EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Today, in every organizat ion personnel planning as an act ivit y is
necessary. It is an i mportant part oI an organizat ion. Human Resource
Planning is a vital ingredient Ior t he success oI the organizat ion in t he
long run. There are certain ways t hat are to be Iollowed by every
organizat ion, which ensures t hat it has right number and kind oI people,
at t he right place and right t i me, so t hat organizat ion can achieve its
planned obiect ive.

The obiect ives oI Human Resource Depart ment are Human Resource
Planning, Recruit ment and Select ion, Training and Development, Career
planning, TransIer and Promot ion, Risk Management, PerIormance
Appraisal and so on. Each obiect ive needs special attent ion and proper
planning and i mplementat ion.
For every organisat ion it is i mport ant to have a right person on a right
iob. Recruit ment and Select ion pl ays a vital role in t his sit uat ion.
Shortage oI skills and t he use oI new technology are putt ing
considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruit ing and
Select ing staII. It is recommended to carry out a strategic analysis oI
Recruit ment and Select ion procedure.

Wit h reIerence t o t his context, t his proiect is been prepared to put
a light on Recruit ment and Select ion process. This proiect includes
Meaning and DeIinit ion oI Recruit ment and Select ion, Need and Purpose
oI Recruit ment, Evaluat ion oI Recruit ment Process, Recruit ment Tips.
Sources oI Recruit ment t hrough which an Organizat ion gets suitable
applicat ion. Scient iIic Recruit ment and Select ion, which an Organizat ion
should Iollow Ior, right manpower. Job Analysis, which gives an idea
about t he requirement oI t he iob. Next is Select ion process, which
includes steps oI Select ion, Types oI Test, Types oI Interview, Common
Interview Problems and t heir Solut ions. Approaches t o Select ion,
Scient iIic Select ion Policy, Select ion in India and problems.


Recruit ment and Select ion are simult aneous process and are
incomplete wit hout each ot her. They are important components oI t he
organisat ion and are diIIerent Irom each ot her. Since all t he aspect needs
pract ical example and explanat ion t his proiect includes Recruit ment and
select ion Process oI Capital IQ. And a pract ical case st udy. It also
contains addresses oI various and top placement consultants and t he
pricelist oI advert isements in t he magazine

INTRODUCTION

Recrui tment and Selecti on

Recruit ment and select ion are two oI t he most i mportant Iunct ions
oI personnel management. Recruit ment precedes select ion and helps in
select ing a right candidate.
Recruit ment is a process to di scover t he sources oI manpower to
meet t he requirement oI t he staIIi ng schedule and to employ eIIect ive
measures Ior att ract ing t hat manpower in adequate numbers to Iacilitate
eIIect ive select ion oI eIIicient personnel.

StaIIing is one basic Iunct ion oI management. All managers have
responsibilit y oI staIIing Iunct ion by select ing t he chieI execut ive and
even t he Ioremen and supervisors have a staIIing responsibilit y when
t hey select t he rank and Iile workers. However, t he personnel manager
and his personnel depart ment is mainly concerned wit h t he staIIi ng
Iunct ion.

Every organizat ion needs to look aIter recruit ment and select ion in
t he init ial period and t hereaIter as and when additional manpower is
required due t o expansion and development oI business act ivit ies.

Right person Ior the right iob` is the basic principle in recruitment and
selection. Ever organization should give attention to the selection oI its manpower,
especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and essential
Ior the orderly working oI an enterprise. Every business organization/unit needs
manpower Ior carrying diIIerent business activities smoothly and eIIiciently and Ior
this recruitment and selection oI suitable candidates are essential. Human resource
management in an organization will not be possible iI unsuitable persons are selected
and employment in a business unit.




MEANING:
RECRUITMENT


Recrui tment means to est i mate t he available vacancies and to make
suitable arrangements Ior t heir select ion and appoint ment. Recruit ment
is underst ood as t he process oI searching Ior and obtaining applicants
Ior t he iobs, Irom among whom t he right people can be selected.

A Iormal deIinit ion states, 'It is t he process oI Ii nding and
attract ing capable applicants Ior t he employment. The process begins
when new recruits are sought and ends when t heir applicants are
submit ted. The result is a pool oI applicants Irom which new employees
are selected¨. In t his, t he available vacancies are given wide publicit y
and suitable candidates are encouraged t o submit applicat ions so as to
have a pool oI eligible candidates Ior scient iIic select ion.

In recruit ment, inIormat ion is collected Irom interested
candidates. For t his diIIerent source such as newspaper advert isement,
employment exchanges, internal promot ion, etc. are used.
In t he recruit ment, a pool oI eligible and interested candidates is created
Ior select ion oI most suitable candidat es. Recruit ment represents t he
Iirst contact t hat a company makes wit h potent ial employees

Defi ni ti on:

According to EDWIN FLIPPO. `Recruitment is t he process of searchi ng
for prospective emplovees and sti mulati ng them to applv for iobs in the
organizati on. `



Need for recruitment:
The need Ior recruit ment may be due to t he Iollowing reasons /
sit uat ion:
a) 'acancies due to promot ions, t ransIer, ret irement, terminat ion,
permanent disabilit y, deat h and labour t urnover.
b)Creat ion oI new vacancies due to t he growt h, expansion and
diversiIicat ion oI business act ivit ies oI an enterprise. In addit ion, new
vacancies are possible due t o iob speciIicat ion.

Purpose and importance of Recruitment:

1. Determi ne t he present and Iut ure requirements oI t he organizat ion
on coni unct ion wit h its personnel-planning and i ob analysis act ivit ies.

2. Increase t he pool oI iob candidates at mini mum cost.

3. Help increase t he success rate oI t he select ion process by reducing
t he number oI visibly under qualiIied or overqualiIied iob applicants.

4. Help reduce t he probabilit y t hat iob applicants, once recruited and
selected, will leave t he organizat ion only aIter a short period oI t i me.

5. Meet t he organizat ion`s legal and social obligat ions regarding t he
composit ion oI its work Iorce.
6. Begin ident iIyi ng and preparing pot ent ial iob applicants who wil l
be appropriat e candidates.

7. Increase organizat ional and individual eIIect iveness in t he short
term and long term.

8. Evaluate t he eIIect iveness oI vari ous recruit ing techniques and
sources Ior all t ypes oI i ob applicant s.


Recruit ment is a posit ive Iunct ion in which publicit y is given t o
t he i obs available in t he organizat ion and interested candidates are
encouraged to submit applicat ions Ior t he purpose oI select ion.

Recruit ment represents t he Iirst contact t hat a company makes wit h
potent ial employees. It is t hrough recruit ment t hat many individuals wil l
come t o know a company, and event ually decided whether t hey wish to
work Ior it. A well-planned and well-managed recruit ing eIIort will
result in high qualit y applicants, whereas, a haphazard and piecemeal
eIIorts will result in mediocre ones.

Unscientific Recrui tment and Selecti on:
Previously, t he select ion oI candidates was inIl uenced by superst it ions,
belieIs, personal prei udices oI managers looking aIter t he recruit ment
and select ion oI t he staII.

The net result oI such unscient iIic recruit ment and select ion are:
(a) ow product ivit y oI labour
(b) High t urnover
(c) Excessive wastage oI raw materials
(d) More accidents and corresponding loss to t he organizat ion
(e) IneIIicient working oI t he whole organizat ion and Iinally
(I)IneIIect ive execut ive oI training and management development
programs

Scientific recruitment and sel ecti on

The i mportance oI select ion recruit ment and select ion oI staII is now
accepted in t he business world. Select ion is important as it has its
i mpact on work perIormance and employee cost. As result scient iIic
met hods oI recruit ment and select ion are extensively Ior t he select ion oI
managers and t he supervisory staII. The assist ance oI experts such as
industrial psychologist and management consultants are also t aken Ior

t he purpose oI scient iIic select ion. As a result, the obi ect ive oI 'right
man Ior t he right iob¨ is achieved in many organizat ions. Moreover,
'right iob¨ is t he basic principle in manpower procurement.


RECRUITMENT PROCESS

Recruit ment reIers to t he process oI ident iIyi ng and att ract ing iob
seekers so as to build a pool oI qualiIied iob applicants. The process
comprises Iive interrelated stages, vi z,
1. Planning.
2. St rategy development.
3. Searching.
4. Screening.
5. Evaluat ion and control.
The ideal recruit ment programme i s t he one t hat attracts a relat ively
larger number oI quali Iied applicants who will survive t he screening
process and accept posit ions wit h t he organisat ion, when oIIered.
Recruit ment programmes can miss t he ideal in many ways i. e. by Iailing
to attract an adequate applicant pool, by under/over selling t he
organisat ion or by inadequate screening applicants beIore t hey enter t he
select ion process. Thus, to approach t he ideal, individuals responsible
Ior t he recruit ment process must know how many and what t ypes oI
employees are needed, where and how t o look Ior t he individuals wit h
t he appropriat e qualiIicat ions and interests, what inducement t o use Ior
various t ypes oI applicants groups, how to dist inguish applicants who
are qualiIied Irom t hose who have a reasonable chance oI success and
how to evaluate t heir work.








STAGE :

RECRUITMENT PLANNING:
The Iirst stage in t he recruit ment process is planning. Planning
involves t he t ranslat ion oI likely iob vacancies and inIormat ion about
t he nat ure oI t hese iobs into set oI obiect ives or targets t hat speciIy t he
(1) Numbers and (2) Types oI applicants to be contact ed.

Numbers of contact:
Organizat ion, nearly always, plan t o att ract more applicants t han t hey
will hire. Some oI t hose contacted will be uninterested, unquali Iied or
bot h. Each t i me a recruit ment Programme is contemplated, one task is to
est imate t he number oI applicants necessary to Iill all vacancies wit h t he
qualiIied people.

Types of contacts:
It is basically concerned wit h t he t ypes oI people t o be inIormed about
iob openings. The t ype oI people depends on t he tasks and
responsibilit ies involved and t he qualiIicat ions and experience expected.
These details are available t hrough i ob descript ion and iob speciIicat ion.

STAGE :
STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT:
When it is est i mat ed t hat what t ypes oI recruit ment and how many are
required t hen one has concent rate in (1). Make or Buy employees. (2).
Technological sophist icat ion oI recruit ment and select ion devices. (3).
Geographical dist ribut ion oI labour markets comprising i ob seekers. (4).
Sources oI recruit ment. (5). Sequencing t he act ivities in t he recruit ment
process.




Make` or Buy`:
Organisat ion must decide whet her to hire le skil led employees and
invest on t raining and educat ion programmes, or t hey can hire skilled
labour and proIessional. Essent ially, t his is t he make` or buy` decision.
Organizat ions, which hire skilled and proIessionals shall have to pay
more Ior t hese employees.

Technol ogical Sophisticati on:
The second decision in strategy development relates to t he met hods used
in recruit ment and select ion. This decision is mainly inIl uenced by t he
available technology. The advent oI computers has made it possible Ior
employers to scan nat ional and internat ional applicant qualiIicat ion.
Alt hough i mpersonal, computers have given employers and ob seekers a
wider scope oI opt ions in t he init ial screening stage.

Where to l ook:
In order to reduce t he costs, organisat ions look in to labour markets
most likely to oIIer t he required iob seekers. Generally, companies look
in to t he nat ional market Ior managerial and proIessional employees,
regional or local markets Ior techni cal employees and local markets Ior
t he clerical and blue-collar employees.

When to l ook:
An eIIect ive recruit ing strategy must determi ne when to look-decide on
t he t i mings oI events besides knowing where and how to look Ior i ob
applicants


STAGE :
SEARCHNG:
Once a recruit ment plan and strategy are worked out, t he search process
can begin. Search involves two steps
A). Source act ivat ion and
B) Sel li ng
A) SOURCE ACTIVATION:
Typically, sources and search met hods are act ivated by t he
issuance oI an employee requisit ion. This means t hat no act ual
recruit ing t akes place unt il lone managers have veriIied t hat vacancy
does exist or will exist.
II t he organisat ion has planned well and done a good i ob oI
developing its sources and search met hods, act ivat ion soon results in a
Ilood oI applicat ions and/or resumes.
The applicat ion received must be screened. Those who pass have to
be contacted and invit ed Ior interview. UnsuccessIul applicants must be
sent let ter oI regret.

B) SELLING:
A second issue to be addressed in t he searching process concerns
communicat ions. Here, organisat ion walks t ight rope. On one hand, t hey
want t o do whatever t hey can t o attract desirable applicants. On t he
ot her hand, t hey must resist t he temptat ion oI overselling t heir virt ues.
In selling t he organisat ion, bot h t he message and t he media deserve
attent ion. Message reIers to t he employment advert isement. Wit h
regards to media, it may be stated t hat eIIect iveness oI any recruit ing
message depends on t he media. Media are several-some have low
credibilit y, whi le ot hers enioy high credibilit y. Select ion oI medium or
media needs to be done wit h a lot oI care.



STEP 4:

SCREENING:
Screening oI applicants can be regarded as an integral part oI t he
recruit ing process, t hough many view it as t he Iirst step in t he select ion
process. Even t he deIi nit ion on recruit ment, we quoted in t he beginning
oI t his chapter, excludes screening Irom its scope. However, we have
included screening in recruit ment Ior valid reasons. The select ion
process will begin aIter t he applicat ions have been scrut inized and short-
listed. Hiring oI proIessors in a universit y is a typical sit uat ion.
Applicat ion received in response to advert isements is screened and only
eligible applicants are called Ior an interview. A select ion committee
comprising t he 'ice-chancellor, Regist rar and subiect experts conducts
interview. Here, t he recruit ment process extends up t o screening t he
applicat ions. The select ion process commences only later.

Purpose of screeni ng
The purpose oI screening is to remove Irom t he recruit ment process, at
an early stage, t hose applicants who are visibly unquali Iied Ior t he i ob.
EIIect ive screening can save a great deal oI t ime and money. Care must
be exercised, however, to assure t hat potent iall y good employees are not
reiect ed wit hout i ust iIicat ion.
In screening, clear i ob speciIicat ions are invaluable. It is bot h good
pract ice and a legal necessit y t hat applicant`s qualiIicat ion is i udged on
t he basis oI t heir knowledge, skills, abilit ies and interest required t o do
t he iob.
The t echniques used to screen applicants vary depending on t he
candidate sources and recruit ing met hods used. Interview and
applicat ion blanks may be used to screen walk-ins. Campus recruiters
and agency representat ives use interviews and resumes. ReIerence
checks are also useIul in screening.



STAGE 5:
EVALUATION AND CONTROL:
Evaluat ion and cont rol is necessary as considerable costs are incurred in
t he recruit ment process. The costs generally incurred are: -
1. Salaries Ior recruiters.
2. Management and proIessional t i me spent on preparing i ob descript ion,
iob speciIicat ions, advert isements, agency liaison and so Iort h.
3. The cost oI advert isements or ot her recruit ment methods, t hat is,
agency Iees.
4. Recruit ment overheads and admi nist rat ive expenses.
5. Costs oI overt i me and outsourcing while t he vacancies remain
unIilled.
6. Cost oI recruit ing unsuitable candidates Ior t he select ion process.

4 EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS

The recruit ment has t he obiect ive oI searching Ior and obtaining
applicat ions Ior iob seekers in suIIi cient number and qualit y. Keeping
t his obiect ive in t he mind, t he evaluat ion might include:
1. Ret urn rat e oI applicat ion sent out.
2. Number oI suit able candidates Ior select ion.
3. Retent ion and perIormance oI t he candidates selected.
4. Cost oI t he recruit ment process
5. Ti me lapsed data
6. Comments on i mage proiected.










5 Sources of Recruitment



SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT



INTERNAL SOURCES EXTERNAL
SOURCES
1) Promotion 1) Campus recruitment
2) TransIers 2) Press advertisement
3) Internal notiIication 3) Management consultancy service
(Advertisement) & private employment exchanges
4) Retirement 4) Deputation oI personnel or transIer
Irom one enterprise to another
5) Recall 5) Management training schemes
6) Former employees 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins
7) Miscellaneous external sources



The sources oI recruit ment can be broadly categorized int o internal and
external sources-

(I) Internal Recrui tment - Internal recruit ment seeks applicants Ior
posit ions Irom wit hin t he company. The various internal sources
include






Promoti ons and Transfers -

Promot ion is an eIIect ive means using iob post ing and personnel
records. Job post ing requires not i Iyi ng vacant posit ions by post ing
not ices, circulat ing publicat ions or announcing at staII meet ings and
invit ing employees to apply. Personnel records help discover employees
who are doing i obs below t heir educat ional qualiIicat ions or skil l levels.
Promot ions has many advantages like it is good public relat ions, builds
morale, encourages competent individuals who are ambit ious, i mproves
t he probabilit y oI good select ion si nce inIormat ion on t he individual`s
perIormance is readily available, is cheaper t han going outside to
recruit, t hose chosen internally are Iamiliar wit h t he organizat ion t hus
reducing t he orientat ion t i me and energy and also acts as a training
device Ior developing middle-level and top-level managers. However,
promot ions rest rict t he Iield oI select ion prevent ing Iresh blood & ideas
Irom entering t he organizat ion. It also leads to inbreeding in t he
organizat ion. TransIers are also i mportant in providing employees wit h a
broad-based view oI t he organizat ion, necessary Ior Iut ure promot ions.

Empl oyee referrals-
Employees can develop good prospects Ior t heir Iami lies and
Iriends by acquaint ing t hem wit h t he advantages oI a i ob wit h t he
company, Iurnishing t hem wit h int roduct ion and encouraging t hem to
apply. This is a very eIIect ive means as many qualiIied people can be
reached at a very low cost to t he company. The ot her advantages are
t hat t he employees would bring only t hose reIerrals t hat t hey Ieel woul d
be able to Iit in t he organizat ion based on t heir own experience. The
organizat ion can be assured oI t he reliabilit y and t he character oI t he
reIerrals. In t his way, t he organizat ion can also IulIi ll social obligat ions
and create goodwill.




Former Empl oyees-
These include ret ired employees who are willi ng to work on a
part -t i me basis, individuals who leIt work and are willing to come back
Ior higher compensat ions. Even retrenched employees are taken up once
again. The advantage here is t hat t he people are already known t o t he
organizat ion and t here is no need to Iind out t heir past perIormance and
charact er. Also, t here is no need oI an orientat ion programme Ior t hem,
since t hey are Iami liar wit h t he organizat ion.

Dependents of deceased empl oyees-
Usually, banks Iollow t his policy. II an employee dies, his / her
spouse or son or daughter is recruit ed in t heir place. This is usually an
eIIect ive way to Iul Ii ll social obligat ion and create goodwill.

Recalls: -
When management Iaces a problem, which can be solved only by a
manager who has proceeded on long leave, it may de decided to recall
t hat persons aIter t he problem is solved, his leave may be extended.

Retirements: -
At t i mes, management may not Iind suitable candidates in place oI t he
one who had ret ired, aIter meritorious service. Under t he circumstances,
management may decide t o call ret ired managers wit h new extension.

Internal notificati on (advertisement): -
Somet i mes, management issues an internal not iIicat ion Ior t he beneIit oI
exist ing employees. Most employees know Irom t heir own experience
about t he requirement oI t he i ob and what sort oI person t he company is
looking Ior. OIten employees have Iriends or acquaintances who meet
t hese requirements. Suitable persons are appoint ed at t he vacant posts.


(II) External Recrui tment - External recruit ment seeks applicants Ior
posit ions Irom sources outside t he company. They have out numbered t he
internal met hods. The various external sources include

Professi onal or Trade Associati ons :-
Many associat ions provide placement service to its
members. It consists oI compiling iob seeker`s lists and providing access
to members during regional or nat ional convent ions. Also, t he
publicat ions oI t hese associat ions carry classiIied advert isements Irom
employers interested in recruit ing t heir members. These are part icularly
useIul Ior att ract ing highly educated, experienced or skilled personnel.
Also, t he recruiters can zero on in speciIic iob seekers, especially Ior
hard-t o-Ii ll technical posts.

Advertisements :-
It is a popular met hod oI seeking recruits, as many recruiters
preIer advert isements because oI t heir wide reach. Want ads describe t he
iob beneIits, ident iIy t he employer and tell t hose interested how t o
apply. Newspaper is t he most common medium but Ior highly
specialized recruits, advert isements may be placed in proIessional or
business iournals.
Advert isements must contain proper inIormat ion like t he
iob content, working condit ions, locat ion oI iob, compensat ion including
Iringe beneIits, i ob speciIicat i ons, growt h aspects, etc. The
advert isement has t o sell t he idea t hat t he company and iob are perIect
Ior t he candidate. Recruit ment advert isements can also serve as
corporate advert isements to build company` i mage. It also cost eIIect ive.






Empl oyment Exchanges:-
Employment Exchanges have been set up all over t he count ry in
deIerence to t he provision oI t he Employment Exchanges (Compulsory
Not iIicat ion oI 'acancies) Act, 1959. The Act applies to all indust rial
establishments having 25 workers or more each. The Act requires all t he
industrial establishments t o not iIy t he vacancies beIore t hey are Iilled.
The maior Iunct ions oI t he exchanges are to increase t he pool oI
possible applicants and to do t he preli minary screening. Thus,
employment exchanges act as a link bet ween t he employers and t he
prospect ive employees. These oIIi ces are part icularly useIul t o i n
recruit ing blue-collar, white collar and technical workers.

Campus Recruitments:-
Colleges, universit ies, research laborat ories, sports
Iields and inst it utes are Iert ile ground Ior recruiters, part icularly t he
inst it utes. Campus Recruit ment is going global wit h companies like
H, Cit ibank, HC-HP, ANZ Grindlays, &T, Motorola and Reliance
looking Ior global markets. Some companies recruit a given number oI
candidates Irom t hese inst it utes every year. Campus recruit ment is so
much sought aIter t hat each college; universit y depart ment or inst it ute
will have a placement oIIicer t o handle recruit ment Iunct ions. However,
it is oIten an expensive process, even iI recruit ing process produces iob
oIIers and acceptances event ually. A maiorit y leave t he organizat ion
wit hin t he Iirst Iive years oI t heir employment. Yet, it is a mai or source
oI recruit ment Ior prest igious companies.

Wal k-i ns. Write-i ns and Tal k-i ns-
The most common and least expensive approach Ior
candidates is direct applicat ions, in which iob seekers submit unsolicited
applicat ion letters or resumes. Direct applicat ions can also provide a
pool oI potent ial employees to meet Iut ure needs. From employees`
viewpoint, walk-ins are preIerable as they are Iree Irom t he hassles
associated wit h ot her met hods oI recruit ment. While direct applicat ions

are part icularly eIIect ive in Ii lli ng entry-level and unskilled vacancies,
some organizat ions compile pools oI pot ent ial employees Irom direct
applicat ions Ior skil led posit ions. rite-ins are t hose who send written
enquiries. These iobseekers are asked to complete applicat ion Iorms Ior
Iurt her processing. Talk-ins involves t he iob aspirants meet ing t he
recruiter (on an appropriated date) Ior detailed talks. No applicat ion is
required to be submit ted to t he recrui ter.

Contractors:-
They are used to recruit casual workers. The names oI t he
workers are not entered in t he company records and, t o t his extent;
diIIicult ies experienced in maintaini ng permanent workers are avoided.

Consul tants:-
They are in t he proIession Ior recruit ing and select ing
managerial and execut ive personnel. They are useIul as t hey have
nat ionwide contacts and lend proIessionalism to t he hiring process. They
also keep prospect ive employer and employee anonymous. However, t he
cost can be a deterrent Iactor.

Head Hunters:-
They are useIul in specialized and skil led candidate
working in a part icular company. An agent is sent to represent t he
recruit ing company and oIIer is made to t he candidate. This is a useIul
source when bot h t he companies involved are in t he same Iield, and t he
employee is reluctant to take t he oIIer since he Iears, t hat his company
is test ing his loyalt y.

Radi o. Televisi on and Internet:-
Radio and television are used to reach certain t ypes oI
iob applicants such as skilled workers. Radio and television are used but
sparingl y, and t hat t oo, by government depart ments only. Companies in

t he private sector are hesitant to use t he media because oI high costs and
also because t hey Iear t hat such advert ising will make t he companies
look desperate and damage t heir conservat ive i mage. However, t here is
not hing inherent ly desperate about using radio and television. It depends
upon what is said and how it is delivered. Internet is becomi ng a popular
opt ion Ior recruit ment today. There are specialized sites like naukri. com.
Also, websites oI companies have a separate sect ion wherein; aspirants
can submit t heir resumes and applicat ions. This provides a wider reach.

Competi tors:-
This met hod is popularly known as 'poaching¨ or
'raiding¨ which involves ident iIying t he right people in rival companies,
oIIering t hem bett er t erms and luring t hem away. For instance, several
execut ives oI HMT leIt to i oin Titan Watch Company. There are legal
and et hical issues involved in raiding rival Iirms Ior potent ial
candidates. From t he legal point oI view, an employee is expected to
ioin a new organizat ion only aIter obtaining a no obiect ion cert iIicate`
Irom his/ her present employer. 'iol at ing t his requirement shall bind t he
employee to pay a Iew mont hs` salary t o his/ her present employer as a
punishment. However, t here are many et hical issues attached t o it.

Mergers and Acquisiti ons:-
When organizat ions combine, they have a pool oI
employees, out oI whom some may not be necessary any longer. As a
result, t he new organizat ion has, in eIIect, a pool oI qualiIied i ob
applicants. As a result, new iobs may be created. Bot h new and old iobs
may be readily staIIed by drawing t he best-qualiIied applicants Irom t his
employee pool. This met hod Iacilitat es the i mmediate implementat ion oI
an organizat ion`s st rategic plan. It enables an organizat ion to pursue a
business plan, However, t he need t o displace employees and t o integrate
a large number oI t hem rat her quickly int o a new organizat ion means
t hat t he personnel-planning and select ion process becomes crit ical more
t han ever.

Eval uati on of External Recruitment:
Ext ernal sources oI recruit ment have bot h merits and demerits.

The merits are-
The organizat ion will have t he beneIit oI new skills, new talents
and new experiences, iI people are hired Irom external sources.
The management will be able t o Iul Iill reservat ion requirements
in Iavour oI t he disadvantaged sect ions oI t he societ y.
Scope Ior resent ment, heartburn and iealousy can be avoided by
recruit ing Irom outside.

The demeri ts are-
Bet ter mot ivat ion and increased morale associated wit h
promot ing own employees re lost to t he organizat ion.
Ext ernal recruit ment is cost ly.
II recruit ment and select ion processes are not properly carried
out, chances oI right candidates being reiected and wrong applicants
being selected occur.
High t raining t i me is associated wit h ext ernal recruit ment.


of organizat ional success depends upon effi cient empl ovee
selection










SELECTION

Selecti on is defi ned as the process of differentiati ng between
applicants i n order to i dentify (and hire) those wi th a greater
li keli hood of success i n a job
Selection is basicallv picki ng an applicant from (a pool of applicants)
who has the appropriat e quali ficati on and competencv to do the job.
1he difference between recruitment and selection:
Recruitment is ident ifving n encouragi ng prospect ive emplovees to
applv for a job. And Select ion is sel ecting t he right candidate from the
pool of appli cants.

SELECTION PROCESS
Select ion is along process, commencing Irom t he preli minary interview
oI t he applicants and ending wit h t he contract oI employment











\



The foll owi ng chart gives an i dea about selecti on process:
External Environment
Internal Environment
Preliminary Interview
Selection Tests
Employment Interview
ReIerence and Background
Analysis
Selection Decision
Physical Examination
Job OIIer
Employment Contract
Evaluation

























R
e
j
e
c
t
e
d

A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n






Environment factor affecti ng selecti on: -
Select ion is inIluenced by several Iact ors. More prominent among
t hem are supply and demand oI speciIic skills in t he labour market,
unemployment rate, labour- market condit ions, legal and polit ical
considerat ions, company`s i mage, company`s policy, human resources
planning and cost oI hiring. The last t hree const itute t he internal
environment and t he remaini ng Iorm t he external environment oI
select ion process.

STEP : -
PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW
The applicants received Irom i ob seekers would be subiect t o scrut iny so
as to eli mi nate unquali Iied applicants. This is usuall y Iollowed by a
preli minary interview t he purpose oI which is more or less t he same as
scrut iny oI applicat ion, t hat is, el i mi nate oI unqualiIied applicants.
Scrut iny enables t he HR specialists to eli minate unqualiIied iobseekers
based on t he inIormat ion supplied in t heir application Iorms.
Preli minary interview, on t he ot her hand, helps reiect misIits Ior reason,
which did not appear in t he appli cat ion Iorms. Besides, preli minary
interview, oIten called courtesy interview`, is a good public relat ion
exercise.

STEP : -
SELECTION TEST:
Job seekers who pass t he screeni ng and t he preli minary interview are
called Ior tests. DiIIerent t ypes oI tests may be administered, depending
on t he iob and t he company. Generally, tests are used to determine t he
applicant`s abilit y, apt it ude and personalit y.








The foll owi ng are the type of tests taken:
) Abili ty tests: -
Assist in determining how well an individual can perIorm tasks
related to t he iob. An excellent ill ustrat ion oI t his is t he t yping t ests
given to a prospect ive employer Ior secretarial i ob. Also called as
ACHEI'EMENT TESTS`. It is concerned wit h what one has
accomplished. When applicant clai ms to know somet hing, an
achievement test is taken t o measure how well t hey know it. Trade tests
are t he most common t ype oI achi evement test given. Quest ions have
been prepared and tested Ior such t rades as asbestos worker, punch-press
operators, elect ricians and machinists. There are, oI course, many
unstandardised achievement tests gi ven in indust ries, such as t yping or
dictat ion tests Ior an applicant Ior a stenographic posit ion.

) Apti tude test: -
Apt it ude tests measure whet her an individuals has t he capacit y or
latent abilit y to learn a given i ob iI given adequate training. The use oI
apt it ude test is advisable when an applicant has had litt le or no
experience along t he line oI t he iob opening. Apt itudes tests help
determi ne a person`s potent ial to learn in a given area. An example oI
such test is t he general management apt it ude tests (GMAT), which many
business st udents take prior to gaini ng admission to a graduate business
school programme.
Apt it ude test indicates t he abilit y or Iit ness oI an individual to engage
successIul ly in any number oI specialized act ivit ies. They cover such
areas clerical apt it ude, numerical apt it ude, mechanical apt it ude, motor
co-ordinat ion, Iinger dexterit y and manual dexterity. These t ests help t o
detect posit ive negat ive points in a person`s sensory or intellect ual
abilit y. They Iocus attent ion on a part icular t ype oI talent such as
learning or reasoning in respect oI a part icular Iield oI work.







Forms of apti tude test:

Mental or i ntell igence tests:
They measure t he overall i ntellect ual abilit y oI a person and
enable to know whet her t he person has t he mental abilit y t o deal wit h
certain problems.

Mechanical aptitude tests:
They measure t he abilit y oI a person to learn a part icular t ype oI
mechanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical
knowledge and problem solving abilit ies iI t he candidate. They are
useIul in select ion oI mechanics, maintenance workers, etc.

Psychomotor or skills tests:
They are t hose, which measure a person`s abilit y to do a speciIic
iob. Such tests are conducted in respect oI semi- skil led and repet it ive
iobs such as packing, test ing and inspect ion, etc.

4) Intell igence test:
This test helps to evaluate t raits oI intelligence. Mental abilit y, presence
oI mind (alert ness), numerical abili t y, memory and such ot her aspects
can be measured.
The intelli gence is probably t he most widely administered standardized
test in indust ry. It is taken to i udge numerical, skil ls, reasoning, memory
and such ot her abilit ies.
5) Interest Test:
T
his is conducted t o Iind out likes and dislikes oI candidates t owards
occupat ions, hobbies, etc. such tests indicate which occupat ions are
more in line wit h a person`s interest. Such tests also enable t he company
to provide vocat ional guidance to t he selected candidates and even to t he
exist ing employees.




These tests are used to measure an individual`s activit y preIerences.
These tests are part icularly useIul Ior st udents considering many careers
or employees deciding upon career changes.

) Personali ty Test:
The i mportance oI personalit y to i ob success is undeniable. OIten an
individual who possesses t he intelli gence, apt it ude and experience Ior
certain has Iailed because oI inabil it y to get along wit h and mot ivate
ot her people.
It is conducted to i udge mat urit y, social or interpersonal skil ls, behavior
under stress and st rain, etc. t his test is very much essent ial on case oI
select ion oI sales Iorce, public rel at ion staII, etc. where personalit y
plays an i mportant role.
Personalit y tests are si milar to interest tests in t hat t hey, also, involve a
serious problem oI obtaini ng an honest answer.

7) Projecti ve Test:
This test requires interpretat ion oI problems or sit uat ions. For example,
a phot ograph or a pict ure can be shown t o t he candidates and t hey are
asked to give t heir views, and opinions about t he pict ure.

8) General knowledge Test:
Now days G. K. Tests are very common t o Iind general awareness oI t he
candidates in t he Iield oI sports, poli t ics, world aIIairs, current aIIairs.

9) Percepti on Test:
At t imes percept ion tests can be conducted t o Iind out belieIs, att it udes,
and mental sharpness. etc.

) Graphol ogy Test:
It is designed t o analyze t he handwrit ing oI individual. It has been said
t hat an individual`s handwrit ing can suggest t he degree oI energy,
inhibit ion and spontaneit y, as well as disclose t he idiosyncrasies and
elements oI balance and cont rol. For example, big letters and emphasis
on capital let ters indicate a tendency towards dominat ion and




compet it iveness. A slant to t he right, moderate pressure and good
legibil it y show leadership potent ial.

) Pol ygraph Test:
Polygraph is a lie detector, which is designed t o ensure accuracy oI t he
inIormat ion given in t he applicat ions. Depart ment store, banks, t reasury
oIIices and iewellery shops, t hat is, t hose highly vul nerable to t heIt or
swindling may Iind polygraph tests useIul.

) Medical Test:
It reveals physical Iit ness oI a candidate. Wit h t he development oI
technology, medical tests have become diversiIied. Medical servicing
helps measure and monit or a candidate`s physical resilience upon
exposure to hazardous chemicals.

CHOOSING TESTS:
The test must be chosen in t he criteria oI reliabilit y, validit y, obiect ivit y
and standardizat ion. They are: -

RELIABILITY: -
It reIers to standardizat ion oI the procedure oI administering and
scoring t he test results. A person who takes tests one day and makes a
certain score should be able to take t he same test t he next day or t he
next week and make more or less t he same score. An individual`s
intelli gence, Ior example, is generally a stable characterist ic. So iI we
admi nister an intelligence test, a person who scores 110 in March would
score close to 110 iI tested in July. Tests, which produce wide variat ions
in results, serve litt le purpose in select ion.
VALIDITY: -
It is a test, which helps predict whet her a person will be
successIul in a given iob. A test t hat has been validated can be helpIul in
diIIerent iat ing between prospect ive employees who will be able to
perIorm t he iob well and t hose who will not. Nat urally, no test will be




100° accurate in predict ing i ob success. A validated test increases
possibilit y oI success.

There are three ways of vali dati ng a test They are as foll ows: -

) Concurrent Val idity: - t his involves determini ng t he Iactors t hat are
charact erist ics oI successIul employees and t hen using t hese Iactors as
t he yardst icks.

) Predictive Vali di ty: - it involves using a select ion test during t he
select ion process and t hen ident iIying t he successIul candidates. The
charact erist ics oI bot h successIul and less successIul candidates are t hen
ident iIied.

) Synthetic Vali di ty: - it involves taking parts oI several similar i obs
rat her t han one complete i ob to validate t he selection test.

OB1ECTIVITY: -
When t wo or more people can interpret t he result oI t he same test and
derive t he same conclusion(s), t he test is said to be obiect ive.
Ot herwise, t he test evaluators` subi ect ive opinions may render t he t est
useless.

4 STANDARDIZATION: -
A test t hat is standardized is administered under standard condit ion
to a large group oI person who are representat ives oI t he individuals Ior
whom it is intended. The purpose oI standardizat ion is to obtain norms
or standard, so t hat a speciIic test score can be meaningIul when
compared t o ot her score in t he group.







STEP : -

INTERVIEW:
The next step in t he select ion process is an interview. Interview is
Iormal, in-dept h conversat ion conducted to evaluate t he applicant`s
acceptabilit y. It is considered to be excellent select ion device. It is Iace-
to-Iace exchange oI view, ideas and opinion between t he candidates and
interviewers. Basically, interview is not hing but an oral examinat ion oI
candidates. Interview can be adapted to unskilled, skil led, managerial
and proIession employees.

Objecti ves of i nterview: -
Interview has at least t hree obiect ives and t hey are a Iollows: -
1) Helps obtain addit ional inIormat ion Irom t he applicants
2) Facilitates givi ng general inIormat ion to t he applicants such as
company policies, iob, products manuIact ured and t he like
3) Helps build t he company`s i mage among t he applicants.

Types of i nterview: -
Interviews can be oI diIIerent t ypes. There interviews employed by t he
companies.
Following are t he various t ypes oI interview: -

) Informal Intervi ew:
An inIormal interview is an oral interview and may take place
anywhere. The employee or t he manager or t he personnel manager may
ask a Iew al most inconsequent ial quest ions like name, place oI birt h,
names oI relat ives etc. eit her in t heir respect ive oIIices or anywhere
outside t he plant oI company. It id not planned and nobody prepares Ior
it. This is used widely when t he labour market is tight and when you
need workers badly.








) Formal Interview:
Formal interviews may be held in t he employment oIIice by he
employment oIIice in a more Iormal at mosphere, wit h t he help oI well
struct ured quest ions, t he t i me and place oI t he interview will be
st ipulated by t he employment oIIice.

) Non-directive Interview:
Non-direct ive interview or unstruct ured int erview is designed to let t he
interviewee speak his mind Ireely. The interviewer has no Iormal or
direct ive quest ions, but his all attent ion is to t he candidate. He
encourages t he candidate t o talk by a lit t le prodding whenever he is
silent e. g. 'Mr. Ray, please tell us about yourselI aIter your graduated
Irom high school¨.
The idea is o give t he candidate complete Ireedom to 'sell¨ hi mselI,
wit hout t he encumbrances oI t he interviewer`s question. But t he
interviewer must be oI higher cali ber and must guide and relate t he
inIormat ion given by t he applicant t o the obiect ive oI t he int erview.

4) Depth Interview:
It is designed to intensely exami ne t he candidate`s background and
t hinking and to go into considerabl e detail on particular subi ects oI an
i mportant nat ure and oI special interest to t he candidates. For example,
iI t he candidate says t hat he is interested in t ennis, a series oI quest ions
may be asked to test t he dept h oI understanding and interest oI t he
candidate. These probing quest ions must be asked wit h tact and t hrough
exhaust ive analysis; it is possible t o get a good pict ure oI t he candidate.

5) Stress Interview:
It is designed to test t he candidat e and his conduct and behavior by
hi m under condit ions oI st ress and st rain. The interviewer may start wit h
'Mr. Joseph, we do not t hink your qualiIicat ions and experience are
adequate Ior t his posit ion, ` and wat ch t he react ion oI t he candidates. A
good candidates will not yield, on t he cont rary he may substant iat e why
he is qualiIied to handle t he iob.




This t ype oI interview is borrowed Irom t he Milit ary organisat ion and
t his is very useIul to test behaviour oI individuals when t hey are Iaced
wit h disagreeable and t rying sit uat ions.

) Group Interview:
It is designed to save busy execut ive`s t ime and t o see how t he
candidates may be brought toget her in t he employment oIIice and t hey
may be interviewed.

7) Panel Interview:
A panel or interviewing board or select ion commit tee may interview t he
candidate, usually in t he case oI supervisory and managerial posit ions.
This t ype oI interview pools t he collect ive i udgment and wisdom oI t he
panel in t he assessment oI t he candidat e and also in quest ioning t he
Iacult ies oI t he candidate.



8) Sequenti al Interview:
The sequent ial interview takes t he one-t o-one a step Iurt her and involves
a series oI interview, usually ut ilizing t he st rengt h and knowledgebase
oI each interviewer, so t hat each interviewer can ask quest ions in
relat ion to his or her subiect area oI each candidate, as t he candidate
moves Irom room to room.





9) Structures Interview:
In a struct ured interview, t he int erviewer uses preset standardized
quest ions, which are put to all t he interviewees. This interview is also
called as Guided` or Patterned` int erview. It is useIul Ior valid results,
especially when dealing wit h t he large number oI applicants.

) Unstructured Interview:
It is also known as Unpat terned` interview, t he interview is largely
unplanned and t he interviewee does most oI t he talking. Unguided
interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a Iriendl y
conversat ion between t he interviewer and t he int erviewee and in t he
process, t he later reveals more oI his or her desire and problems. But t he
Unpat terned interview lacks uniIormit y and worse, this approach may
overlook key areas oI t he applicant `s skills or background. It is useIul
when t he interviewer t ries t o probe personal details oI t he candidate it
analyse why t hey are not right Ior t he iob.

) Mi xed Interview:
In pract ice, t he interviewer while interviewing t he i ob seekers uses a
blend oI struct ured and struct ured and unstruct ured quest ions. This
approach is called t he Mixed Interview. The st ruct ured quest ions
provide a base oI interview more convent ional and permit greater
insights into t he unique diIIerences between applicants.

) Impromptu Interviews:
This int erview commonly occurs when employers are approached
direct ly and tends to be very inIormal and unstructured. Applicants
should be prepared at all t i mes Ior on-t he-spot interviews, especially in
sit uat ions such as a iob Iair or a cold call. It is an ideal t i me Ior
employers to ask t he candidate some basic quest ions to determine
whet her he/she may be interested in Iormally interviewing t he candidate.







) Di nner Interviews:
These int erviews may be st ruct ured, inIormal, or socially sit uated, such
as in a restaurant. Decide what to eat quickly, some interviewers will
ask you t o order Iirst (do not appear indecisive). Avoid potent ially
messy Ioods, such as spaghet t i. Be prepared Ior t he conversat ion t o
abrupt ly change Irom Iriendly chat to direct interview quest ions,
however, do not underest i mat e t he value oI casual discussion, some
employers place a great value on it. Be prepared t o switch gears rapidly,
Irom Iun talk to business talk.

4) Tel ephone Interviews:
Have a copy oI your resume and any points you want t o remember to say
nearby. II you are on your home telephone, make sure t hat all
roommates or Iamil y members are aware oI t he interview (no loud
stereos, barking dogs etc. ). Speak a bit slower t han usual. It is crucial
t hat you convey your ent husiasm verbally, since t he interviewer cannot
see your Iace. II t here are pauses, do not worry; the interviewer is likely
i ust taking some notes.

5) Second Interviews:

Job seekers are invited back aIter t hey have passed t he Iirst init ial
interview. Middle or senior management generall y conducts t he second
interview, toget her or separately. Applicants can expect more in-dept h
quest ions, and t he employer will be expect ing a greater level oI
preparat ion on t he part oI t he candidates. Applicants should cont inue to
research t he employer Iollowing t he Iirst interview, and be prepared t o
use any inIormat ion gained t hrough t he previous interview to t heir
advant age.










STEP 4: -

REFERENCE CHECK:-
Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers oI
reIerences Ior t he purpose oI veriIyi ng inIormat ion and perhaps, gaini ng
addit ional background inIormat ion on an applicant. Alt hough listed on
t he applicat ion Iorm, reIerences are not usually checked unt il an
applicant has successIul ly reached t he Iourt h stage oI a sequent ial
select ion process. When t he labour market is very tight, organisat ions
somet i mes hire applicants beIore checking reIerences.
Previous employers, known as public Iigures, uni versit y
proIessors, neighbours or Iriends can act as reIerences. Previous
employers are preIerable because they are already aware oI t he
applicant`s perIormance. But, t he problem wit h t his reIerence is t he
tendency on t he part oI t he previous employers to over-rate t he
applicant`s perIormance i ust to get rid oI t he person.
Organisat ions normally seek letters oI reIerence or telephone
reIerences. The latter is advantageous because oI its accuracy and low
cost. The t elephone reIerence also has t he advantage oI solicit ing
i mmediate, relat ively candid comments and att it ude can somet i mes be
inIerred Irom hesitat ions and inIlect ions in speech.
It may be stated t hat t he inIormat ion gat hered t hrough reIerences
hardly inIl uence select ion decisions. The reasons are obvious:
1. The candidate approaches only t hose persons who would speak
well about hi m or her.
2. People may write Iavorably about t he candidate in order t o get
rid oI hi m or her.
3. People may not like to divulge t he t rut h about a candidate, lest
it mi ght damage or ruin his/ her career.










STEP 5: -
SELECTION DECISION:-
AIter obtaining inIormat ion t hrough t he preceding steps, select ion
decision- t he most crit ical oI all t he steps- must be made. The ot her
stages in t he select ion process have been used to narrow t he number oI
t he candidates. The Iinal decision has to be made the pool oI individuals
who pas t he tests, interviews and reIerence checks.
The view oI t he line manager will be generally considered in t he Iinal
select ion because it is he/she who is responsible Ior t he perIormance oI
t he new employee. The HR manager plays a crucial role in t he Iinal
select ion.

STEP : -
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: -
AIter t he select ion decision and beIore t he iob oIIer is made, t he
candidate is required to undergo a physical Iit ness test. A iob oIIer is,
oIten, cont ingent upon t he candidate being declared Iit aIter t he physical
exami nat ion. The results oI t he medical Iit ness test are recorded in a
statement and are preserved in t he personnel records. There are several
obiect ives behind a physical test. Obviously, one reason Ior a physical
test is to detect iI t he individual carries any inIect ious disease.
Secondly, t he test assists in det ermini ng whet her an applicant is
physically Iit to perIorm t he work. Thirdly, t he physical examinat ion
inIormat ion can be used to determine iI t here are certain physical
capabilit ies, which diIIerent iate successIul and less successIul
employees. Fourt h, medical check-up protects applicants wit h healt h
deIects Irom undertaking work t hat could be det ri mental to t hem or
might ot herwise endanger t he employer`s propert y. Finally, such an
exami nat ion wil l protect t he employer Irom workers compensat ion
clai ms t hat are not valid because t he ini uries or illness were present
when t he employee was hired.









STEP 7: -

1OB OFFER: -
The next step in t he select ion process is iob oIIer t o t hose applicants
who have crossed all t he previous hurdles. Job oIIer is made t hrough a
letter oI appointed. Such a letter generally contains a date by which t he
appointee must report on dut y. The appointee must be given reasonable
t ime Ior report ing. Thos is part icularly necessary when he or she is
already in employment, in which case t he appoint ee is required t o obtain
a relieving cert iIicate Irom t he previ ous employer. Again, a new iob may
require movement to anot her cit y, which means considerable
preparat ion, and movement oI propert y.
The company may also want t he indi vidual to delay the date oI report ing
on dut y. II t he new employee`s Iirst iob upon ioining t he company is t o
go on company unt il perhaps a week beIore such traini ng begins.
Nat urally, t his pract ice cannot be abused, especially i I t he individual is
unemployed and does not have suIIicient Iinances.
Decency demands t hat t he reiected applicants be inIormed about t heir
non-select ion. Their applicants may be preserved Ior Iut ure use, iI any.
It needs no emphasis t hat t he applicat ions oI selected candidates must
also be preserved Ior t he Iut ure reIerences.

STEP 8: -

CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT: -
AIter t he i ob oIIer has bee mad and candidates accept t he oIIer, certain
documents need to be executed by t he employer and the candidate. One
such document is t he at testat ion Iorm. This Iorm contains vital det ails
about t he candidate, which are aut hent icated and attested by hi m/ her.
Attestat ion Iorm will be a valid record Ior t he Iuture reIerence.

There is also a need Ior preparing a cont ract oI employment. The basic
inIormat ion t hat should be included in a written cont ract oI employment




will vary according to t he level oI t he i ob, but t he Iollowing checklist
sets out t he t ypical headings:
1. Job t it le
2. Dut ies, including a parse such as 'The employee will perIorm such
dut ies and will be responsible t o such a person, as t he company may
Irom t i me t o t i me direct¨.
3. Date when cont inuous employment starts and t he basis Ior calculat ing
service.
4. Rate oI pay, allowance, overt i me and shiIt rates, met hod oI payments.
5. Hours oI work including lunch break and overt i me and shiIt
arrangements.
6. Holiday arrangements:
i. ) Paid holidays per year.
ii. ) Calculat ion oI holiday pay.
iii. ) QualiIying period.
iv. ) Accrual oI holidays and holiday pay.
v. ) Details oI holiday year.
vi. ) Dates when holidays can be taken.
vii. ) Maxi mum holiday t hat can be take at any one t i me.
viii. ) Carry over oI holiday ent it lement.
ix. ) Public holidays.
7. engt h oI not ice due t o and Irom employee.
8. Grievances procedure (or reIerence to it ).
9. Disciplinary procedure (or any reIerence to it).
10. Work rules (or any reIerence t o t hem).
11. Arrangements Ior termi nat ing employment.
12. Arrangements Ior union membership (iI applicable).
13. Special terms relat ing to rights t o patent s and designs, conIident ial
inIormat ion and rest raints on t rade aIter termi nat ion oI employment.
14. Employer`s right t o vary terms oI the cont ract subiect to proper
not iIicat ion being given.

Alternat ively called employment agreements or si mply bonds, cont racts
oI employment serve many useIul purposes. Such contracts seek t o
restrain iob-hoppers, t o protect knowledge and inIormat ion t hat mi ght be




vital t o a company`s healt hy bot tom l ine and to prevent compet it ors
Irom poaching highl y valued employees.
Great care is taken t o draIt t he cont ract Iorms. OIten, services oI
law Iirms (promi nent Iirms in t hi s category include Mulla, Craigie,
Blunt and Caroe, CrawIord Bailey, Amarchand Mangaldas Hiralal, etc. )
are engag4d t o get t he Iorms draIted and Iinalized.
Most employers insist on agreement s being signed by newly hired
employees. But high t urnover sectors such as soItware, advert ising and
media are more prone to use contract s.
The drawback wit h t he cont racts i s t hat it is al most to enIorce
t hem. A determined employee is bound to leave t he organisat ion,
cont ract or no cont ract. The employee is prepared to pay t he penalt y Ior
breaching t he agreement or t he new employer will provide
compensat ions. It is t he reason t hat several companies have scrapped t he
cont racts altoget her.

STEP 9: -

CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS: -
Contrary to popular percept ion, t he select ion process will not end
wit h execut ing t he employment cont ract. There is anot her step amore
sensit ive one reassuring t hose candidat es who have not selected, not
because oI any serious deIiciencies in t heir personalit y, but because
t heir proIile did not match t he requirement oI t he organisat ion. They
must be t old t hat t hose who were selected were done purely on relat ive
merit.













STEP : -

EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME: -
The broad test oI t he eIIect iveness oI t he select ion process is t he
qualit y oI t he personnel hired. An organisat ion must have compet ent and
commit ted personnel. The select ion process, iI properly done, will
ensure availabilit y oI such employees. How to evaluate t he eIIect iveness
oI a select ion programme? A periodic audit is t he answer. People who
work independent oI HR depart ment must conduct audit. The table
below contains an out line t hat highl ights t he areas and quest ions t o be
covered in a systemat ic evaluat ion.

Four Approaches to Selecti on:
) Ethnocentric Selecti on:
In t his approach, staIIing decisions are made at the organizat ion`s
headquarters. Subsidiaries have li mited autonomy, and t he employees
Irom t he headquarters at home and abroad Iill key iobs. Nat ionals Irom
t he parent count ry dominate t he organisat ions at home and abroad.

) Polycentric Selecti on:
In polycentric select ion, each subsidiary is t reated as a dist inct
nat ional ent it y wit h local control key Ii nancial targets and invest ment
decisions. ocal cit izens manage subsidiaries, but t he key i obs remai n
wit h staII Irom t he parent count ry. This is t he approach, which is largely
pract iced in our country

) Regi ocentri c Selecti on: -
Here, cont rol wit hin t he group and t he movements oI staII are
managed on a regional basis, reIlect ing t he part icular disposit ion oI
business and operat ions wit hin t he group. Regional managers have
greater discret ion in decision. Movement oI staII is largely rest ricted to




speciIic geographical regions and promot ions to t he iobs cont inue to be
dominated by managers Irom t he parents company.

4) Geocentric Staffi ng: -
In t his case, business strategy is integrated t horoughly on global
basis. StaII development and promot ion are based on abilit y, not
nat ionalit y. The broad and ot her parts oI t he top management st ruct ure
are t horoughl y internat ional in composit ion. Needless to say, such
organisat ions are uncommon.

4 Difference (Recrui tment and Selecti on)

1. ) Recruit ment is t he process oI searching Ior prospect ive candidates
and mot ivat ing t hem to apply Ior iob in t he organisat ion
Whereas, select ion is a process oI choosing most suitable candidat es out
oI t hose, who are interested and also qualiIied Ior iob.

2. ) In t he recruit ment process, vacancies available are Iinalized,
publicit y is given t o t hem and applicat ions are collected Irom interested
candidates.
In t he select ion process, available applicat ions are scrut inized. Tests,
interview and medical examinat ion are conducted in order t o select most
suitable candidates.

3. ) In recruit ment t he purpose is t o attract maxi mum numbers oI suitable
and interest ed candidat es t hrough applicat ions.
In select ion process t he purpose is t hat t he best candidate out oI t hose
qualiIied and interested in t he appoint ment.

4. ) Recruit ment is prior to select ion. It creates proper base Ior act ual
select ion.
Select ion is next to recruit ment. It is out oI candidates`
available/ interested.





5. ) Recruit ment is t he posit ive Iunct ion in which interested candidates
are encouraged to submit applicat ion.
Select ion is a negat ive Iunct ion i n which unsuitable candidates are
eli minat ed and t he best one is selected.

6. ) Recruit ment is t he short process. In recruit ment publicit y is given to
vacancies and applicat ions are collected Irom diIIerent sources
Select ion is a lengt hy process. It involves scrut iny oI applicat ions,
givi ng tests, arranging interviews and medical examinat ion.

7. ) In recruit ment services oI expert is not required
Whereas in select ion, services oI expert is required

8. ) Recruit ment is not cost ly. Expendit ure is required mainly Ior
advert ising t he posts.
Select ion is a cost ly act ivit y, as expendit ure is needed Ior test ing
candidates and conduct oI interviews.

Need for the study

To know t he recruit ment and select ion process oI capital IQ.
To know t he challenges Ior capial IQ in recruit ing Ii nancial
experts.
To know t he reasons Ior high retent i on rate in capital IQ.


Capital IQ

Capital IQ is a young enterprise that strives Ior innovation. It is a leading provider oI
data and analytics Ior global Iinancial proIessionals and has oIIices around the world,
with main headquarters in New York. Capital IQ attracts and retains smart, results-
oriented thinkers looking Ior an open, dynamic, and challenging work environment.
At Capital IQ, you will ioin a diverse group oI proIessionals working collaboratively
around client needs. You will gain immediate responsibilities and have ample growth




opportunities. They have big plans ahead oI us, and are always looking Ior talented
and driven individuals to ioin their team.
They're committed to providing our clients with innovative products and unparalleled
service. The core values oI capital IQ Iosters a dynamic, challenge-Iilled and
rewarding environment Ior employees to grow proIessionally.
The environment at Capital IQ is Iast-paced, Iun, and innovative. They see
tremendous opportunity Ior growth, and are always looking Ior talented and driven
individuals to ioin their team.

Capital IQ Benefits for human resource
Health
O Medical Coverage
O Prescription Drug Coverage
O Dental Coverage
O 'ision Coverage
O Retiree Healthcare Coverage
O COBRA Coverage
O Healthy iving Resources
O EAP/Mental Health BeneIits

Spending Accounts
O Flexible Spending Accounts
O Commuter BeneIits Program
Retirement and Savings
O 401(k) Savings & ProIit Sharing Plan
O Pension Plan




Work Life
O Flexible Work Schedules
O Family-Related BeneIits
O Financial ConIidence
O Time-OII BeneIits
O Education-Related BeneIits
O egal Services
O Charitable Contribution Match
O Employee Discounts
O 'olunteer Program
Insurance
O Disability Coverage
O iIe and Accident Insurance
O ong-Term Care Insurance
O Auto and Home Insurance

CAPITAL IQ

Work at Capi tal IQ:

A Ieeling oI energy and vitalit y, oI Ireshness, oI a place where people
work in a campus like Iacilit y and cult ure, are unaIraid to voice new
ideas, oI a place where t here is mi ni mal hierarchy.

Robust people management pract ices enable Capital IQ to create t his
environment Ior its employees. Thi s is what dist inguishes Capital IQ
among ot her technology companies, enabling InIoscions to excel and
innovate in what t hey do Ior t heir clients and in what t hey stand Ior as a
company.





Conti nuous learni ng:

The spirit oI learn abilit y among Capital IQ people and an
organizat ional commit ment to cont inuous personal and proIessional
development keeps Capital IQ at t he IoreIront in a Iast -changi ng
industry. Their Iramework Ior cont inuous learning at Capital IQ is built
around a number oI Iocused programs Ior t heir employees. These range
Irom maior init iat ives such as t he Capital IQ eadership Inst it ute t o
various ongoing management devel opment and personal i mprovement
programs. They complement a host oI t echnology advancement and
ongoing t raining opt ions.

Dedicated organizat ions or groups wit hin Capital IQ lead t hese
init iat ives. Capital IQ invest ment in people and inIrast ruct ure to build a
holist ic learning Iramework demonst rates t heir commit ment to
cont inuous learning and building int ellect ual capital Ior t heir employees.
This learning Iramework is cont inuously enhanced wit h new programs
and t he latest learning techniques - and close-knit coordinat ion across
t hese init iat ives ensures t hat it meets t he diIIerent learning needs oI
t heir employees in speciIic areas oI technology, management,
leadership, cult ural and communicat i on skills, and ot her soIt skills.

Apart Irom Iormal programs - a typical example oI an inIormal
employee-driven program is t he Capital IQ Toast masters Club, Iormed i n
2000. The mission oI t his club is t o provide a mut ually support ive and
posit ive learning environment to develop communication and leadership
skills to Ioster selI-conIidence and personal growth. The club has been
recognized by Toast masters Internat ional and ioins t he roster oI ot her
recognized Corporate Clubs around t he world (including t hose oI
MicrosoIt, Boeing, Cit icorp and Sun Microsystems).

Fun and cul ture:

i Ie at Capital IQ is Iul l oI events - where employees can pursue t heir
interests in areas as varied as arts, cult ure, or sports. The obiect ive is to




ensure t hat employees are not conIi ned to t heir desks. Employees
express t heir various skills and interests t hrough Iorums t hat include an
"Art Gallery" on campus dedicated to displaying t he works oI
InIoscions, daily quiz compet it ions, and regular music meet ings t hat
keep t he place abuzz wit h creat ivit y.

Inculcom is t he base organizat ion t hat hosts cult ural programs Ior
InIoscions. Each event emphasizes a speciIic area like music, dance, or
quiz. These programs are generally not compet it ive, but a compet it ive
element is somet i mes added to enhance ent husiasm and to bring out t he
best in our people. Under Inculcom, there are sub groups like t he IQ
Circle (Quizzes), Shrut hi (t he classical music club), Dramat ix (t he
drama club), and 'akchat urya (Iorum Ior selI development ).




Careers:
Capital IQ has a vision oI where t hey want t o go, and it 's really excit ing
Wit h an annual compounded growt h rate oI around 60° in t he last 5
years, and branches across t he world, Capital IQ is Iorging ahead in t he
global market. To achieve t heir vision, t hey are always looking out Ior
talented, learnable individuals who are ambit ious, who love challenges
and who have a passion to excel !
Towards t his obiect ive, Capital IQ part icipat es in campus hiring
programs and also conducts a number oI oII-campus init iat ives
t hroughout t he year at various locat ions. Apart Irom college hiring, t hey
also hire experienced proIessionals Irom t he industry at various mid-
level and senior posit ions.









SOURCES ON MAN POWER SUPPLY:

INTERNAL:

Capital IQ upgrades Irom wit hin onl y Ior managerial posit ions, but only
to some extent. Because upgrading Irom wit hin is considered better as
t he employee is already Iamiliar wit h t he organization, reduces t raining
cost, helps in building morale and promotes loyalt y.
II no one capable Ior managerial posit ion is Iound in its internal source,
it looks out Ior external sources. It selects only t he best employee Ior
t he organizat ion


TYPES:

Former Empl oyees-
They ask t he ret ired employees who are willing to work on a part -t i me
basis, individuals who leIt work and are willing to come back Ior higher
compensat ions. Even retrenched employees are taken up once again.
Retirements: -
II it`s not able to Iind suitable candidates in place oI t he one who had
ret ired, aIter meritorious service. Under t he circumstances, management
decides to call ret ired managers wit h new extension.
Internal notificati on (advertisement): -
Most employees know Irom t heir own experience about t he requirement
oI t he iob and what sort oI person t he company is looking Ior. OIten
employees have Iriends or acquaint ances who meet t hese requirements.
Suitable persons are appointed at t he vacant posts.








EXTERNAL:

For t he posts oI technicians, engineers, Iloor managers etc, it looks out
Ior external sources which include.
O Inst it ut ions: ike B Schools, colleges, Management Inst it utes, etc.
O Websites: www. indiat i mesiob. com
www. monster. com
www. naukri. com

Ext ernal recruit ment enables t he company to get t he best candidat e.
Capital IQ preIers external recruit ment and mainl y takes help Irom
agencies and inst it ut ions as it`s a giant company and int ernal
recruit ment proves to be inadequate as its yearly targets are very high.

CAMPUS:

Campus recruit ment is so much sought aIter t hat each college; uni versit y
depart ment or inst it ute will have a placement oIIicer t o handle
recruit ment Iunct ions. However, it is oIten an expensive process, even
iI recruit ing process produces iob oIIers and acceptances event ually. A
maiorit y leave t he organizat ion wit hin t he Iirst Iive years oI t heir
employment. Yet, it is a maior source oI recruit ment Ior prest igious
companies.

Capital IQ is t he company oI choice Ior campus recruit ment programs in
most maior inst it utes such as kakat iya universit y, osmania universit y,
SBIT etc. and at premier management inst it utes such as t he Mukesh Patel
institute oI Technology Management and Engineering. NMIMS.

Engi neeri ng Insti tutes:
Campus hiring at engineering inst it utes t ypically starts in May and
cont inues t hrough September. Senior managers and oIIicers Irom
act ively part icipate in t his hiring, t o bring on board t he next generat ion
oI bright, young and talented leaders Ior t he company. We encourage
current st udents at t he campuses we visit to use t his opport unit y t o




interact wit h t he Capital IQ recruit ment teams during t he hiring process
to understand t he company and our people philosophy. We hire
graduates, engineering graduates and post -graduates Irom all disciplines,
and MCA st udents at t he campuses.

Management Institutes:
Campus hiring at management inst it utes t ypically starts in December and
cont inues t hrough March. We hire management graduates Irom al l
disciplines, wit h or wit hout prior work experience. All applicat ions are
pre-screened based on academic credent ials. Short -listed candidates are
usually invited Ior an interview as part oI t he select ion process.

OFF CAMPUS:
It is t he event Ior t hose candidates who do not get selected during
campus recruit ment. The process remains t he same; it i ust ai ms at giving
t hose candidates a chance t hat were not able to go t hrough t he process
beIore. These candidates also go t hrough t he same two rounds, here only
t he scale and basis on which t hey are evaluated changes.

1OB FAIRS:
What is job fair?

Job Iair is where several companies come under one rooI Ior seeking
eligible candidates who can ioin t heir company, aIter going t hrough
certain recruit ment process Iollowed by t hem.

ADVERTISEMENTS:-
It is a popular met hod oI seeking recruits, as many recruiters preIer
advert isements because oI t heir wide reach.








Capital IQ advertises i n:
NEWS PAPERS:
Ti mes oI India
The economic t i mes
Indian express
Hindustan t i mes
The Iinancial express
Employment papers

MAGAZINES:
Business world
Business Today
India Today
capital market
Business iournals

WEB:
www. Capital IQ. com
www. indiat i mesiob. com
www. monster. com
www. naukri. com

Advert isements cont ain proper inIormat ion like t he iob
content, working condit ions, locat i on oI iob, compensat ion including
Iringe beneIits, iob speciIicat ions, growt h aspects, etc.
The advert isement sells t he idea t hat t he company and i ob are perIect Ior
t he candidate.





CONSULTANTS:
Capital IQ also seeks t he help oI consult ants who are in
t he proIession Ior recruit ing and select ing managerial and execut ive
personnel. They are useIul as t hey have nat ionwide contacts and lend
proIessionalism t o t he hiring process. They also keep prospect ive
employer and employee anonymous.

INDUSTRIES:
Capital IQ also hires experienced proIessionals Irom t he indust ry at
various mid-level and senior posit ions.

THE SELECTION PROCESS OF CAPITAL IQ:

Steps:
Initial screeni ng of i nterviews:
Init ial Screening is done on t he basis oI applicants and applicat ions. A
preli minary interview is conducted so as to select t he suitable candidate
who can go t hrough Iurt her stages oI interviews.
Normally Ior t he posts oI engineers degree cutoII is decided like say
60° on an average. II t he candidates do not meet t he requirement t hey
are rei ected.
And Ior higher posts applicat ions and applicants bot h play a maior role
in t he screening process.

Completi on of applicati on forms:
Applicat ion Iorm establishes t he candidate`s general details like name,
address, telephone number, educat ion, iob- related t raining, work-
experience wit h dates, company names, and i ob details, proIessional or
industrial involvement, hobbies and recreat ional pursuits.
The company establishes as many hypot heses about t he candidate Irom
t he details provided in t he applicat i on Iorm. It t hen decides what areas
oI inIormat ion it needs to explore or invest igate more speciIically during
t he interview.




Company sees t o it t hat no i udgment is passed about t he candidate based
only at t his level. What drawn here is hypot heses and not conclusions.
Applicat ion Iorms are such Iramed t hat, t hey provide t he necessary
details to t he organisat ion wit hout aIIect ing t he sent i ments and Ieelings
oI t he candidate.

Empl oyment tests for on campus i nterviews:
On-Campus interview process:

For campus interviews the Company visits only selected institutes/colleges/
universities like
kakatiya, Osmania, nagariuna university etc.
This process involves 5 rounds, they are:
a) Written test
b) Manager round
c) Director round
II the person qualiIies all these rounds he will be given an appointment letter to ioin
in capital IQ
AIter ioining the company he/she has to undergo training Ior three months, aIter
completion oI this training period, posting is done accordingly.
PerIormance oI the employee is evaluated on the basis oI no. oI working days in
month Ior example in 20 working days he should not exceed Iive errors in his work
and iI he exceeds more than Iive errors then he will be given punishment like salary
deduction etc.
The retention rate in Capita IQ is very high because oI lack oI transparency.
More over the company is hires 15 to 20 proIiles per month and they incur 300000
rupees on each trainee.

Off-campus interview process:
This process involves 5 rounds, they are:
a) Written test
b) Hr round
c) Team leader
d) Director round




Round -
Written test comprises oI diIIerent set oI questions which covers 3 sections includes
reasoning, aptitude and verbal. The candidate has to score 40° in each section to
clear the test.
Round-
In this round communication Skills and inter personal skills oI the candidate are
tested.
Round-
It is technical round; concepts and technical knowledge oI the candidate are tested in
this round.
Round-4
In this round, the employer evaluates attitude and behavior oI the candidate.
Round-5
This is Iinal and HR round.

4 SOURCES ON MAN POWER SUPPLY:

INTERNAL:
earni ngMate uses internal sources Ior recruit ment but on a li mited
basis ot herwise normally it uses external sources extensively Ior its
recruit ment purposes. et us have a look at t he int ernal sources in detail.

TYPES OF INTERNAL SOURCES:
Present empl oyees:
This source is normally t he Iirst choice among t he internal sources and
earni ng Mate is no diIIerent. This source i mplies Iil ling up t he posit ion
Irom among t he present employees by way oI promot ions and t ransIers.

Empl oyee referrals:
This is be a very good source oI internal recruit ment. Employees can
develop good prospects Ior t heir Iamil ies and Iriends by acquaint ing
t hem wit h t he advantages oI a i ob wit h t he company, Iurnishing cards oI
int roduct ion, and even encouraging t hem to apply.





Previ ous applicants:
Alt hough not t ruly an int ernal source, t hose who have previously applied
Ior iobs can be contacted by mail, a quick and inexpensive way to Iil l an
unexpected opening. This is possible at earning Mate t hrough a master
database t hat t he company maint ains cont aining t he details oI all t he
previous applicants Ior t he various vacant posts.

EXTERNAL:
Recrui tment consultants and Sub - contractors:
earni ngMate normally uses t hese sources to develop t he required pool
oI candidates and also to achieve specialist help in its recruit ment
process. Sub cont ract ors are normally used in case oI temporary
requirements due to unexpected events or some emergency sit uat ions.

Pri nt Medi a - Advertisements:
earni ngMate advert ises most ly t hrough newspaper and not so much by
way oI magazines. The newspapers t hey normally advert ise in are

Ti mes-Ascent

Hindustan t i mes

DNA














Websi tes:
earni ngMate uses a variet y oI subscribed and unsubscribed websites t o
create a pool oI a variet y oI candidates Ior various posts. Here are t he
examples oI Iew such websites

www mosteri ndi a com

www naukri com

www jobsahead com

www learni ngmate com


Wal k-i ns:
This is t he most common and least expensive approach Ior candidates is
direct applicat ions, in which iob seekers submit unsolicited applicat ion
letters or resumes. Direct applicat ions provide a pool oI potent ial
employees to meet Iut ure needs. This also is one oI t he sources which
earni ng Mate uses Ior its recruit ment purposes.

Fi ndi ngs and suggesti ons

Challenges for capita IQ i n recrui ti ng fi nance experts

90° oI t he applicants lack eIIect ive communicat ion skills.
High salary expectat ions
ack oI conceptual skills among qualiIied aspirants.
DiIIicult to Iind qualiIied aspirants who are good at conceptual and
communication skills.
Cost oI hiring through on-campus is high.
Controlling attrition rate.






Suggesti ons:
EIIect ive t raining programs
Implement ing eIIect ive retent ion strategies.
'isit ing more no. oI colleges to Iind t he desired aspirants.
Concentrat ing more on oII-campus interviews t o reduce t he cost
Transparent HR policies should be implemented.

Concl usi on:

The human element oI organizat ion is t he most crucial asset oI an
organizat ion.

The essence oI recruit ment can be summed up as t he philosophy oI
attract ing as many applicants as possible Ior given iobs`. The Iace value
oI t his deIinit ion is what guided recruit ment act ivit ies in t he past. These
days, however, t he emphasis is on aligni ng t he organizat ion`s obiect ives
wit h t hat oI t he individual`s. By making t his a priorit y, an organizat ion
saIeguards its interests and standing. AIter all, a sat isIied workIorce is a
stable workIorce which also ensures that an organizat ion has credible
and reliable perIormance. Ina bid t o underscore t his subt le point, t he
proiect examines t he various processes and nuances one oI t he most
crit ical act ivit ies oI an organizat ion.

of organizat ional success depends upon effi cient empl ovee
selection.

The end result oI t he recruit ment process is essentially a pool oI
applicants. Next to recruit ment, t he logical step in t he HR process is t he
select ion oI qualiIied and compet ent people. As such, t his process
concentrates on diIIerent iat ing between applicants in order to ident iIy
and hire- t hose individuals whose abilit ies are consistent wit h t he
organizat ion`s requirements.




In t his proiect, we exami ne t his angl e t hrough t he case st udies oI capital
IQ.
In t he end, t his proiect endeavors t o present a comprehensive pict ure oI
Recruit ment and Select ion and hopes to enable t he reader to appreciate
t he various int ricacies involved.

REFERENCES:

1. K Ashwat happa, (1997) Human Resource and Personnel
Management, Tata McGraw- Hill 131-176

2. Chris Dukes, (2001) Recruit ing the Right StaII

3. John M. Ivancevich, Human Resource Management, Tata McGraw-
Hill, 2004

4. Steve Kneeland, (1999) Hiring People, discover an eIIective
interviewing system; avoid hiring t he wrong person, recruit outstanding
perIormers

5. Stone, Harold C and Kendell, W. E EIIective Personnel Selection
Procedures, 1956


















BIBLIOGRAPHY

NEWS PAPERS:
TIMES OF INDIA
THE ECONOMIC TIMES

PERIODICALS AND REPORTS:
BUSINESS INDIA, APRI- MAY, 2006
INDIA TODAY, MARCH, 2006

WEB:
www. googl e. com
www. Capi t al IQ. com







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