Alternative Names Cerebrovascular disease; CVA; Cerebral infarction; Cerebral hemorrhage; Ischemic stroke; Stroke ischemic; Cerebrovascular accident

Definition of Stroke: A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." See also: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) Causes, incidence, and risk factors: A stroke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted because a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or bursts open. If blood flow is stopped for longer than a few seconds, the brain cannot get blood and oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing permanent damage. There are two major types of stroke: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. ISCHEMIC STROKE Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain is blocked by a blood clot. This may happen in two ways: A clot may form in an artery that is already very narrow. This is called a thrombus. If it completely blocks the artery, it is called a thrombotic stroke.



A clot may break off from somewhere in the body and travel up to the brain to block a smaller artery. This is called an embolism. It causes anembolic stroke.

Ischemic strokes may result from clogged arteries, a condition called atherosclerosis. (See: Stroke secondary to atherosclerosis) This may affect the arteries within the brain or the arteries in the neck that carry blood to the brain. Fat, cholesterol, and other substances collect on the wall of the arteries, forming a sticky substance called plaque. Over time, the plaque builds up. This often makes it hard for blood to flow properly, which can cause the blood to clot.


For more information on this type of stroke. The tear lets blood flow between the layers of the carotid artery. Certain drugs and medical conditions can make your blood more likely to clot and raise your risk for ischemic stroke.secondary to cardiogenic embolism HEMORRHAGIC STROKE Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in part of the brain becomes weak and bursts open.Ischemic strokes may also be caused by blood clots that form in the heart. Birth control pills can increase the chances blood clots. These clots travel through the blood and can get stuck in the small arteries of the brain. Some people have defects in the blood vessels of the brain that make this more likely. A common cause of ischemic stroke in people under age 40 is carotid dissection. The following also increase your risk for stroke: Diabetes Family history of stroke Heart disease High cholesterol Increasing age y y y y y Hypertension . The flow of blood that occurs after the blood vessel ruptures damages brain cells. see: Hemorrhagic stroke STROKE RISKS High blood pressure is the number one risk factor for strokes. and therefore your chances for a stroke. especially in woman who smoke and who are older than 35. Stroke . . or a tear in the lining of the carotid artery.overview Certain medications make blood clots more likely. causing blood to leak into the brain. This is known as a cerebral embolism. This causes narrowing of the carotid artery that is not due to plaque buildup.

which makes you more likely to have a stroke: Alcohol use Bleeding disorders Cocaine use Head injury y y y y For more information see: Stroke risk factors and prevention PICTURES: A carotid arteriogram is an x-ray study designed to determine if there is narrowing or other abnormality in the carotid artery. . women have a risk of stroke during pregnancy and the weeks immediately after pregnancy. This is an angiogram of the left common carotid artery (both front-to-back and side views) showing a severe narrowing (stenosis) of the internal carotid artery just beyond the division of the common carotid artery into the internal and external branches. a main artery to the brain. But. The following can increase the risk of bleeding into the brain.Men have more strokes than women.

Note the narrowed segment toward the bottom of the picture. .The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions. There is enlargement of the artery or ulceration in the area after the stenosis in this close-up film. ============================================================== This is an angiogram of the right carotid artery showing a severe narrowing (stenosis) of the internal carotid artery just past the carotid fork.

A stroke involves loss of brain functions caused by a loss of blood circulation to areas of the brain. . A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision. The blockage usually occurs when a clot or piece of atherosclerotic plaque breaks away from another area of the body and lodges within the vasculature of the brain. nausea and loss of coordination.

. The Circle of Willis is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain. At the Circle of Willis. smooth movements of the skeletal muscular system. the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the cerebrum. spinal cord and sensory receptors to provide precise timing for coordinated. balance and coordination problems. A stroke affecting the cerebellum may cause dizziness. nausea.The cerebellum processes input from other areas of the brain.

The right cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the left side of the body. Depending on the severity.The left cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body. a stroke affecting the left cerebral hemisphere may result in functional loss or motor skill impairment of the right side of the body. a stroke affecting the right cerebral hemisphere may result in functional loss or motor skill impairment of the left side of the body. In . and may also cause loss of speech. Depending on the severity.

addition. A heart attack or stroke may occur when an area of plaque (atherosclerosis) . there may be impairment of the normal attention to the left side of the body and its surroundings.== Endarterectomy is a surgical procedure removing plaque material from the lining of an artery.

blocking the flow of blood to the organ's tissues. . Part 1: Much of the brain is supplied blood by the internal carotid arteries.ruptures and a clot forms over the location.

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