calculations
5. It has standardized design, drafting and documentation procedure
6. Using CAD the drawings are more understandable and easy to study

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2.2 COMMANDS

LIMITS:

Command: Limits
Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <Current>: 0,0
Specify upper left corner<current>: 210,300
Command: Zoom
[All/center/Dynamic/extend/previous/scale/window]
<Creating>: All

LINE:
It allows drawing straight line from 1 point to another.

Command: Line
Specify 1st point: x1, y1
Specify next point (or) [undo]: x2, y2

(X1, y1) (X2, y2)

Methods to draw line:


a) x,y – coordinate system
The points are located to draw a line with respect to origin.
(0,50) (20,50)

(20,30) (60,30)

(0,0) (60,0)

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Command: Line
Specify 1st point: 0, 0
Specify 2nd point: 60, 0
Specify next point: 60, 30
Specify next point: 20, 30
Specify next point: 20, 50
Specify next point: 0, 50
Specify next point: close (or) 0, 0

b) Relative coordinate system:


The points are located to draw the line with respect to previous points.

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30

60
Command: Line (60)
Specify 1st point: 0, 0
Specify next point or undo: @60, 0
Specify next point or undo: @0, 30
Specify next point or undo: @-40, 0
Specify next point or undo: @0, 20
Specify next point or undo: @-20, 0
Specify next point or undo: @0, -50
Specify next point or undo: close

c) Polar coordinate system:

The points are located to draw the line by defining the distance of the point
from the current position and the angle made to that line.

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Command: Line
Specify 1st point : 0, 0
Specify next point: @60<0
Specify next point : @30<90
Specify next point : @40<80
Specify next point : @20<90
Specify next point : @20<180
Specify next point : close

UNDO:
It is used to cancel the previous operation.
Command: Undo or U

REDO:

It is used to redo the operation immediately following the undo command.


Command: Redo

SAVE:

It is used to store the prepared drawing in the hard disk or floppy disc using a
filename
Command: Save

ERASE:
It is used to erase object which are drawn earlier. Select the object to be
erased one by one or select using any window.
Command: Erase

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CIRCLE:
It is used to draw a circle in many options.
Command: Circle

a) Center-point method

Command: circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/TTR]: x1, y1
Specify radius of circle or [diameter]<current>: 25

b) 2-point method:

Command: circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/TTR]: 2P

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c) 3-point method

Command: circle
Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/TTR]: 3P
Specify 1st end point of circle: x1, y1
Specify 2nd end point of circle: x2, y2
Specify 3rd end point of circle: x3, y3

d) Tangent Radius:

Command: circle
Specify centre point of circle or [3P/2P/TTR]: TTR
Enter 1st tangent specification: pick entity 1
Enter 2nd tangent specification: pick entity 2
Radius tangent specification: Enter radius 22

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ARC:

Command: arc
Specify start point of arc or [center]: x1, y1
Specify 2nd point of arc or [center/end]: x2, y2
Specify end point of arc or [center/end]: x3, y3

ELLIPSE:

Command: ellipse
Specify axis end point of ellipse: [arc/center]: pick pt. using mouse
Specify other end pt. of axis
Specify distance to other axis or [Rotation]

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RECTANGLE:
It is used to draw a rectangle as a single entity by selecting two diametrically
opposite corner

Command: Rectangle
Specify 1st corner point or [chamfer/elevation/fillet/thickness/width]: Select 1st
Corner using mouse.

POLYGON:
It is used to draw a regular polygon for a given length of edge. It can be also
be drawn inscribing or subscribing a circle of given radius.

Command: Polygon
Enter the no sides: 6
Specify centre if polygon or [edge]: E
Specify 1st end point of edge: using mouse
Specify 2nd end point of edge: @30<0

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MOVE:
The move command is used to move the object from the present position to a
new location.

Command: move
Select object: Using mouse
Select object:
Select base point or displacement: using mouse
Specify 2nd point of displacement:

COPY:
It is used to copy the existing object to the new location. Selecting the option
‘m’ in the command can also make multiple copies.

Command: copy
Select object: using mouse
Select object:
Select base point (i.e.) displacement or [multiple]:
Select 2nd point or displacement

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HATCH:
The hatch command is based to draw hatching lines in a closed boundary
region. There are many standard hatch patterns available in AutoCAD that are
identified by pattern names.

Command: Hatch
Enter a pattern name or {<ANSI 31>:
Specify a scale for pattern <1.000>:
Specify angle for pattern<0>:
Select objects to define hatch boundary:
Select objects:

EDITING COMMANDS:
Commands, which are used to modify the existing drawings to the required
size and shape, are known as editing commands.

OFFSET:
It is used to draw parallel lines, arcs and concentric circles to the specified
distance.

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Command: offset
Specify distance or [through]<current>: using keyboard
Select object to offset or <exit>: using mouse
Specify point on side to offset: using mouse
Select object to offset or <exit>:

FILLET:
It is used to draw arcs connecting 2 lines of specified radius.

Command: fillet
Select 1st object or [polyline/Rad/trim]:
Select object: using mouse
Select object:
CHAMFER:
This is used to draw beveled lines connecting two lines at specified distance
from the corner of two lines.

Command: chamfer
Select 1st line or [PL/distance/angle]:
Select 2nd line:
TRIM:
It is used to trim or cut the lines projecting beyond the specified boundary.

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Command: Trim
Select cutting edges:
Select object edges:
Select object to trim or [projection/edge/undo]:
Select object:
EXTEND:
The extend command is used to extend or lengthen a line to meet other which
is selected as the boundary edge.

Command: Extend
Select boundary edges:
Select objects: Select the boundary edge using mouse
Select objects:
Select the object to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]: Select the lines to be extended
using mouse
Select the object to extend or [Project/Edge/Undo]:

BREAK COMMAND
The break command is used to remove a part of the selected objects like line,
arc, circle etc.

Command: Break
Select object: Select the object using the mouse.
Enter the second break point or[first point]: Specify the second point using mouse

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ROTATE:
It is used to rotate an object to a specified angle.

Command: rotate
Select object:
Specify base point: using mouse
Specify rotation angle<0>: 90

MIRROR:
It is used to get a mirror copy of a symmetrical object.

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Command: Mirror
Select object:
Specify 1st point of mirror line:
Specify 2nd point of mirror line:
Delete source object [y/n] <n>:

ARRAY:
It is used to make multiple copies of an object in a rectangular or polar
fashion.

Command: Array
Select objects:
Enter the type of array [rec/polar]<r>:
Enter the no. of values <1>: 2
Enter the no. of columns <1>: 3
Enter the distance between rows: 20
Enter the distance between columns: 30

POLAR ARRAY:

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Command: array
Select objects:
Enter the type of array [rec/polar]<r>: P
Specify a centre point of array:
Enter the no. of items in array:
Specify the angle <360>: 30
Rotate array objects [y/n] <y>:
EXPLODE:
It is used to separate a grouped object into individual objects e.g. hexagon
generated by a polygon command in a single entity. It can be exploded to six
objects.

Command: explode
Select objects: using mouse
Select objects: using command

CHANGE PROPERTIES: (CHPROP):


It is used to change the existing object properties as line type, colour,
thickness, etc.,
Command: CHPROP
Select object: using mouse
Select object:
Enter property to change [color/layer/line type/it scale/ line/weight/thickness]:
property

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MATCH PROPERTY COMMANDS (OR) PAINTER COMMANDS:
It is used to assign properties such as color, line type etc., of an existing
object to another object.
Command: Match prop
Select source object: using mouse
Select destination object: (settings)
Select destination object (settings):

BASIC DIMENSIONING:

Any Engineering drawing prepared for an application purpose should


accompany with neat dimensioning.

LINEAR:
Using linear dimensioning method marks the horizontal and vertical
dimensions of an object.

Horizontal dimensioning

Command: Dim
Dim: horizontal
Specify 1st extension line origin <select object>:
Specify 2nd extension line origin:
Specify dimension line location or [mtext/text/angle]:
Enter dimension text [default]:

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Vertical dimensioning

Dim: vertical
Specify 1st extension line origin or <select object>
Specify 2nd extension line origin or <select object>
Specify dimension line location or [mtext/text/angle]
Enter dimension text [default]:
Dim:

ALLIGNED DIMENSIONING:

It is similar to linear dimensioning but the dimension line is parallel to edge of


the object, which is inclined at any angle.

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Command: Dim
Dim: aligned
Specify 1st extension line origin or <select object>
Specify 2nd extension line origin or <select origin>
Specify Dim location or [mtext/text/angle]
Enter dim text [default]:
Dim

ANGULAR DIMENSIONING:
It is used to mark dimension of circle.

Command: Dim dia


Select arc or circle
Specify Dimensioning line location or [mtext/text/angle]

RADIUS DIMENSIONING:
It is used to mark radius of a circle or an arc.

Command: Dim rad.


Select arc or circle
Specify dimension line location [mtext/text/angle]:

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LEADER LINE:
It is used to add annotations (information’s related to an object).
Command: Dim Lea.
Leader start: select the start point
To point: Select end point of leader
Dimension text <current value>: 4 holes % % c 20

TEXT:
It is used to write text on a engineering drawing for any making purpose.
Command: Text
Specify the start point of text or [justify/style]
Specify height<2.5>
Specify rotation angle of text <0>:
Enter text: Type the text message
Text edit:

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UNIT III
LIMITS, FITS AND TOLERANCE

Definitions

Basic size - It is defined as the theoretical size of a part, derived from the design
after rounding off to the nearest whole millimeter. The tolerances are always
specified to the basic size. In fig the dimension 30mm is the basic size.

Actual size – It is defined as the size actually obtained by machining. It is found by


actual measurement using measuring instruments. In fig the actual size of the
diameter of the shaft is φ29.925mm.

Limits - The two extreme permissible sizes between which the actual size lies are
called limits.

Maximum limit – It is defined as the maximum permissible size for a given basic
size. In fig the max. Limit for the basic size of φ30 is = φ30 + .035 = φ30.035mm

Minimum limit – It is defined as the minimum permissible size for a given basic size.
In fig the min. Limit for the basic size of φ30 is = φ30 – 0.215= φ29.785mm

Tolerance – It is defined as the amount of variation permitted to a basic size. The


difference between the maximum and minimum limits of a basic size is called
tolerance. In fig. The tolerance is = φ30.035- φ29.785 = 0.25mm

Deviation – It is defined as the difference between the actual size or limit sizes,
either maximum or minimum.
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Actual deviation- It is the algebraic difference between the actual measured size
and corresponding basic size. In fig. The actual deviation= φ29.785 – φ30= 0.075mm

Upper deviation – It is defined as the algebraic difference between the maximum


limits of size and the corresponding basic size. In fig. The upper deviation = φ30.035
– φ30 =0.035mm

Lower deviation - It is defined as the algebraic difference between the minimum


limits of size and the corresponding basic size. In fig. The upper deviation =
φ29.785– φ30 =0.215mm

Zero line – Since the deviations are measured from the basic size, to indicate the
deviations graphically, the basic shaft, the minimum shaft, the actual shaft and the
maximum shaft are aligned at the bottom and a straight line, called zero line is drawn
through the top generator of the basic size as shown in fig. This line is called zero
line because the deviations at the basic size will be zero. When the zero line is drawn
horizontally, derivations above this line will be positive and below it will be negative.
In fig. The upper deviation, 0.035mm is above the zero line and hence positive while
the lower deviation; 0.215mm is below the zero line, hence negative.

Tolerance zone – In the graphical representation of a tolerance, the zone bounded


by the upper and lower limits of the basic size, shown hatched in fig, is called
tolerance zone.

Tolerances

Tolerance on a basic size is obtained based on its performance. To achieve the


required tolerance, the manufacturing process, which is capable of accomplishing the
specified tolerance economically, has to be selected. The various manufacturing
processes ranging from fine gauge manufacture to the coarse manufacturing process
such as sand casting are classified by the bureau of Indian standards in to sixteen
grades, numbering from 1 to 16. The tolerance is expressed in micron.

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Fit

The term fit signifies the looseness or tightness, which may result from the
application of combination of allowances and tolerances on the basic dimension of
two mating parts.

Allowances

An allowance may be either positive (+) or a negative (-) according to the type
of fit required. If the condition is such that the shaft is smaller than the hole, we say
there is a positive allowance, but if there shaft is larger than the hole, we say there is
negative allowance.

Tolerance

The difference between the upper limit dimension and lower limit dimension
on basic size of a component is termed as tolerance. Usually it is expressed in
microns (1 micron= 0.001mm)

• The permissible variation in the size of a component.

• The permissible variation in the surface or form of the component.

• The permissible variation in the position of a point, line or plane on the


component.

According to the above concept, the tolerances are o following three types

a. Size Tolerance
b. Form Tolerance
c. Position Tolerance

SIZE TOLERANCE

Size Tolerance is the permissible variation made in the basic size of a


component on one or both sides of its basic dimension. There are two types of size
tolerance

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(i) Uni lateral tolerance
(ii) Bi lateral tolerance

UNI LATERAL TOLERANCE

In this type, tolerance of given on only one side of the nominal size of the
component.

BI LATERAL TOLERANCE

In this type tolerance of given on both side of the nominal size of the component

FORM TOLERANCE

The common surfaces that various components have in practice are of flat,
circular, or other geometric profiled shapes. Due to manufacturing in accuracies,
these forms of surfaces may not be provided in perfect shape, therefore certain
amount of tolerances is t be allowed so that these surfaces may be produced with in
certain limits of design specifications.

POSITION TOLERANCE

A Position tolerance indicates the deviation allowed in the location of a point, line
of plane on a component with respect to reference line, which also lies on the
component.

TOLERANCE SYSTEM

Two standard tolerance systems are allotted in engineering systems. They are;

39
(i) Hole basis system
(ii) Shaft basis system

HOLE BASIS SYSTEM

In this system hole diameter is taken as standard and the diameter of the
shaft varies to alter the fit. The lower deviation of the hole is Zero. i.e. The basic size
of the hole is the minimum size of the hole.

SHAFT BASIS SYSTEM

In this system, the diameter of the shaft is taken as standard and the diameter of the
hole varied to alter the fit. Here the upper deviation of the shaft is zero.

40
TYPES OF FITS

There are three basic types of fits or engagements, which are possible to
achieve by varying the amount of two matting parts on hole basis systems.

There are three kinds of fits known as


a. Clearance fit
b. Interference fit
c. Transition fit

CLEARANCE FIT

It is established when a positive clearance exits between the hole and the
shaft. It is obtained by selection maximum and minimum limits of the shaft and the
hole.

Interference fit

It is established when negative clearance exits between the sizes of hole and
shaft. It is obtained by selection the maximum and minimum limits of the shafts and
hole.

41
Transition fit

A fit, which may provide either clearance or interference, is called transition


fit.

42
UNIT IV

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF STANDARE MAACHINE


COMPONENTS

CAST IRON BRACKETS

43
44
BEARING BRACKET

V BLOCK

STOP BLOCK

45
BLOCK 2

46
SCREW THREAD

47
THREADED FASTENERS

HEXAGONAL BOLT AND NUT

48
SQUARE BOLT

49
CYLINDRICAL BOLT

COUNTERSUNK HEAD BOLT

T – HEAD BOLT

50
CUP HEAD BOLT

51
UNIT V

STUDY OF VARIOUS COMMANDS IN SOLID EDGE


SOFTWARE

1. EXTRUDED PROTRUSION:

Constructs a protrusion by extruding a profile along a straight path.

2. REVOLVED PROTRUSION:

Constructs a protrusion by revolving a profile.

We can define a non-symmetric extent for a revolved protrusion feature. For example,

52
We can specify 180 degrees for direction 1, and 75 degrees for direction 2.

3. HELICAL PROTRUSION:

Constructs a protrusion by sweeping a cross section (A) along a helical path (B) we
define.

4. LOFTED PROTRUSION:

Constructs a protrusion by fitting through a series of cross sections. We can define the
cross sections using profiles drawn within the command, sketches, or edges of
existing features. The cross sections must be closed, planar elements.

53
We can also define guide curves (A) (B) to control the shape of the feature. When
using guide curves, the planes of all the cross sections must intersect all guide curves.

5. NORMAL CUT OUT COMMAND:

Constructs a cutout in a sheet metal part such that the thickness faces of the cutout are
always perpendicular to the sheet faces. This is useful when the cutout command
would create non-perpendicular faces, which can prevent we from being able to add
features to those faces later.

Use Normal cutout when an exact fit is required. In many cases, Normal cutout lets
we avoid unbending the part to model a cutout. Also, be aware that Normal cutout
creates B-Spline curves in flat patterns. If we require flat patterns without B-Spline
curves, use the Unbend command to temporarily flatten the part, then use the cutout
command.

6. REVOLVED CUTOUT:
54
Constructs a cutout by revolving a profile.

Note: When constructing a revolved cutout using more than one profile, all the
profiles must be closed. All profiles must share a common axis of revolution.

We can define a non-symmetric extent for a revolved cutout feature. For example, we
can specify 180 degrees for direction 1, and 75 degrees for direction 2.

7. ROUND COMMAND:

Rounds the edges of a part. We can use a constant rounding radius, a variable radius
, or a combination of the two. We can also create a blend between edges, faces, or
a combination of the two.

8. HOLE:

Constructs one or more holes. We can use the Hole command to construct simple,
threaded, tapered, counterbored, and countersunk holes.

55
When we select the Hole command, the SmartStep ribbon bar guides we through the
following steps:

1. Plane Step—Define the profile plane.


2. Profile Step—Define parameters and position one or more hole circles.
3. Extent Step—Define the extent or depth of the holes.
4. Finish Step—Process the input and create the feature.

9. THREAD:

Adds a straight or a tapered thread reference to an existing cylindrical face. The


cylindrical face can be a partial or complete cylinder, and can be an external (A) or
internal (B) face. A planar, circular edge is required to define the start end for the
threads.

Threads can be added either internally or externally to both ends of the cylinder.
When constructing tapered threads, we do not need to construct a conical face. We
add a tapered, threaded feature to a cylindrical face, and when we finish the feature,
the taper angle is added to the threaded portion of the cylinder.

56
For internal threaded holes, we should use the Hole command whenever possible. For
external threaded features, such as threaded rods, shafts, and external pipe threads, we
should use the thread command.

10. ASSEMBLY RELATIONS:

When placing a part or subassembly into an assembly, we must define how the part
will be positioned with respect to the other parts in the assembly by applying
assembly relationships. Available relationships include ground, mate, planar align,
axial align, parallel, connect, angle, cam, and tangent.

In addition to the traditional assembly relationships listed above, the FlashFit option
reduces the steps required to position a part using the mate, planar align, or axial align
relationships.

The relationship options and FlashFit are located on the Relationship Types list on the
Place Part SmartStep ribbon bar.

Part Positioning Workflows

Solid Edge provides several workflows for positioning parts in an assembly:

1. FlashFit
2. Traditional Workflow
3. Reduced Steps
4. Capture Fit

Maintaining Assembly Relationships

By default, Solid Edge maintains the relationships with which we position the part. If
the Maintain Relationships command is set on the Parts Library shortcut menu when
we place a part, the relationships that we apply also control the behavior of the part
when it is modified. For example:

1. If we apply a planar align relationship between two parts, they remain aligned
when either part is modified.

57
2. If we apply an axial align relationship between two parts, they remain axially
aligned when either part is modified.

Assembly Relationships and Part Movement

When a part is fully positioned in an assembly, it cannot move in any direction in


relation to the assembly. The first assembly relationship we place controls some part
movement, but the part is still free to move in some direction—by sliding along or
rotating around the x, y, or z axes.

Applying more relationships controls more movement until the part is fully
positioned. The types of relationships we apply and the options we use determine how
the relationships control part movement.

FlashFit

As discussed earlier, the FlashFit option reduces the steps required to position parts
using mate, planar align, and axial align relationships when compared to the
traditional workflow. Because many parts are positioned using these relationships,
FlashFit is appropriate in most situations.

When we position a part using FlashFit, we first select a face or edge on the
placement part. We then select a face or edge we want on the target part and let the
inference logic built into Solid Edge determine the most likely relationship, based
on the target part element.

For example, if we choose a planar face on the placement and target parts, the
software assumes that we want to establish a mate or planar align relationship. When

58
we select the target part element, the placement part is positioned in the assembly
using the closest solution.

1. If the two faces we select are closer to a mate solution, a mate relationship is
applied.

1. If the two faces we select are closer to a planar align solution, a planar align
relationship is applied.

A Flip button on the ribbon bar allows we to select the alternate solution. We can also
use the TAB key to select an alternate solution.

When using FlashFit to position a part, it is displayed translucent to make it easier to


differentiate from the other parts in the assembly.

When possible, FlashFit moves the first part we select when applying the relationship,
and the second part remains stationary. If the first part we select is fully constrained,
the second part will move.

59
We can then use FlashFit to define the additional relationships required to
fully position the part in the assembly, or select another relationship type.

FlashFit also allows more flexibility to use edges, in addition to faces, when
positioning a part using mate, axial align, and planar align relationships.

This can be especially useful when positioning a fastener, such as a bolt into
hole. For example, when positioning a part using an axial align relationship, we
cannot use a circular edge to position a part. With FlashFit, we can use a circular edge
on both the placement part and target part to completely position the part in two steps.

To rotate the part, press the CTRL key while dragging the cursor. If any
relationships have been applied to the placement part, the movement or rotation is
limited to the available degrees of freedom.

60
Universal Coupling

Aim
To make the various parts of the universal coupling and to assemble all the
parts in solid edge software.

Universal Coupling – Construction & Working Principle

This form of coupling is used to couple together whose axes intersect. Two
similar shafts are keyed on to the ends of the two shafts. These are pin joined to a
centre block having two arms at right angles to one another. In this type of coupling,
the angle between the shafts may be varied even when there are in motion.
The advantage of this coupling is that the angle can be varied while the shafts
are running. They are used in milling machines and auto mobiles. It consists of two
forks keyed to the ends of the two shafts, two trunnion plates and four bushes.
The trunnion plates are placed between the two forks with hexagonal bolts and
nuts.

Procedure
1. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the universal coupling
2. Save all the part files.
3. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
4. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
5. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

61
Screw Jack

Aim
To make the various parts of the Screw Jack and to assemble all the parts in
solid edge software.

Screw Jack – Construction & Working Principle

A Screw Jack is a manually operated mechanical device used to lift heavy


objects over a small height with a distinct mechanical advantage. It also serves as a
supporting aid in the raised position.
A screw Jack is actuated by a screw thread worked by applying moderate
effort at the end of the tommy bar inserted into the hole of the head of the screw. The
body has an enlarged circular base which provides a large circular area. A gun metal
nut is tightly fitted into the body at the top. A screw spindle is screwed through the
nuts. A load bearing cup is mounted at the top of the screw spindle and secured to it
by a washer and a CSK screw.
When the screw spindle is rotated, the load bearing cup moves only up or
down along with the screw spindle but will not rotate with it. The tommy bar is
inserted into the hole in the head of the screw spindle only during working and will be
detached when not in use.

Procedure
6. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Screw Jack.
7. Save all the part files.
8. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
9. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
10. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

62
Gib and Cotter Joint

Aim
To make the various parts of the Gib and Cotter joint and to assemble all the
parts in solid edge software.

Gib and Cotter Joint – Construction & Working Principle

When the rods of square and rectangular cross sections are subjected to axial
forces have to be connected temporarily, a strap joint is used. In this type of joint, the
end of the joint is formed into a fork which the end of the rod fits.
The fork end of the rod is called as strap. Since the strap is open on one side. If
only a cotter is used to connect the two rods are explained earlier and when the two
rods are subjected to axial forces, the end of the strap opens out.
To prevent the opening up of the ends of the strap a Gib is provided. The gib is
a wedge shaped piece of steel of rectangular cross section with one side tapered and
the other side is straight and has two projections called gib heads. Gib heads act like
hooks and prevent the opening up of the ends of the staps. The use of gib along with
the cotter facilitates the cutting of the slots with straight faces. Unlike the slots in the
other type of cotter joints, the inner surfaces are flat instead of rounded ends.

Procedure
11. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Gib and Cotter joint.
12. Save all the part files.
13. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
14. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
15. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

63
Knuckle Joint

Aim
To make the various parts of the Knuckle joint and to assemble all the parts in
solid edge software.

Knuckle Joint– Construction & Working Principle

This type of joint is used for rods in tension and compression which may not
be in alignment but whose axes intersect. The joint is not rigid. It permits angular
movement between the rods. It is commonly used when a reciprocating motion is to
be converted into a rotary motion or vice-versa.
It is commonly used for joining D slide valves and eccentric rod of a steam
engine, air brake of locomotives and many kinds of lever and rod connections.
A single eye end of one rod is placed in double eye end of forked end of the
other rod and a cylindrical pin is inserted through holes in them. The pin is kept in
position by means of a collar and taper pin. The rods are quite free to rotate on the
cylindrical pin.

Procedure
16. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Knuckle joint.
17. Save all the part files.
18. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
19. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
20. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

64
Sleeve and Cotter Joint

Aim
To make the various parts of the Sleeve and Cotter joint and to assemble all
the parts in solid edge software.

Sleeve and Cotter Joint – Construction & Working Principle


A cotter is a flat wedge shaped piece of steel of rectangular cross section. It is
used to connect two rods subjected to tensile and compressive forces and is inserted at
right angles to the axes of the rods. It is uniform in thickness but tapering in width,
generally in one side only. The usual taper is 1: 30. When larger taper is adopted a
locking device becomes necessary to prevent the cotter from slackening or coming
out.
This type of cotter joint with sleeve is used to connect two round rods which
are subjected to axial forces. The ends of two rods are enlarged in diameter to reduce
the effect of reduction in the strength of the rods due to cutting of the slots. The
enlarged ends of the rods are introduced from the opposite side into a cylindrical
sleeve to butt against each other at the mid length of the sleeve length.
The slots in the rods and as well as in the sleeve are made slightly larger than
the width of the cotter. The slots of the two rods are located with respect to the slots in
the sleeve such that when assembled, there will be an offset by a small amount called
clearance between them.

Procedure
21. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Sleeve and Cotter joint.
22. Save all the part files.
23. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
24. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
25. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software
65
Stuffing Box

Aim
To make the various parts of the Stuffing box and to assemble all the parts in
solid edge software.

Stuffing Box– Construction & Working Principle

The cylinder while passing through the other end must move freely and at the
same time, there should not be any leakage of the steam outside the cylinder. A gland
and stuffing box satisfy this condition.
The stuffing box is cast as a part of either the cylinder end or the cylinder
cover. The space around the piston rod is filled with asbestos fiber packing. The
packing is compressed by a cast iron gland which is forced down by means of two
collar studs and nuts. The gland is lined with a brass bush, while a neck bush is
inserted in the stuffing box. These prevent the gland and the cylinder cover from
being worn out.
The flange of the gland is generally made oval in shape when two studs are
required to be used. In case of large stuffing boxes, its shape may be triangular or
circular and square or circular.

Procedure
26. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Stuffing box.
27. Save all the part files.
28. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
29. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
30. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

66
Plummer Block
Aim
To make the various parts of the Plummer Block and to assemble all the parts
in solid edge software.

Plummer Block – Construction & Working Principle

A pedestal bearing consist of (i) a cast iron pedestal with a sole, (ii) gun metal
brasses made in two halves, (iii) a cast iron cap and (iv) two mild steel bolts.
It is made in two halves to facilitate (i) placing and removing the shaft in the
bearings, (ii) adjustment for wear in the brasses and (iii) renewal of brasses.
The cap while resting on the upper step, fits is prevented from moving along
the length of the shaft by the two collars at the sides. A sung at the bottom, fitting
inside a corresponding hole in the block, prevents their rotation. The cap and the
block are fastened together by two square headed bolts. The square heads fit in square
recess at the bottom of the pedestal and prevent rotation of the Plummer block.

Procedure
31. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Plummer Block.
32. Save all the part files.
33. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
34. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
35. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

67
Flanged Coupling

Aim
To make the various parts of the Flanged Coupling and to assemble all the
parts in solid edge software.

Flanged Coupling – Construction & Working Principle

This is a standard form of coupling and is extensively used. It consists of two


cast iron flanges, keyed to the ends of the two shafts and fastened together by means
of a number of tight fitting bolts. Sunken taper keys of rectangular or square cross
section are commonly used for the purpose.
For ensuring correct alignment, one of the shafts is extended so that its end
partly enters the flange keyed to the other shaft. The two shafts thus remain in a
straight line. The shaft may be kept in alignment by the spigot and socket arrangement
also.

Procedure
36. By using various 3-D models creating and editing commands draw all the
parts of the Flanged Coupling.
37. Save all the part files.
38. Open all part files in assembly mode and assemble all the parts by using
assembly commands.
39. By using explode command in applications create the explode view.
40. Then open the assembled file in drafting mode to create the 2D and 3D
drawings as Jpg files.
Result
Thus all the parts are created and assembled in solid edge software

68
PLAIN TURNING AND FACING

AIM

To write the program for simulating the facing and turning on the given job using
CNC simulator.

PROGRAM

G90
G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T01
M03 S1200
G00 X17.5 Z-1
G01 X0 F60
G01 Z1
G01 X17.5
G01 Z-2
G01 X0
G01 Z1
G01 X17.5
G01 Z-3
G01 X0
G01 Z-2
G01 X16
G01 Z-53
G01 X17
G01 Z-2
G01 X15.5
G01 Z-53
G01 X17
G01 Z-2
G01 X15
G01 Z-53
G01 X17
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

RESULT
Thus the program was written on CNC simulator.

69
STEP TURNING

AIM

To write a program for the given model on CNC lathe simulator.

PROGRAM

G90
G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T01
M03 S1200
G00 X15 Z1
G01 Z-60 F60
G01 X16
G01 Z1
G01 X14
G01 Z-30
G01 X16
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

RESULT
Thus the program was written on CNC simulator.

70
STEP TURNING

AIM

To write the manual part program for the tool path.

PROGRAM

G90
G21
G98
G28 U0 W0
M06 T01
M03 S1200
G00 X9 Z0
G01 X0 F60
G01 Z1
G01 X9
G01 Z0
G01 X13 Z-5 R5
G01 Z-30
G01 X14
G01 Z-60
G01 X15
G01 Z100
G28 U0 W0
M05
M30

RESULT
Thus the program was written on CNC simulator.

71
MILLING

AIM

To write the part program for the given work piece using milling on CNC simulator.

PROGRAM

G91
G21 G28 M03 M06 T01
G28 U0 V0 W0
G00 X00 Y00 Z-20
G01 Y80
G01 X100 F50 S1200
G01 Y-80
G01 X-100
G28 U0 V0 W0
G91 G21
G28 M03 M06 T02
G00 X20 Y20 Z10
G81 X0 Y00 Z-30 F30 S800
G80 X0 Y0 Z30
G00 X60 Y00 Z00
G81 X00 Y00 Z-30
G80 X00 Y00 Z30
G00 X00 Y40 Z00
G81 X00 Y00 Z-30 F30 S800
G80 X00 Y00 Z30
G00 X-60 Y00 Z00
G81 X00 Y00 Z-30
G80 X00 Y00 Z30
G28 U0 V0 W0
M03
M30

RESULT
Thus the program was written on CNC simulator.

72