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• • • • • • • General Buck converter Boost converter Buck-Boost converter Switched-mode power supply Bridge converter Notes on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and solutions.

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam

1

DC-DC Converter (Chopper)

• DEFINITION: Converting the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC output with a desired voltage level. • General block diagram:

DC supply (from rectifierfilter, battery, fuel cell etc.)

DC output LOAD

Vcontrol (derived from feedback circuit)

• APPLICATIONS:

– Switched-mode power supply (SMPS), DC motor control, battery chargers

Linear regulator

• Transistor is operated in linear (active) mode. • Output voltage Vo = I L RT • The transistor can be conveniently modelled by an equivalent variable resistor, as shown. • Power loss is high at high current due to: Po = I L 2 RT

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam

Vs

+ VCE − IL + RL Vo −

**MODEL OF LINEAR REGULATOR
**

+ VCE − RT

IL + RL Vo −

Vs

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

3

Switching Regulator

• Power loss is zero (for ideal switch):

– when switch is open, no current flow in it, – when switch is closed no voltage drop across it. – Since power is a product of voltage and current, no losses occurs in the switch. – Power is 100% transferred from source to load.

Vs

+ VCE − IL

RL

+ Vo

**MODEL OF LINEAR REGULATOR
**

IL SWITCH

−

Vs

RL

+ Vo −

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

Vo

(ON) (OFF) (ON) closed open closed DT T

• Switching regulator is the basis of all DC-DC converters

OUTPUT VOLTAGE

Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam

4

Zainal Salam 5 .Buck (step-down) converter S Vd D L C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BUCK CONVERTER iL S Vd D + vL − RL + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED S iL + Vd D vL − + RL Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Zainal Salam .Circuit operation when switch is turned on (closed) • Diode is reversed biased. i.e: vL = Vd − Vo • It causes linear increase in the inductor current diL vL = L dt 1 ⇒ iL = ∫ vL dt L −Vo iL iLmax IL iLmin + vL S Vd + VD − iL C RL + Vo − vL Vd−Vo opened closed closed opened t DT T 6 t Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Switch conducts inductor current • This results in positive inductor voltage.

Operation when switch turned off (opened) + vL - • Because of inductive energy storage. • Diode is forward biased • Current now flows through the diode and vL = −Vo S Vd D iL C RL + Vo − vL Vd−Vo opened closed closed opened t −Vo iL iLmax IL iLmin (1-D)T DT Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam T 7 t . iL continues to flow.

Analysis for switch closed The inductor voltage. I Therefore iL must increase linearly. Zainal Salam iL iL max ∆iL iL min DT T t vL Vd− Vo closed t L L 8 . vL = Vd − Vo diL =L dt diL Vd − Vo ⇒ = dt L Note : since the deri vative of iL is a posi tive constant. From Figure diL ∆iL ∆iL Vd − Vo = = = dt L ∆t DT V −V (∆iL )closed = d o ⋅ DT Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Analysis for switch opened For switch opened. Zainal Salam 9 vL Vd− Vo opened t iL iL max IL ∆iL iL min DT T (1− D)T t . iL must decrease linearly. From Figure − Vo ∆iL diL ∆iL = = = ∆t (1 − D)T dt L −V (∆iL )opened = o ⋅ (1 − D)T L Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. vL = −Vo diL =L dt −V di ⇒ L= o dt L Note : since the deri vative of iL is a nega tive constant.

That is the change of i L over one period is zero.state operation requires that i L at the end of switching cycle is the same at the begining of the next cycle.Steady-state operation iL t iL t iL t Steady-state current Decaying current Unstable current Steady . i. Zainal Salam 10 .e : (∆iL )closed + (∆iL )opened = 0 Vd − Vo − Vo ⋅ DTs − ⋅ (1 − D)Ts = 0 L L ⇒ Vo = DVd Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Average. Maximum and Minimum inductor current iL Imax IL Imin t ∆iL Average inductor current = Average current in R L V ⇒ IL = IR = o R Maximum current : V 1 V ∆i I max = I L + L = o + o (1 − D)T 2 R 2 L 1 (1 − D) = Vo + 2 Lf R Minimum current : ∆i 1 (1 − D ) I min = I L − L = Vo − 2 2 Lf R Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 11 .

Continuous current operation iL Imax Imin 0 t From previous analysis. I min ≥ 0. Normally L is chosen be be >> Lmin Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. 1 (1 − D) ⇒ Vo − ≥0 R 2 Lf ⇒ L ≥ Lmin = (1 − D) ⋅R 2f This is the minimum inductor current to ensure continous mode of operation. ∆i 1 (1 − D) I min = I L − L = Vo − 2 2 Lf R For continuous operation. Zainal Salam 12 .

use triangle area formula : 1 T ∆iL T∆iL ∆Q = = 2 2 2 8 T∆iL (1 − D ) ∴ ∆Vo = = 8C 8 LCf 2 So.Output voltage ripple iL L iC iR + Vo − iL Vo / R 0 imax iL=IR imin 0 ic = iL + iR ∆Q Q = CVo ⇒ ∆Q = C∆V ⇒ o ∆Vo = C From figure. Zainal Salam 13 . r= ∆Vo (1 − D) = Vo 8 LCf 2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. the ripple factor.

Zainal Salam 14 . • Select a particular switching frequency: – preferably >20KHz for negligible acoustic noise – higher fs results in smaller L. Also C is reduced. Low power MOSFET can reach MHz range. – Possible devices: MOSFET.Design procedures for Buck SWITCH L Lmin= ? L = 10Lmin C ripple ? RL Po = ? Io = ? Vd (input spec.) f=? D=? TYPE ? D • Calculate D to obtain required output voltage. but higher device losses. Thus lowering efficiency and larger heat sink. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. IGBT and BJT.

Increase Lmin by about 10 times to ensure full continuos mode. Note RMS current for triangular w/f is Ip/3. But iL is known as peak. Zainal Salam 15 . RMS = I L 2 ∆iL 2 + 3 2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.Design procedures for Buck • Determine Lmin. RMS value for iL is given as: I L . • Capacitor ratings: – must withstand peak output voltage – must carry required RMS current. where Ip is the peak capacitor current given by ∆iL/2 • Wire size consideration: – Normally rated in RMS. • Calculate C for ripple factor requirement.

5%. (a) Determine the duty cycle.25A.Examples of Buck converter • A buck converter is supplied from a 50V battery source. C=100uF.4. Given L=400uH. Suggest the power switch also. Calculate: (a) output voltage (b) maximum and minimum inductor current. The power output is 125W.5%. (b) value of L to limit the peak inductor current to 6. The load is 8Ohm. Specify the frequency and the values of each component. The output voltage ripple must not be more than 0. Zainal Salam 16 • • . f=20KHz and D=0. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Design the converter such that it will be in continuous current mode. (c) value of capacitance to limit the output voltage ripple factor to 0. A buck converter has an input voltage of 50V and output of 25V. Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V when the input is 48V. R=20 Ohm. (c) output voltage ripple. The switching frequency is 10KHz.

Zainal Salam 17 .Boost (step-up) converter L D Vd S C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BOOST CONVERTER iL L + vL − Vd S C + RL Vo − D CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED L + vL Vd S C RL D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Zainal Salam 18 .Boost analysis:switch closed iL L + vL − Vd S C D + vo − vL = Vd diL =L dt diL Vd ⇒ = dt L diL ∆iL ∆iL = = dt ∆t DT Vd diL ⇒ = dt L vL Vd CLOSED t Vd − V o iL ∆iL DT T t (∆iL )closed Vd DT = L Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Zainal Salam 19 .Switch opened iL + vL Vd S C + vo D vL = Vd − Vo di =L L dt V − Vo di ⇒ L= d dt L diL ∆iL = dt ∆t ∆iL = (1 − D)T ⇒ vL Vd OPENED t Vd − V o iL ∆iL ( 1-D )T DT T t diL Vd − Vo = dt L (V − Vo )(1 − DT ) ⇒ (∆iL )opened = d L Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

diode is reversed.Steady-state operation (∆iL )closed + (∆iL )opened = 0 Vd DT (Vd − Vo )(1 − D)T − =0 L L ⇒ Vo = Vd 1− D • Boost converter produces output voltage that is greater or equal to the input voltage. the output stage receives energy from the input as well as from the inductor. • Alternative explanation: – when switch is closed. – Output voltage is maintained constant by virtue of large C. Thus output is isolated. Hence output is large. The input supplies energy to inductor. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. – When switch is opened. Zainal Salam 20 .

Average. min inductor current Vd Vd DT ∆iL = + I max = I L + 2 2 2L (1 − D) R I min Vd Vd DT ∆iL = IL − = − 2 2 2L (1 − D) R Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 21 . Maximum. Minimum inductor current Input power = Output power Vo 2 Vd I d = R 2 Vd Vd 2 (1 − D ) Vd I L = = R (1 − D) 2 R Average inductor current Vd IL = (1 − D) 2 R Max.

I min ≥ 0 Vd DT − ≥0 2 2L (1 − D) R D(1 − D )2 TR Lmin = 2 2 D(1 − D ) R = 2f Ripple factor V ∆Q = o DT = C∆Vo R Vo DT Vo D ∆Vo = = RCf RCf ∆V D r= o = Vo RCf Vd vL Vd Vd−Vo imax iL imin imax iD Io=Vo / R imin ic ∆Q DT T 22 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam .L and C values For continous operation.

fs=40KHz. (c) output voltage ripple. and power device. L=65uH. C=200uF.5%. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. (b) average.5ohm. Zainal Salam 23 . switching frequency. R=12. Specify the duty cycle ratio.Examples • The boost converter has the following parameters: Vd=20V. D=0. • Design a boost converter to provide an output voltage of 36V from a 24V source. The voltage ripple factor must be less than 0.6. maximum and minimum inductor current. The load is 50W. Determine (a) output voltage. inductor and capacitor size.

Buck-Boost converter S Vd D L C RL + Vo − CIRCUIT OF BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER S + Vd iL vL − D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED S + Vd iL vL − D + Vo − CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 24 .

Buck-boost analysis Switch closed di vL = Vd = L L dt V di ⇒ L= d dt L ∆iL ∆iL Vd = = ∆t DT L V DT (∆iL ) closed = d L Switch opened di vL = Vo = L L dt V di ⇒ L= o dt L V ∆iL ∆iL = = o ∆t (1 − D)T L (∆iL ) opened Vo (1 − D)T = L Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 25 vL Vd Vd−Vo imax iL imin imax iD Io=Vo / R imin ic ∆Q DT T .

output is higher – If D<0.5. Zainal Salam 26 . Energy is stored in inductor when switch is closed and transferred to load when switch is opened. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.5. – If D>0. output is lower • Output voltage is always negative • Note that output is never directly • connected to load.Output voltage Steady state operation : Vd DT Vo (1 − D )T + =0 L L D ⇒ Vo = −Vs 1− D • NOTE: Output of a buck-boost converter either be higher or lower than the source voltage.

Zainal Salam 27 . Po = Ps Vo2 = Vd I s R But average source current is related to average inductor current as : Is = ILD Vo2 ⇒ = Vd I L D R Substituting for Vo .e.Average inductor current Assuming no power loss in the converter. i. power absorbed by the load must equal power supplied the by source. Vo2 Po Vd D ⇒ IL = = = Vd RD Vd D R (1 − D ) 2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Vd D Vd DT ∆iL = + I max = I L + 2 2 2L R (1 − D ) Vd D Vd DT ∆iL = − I min = I L − 2 2 2L R (1 − D) For continuous current. Vo ∆Q = DT = C∆Vo R Vo DT Vo D ∆Vo = = RC RCf ∆Vo D r= = Vo RCf Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 28 .L and C values Max and min inductor current. Vd D Vd DT + =0 2 2L R (1 − D ) (1 − D ) 2 R ⇒ Lmin = 2f Output voltage ripple.

Control of DC-DC converter using pulse width modulationPWM Vo (desired) Vo (actual) + Sawtooth Waveform Vcontrol Comparator Switch control signal Sawtooth Waveform Vcontrol 1 Vcontrol 2 ton 2 ton 1 T Switch control signal Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 29 .

Zainal Salam 30 .Switch-mode power supply (SMPS) • Advantages over linear power -Efficient (70-95%) -Weight and size reduction • Disadvantages -Complex design -EMI problems • However above certain ratings. SMPS is the only feasible choice • Types of SMPS -Flyback -forward -Push-pull -Bridge (half and full) Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.

Linear and switched mode power supplies block diagram Basic Block diagram of linear power supply C Vce=Vd-Vo Rectifier + Vd Error Amp. B Base/gate Drive Vo RL E +Vo + Vo - Line Input 1φ / 3φ 50/60 Hz Isolation Transformer Vref Basic Block diagram of SMPS DC-DC CONVERSITION + ISOLATION High Frequency rectifier and filter DC Regulated Vo EMI FILTER RECTIFIER AND FILTER DC Unregulated Base/ gate drive Vref PWM Controller error Amp Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 31 .

output relationship v1 N1 = .output electrical isolation ii) step up/down time . Zainal Salam 32 . v2 N 2 Models : i1 + V1 − i1 + V1 − Lm N1 N2 i2 + V2 − N1 N2 i2 + V2 − i1 N 2 = i2 N1 Ideal model Model used for most PE application Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.varying voltage Basic input .High frequency transformer Basic function : i) Input .

Flyback Converter Vs LM C R + Vo − Flyback converter circuit iS Vs + vSW − is=iLM Vs iLM 0 iLM N1 + v1 N2 iD + Vo − i1 .+v D v2 iC + iR i2 Model with magnetising inductance N1 + v1 v1=Vs N1 + v1 − N2 − v2= -VS + N2 + Vo − 0 Switch closed iD + Vo − Voltage and current conditions when switch opened 33 Vs + vSW − N Vsw = Vs + Vo 1 N 2 iLM N v1 − Vo 1 N 2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam .

Flyback waveforms v1 Vs DT is T -V(N1/N2) t ∆iLM DT iD T t DT iLm T t iC DT T t Vo/ R DT T t Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 34 .

N2 N2 v2 = v1 = Vd N1 N1 N vD = −Vo − Vd 2 < 0 N1 Therefore. i1 = 0 i2 = 0 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.Analysis: switched closed diLm v1 = Vd = Lm dt diLm ∆iLm ∆iLm Vd = = = dt dt DT Lm ⇒ ∆iLm ( )closed = VdLDT m On the load side of the transformer. Zainal Salam 35 .

(∆iL )closed + (∆iL )opened = 0 m m V DT V0 (1 − D )T N1 ⇒ d + N =0 Lm Lm 2 ⇒ V0 = Vd D N1 (1 − D) N 2 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. N 2 v2 = −V0 N N ⇒ v1 = v2 1 = −V0 1 N N 2 2 Lm diL m N = v1 = −V0 1 N dt 2 = ∆iL m dt = diL m dt (1 − D )T ∆iL m = − V0 N1 Lm N 2 V (1 − D)T N1 ⇒ (∆iL m )open = − 0 N Lm 2 For steady .Analysis: switch opened N v1 = −V0 1 .state operation. Zainal Salam 36 .

i.depending upon D. • Additional term. • Output can be greater of less than input.Output voltage • Input output relationship is similar to buckboost converter. Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr.e. transformer ratio is present. Zainal Salam 37 .

Average inductor current V0 2 Vd I s = R I s is related to I Lm as : Is = I Lm DT T = I Lm D Ps = P0 ( ) Substitute and solving for I Lm V02 Vd I Lm D = R V0 2 ⇒ I Lm = Vd DR ( ) The average inductor current is also written as : 2 Vd D N 2 V0 N 2 I Lm = = 2 (1 − D) R N1 (1 − D) R N1 Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 38 .

∆V0 D = r= V0 RCf Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. I Lm . C values I Lm .min = I Lm For continuos operation. min = 0 N 2 Vd DT Vd D = = 2 2 Lm 2 Lm f (1 − D ) R N1 Vd D 2 (Lm )min = Vd (1 − D) R N1 2f N2 2 2 The ripple calculation is similar to boost converter. Lmin.Max. Zainal Salam 39 . Min inductor current.max = I Lm N 2 V d DT + = + 2 2 2 Lm (1 − D ) R N1 Vd D N 2 Vd DT − = − 2 2 2 Lm (1 − D ) R N1 Vd D ∆iLm 2 ∆iLm 2 I Lm .

SW2 SW2 NS NS + vx − Lx C R + Vo − SW3.Full-bridge converter SW1 SW3 + VS vp − SW4 SW1.SW4 DT T VP VS T 2 T + DT 2 -VS Vx N VS S N P DT T 2 T + DT 2 T Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. Zainal Salam 40 .

• On secondary side.Full bridge: basic operation • Switch “pair”: [S1 & S2]. diode pair is “high frequency full wave rectification”. The other pair is off. • Each switch pair turn on at a time as shown. • “AC voltage” is developed across the primary. Ns ⋅ D • Output Voltage Vo = 2Vs N p Power Electronics and Drives (Version 2): Dr. • The choke (L) and © acts like the “buck converter” circuit. Zainal Salam 41 . Then transferred to secondary via high frequency transformers.[S3 & S4].

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