CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

INVENTORY OF CALIFORNIA GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS: 1990 TO 2004

October 2006 CEC-600-2006-013-D

Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor

DRAFT STAFF REPORT

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION
Gerry Bemis Principal Author Gerry Bemis Project Manager Pat Perez Manager SPECIAL PROJECTS OFFICE Rosella Shapiro Deputy Director FUELS AND TRANSPORTATION DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

DISCLAIMER

This report was prepared by a California Energy Commission staff person. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees, or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors and subcontractors make no warrant, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this report

ABSTRACT
This report provides estimates of California’s greenhouse gas emissions over the 1990 to 2004 time period. Emissions estimates in the report are derived from data provided by the U.S. Energy Information Administration and additional data collected by the California Energy Commission. Analysis in the report uses protocols established for country-level greenhouse gas emissions inventory reporting as established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes both in-state emissions and emissions from electricity imported into California. These emissions and emissions from international fuel uses are shown at the bottom of the inventory to allow the reader to decide whether to include them. California’s greenhouse gas emissions are large in a world-scale context and growing over time. If California was considered to be an independent country, its emissions would rank seventeenth largest. This report also includes projections of California greenhouse gas emissions to 2020. These projections are based upon forecasts adopted by the Energy Commission in its 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report. This report also includes an estimate of reductions needed to meet 2010 and 2020 greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets established by California’s Governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger.

KEYWORDS
Greenhouse gas emissions inventory, climate change, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, high global-warming potential gases

............................................................................ 73 INTRODUCTION ................................... 75 CURRENT GHG INVENTORY .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 GWP WEIGHTING FACTORS FOR NON-CO2 GASES .................................... 42 METHANE EMISSIONS .................................................................... 79 INTRODUCTION ... 1 EARLY CALIFORNIA GHG INVENTORIES .................. 27 DATA IMPROVEMENTS OR REFINEMENTS................................................................................... 27 APPENDIX A--DETAILED DOCUMENTATION OF CALIFORNIA GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS .. 5 End-Use Sectors Contributing to California’s GHG Emissions .................................................................... I INTRODUCTION ............. 2 LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR INVENTORY UPDATES ........ 9 Trends in California’s GHG Emissions End-Use Categories........ 5 Composition of California’s GHG Emissions........................ 76 SUMMARY OF OPTIONS TO ESTIMATE CO2 EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC IMPORTS.............................................................................................................. 81 ................ 75 JOSEPH LOYER METHOD ................................................... 35 CO2 Emissions from Non-Fossil Fuel Emissions Sources ............................................................................. 54 HIGH GWP GAS EMISSIONS ............................................................................................................. 4 SUMMARY OF CALIFORNIA’S 2004 GHG EMISSIONS .... 12 California’s GHG Emissions In a World-Scale Context....................................................................................................................................... 17 FUTURE GHG EMISSIONS TRENDS ...................... 35 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion .... 33 CALCULATION METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Trends in California GHG Composition....................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........... 76 APPENDIX D--DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CURRENT INVENTORY AND JUNE 2005 INVENTORY .............................................................................................. 21 CURRENT GHG EMISSIONS INVENTORY COMPARED TO CALIFORNIA CLIMATE ACTION TEAM REPORT VALUES ........................................................................................... 67 APPENDIX C--DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF ESTIMATING CO2 EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRICITY IMPORTED TO CALIFORNIA ............................................................................................................................... 24 FUTURE GHG INVENTORY IMPROVEMENTS ................................... 23 GHG INVENTORY UPDATE ............... 75 1990-1999 INVENTORY METHOD .............................................................................................................................. 57 APPENDIX B--FUEL USED IN CALIFORNIA (TRILLION BTUS) .............................................................................................. 35 CO2 EMISSIONS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9 GHG Emissions Intensity Trends... 47 NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS ............................................................... 7 HISTORICAL GHG EMISSIONS TRENDS ...........................

........ 84 APPENDIX E--METHANE SPECIATION PROFILE PROVIDED BY CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD .......................................................................................... 82 METHANE EMISSIONS .................... 95 PROJECTIONS BASED UPON 2003 IEPR .............. 95 PROJECTIONS BASED UPON 2005 IEPR .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 102 ..... 83 N2O EMISSIONS ....................... 93 INTRODUCTION ................................................. 96 ENDNOTES ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 HIGH GWP EMISSIONS .................................................................................................... 82 NON-FOSSIL FUEL CO2 EMISSIONS ......................... 81 COAL COMBUSTION CO2 EMISSIONS ......................................................................................................................................... 89 APPENDIX F--COMPARING THE CURRENT 1990 TO 2004 GHG EMISSIONS INVENTORY AND 2005 INTEGRATED ENERGY POLICY REPORT TO CORRESPOINDING VALUES USED BY THE CALIFORNIA CLIMATE ACTION TEAM........NATURAL GAS COMBUSTION CO2 EMISSIONS .........................................................................................................................................

California’s ability to slow the rate of growth of GHG emissions is largely due to the success of its energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and a commitment to clean air and clean energy. California has relatively low carbon emission intensity. California’s GSP grew 83 percent while its GHG emissions grew more slowly at 12 percent. Although California’s total GHG emissions are larger than every state but Texas. In 2004. This inventory reports GHG emissions from out-of-state electricity used in California along with in-state generation GHG emissions and estimates future emissions trends using fuel demand and other forecast data from the Energy Commission’s 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report. Emission trends per unit of gross state product are encouraging. This demonstrates the potential for uncoupling economic trends from GHG emissions trends.3 Moreover. Nonetheless.1 During that period. the state’s programs and commitments lowered its GHG emissions rate of growth by more than half of what it would have been otherwise. but reducing energy demand and improving air quality and public health. In fact. California produced 492 million gross metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent4 GHG emissions. Information in this report extends the inventory period through 2004. which is the most recent year that data are available from the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) or the United States Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Information Administration. most states have reduced their emissions per unit of gross state product over the 1990 to 2001 period. California’s GHG emissions are large and growing.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report updates California’s statewide inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to support evaluation of state policies that address climate change and climate variability or more commonly known as global warming. In 2001. -i- . California’s economy experienced the second largest percentage growth in terms of gross state product (in dollars.2 the state contributes a significant quantity of GHGs to the atmosphere. As the second largest emitter of GHG emissions in the United States and twelfth to sixteenth largest in the world. not adjusted for inflation) of any state in the country from 1990 to 2003. California ranked fourth lowest of the 50 states in carbon dioxide emissions per capita from fossil fuel combustion and fifth lowest of the 50 states in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion per unit of gross state product. including imported electricity and excluding combustion of international fuels and carbon sinks or storage. California’s energy programs and policies have had multiple benefits that include not only reducing GHG emissions.

reporting them separately. While imported electricity is a relatively small . out-of-state electricity generation has higher carbon intensity than in-state generation. Electricity generation is the second largest category of GHG emissions (behind transportation). In particular.ii - . Figure 1 -. Values differ yearly due to changes in fuel uses. meteorological variations. depending on the year. are carbon dioxide produced from fossil fuel combustion. This California GHG emissions inventory excludes all international fuel uses. producing 41 percent of the state’s total emissions in 2004. and other factors.Figure 1 shows year-by-year trends in GHG emissions for the major energy sectors. Most of California’s emissions. 81 percent. Including these international emissions would increase total emissions by 27 to 40 million metric tons of carbon dioxide–equivalent GHG emissions. Residential & Other Other Transportation Jet Fuel Distillate 100 Gasoline 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source: California Energy Commission The transportation sector is the single largest category of California’s GHG emissions.California’s Gross GHG Emissions Trends 600 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent 500 400 Imported Electricity In-State Electricity 300 Industrial Agricultural & Forestry 200 Commercial.

Improved data for landfill emissions are expected to result from both of these efforts. Values in this inventory represent a facility-by-facility review of emissions by local air quality district staff. local air quality districts are updating their data but have yet to finish this work. out-of-state electricity generation sources contribute 39 to 57 percent of the GHG emissions associated with electricity consumption in California. as of July 2006.iii - .share of California’s electricity mix (ranging from 22 to 32 percent of total electrical energy used). landfill emissions are being studied by the Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research Program but results are not expected before 2008. Study in more detail landfill methane emissions. Staff recommends the following steps to further improve the accuracy and utility of the California GHG emissions inventory: Update fuel use and other emissions-related activity data. . policies developed to address climate change should include an evaluation of emissions from the entire fuel cycle whenever possible. and pulp and paper. Electricity imported to California from the Southwest has a significant percentage that is coal-based generation. not just the location where they are emitted. Develop California-specific data for sulfur hexafluoride emissions from electric utilities for the 1990-to-present time period. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from these activities are not yet included in this inventory and should be added since California is a major producer of these products. Also. Because GHGs affect the entire planet. Develop California-specific emission factors for methane and nitrous oxide from enteric fermentation and manure management. while imports from the Pacific Northwest have a significant portion that is hydroelectricity. These occur from processing fruits and vegetables. Add industrial wastewater emissions. Perform a more detailed review of industrial uses of fossil fuels to classify when they are used as fuel versus when they are used as a process input and not released into the atmosphere at that step in their usage chain. red meat and poultry.

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S. using the most current data available from the EIA and the Energy Commission. D. The new inventory relies heavily upon data sources and procedures used by ICF Consulting in preparing the 1990-1999 California inventory and the national GHG emissions inventory. All three GHG inventories are based on guidance documents also prepared by ICF Consulting for the U. The report also adds two years to the period covered by the inventory. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).9 Because they provide a comprehensive and consistent data source without significant gaps or overlap. U. and various high global warming potential (GWP) gases that contribute to warming of the earth’s atmosphere and oceans. where available.11 In some instances.C. In November 2002 the Energy Commission published a previous State of California GHG emissions inventory in a report titled Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. nitrous oxide.INTRODUCTION This report updates California’s statewide inventory of GHG emissions. The California GHG emissions inventory is an estimate of anthropogenic5 emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). methane.S. and was prepared by Energy Commission for the 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report. which allow for a more refined treatment. Energy Information Administration (EIA) fuel data were used in the 1990-1999 inventory and for subsequent updates. staff used newer data available from the Energy Commission and the California Air Resources Board (ARB). All these gases have been identified as forcing the earth’s atmosphere and oceans to warm above naturally occurring temperatures.8 It covered the period from 1990 to 1999 and was prepared under contract to the Energy Commission by ICF Consulting of Washington. 1 . a variety of sources are used as documented later in this report.7 It covered the period from 1990 to 2002. For non-fuel emissions. These EIA fuel data were supplemented with Energy Commission fuel data in a report titled California Energy Balances Report (Energy Balance)10 prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories for the Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.6 The last State of California inventory of anthropogenic GHG emissions was reported in Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 to 2002 Update. These changes are explained in the body of this document. extending it from 2002 to 2004. Major changes from the previous state inventory are summarized in Appendix D.

Finally. Table 1 – 1988 Gross California GHG Emissions (Million Tons) (Published October 1990) Million Short Tons Million Metric of Carbon Tons CO2E In-state 125. Table 1 shows a summary of these emissions estimates in the units originally used and converted into million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCO2E). Appendix D compares the 1990 to 2002 inventory to the 1990 to 2004 inventory for the years that match. but varying. this report discusses ways to improve future versions of the California GHG emissions inventory. which means that CO2 sinks are not included. staff has provided information in this report to fully document the change. followed by a discussion of projected GHG emissions trends. percentages of GHG emissions for the other states. Where a change is made in either data or analysis.5 2 . the California Energy Commission published13 the first inventory of GHG emissions for the State of California.5 480. the report summarizes the methods used to estimate California’s inventory of GHG emissions. Appendix B provides a table showing energy used in fossil fuel combustion in California. All changes are applied over the entire time span of the inventory to more properly show GHG inventory trends. with results expressed in million short tons of carbon. This discussion is limited to CO2 emitted from fossil fuel combustion because it was not possible to get 50-state data for the non-fossil fuel emissions. Next. Appendix C provides a comparison of alternative methods of estimating GHG emissions from imported electricity. This inventory was only for one year (1988) and only for CO2.5 Total 144. The report next provides a summary of California’s GHG emissions.1 416 Out-of-state 19.This report presents the methodology and approach used in the current inventory update.12 Fossil fuels produce more than 80 percent of California’s GHG inventory and are responsible for large. Early California GHG Inventories In October 1990. Appendix E provides the methane speciation profile used by ARB to calculate methane emissions for the categories for which they provided data. largely derived from the California Energy Balance. The trend section ends with a comparison of California GHG emissions to those of other states. Appendix A provides documentation for improvements made to the California GHG inventory. Appendix F compares the CAT emissions inventory and projections to the 1990 to 2004 GHG inventory and projections using the 2005 IEPR. Gross GHG emissions are shown. After the CO2 trend analysis. The 1990-1999 inventory provides full technical documentation.4 64.

3 437. Results were expressed in short tons of CO2 equivalent.3 425.A. the Energy Commission published17 its next GHG inventory.8 402.A. the “Total” row in each of the two tables below is left empty except for 1990. It used a 100-year GWP15 of 11 for methane (this report uses 21) and 270 for nitrous oxide (this report uses 310).2 Out-of-state 59 (est. Total 515. as did subsequent GHG inventories.A.2 415. N. The report includes an estimate for out-of-state GHG emissions only for 1990. Results were expressed in short tons of CO2 equivalent.A. N.0 399. Thus. using the GWPs to obtain the CO2 equivalents for methane and nitrous oxide. N.7 Out-of-state 53.A.5 Out-of-state 16. This inventory covered 1990 through 1994 and included methane and nitrous oxide in addition to CO2.4 395. It used 100-year GWPs of 21 for methane and 310 for nitrous oxide.A.) N. Total 467.0 In January 1998.16 Gross California emissions for this second inventory are summarized in Table 2.5 (est.6 458.7 443. N. These estimates included international bunker fuels. Table 3 shows a summary of gross California emissions from this inventory in the original short tons of CO2 equivalent units. N.A.) N.6 435.3 Table 4 – 1990 Gross California GHG Emissions (Million Metric Tons CO2 Equivalent) (Published January 1998) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 In-state 414.In March 1997. in addition to CO2.5 Total 468. Table 2 – 1990 Gross California GHG Emissions (Million Tons) (Published March 1997) Million Short Tons Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Equivalent In-state 452. Table 4 shows the same inventory converted to million metric tons of CO2 equivalents to facilitate comparison to other inventory vintages.3 440. Table 3 – 1990 Gross California GHG Emissions (Million Short Tons CO2 Equivalent) (Published January 1998) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 In-state 456. This second inventory was also only for one year (1990) but included an estimate for methane and nitrous oxide. the Energy Commission published14 its second inventory of GHG emissions for the State of California. This 1990 value was estimated from Figure 5 of the 1990 to1994 GHG inventory report. N.A.0 14. Both these weighting factors are values multiplied by the weight of the gases emitted to convert them to CO2 equivalents.5 3 .

respectively. The Energy Commission prepared its first statewide GHG inventory in response to SB 1771 and published it in a report titled. The trend is consistent in subsequent California GHG inventories.19 Legislative Requirements for Inventory Updates In 2000. As information on activity levels and GHG emissions estimating techniques improve over time. estimated emissions for a selected year can and will change. their dates of publication. Table 5 – Various Estimated 1990 Gross California GHG Emissions Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide CEC Publication Number Date Published Equivalent P500-97-004 March 1997 452 P500-98-001V3 January 1998 468 P600-02-001F November 2002 425 CEC-600-2005-025 June 2005 439 CEC-600-2006-013 October 2006 427 The first two rows of Table 5 are from Tables 2 and 4 above. estimated 1990 GHG emissions range from a low of 425 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent to a high of 468 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. The “exact” value for 1990 will always remain unknown.20 based on the best information available at the time of publication. Statutes of 2000) required the Energy Commission to update the inventory in January 2002 and every five years after that. and total estimated 1990 California emissions in million metric tons of carbon dioxide. Chapter 1018. Senate Bill (SB) 1771 (Sher. As can be seen from Table 5. The next two rows of Table 5 are 1990 values from the referenced reports and the last row of Table 5 is from Table 6 of this report. It is accepted practice to improve and recalculate historical emissions inventories even if the end result causes a change in reported emissions and trends.18 Table 5 below shows estimated gross emissions levels from five California GHG emissions inventories published by the Energy Commission. the California Legislature required the Energy Commission to update the state’s inventory of GHG emissions in consultation with other agencies. including the 1990 to 2004 GHG inventory. including both in-state and imported electricity.From Tables 3 and 4 one can see that emissions decrease beginning in 1990 and then rebound to values slightly above 1990 levels by 1994. The next GHG inventory update required by this legislation is due in January 2007. The inventory was developed using guidelines adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and was consistent with the 4 .

An update21 to this inventory was prepared and published in June 2005 to incorporate newer information and to allow policy makers to use the most current information and data available. Composition of California’s GHG Emissions CO2 emissions represent about 84 percent of California’s total GHG emissions in 2004. high GWP gas percentages are rising somewhat. Other activities that produce CO2 emissions include mineral production.7 percent were from methane. 81 percent were emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. These are called “CO2 sinks.8 percent were from nitrous oxide. including emissions associated with imported electricity. The remaining source of GHG emissions was high GWP gases.” 5 . 2. CO2 emissions are mainly associated with carbon-bearing fossil fuel combustion with a portion of these emissions attributed to out-of-state fossil fuel used for electricity consumption within California. Summary of California’s 2004 GHG Emissions In 2004 California produced 492 million metric tons of CO2-equivalent GHG emissions. Some anthropogenic activities lead to a reduction in atmospheric concentration of CO2.8 percent were from other sources of CO2. waste combustion.methods being used by the EPA. and 6. However. and land use and forestry changes. As shown in Figure 2. 5. The percentage of climate change associated with each specific gas is similar for each year over the 1990 to 2004 period.9 percent. 2.

Agricultural activities (enteric fermentation and manure management) and landfills compose the major sources of these emissions. Agricultural soil management activities and mobile source fuel combustion compose the major sources of these emissions. Another gas that contributes to global warming is nitrous oxide (N2O). A class of gases called “high GWP gases” makes up the final set of gases that contribute to global warming.9 percent of total emissions in 2004. N2O emissions comprised 6.8% Methane 5.9% Non-Fossil Fuel CO2 2.8 percent of California’s overall GHG emissions in 2004.8% Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 81. Methane emissions are reported in CO2-equivalent units to reflect their GWP compared to CO2.Figure 2 -.7 percent of total GHG emissions in 2004.California GHG Composition by Type of Gas in 2004 (Includes electricity imports and excludes international bunker fuels) Nitrous Oxide 6.22 composing about 2.7% High GWP Gases 2.0% Source: California Energy Commission Methane emissions also contribute to global warming and they represented 5. After using the appropriate GWP adjustment. These are composed mostly of gases used in industrial applications to replace gases associated with ozone depletion over the Earth with an additional modest 6 .

Although small in magnitude. CO2 from clinker production does not represent total GHG emissions from cement production. However. the landfill CO2 sinks approximately offset the landfill methane emissions. End-Use Sectors Contributing to California’s GHG Emissions As shown in Figure 3. and the industrial24 sector as the third largest source category. there are additional fuel related GHG emissions from transporting wastes to landfills.26 commercial. Likewise. Agriculture. and these emissions are included in transportation fuels. Taken together. although the estimated emissions are difficult to quantify and are less certain than other emissions categories. fossil fuel consumption in the transportation23 sector was the single largest source of California’s GHG emissions in 2004.contribution from sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) used as insulating materials in electricity transmission and distribution. the GHG inventory identifies cement production from clinker manufacturing in a stand-alone category and fuel used to heat the cement production process within the industrial fuel category. emissions of these gases are increasing at a faster rate than other GHGs. 7 .27 and residential28 activities composed the balance of California’s GHG emissions. High GWP gases compose a low percentage of overall GHG emissions over this time period. Care must be exercised when looking at emissions from different sectors of the economy. In California. high GWP gases are largely composed of refrigerants. the GHG inventory reports landfill methane emissions in the methane portion of the inventory and CO2 sinks associated with landfills in the CO2 portion of the inventory.25 forestry. Thus. although electric utility transmission and distribution equipment are also sources. For example. with electric power from both in-state and out-of-state sources second.

rangelands. jet fuel. 8 .7% Industrial 20. or landfill and yard trimming disposal. including out-of-state coal-fired power plants owned by California electric utility companies that provide electricity to California.Sources of California’s 2004 GHG Emissions (By End-Use Sector) (Includes electricity imports and excludes international bunker fuels) Others 8.3% Source: California Energy Commission Historical GHG Emissions Trends This section discusses historical trends in California’s gross GHG emissions. residual oil.3 percent.5% Ag & Forestry 8. From 1990 to 2004 total gross GHG emissions rose 14.3% Electric Power 22. they are expected to continue to increase in the future under “business-as-usual” unless California implements programs to reduce emissions. This section also excludes international aviation and marine vessel uses of jet fuel. The trends discussed in this section include carbon emissions from imported electricity. California’s GHG emissions are large and growing as a result of population and economic growth and other factors.2% Transportation 40. The values discussed in this section do not account for CO2 sinks from forest.Figure 3 -. Domestic aviation gasoline.29 and distillate oil because they are international fuel uses and the standard GHG emissions inventory protocol excludes them. residual oil. and distillate oil uses are included in the analysis.

6 percent overall.4 percent.30 This percentage held steady at 81 percent in 2004. Jet fuel actually increased 11. the third band shows trends for CO2 emissions from distillate fuel use. increasing to 2. agricultural and forestry fuel use. Trends in California’s GHG Emissions End-Use Categories Figure 4 shows year-by-year trends in GHG emissions from transportation (gasoline consumption.0 percent.0 percent from 1990 to 2000. Transportation The bottom band in Figure 4 shows the 1990 to 2004 trends for CO2. representing 6.4 percent. 2001. methane.Trends in California GHG Composition In 1990.7 percent in 2004. The percentage decreased to 5.8 percent in 2004. High GWP gas emissions composed 2. industrial fuel use. while other emissions decreased 0. The second band from the bottom shows trends for the same three gases from domestic jet fuel consumption. residential and other fuel use. including CO2 emissions from electric power imported to the state. and electricity production (both in-state and imported electricity).7 percent of total emissions in 1990.8 percent in 2004.9 percent in 2004. distillate fuel consumption. Gasoline emissions increased 12. The four bands together show trends for total transportation fuel consumption. likely due to the events of September 11. commercial. and other transportation fuel use). and the fourth band shows trends for the same three gases due to other31 transportation fuel uses.0 percent of California’s total GHG emissions in 1990. fossil fuel-related CO2 emissions composed 81 percent of California’s total GHG emissions. increasing slightly to 6.2 percent in 1990 and increased to 2. Distillate (includes diesel) emissions increased by 41. 12. but then declined in 2001-2004. Non-fossil fuel CO2 contributed 2. and nitrous oxide emissions from gasoline consumption in California. jet fuel consumption.3 percent. 9 . including diesel.4 percent of California’s total GHG emissions in 1990. jet fuel emissions decreased 8. These data show a modest increase over the 1990 to 2004 period. Nitrous oxide emissions trends held steady. Methane emissions composed 6.

These emissions both increase and decrease over the 1990 to 2004 period. These emissions are composed mostly of CO2 but include small amounts of methane and nitrous oxide gases. and methane and nitrous oxide from manure 10 . methane from enteric fermentation. Residential & Other Other Transportation Jet Fuel Distillate 100 Gasoline 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source: California Energy Commission Commercial. Agricultural.7 percent by 2004. with an overall decrease of 9. GHG emissions from the agricultural and forestry sectors are composed mostly of nitrous oxide from agricultural soil management. residential. Forestry. and other32 end-use sectors are also shown in Figure 4.California’s Gross GHG Emissions Trends (Includes electricity imports and excludes international bunker fuels) 600 500 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent 400 Imported Electricity In-State Electricity 300 Industrial Agricultural & Forestry 200 Commercial.Figure 4 -. and Industrial Sectors GHG emissions from fuel use in the commercial. CO2 from forestry practice changes. Residential.

In-state emissions peaked in 2001. and cement manufacturing. stone. Industrial sector GHG emissions both increased and decreased over the 1990 to 2004 period. GHG Emissions from Electricity Generation The top two bands of Figure 4 show GHG emissions from electricity produced for use in California. California’s longer-term electricity gross generation (includes transmission line losses and private supplies) has grown modestly. 11 . and then decreased in 2002 due to a reduction in natural gas use for electricity production compared to 2001. Although values vary from year-to-year. The solid band includes emissions from electricity production within California. Other industrial activities produce methane emissions. glass. The industrial sector also includes a category of emissions comprised of high GWP gases. Then instate emissions gradually increased in 2003 and 2004. This appears to be caused by not being able to attribute the use of the gas to a particular end-use sector rather than an error in data input since the trend for total natural gas use from year-to-year does not show the spike. GHG emissions from the industrial sector are produced from many industrial activities. food processing. and the stippled band shows emissions from electricity produced outside California that is used within California. crude oil refining. with the major contributions from oil and natural gas extraction. an overall increase of 18 percent in 13 years.8 percent. Still other industrial activities produce nitrous oxide emissions with the major contributions from nitric acid production and municipal wastewater treatment.1 percent by 2004.management. with the major contributions from petroleum and natural gas supply systems and wastewater treatment. These emissions also both increase and decrease over the 1990 to 2004 period. comprised mostly of gases used to replace ozone-depleting33 gases. In-state emissions also include SF6 emissions associated with operation of power switching equipment and transformers.135 gigawatthours in 1990.927 gigawatt-hours in 2004. clay. and cement production.34 In-state emissions are composed of CO2 from natural gas combustion in utility power plants. chemical manufacturing. increasing from 248. and from coal35 combusted in combined heat-and-power facilities. to 292. with an overall increase of 23. For example. with an overall increase of 10. The apparent spike in emissions in 2002 is due to a significant increase in non-specified natural gas usage in that year. CO2 is produced from fossil fuels. These trends are most likely associated with the unstable period when electricity market deregulation made some market participants less eager to import power into California. combined heat-and-power facilities and merchant power plants.

In-state electricity generation emissions decreased by 7. The mild climate reduces the use of heating fuel during winter but somewhat increases electricity use for summer air conditioning. mostly from coal-fired power plants. GHG Emissions Intensity37 Trends This section places California’s GHG emissions into context with its population and its level of economic activity as measured by its gross state product (GSP). Out-of-state electricity generation has shown higher carbon intensity than in-state generation in the past. Some out-of-state emissions are from coal-fired electric power plants owned by California electric utility companies. which has led to aggressive pollution reduction efforts.2 percent in 1996 and increased as much as 53 percent in 2001 over 1990 emissions. Since 1990. this section addresses only CO2 from fossil fuel combustion for the 1990 to 2001 period. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion composed 80 percent of total GHG emissions in 2004. only in-state emissions are addressed in this section. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion compose 58 to 90 percent of the total GHG emissions of individual states. To mitigate some of the effects of its large and growing population and expanding economy. with an overall increase of 40. Although out-of-state electricity composes only about 22 to 32 percent of California’s total electrical energy consumption. As a direct 12 . in-state electricity produced 187 to 280 metric tons of CO2 per gigawatt-hour. Compared to other states. Overall. Both of these policies have significantly reduced fuel consumption and associated GHG emissions. Because all 50 states are included. Due to limited availability of data. while imported electricity from fossil fuels produced 544 to 735 metric tons of CO2 per gigawatt-hour. Out-of-state emissions are composed of CO2 emissions. combined with a complex topography and meteorology. in-state electricity emissions increased by 29 percent over the 1990 to 2004 period. Another factor that has reduced California’s fuel use and GHG emissions is its mild climate compared to that of many other states. Out-of-state emissions increased and decreased annually relative to1990. On a national average.4 percent by 2004.36 This carbon intensity variation is affected by the year-to-year availability of hydropower and other factors. Although some states indicate that CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is much less than 90 percent of total GHG emissions. also produced some of the nation’s worst air pollution over the past quarter century. This mild climate. it composes 39 to 57 percent of the total GHG emissions associated with electricity use in California. total emissions from these states are modest in magnitude.38 and the trends that follow should be viewed within this context. California has relatively low carbon use intensity due to the success of state air quality and energy efficiency programs. California began in the 1970s to aggressively implement energy efficiency measures for fuel-burning equipment and electricity use.

It is second lowest in the nation in per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion with only the District of Columbia lower.40 Figure 7 shows fossil fuel CO2 emissions per GSP41 unit for each of the 50 states. However. California is difficult to identify. Again. Year 2001 is the most current year available from EPA. Figure 6 shows in-state fossil fuel CO2 emissions per person for each of the 50 states. California has about half as much CO2 emissions as Texas. (2) Texas has the highest in-state CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and shows a rising trend. measured by GSP. California’s population grew by 4. Emissions from other states are all so similar to one another that they need not be individually identified. In terms of per capita emissions. however. Wyoming has the largest emissions in terms of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion per unit of GSP and North Dakota ranks second. individual states are difficult to identify although several trends are apparent from the figure. not Texas or California. the largest increase in the United States. Although it is difficult to identify individual states. In this figure. Second. near the bottom of the figure.1 trillion in 2000. Texas’ emission growth rate ranks twenty seventh out of the 50 states.result. for the most part they are all considerably lower than Texas or California. This figure was developed by dividing the population of each state into the fossil fuel emissions from Figure 5. as calculated by the EPA. This means that population growth and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are well correlated for most states. emissions per capita show a fairly flat trend for most states. grew from $788 billion in 1990 to $1.39 however. California uses relatively low carbon intensity fuels in its power plants and other industrial sectors. First. California ranks only eighteenth from the largest when its population growth is measured in percent increase. 13 . most states show remarkably stable emissions over the 1990 to 2001 period. and California’s growth rate ranks forty fourth when measured in percentage increase. Over the 1990 to 2000 period. and (3) California has the second highest emissions. Correspondingly. California ranks only thirtieth when its GSP growth is measured in percentage increase. which are fairly stable over the time horizon. the largest GSP growth in the United States. California’s economic base.1 million people. several factors are apparent from Figure 5: (1) most states show a fairly stable trend over the 1990 to 2001 period. Wyoming and North Dakota have the highest emissions per capita. but trends are apparent. Texas ranks near the bottom one-third. once again individual states are difficult to identify. Figure 5 shows in-state CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in each of the 50 states over the 1990 to 2001 period. and California ranks near the bottom.

CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion Alabama District of Columbia Iow a Michigan New Hampshire Oklahoma Texas Wyoming Alaska Florida Kansas Minnesota New Jersey Oregon Utah California Arizona Georgia Kentucky Mississippi New Mexico Pennsylvania Vermont Arkansas Haw aii Louisiana Missouri New York Rhode Island Virginia Colorado Idaho Maine Montana North Carolina South Carolina Washington Connecticut Illinois Maryland Nebraska North Dakota South Dakota West Virginia Delaw are Indiana Massachusetts Nevada Ohio Tennessee Wisconsin 700 650 600 550 500 M illio n M e tric T o n s 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 California Texas Source: California Energy Commission This figure shows a trend of reduced GHG emissions per million dollars of GSP for most states. as shown in Figure 5. each state shows a reduction over time because the increase in GSP is greater than the increase in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The District of Columbia and the states of Connecticut. New York and 14 . This means that most states are successfully decreasing the carbon intensity of their economic base.Figure 5 -. In general. GSP increases while CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion remain steady over the same time period. In Figure 7.

Data for 2001 were used to construct Figure 8.California have the lowest CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion per unit of GSP. and 7 all show similar trends. regardless of year. Figures 5. which shows the ranking of the states for CO2 from fossil fuel combustion per million dollars of GSP.CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion per Capita Alabama District of Columbia Iowa Michigan New Hampshire Oklahoma Texas Wyoming Alaska Florida Kansas Minnesota New Jersey Oregon Utah California Arizona Georgia Kentucky Mississippi New Mexico Pennsylvania Vermont Arkansas Hawaii Louisiana Missouri New York Rhode Island Virginia Colorado Idaho Maine Montana North Carolina South Carolina Washington Connecticut Illinois Maryland Nebraska North Dakota South Dakota West Virginia Delaware Indiana Massachusetts Nevada Ohio Tennessee Wisconsin 150 Wyoming 125 100 M e tric T o n s /P e rs o n North Dakota 75 50 25 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 California 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Source: California Energy Commission 15 . Figure 6 -. and 7 all show a similar result in terms of relative ranking by state. 6. Figures 8 and 9 would look similar regardless of the year chosen to display these relative rankings. which shows the ranking of the states for CO2 from fossil fuel combustion per capita. and Figure 9. Because Figures 5. 6.

Figure 7 -.CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion per GSP Unit Alabama District of Columbia Iowa Michigan New Hampshire Oklahoma Texas Wyoming Alaska Florida Kansas Minnesota New Jersey Oregon Utah California Arizona Georgia Kentucky Mississippi New Mexico Pennsylvania Vermont Arkansas Hawaii Louisiana Missouri New York Rhode Island Virginia Colorado Idaho Maine Montana North Carolina South Carolina Washington Connecticut Illinois Maryland Nebraska North Dakota South Dakota West Virginia Delaware Indiana Massachusetts Nevada Ohio Tennessee Wisconsin 5000 4500 4000 M e t r ic t o n s p e r G S P U n it 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 California 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 North Dakota Wyoming West Virginia Source: California Energy Commission 16 .

EPA42 and state GSP data are from the U. California has the fourth lowest emissions per capita. The figure includes Texas since their emissions are larger than California’s. State GHG emissions data are from the U. Figure 11 shows how California and Texas each would compare to the top 30 GHG emitting countries on an emissions intensity basis. Department of Commerce. following Washington (District of Columbia).S. and Massachusetts.S. from the World Resources Institute. California’s GHG Emissions In a World-Scale Context Figure 10 shows how California and Texas each would rank if considered separate countries. following Washington (District of Columbia). Other attempts to place California GHG emissions into a world-scale context have California placed as high as tenth or so. do not have California ranked that high. although there is not much difference in emissions from about the eleventh largest (Italy) to the nineteenth largest (Australia). Vermont. California has the fifth lowest emissions per million dollars of GSP. As shown on the figure. 43 Country GHG emissions data are from the World Resources Institute44 and country GDP data are from the United Nations. Note that the Texas data are for year 2001 while the other entries on the figure are for 2002.Figure 8 shows the relative ranking of states for emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels per capita for the year 2001. Bureau of Economic Analysis. New York. The data in Figure 10. Figure 9 shows relative ranking of states in terms of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels per unit of GSP for the year 2001. Connecticut. California’s GHG emissions intensity is higher than most of these countries when measured on a per capita basis but lower than most of them when measured per unit of GSP.45 17 .” and California would rank as the sixteenth largest. Texas would rank as the ninth largest “country. Texas’s emissions are high on a per capita basis because of the scale of its industrial and electric power emissions relative to the size of its population. and New York.

Figure 8 -.CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels per Capita (2001) District of Columbia Vermont New York California Rhode Island Idaho Connecticut Oregon Massachusetts New Hampshire Washington New Jersey Maryland Florida Hawaii Maine Virginia Arizona North Carolina South Dakota Illinois Minnesota Georgia Michigan South Carolina Wisconsin Colorado Delaware Nevada Pennsylvania Tennessee Ohio Missouri Arkansas Mississippi Nebraska Kansas Iowa Utah Alabama Oklahoma Texas New Mexico Montana Kentucky Indiana Louisiana West Virginia Alaska North Dakota Wyoming 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Metric Tons per Capita Source: California Energy Commission 18 .

CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels per Unit of GSP (2001) District of Columbia Connecticut New York Massachusetts California New Jersey Vermont Rhode Island Delaware Oregon Washington New Hampshire Maryland Idaho Hawaii Virginia Illinois Florida Minnesota North Carolina Colorado Georgia Arizona South Dakota Michigan Maine Nevada Wisconsin Pennsylvania South Carolina Ohio Tennessee Missouri Nebraska Kansas Iowa Utah Arkansas Texas Mississippi Alabama Oklahoma Indiana New Mexico Kentucky Louisiana Montana Alaska West Virginia North Dakota Wyoming 0 500 1.Figure 9 -.000 1.000 2.500 2.500 3.500 Metric tons per Million Dollars of GSP Source: California Energy Commission 19 .000 3.

000 4. Imports) Indonesia France Mexico Korea (South) Italy United Kingdom Texas (2001 data) Canada Brazil Germany Japan India Russian Federation China United States of America (excl.000 8. Climate Analysis Indicator Tool) 20 . Calif & Texas) United States of America th 16 th Overall 9 Overall 0 1.California GHG Emissions in a World-Scale Context (2002 data) Portugal Belarus Sudan Iraq Korea (North) Greece United Arab Emirates Bangladesh Algeria Philippines Vietnam Romania Czech Republic Belgium Colombia Kazakhstan Malaysia Egypt Uzbekistan Nigeria Netherlands Taiwan Venezuela Thailand Pakistan Argentina Saudi Arabia Turkey Poland Spain South Africa Australia Iran Ukraine California (Including Elec.000 6.000 2.000 5.000 7.000 3.Figure 10 -.000 Milion Metric Tons per Year Source: California Energy Commission (data from World Resource Institute.

S.000 4.000 Emissions/GDP or GSP (metric tons fossil fuel CO2 per million 2001 US $) Source: California Energy Commission (country data from World Resources Institute and United Nations. Department of Commerce) 21 .S.000 3.000 Argentina 0 0 Egypt 2. EPA and U. Africa Iran Indonesia India China 15 Netherlands Calif. Belgium Germany S. Korea 10 Japan UK Italy 5 Poland Spain Venezuela Malaysia France Mexico Turkey Thailand Brazil 1. state data from U.Figure 11 – 2001 Emissions Intensities for California.000 5. Texas and Top 30 GHG Emitting Countries 35 Emissions/Capita (metric tons fossil fuel CO 2 per person) Texas 30 25 20 United States Canada Austrailia Saudi Arabia Russia S.

natural gas rather than another coal-fired power plant would replace Mohave. These categories generally constitute only a small fraction of California’s GHG emissions. This was necessary because Energy Commission forecasts were not available for the activities associated with them that lead to GHG emissions. Except as discussed further below. but excluding California Air Resources Board’s (ARB’s) regulations for GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles that were implemented to comply with AB 1493 (Pavley. staff assumed that GHG emissions for other categories remained constant at 2002 to 2004 average values. Chapter 200).Historical and Projected California GHG Emissions (Includes electricity imports and excludes international bunker fuels) 700 600 Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Projected 500 Historical 400 California GHG Reduction Goals 300 200 100 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Source: California Energy Commission 22 .Future GHG Emissions Trends GHG emissions are expected to grow in the future as California continues its population and economic expansion. Figure 12 -. Figure 12 shows historical GHG emissions from this GHG inventory and projected future GHG emissions under a “business-asusual” trend. Staff projected GHG emissions using forecasts of gasoline demand from the 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR). which shut down at the end of 2005. Finally. Statutes of 2002.

Petroleum and natural gas supply system methane emissions were projected to decrease since these emissions declined overall from 1990 to 2004. Current GHG Emissions Inventory Compared to California Climate Action Team Report Values In response to the Governor’s Executive Order S-3-05. These emissions were assumed to continue this downward trend. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from stationary source combustion were projected to grow at the same rate as population growth. based upon Table 14 from the Energy Commission report titled Emission Reduction Opportunities for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in California.47 Figure 12 shows the historical California GHG emissions. The Governor’s Executive Order called for reducing 2010 “business-as-usual” emissions to year 2000 emissions and reducing 2020 “business- 23 . Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from mobile sources were projected to grow at the same rate as gasoline and diesel demand consumption projections.46 Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management were assumed to continue at the same rate as 1990 to 2004. projected “business-asusual” emissions and the emissions reduction targets for years 2010 and 2020.Refinery still gas and petroleum coke emissions at refineries declined steadily from 2001 to 2004. with manure management emissions increasing somewhat and enteric fermentation decreasing slightly. Future CO2 emissions from calcinations in cement kilns were projected from the 2005 IEPR using natural gas demand projections for that sector. CO2. The corresponding target for year 2050 of reducing emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels is not shown because it is beyond the ending point of the figure. in March 2006 the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) published a Climate Action Team (CAT) report48 detailing how state agencies could implement a series of policies to meet the 2010 and 2020 goals. The Executive Order calls for reducing California GHG emissions to year 2000 levels by 2010. The State of California. and nitrous oxide emissions from waste combustion (excluding landfill emissions) were projected to increase slightly at the rate of population growth. Methane emissions from landfills were projected to increase somewhat. These projected GHG emissions should be considered rough estimates. methane. and year 1990 levels by 2020. is developing more than 40 strategies to reduce these “business-as-usual” emissions to meet GHG emissions reduction targets established by Governor Schwarzenegger in Executive Order S-305. through its Climate Action Team. They assume no new emissions reduction strategies beyond those currently in place. Nitrous oxide from agricultural soil management was projected to increase at the average of the 1990 to 2004 growth rate.

The current 1990 to 2004 GHG inventory is updated from the 1990 to 1999 inventory. The line numbers in the following descriptions provide the reader a reference to the data in Table 6. Land use and forestry changes cause CO2 atmospheric concentrations to increase when carbon-consuming plants are removed or stop growing. Lines 9 through 15 show CO2 emissions from non-fossil fuel sources. In addition. See Appendix F for more details. These show gross CO2 emissions for fossil fuel combustion in residential. commercial. covering the 1990 to 2004 period. and line 16 shows changes in anthropogenic activities that consume CO2 (also called sinks). The carbon taken out of the atmosphere in the form of increased acreage of growing trees is 24 . See Table F-1 in Appendix F for details. Land use and forestry changes from anthropogenic activities have caused CO2 concentrations to increase in some years and to decrease in others. Line 15. electricity generation. These values are obtained by adding Line 2 and Lines 9 through 15. nitrous oxide. Both of these updates cause changes in the number of metric tons of emissions reductions needed to meet the Executive Order goals. transportation. industrial.50 the CAT report indicated that emissions would have to be reduced from business-as-usual trends by 59 million metric tons CO2-equivalent by 2010 and 174 million metric tons CO2 -equivalent by 2020 (derived from Table 5-5 on page 64 of CAT report). This table displays GHG emissions for CO2. When these activities lead to a net reduction they are called carbon sinks. More detail for each of these gases can be found in Appendix A.as-usual” emissions to 1990 emissions. and high GWP gases. The carbon released in the form of CO2 from burning wood waste from land uses and forestry practices are included as emissions in the GHG inventory. Using the earlier 1990 to 1999 GHG emissions inventory prepared by ICF49 and fuel demand projections from the Energy Commission’s 2003 Integrated Energy Policy Report. Total gross CO2 emissions from anthropogenic activities are shown in Line 1. and other end-use sectors. methane. Line 2 is a summary of Lines 3 to 8. GHG INVENTORY UPDATE Table 6 on the next page summarizes the updated GHG emissions inventory. These changes cause CO2 concentrations to decrease when carbon-consuming plants are added to the landscape. the Energy Commission published its 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report in November 2005. The newer numbers indicate that 2010 business-as-usual emissions would need to be reduced by 68 million metric tons to meet the 2010 goal and 177 million metric tons to meet the 2020 goal.

3 158.5 (22.5 0.6 441.9 0.5 399.2 25.7 1.2 0.2 0.7 490.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.5 0.2 (20.6 166.3 7.4 27.9 8.9 44.0 13.California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sink Summary: 1990 to 2004 (MMTCO 2Eq.2 0.3 8.1 0.0 8.3) 288.6 1.3 (22.1 0.6 64.1 439.8 0.1 4.7 0.2 0.4 395.1 0.8 0.5 0.6 8.8 15.6 0.2 6.1 5.1 0.9 5.6 0.6 355.4 0.5 1.9 7.1 1.1) (19.4 26.6 0.0 414.1 71.3 0.1 0.8 30.5 8.4 30.1 0.1 1.2 36.1 0.4 0.6 1.3 328.8 0.3 34.1) 373.2 0.1 (21.1 0.1 0.1 26.6 348.2 31.5) 326.1 1.9 12.2 394.6 27.5 5.0 12.4 0.4 8.1 0.1 6.3 29.7 0.8 421.6 43.2 437.6 5.0 15.4 0.7 0.2 6.1 0.7 0.6 1.1 1.0 0.1 0.3 4.1 41.5 5.7 9.6 398.5 0.5 71.0 170.5 65.0) 410.1 5.3 52.7) 293.0 421.1 4.9 39.9 0.1 1.1 0.9 13.7 465.2 416.0 431.2 0.2 0.9 329.4 2.4 301.3 409.6 0.3 6.5 0.2 0.9 0.3 7.6 43.3 0.8 417.9 0.5 (22.1 7.4 25.1 11.2 0.1 1.3 3.5 2.1 51.4 6.8 0.4 488.1 (20.5 190.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 31.1 0.0 1.1 0.5 421.3) 351.4 24.3) (20.9 0.6 4.1 26.5 7.4 6.1 0.1 6.4 5.0 43.7 0.4 5.1 5.7 5.0 0.5 1.0 33.7) 360.0 13. PFCs & SF 6) Substitution of Ozone-Depleting Substances Semiconductor Manufacture Electricity Transmission & Distribution (SF6) 42 Gross California Emissions (w/o Electric Imports) 43 Land Use Change & Forestry Sinks 44 Net Emissions (w/o Electric Imports) 45 46 47 48 Electricity Imports Gross California Emissions with Electricity Imports Net California Emissions with Electricity Imports International Bunker Carbon Dioxide Emissions .2 378.0 7.1 334.7 0.3 436.2 27.0 10.9 0.9 9.0 13.3 161.8 36.8 0.4 306.1 0.5 176.5) 390.4 0.2 27.5 8.0 163.9 7.2 14.4 0.8 4.2 7.Table 6 -.5 0.8 2.6 9.8 0.3 39.1 36.6 394.7 61.8 0.0 40.5 0.1 30.8 28.5 1.6 0.2 0.9 0.9) 308.5 7.5 468.5) 329.1 1.1 0.5 0.8 14.5 0.0 13.0 12.4 477.3 347.1 4.0 29.3 181.6 0.2 0.4 1.4 0.4 2.7 26.0 19.0 15.4 0.1 326.4 7.3 9.5 8.2 0.7 352.0 1.2 0.7 7.7 313.5 3.4 0.2 0.3 7.3) 366.9 0.1) (19.8 25.4 0.5 0.3 0.1 5.6 13.1 7.9 0.7 1.6 0.2 0.3 372.0 13.2 0.8 492.6 345.4 0.2 27.0 19.3 0.4 29.8 400.5 0.0 14.6 6.9 48.9 0.4 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 26.1 0.5 0.0 0.9 4.9 30.5 2.4 14.5 1.7 1.0 1.9 0.5 38 39 40 41 High GWP Gases (HFCs.2 47.1 161.2 0.5 419.4 0.7 13.4 8.8 14.6 7.6 4.4 8.0 0.2 7.0 13.5 0.2 12.0 441.3 60.5 12.0 14.) 1990 317.8 1.9 0.6 5.6 0.2 0.1) 308.6 0.9 7.1 1.3 24.1 0.2 0.5) 395.4 332.6 426.4 (21.2 9.9 14.1 0.5) 355.1 1.6 1.2 0.0 (19.1 0.1 1.5 0.8 1.2 0.2 0.8 (20.9) (20.9 457.2 0.0 47.9 0.1 5.9 1.8 418.8 0.2 1.9) (20.4 2.6 0.1 26.7 302.4 38.9 0.7 26.2 7.9 462.3 0.1 7.1 0.2 0.8 (20.9 0.9 15.0 12.2 0.5 356.1 1.8 4.6 73.3 386.0 15.2 9.1 1.3 0.1 0.3) (20.3) 298.1 0.2 1.6 0.2 0.8 0.2 12.8 167.2 0.1 471.2 5.3 66.9) 294.0 318.2 0.4 311.4 1.2 180.1 188.1 337.3 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Nitric Acid Production Waste Combustion Agricultural Soil Management Manure Management Burning Ag Residues Wastewater Mobile Source Combustion Stationary Source Combustion 28.7 0.3 26.7 (19.3 0.7) 294.5 1.2 10.1 0.1 457.6 68.5 33.2 0.1 0.0 40.2 0.8 0.9 0.6) (19.1 0.6 12.2 0.4 0.5 0.8 318.2 67.7 2.1 0.6 0.1 0.8 0.7 36.1 0.0 15.3 (21.8 -0.2 11.7 28.5 0.8 (19.8 15.4 0.1 1.2 0.2 1.4 Petroleum & Natural Gas Supply System Natural Gas Supply System Landfills Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Flooded Rice Fields Burning Ag & Other Residues Wastewater Treatment Mobile Source Combustion Stationary Source Combustion 26.2 8.7 443.6 31.5 1.1 1.6 0.1 1.7 0.6 (22.5 0.4 27.2 0.2 32.4 5.4 0.2 376.7 0.1 0.7 0.8 1.7 0.4 31.6 1.5 0.0 13.9 35.7 0.0 76.8 0.7 0.6 1.7 310.3 0.4 26.6 0.7 1.0 0.2 30.5 3.9 Gas/Source 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Carbon Dioxide (Gross) Fossil Fuel Combustion Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electricity Generation (In State) No End Use Specified Cement Production Lime Production Limestone & Dolomite Consumption Soda Ash Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption Waste Combustion Land Use Change & Forestry Emissions Land Use Change & Forestry Sinks Carbon Dioxide (Net) Methane (CH4) 25 32.7) 360.8 0.0 (21.6 4.5 0.2 0.3 10.5 1.2 0.9 11.2 0.1 1.0) 334.7 182.2 7.5 35.1 0.1 1.2 0.2 31.7 51.8 (21.3 6.1 34.2 29.0 421.4 3.6 43.3 8.0 14.9 12.3 383.3 0.1 1.1 0.0 27.5 0.3 7.6 6.9 342.4 0.4 0.8 29.2 25.1 5.5 (19.9 27.0 64.2 0.2 26.9 6.9 348.2 43.5 1.6) (19.7 5.1 4.5 8.4 9.3 24.9 14.1 5.3 0.0 14.1 6.1 381.3 23.1 0.1 0.2 80.0 0.6 (21.2 30.7 1.6 306.1 1.5 (21.2 0.8 30.7 368.0 5.1 0.6 47.0 0.7 0.1 0.5 365.5 0.2 27.4 0.2 0.6 0.0 31.0 51.8 1.6 0.3 8.3 0.2 9.1 0.3 426.4 (19.4 173.1 0.8 406.6 0.5 30.1 0.0 6.4 0.9) 356.9 0.8 0.9 346.1 0.7 1.6 66.0 19.1 1.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 33.4 4.5 316.8 7.1 5.9 5.1 0.3 0.1 0.7 1.0 17.3 6.4 0.0 0.7 2.8 0.2 12.7 470.3 0.5 1.1 0.9 56.8 62.8 14.5 (21.9 446.9 40.4 0.9 373.9 1.3 305.9 (19.1 5.2 12.4 33.8 0.5 1.6 9.3 4.7 0.1 394.9 1.6 0.1 0.3 0.2 11.3 0.5 0.9 43.7 0.3 417.0 354.2 0.9) 374.6 1.9 0.5 0.8 300.8 0.1 1.7 0.1 6.2 0.6 359.5 0.1 0.9 6.2 0.4 2.8 5.8 316.6 403.5 477.1 0.4 0.5) 289.8 156.9 56.7 0.1 4.1 416.3 0.5 75.1 40.5 0.

Major categories within this set include various gases used in industrial applications to replace gases associated with ozone depletion over the Polar Regions of the Earth. and SF6. Total sinks are repeated on Line 43 for clarity. These are reported in CO2-equivalent units to reflect the GWP of methane compared to CO2. The carbon emissions associated with importing electricity to California are shown on Line 45 and are not part of the California GHG inventory according to IPCC protocol. although the estimated emissions are difficult to quantify and are thus less certain than other emissions categories. Line 48 26 . including two coal-fired power plants owned by California utilities. A class of gases called high GWP gases makes up the final set of gases (Lines 38 through 41) that contribute to global warming.7 percent of overall GHG emissions in 2004. 29. 18. but are shown for information purposes. Methane emissions compose 5.” The major sources of nitrous oxide emissions are agricultural activities and mobile source fuel combustion.8 percent. Agricultural activities and landfills compose the major sources of these emissions. Net CO2 emissions are shown in Line 44. the largest component of the inventory. although small in magnitude. Line 47 is Line 46 minus CO2 sinks from Line 43. which is used as insulating materials in electricity transmission and distribution. Line 42 is labeled “Gross California Emissions (w/o Electric Imports). This gas should not be confused with a class of conventional air pollutants called “oxides of nitrogen. A significant portion of the GHG emissions that occur to meet the needs of California’s economy comes from fuel combusted in out-of-state power plants that provide electrical energy to California. Net CO2 emissions are gross emissions from Line 1 minus the sinks from Line 16. The next portion of Table 6 (Lines 18 through 28) includes anthropogenic activities that generate methane emissions.also included as sinks of CO2 from anthropogenic activities. These net emissions are shown in Line 17. Line 46 is the sum of gross GHG emissions from Line 42 plus CO2 from imported electricity from Line 45. and 38. Gross CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion comprised 81 percent of total GHG emissions in 2004.8 percent of overall GHG emissions in 2004. These emissions are shown on a separate line to avoid double counting. High GWP gases. Line 16 (repeated for clarity on Line 43). These are obtained by subtracting Line 43 from Line 42. Non-fossil fuel CO2 emissions contributed another 2.” It is the sum of Lines 1. Emissions of nitrous oxide produced 6. constituted the greatest rate of growth in GHG emissions. The next portion of Table 6 (Lines 29 through 37) includes anthropogenic activities that generate nitrous oxide emissions. These high GWP gases composed a small percentage of overall GHG emissions over this time period.

If TAR GWPs are used. These differences are small in a total inventory of more than 480 MMTCO2E. rather than the SAR value of 33.shows international bunker fuels. Energy Commission staff identified the following areas where improvement should be considered for the next inventory update. the SAR value is 21. Given the relative magnitude of CO2 and other GHG emissions attributable to California using either the SAR or TAR values. For nitrous oxide. Values used in this inventory are a bit outdated.S.8 MMTCO2E. Figures 1 and 4 show this information by sector. FUTURE GHG INVENTORY IMPROVEMENTS One major category of GHG inventory improvement that staff recommends is to use a more current estimate of GWP weighting factors for non-CO2 GHG emissions when they become approved for use by the IPCC. and the TAR value is 296 (-4. Data Improvements or Refinements During the process of developing this GHG update. For methane. the choice of SAR or TAR has little impact on California’s GHG emissions.3 MMTCO2E. 1996 vintage). nitrous oxide emissions reported in 2004 would be 32. similar to imported electricity. if TAR GWPs are used. The other major category of GHG inventory improvements that staff recommends is using more recent energy flow data and more local activity and emissions factor data. The most recent Inventory of U. the SAR value is 310. GWP Weighting Factors for Non-CO2 Gases The current IPCC guidance is to use GWP factors from the Second Assessment Report51 (SAR. Correspondingly. GHG Emissions and Sinks: 1990—200452 uses the SAR values for the nationwide GHG inventory. and the TAR value is 23 (+0. since the Third Assessment Report (TAR.9 million metric tons CO2-equivalent (MMTCO2E). These are not part of the California GHG inventory and are shown for information purposes. made up of international use of jet fuel and marine vessel use of residual oil and distillate. Appendix A contains documentation of the methods used to prepare the California GHG inventory and a more detailed breakdown of the values in Table 6. 27 . 2001 vintage) values have yet to be approved. but they have not yet been approved for use. as they are based upon values approved for use by the IPCC in 1996.1 percent). methane emissions reported in 2004 would be unchanged at 27. Newer GWP factors were developed in 2001.5 percent).

Perform a more detailed review of industrial uses of fossil fuels to classify when they are used as fuel versus their use as a process input (and therefore not released into the atmosphere at that step in their usage chain). This is the point in the usage chain where CO2 emissions should be counted in the GHG emissions inventory. If they were judged to be used as a feedstock. 28 . In the previous and current inventory. These data should be updated as soon as more current data become available. CO2 emissions may occur when the object being produced is used in an end use application.Use more current activity data. methane generation at refineries was assumed to release CO2 at the refinery. it is not possible to report complete GHG data for more current years at this time. Differences between approaches are minor. In addition. red meat. As discussed in Appendix A. red meat and poultry. staff used the normal calculation process and assumed that the emissions would occur on the site of the industrial process. but in most cases the carbon in the fuel is transformed at the industrial site into the product of the industrial operation. Since more than 80 percent of the California GHG emissions inventory is generated from fossil fuel combustion. poultry. petroleum and natural gas are sometimes used in an industrial process rather than combusted as a fuel in an industrial facility. and pulp and paper. This assumes that California’s industrial sector exactly matches the national average of industrial activities. The 1990-1999 California GHG emissions inventory used national data to estimate the amounts of petroleum and natural gas that were used as industrial process feedstocks rather than burned as fuels. and there are no CO2 emissions to document. and pulp and paper. Industrial wastewater emissions occur from processing fruits and vegetables. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from these activities are not yet included in the California inventory and should be added in future updates. staff examined each subcategory of industrial use and judged whether the petroleum or natural gas was used as a feedstock or as a fuel. The most current complete data set for fossil fuel use in California is for 2004. These products all involve industrial waste water. In some cases. then the national average values were used. no carbon emissions occur at this point in the product’s production and use cycle. feedstock use leads to carbon emissions. If they were judged to be used as a fuel. vegetables. California produces much of this country’s fruits. In this case.

which should be estimated and added to the California GHG inventory. The EPA guidance document53 recommends that emissions be estimated for these industrial sources (see page 14.4-5). However, since we do not yet have data on the quantity of waste water generated by these activities, staff was unable to estimate methane or nitrous oxide emissions from waste water used to produce these products. Landfill methane emissions should continue to be studied to improve their accuracy. Values are low (40 to 52 percent lower) compared to1990-1999 inventory; these discrepancies need to be resolved. The 1990-1999 inventory was prepared by ICF Consulting under funding by the Energy Commission’s PIER Program. In some cases, ICF applied national average values to calculate landfill emissions, and their results may not represent California conditions because California has been aggressive in implementing state level policies to recover energy from landfills and to reduce emissions. Reliance on EPA data does not seem to represent California conditions. GHG emissions from California landfills may be considerably lower, especially at large, well operated landfills with a comprehensive gas collection system and appropriate cover and cap material placement. The EPA guidance document54 recommends obtaining state-level data on the volume of wastes stored in large landfills (that is, those greater than 1.1 million tons of waste in place), and small landfills (less than 1.1 million tons of waste in place), over the previous 30 years to calculate methane emissions from municipal waste landfills (see page 13.4-2). Lacking that, the document recommends using state-level volumes disposed at landfills. If neither of these types of local data is available, the document recommends using state-level population data and national average per-capita landfill rates to calculate emissions. The 1990 to 1999 California GHG emissions inventory used state-level data on volumes of waste disposed at California landfills from 1990 to 1999, national data to estimate volumes of waste from 1960 to 1989, and the amount going to small versus large landfills for 1990 to 1999. Estimates were made for methane recovery in landfill gas-to-energy facilities, flares, and oxidation. Emissions were about 17 MMTCO2E in 1990 and decreased to about 13 MMTCO2E in 1999 because methane recovery grew faster than waste disposal rates and associated emissions. The current California GHG inventory was developed from emissions data obtained from local air pollution control agencies via the ARB. It is more of a “bottoms up” approach based upon a facility-by-facility assessment conducted by the local air districts. Emissions were estimated at about 8 MMTCO2E in 1990 and remain essentially flat over the entire 1990 to 2004 time period. These data represent emissions only from those facilities that have permits.

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GHG inventory guidance documents indicate that some methane is oxidized in the landfill surface cap and not emitted into the atmosphere. The percentage is uncertain, and EPA recommends using local data where available and 10 percent removal where local data are not available. Work is underway to develop a California-specific estimate of this effect. Local air quality district personnel are updating their landfill data but the results of this work were not available as of September 2006 and are not expected to become available in the near future. In addition, the Energy Commission has active research in progress to better quantify emissions from California, but the results of this work are not expected to become available until 2008. Develop California-specific data for SF6 emissions from electric utilities. SF6 emissions were estimated using national emissions data, and pro-rating state electric energy production to national values. However, California utilities have been actively involved in identifying and implementing methods to reduce these emissions and reducing associated maintenance costs. Individual electric utility companies in California should be contacted to obtain actual state-level data, if available. Since utilities have apparently not tracked their SF6 as an individual maintenance cost, it may not be possible to use utility-specific data for the entire 1990 to 2004 period. Develop California-specific emissions factors for emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from manure management. Emissions calculations are based upon national data for animal characteristics, including percentage of dairy versus meat cattle, nitrogen production per head of animal, animal mass, and so forth. These data should be updated with state-specific values and methods of animal management. Develop California-specific emissions factors for enteric fermentation. Studies indicate that the currently accepted emissions factors may not properly quantify emissions of methane emissions from cattle processing their feed. The ARB is developing new emissions factors for regulatory purposes, and these should be considered for future updates. Update data used to calculate emissions for land use and forestry changes. The current inventory and the previous one for 1990 to 2002 used forecasted values for changes in acreage of forests provided by the federal Secretary of Agriculture. As satellite data for these changes becomes available, they should be used in place of these forecasted values. California has also recently experienced significant acreage converted to viticulture and pasture,

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and associated changes in soil carbon need to be reviewed and possibly updated. Obtain California-specific data for nitrous oxide emissions of several crops. The current inventory and the previous one for 1990 to 2002 used national estimates of nitrous oxide emissions resulting from cultivation of sorghum, oats, rye, soybeans, peanuts, and beans. State-specific data should be obtained if possible. This should be a low-priority activity as estimated emissions are very small.

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APPENDIX A DETAILED DOCUMENTATION OF CALIFORNIA GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 33 .

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lubricants. This is not possible for all levels of subtotaling.55 (Energy Balance) and included a database of energy consumption that can be expressed in volumetric units or trillion British Thermal Units (trillion BTUs. residual oil. CO2 Emissions CO2 emissions occur largely from combustion of fossil fuels. but these emissions are excluded because the net amount of CO2 released is zero when averaged over the life of the biomass itself. First. changes in land use and forestry operations. using appropriate emissions factors provided by the EPA that are consistent with guidance documents from the IPCC. a discussion of the methodology is provided. kerosene. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory evaluated fossil fuel supplies and uses in California and developed a balance between them. Biomass is also used as a fuel in some applications. petroleum coke. Any fuel used to plant.CALCULATION METHODOLOGY This appendix includes detailed documentation of methods used to construct the updated California GHG emissions inventory. Other CO2 emissions sources included cement and lime production. Where possible. unless otherwise stated. supplemented with data from the Energy Commission. a tree takes as much CO2 out of the air as it releases into the air when it is burned. soda ash. cultivate. The Energy Balance was developed using data from the EIA. motor gasoline. Line numbers included in the text below refer to rows in Table 6. This detailed table is summarized in Table 6 (page 23 of the main body of this report). distillate oil.2 percent of gross CO2 emissions. and small amounts of coal. fossil fuel combustion accounted for 96. values in Appendix A that are used to obtain subtotals are shown right justified to facilitate identification by the reader. GHG emissions are calculated from TBtus. and finally. or TBtus). For example. CO2 consumption. waste combustion. Much of the data used in the Energy Balance was obtained from the same EIA data sources used in the 1990-1999 GHG 35 . and harvest the tree is included in the appropriate fuel use category. In 2004. CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion Fossil fuels used in California include natural gas. Under contract with the Energy Commission’s PIER Program. petroleum (including liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]). Next. a detailed table of California GHG emissions is provided. limestone and dolomite consumption. asphalt. Their work led to a document titled California Energy Balances Report.

At the time the current inventory was prepared. converting from carbon emissions to CO2 emissions. Energy Commission data were used to provide more detailed resolution of fuel use by end-use sector. when compared to the 1990-1999 GHG inventory.” 36 .emissions inventory and is thus consistent with it. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are estimated by multiplying standardized emissions factors (EF) recommended by the EPA in their Emissions Inventory Improvement Program documentation58 by the TBtu data from the Energy Balance. In the current update. data are provided by generally focused categories of end use. and then using conversion factors to obtain results in million metric tons of CO2. These data are largely obtained from the Energy Balance. and these changes are reflected in the Energy Balance and in the updated GHG emissions inventory. In some cases.9072 (converts short tons to metric tons) * 44/12 (converts lbs C to lbs CO2) * 0. One million metric tons equals one teragram (Tg).56 These data revisions extend the fuel use data to 2004 and make some revisions to data for previous years. Some manuscripts use the term teragrams rather than metric tons.000 (expresses results in millions) This result is expressed in million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMTCO2). The earlier GHG inventory reported electricity fuel used in the industrial sector unless the electric facility was owned by an electric utility company. The last two GHG inventories identify all fuel used to generate electricity as “Electricity Generation” regardless of the facility’s ownership. is the treatment of electricity generation fuel use. these data were supplemented with data from the Energy Commission to enable calculation of emissions for 2004.0005 (converts lbs to short tons) / 1. The equation typically used for CO2 is: CO2 = Billion BTUs * Percent Oxidized * EF (lbs C per million BTU) * 0. The reader is referred to the previous Development of Energy Balances for the State of California (Energy Balance) 57 for documentation of most data used in this report. For some fuels. EIA revised and updated its data. The trillion BTUs (1012 BTUs. the newer Energy Balance data have yet to be published in a report. although the data were made available by the contractor. One example of major improvements implemented in the two most recent inventories. also expressed “TBTUs”) of fuel used in various end-use applications in California are shown in Appendix B.000. Energy use data are listed in the same series order as the California GHG emissions inventory. Appendix D contains further discussion of the newer data used for 2004 and describes major differences between the current inventory and the previous one that covers the 1990 to 2002 period. Fuels with insufficient data to report detailed end-uses are reported as “Non-specified.

Line 3—Residential CO2 Emissions In California. Lines 3 through 8. residential CO2 emissions are produced from the combustion of natural gas. and so forth. Natural gas is used in applications that range from education through nonspecified services. commercial. Line 4—Commercial CO2 Emissions Commercial CO2 emissions are produced from the combustion of coal. Line 1— CO2 (Gross) This line represents the sum of all CO2 emissions. Line 5—Industrial CO2 Emissions Industrial CO2 emissions are produced from the combustion and feedstock uses of coal. and natural gas. petroleum. This end-use sector uses only a small amount of coal. such as residential. so natural gas composes the majority of the fuel used. See Appendix B for energy use rates used to estimate CO2 emissions for each end use category and sub-category. CO2 emissions are calculated individually for each fuel and end-use sector and are then totaled to get sums for CO2 and for each end-use sector. and land use and forestry activities that increase CO2 emissions. These values were obtained from the EPA59 and are consistent with IPCC protocol. Feedstock applications may or may 37 . and relatively large amounts of natural gas. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with new data as available (except imported electricity. petroleum. kerosene.Emissions are calculated for each fuel using fuel-specific values for percentage oxidized and carbon content as shown in Table A-1 (for fuels which have values that do not change from year-to-year) and Table A-2 (for fuels which values that change from year-to-year). and distillate fuel. Even though this sector uses almost twice as much natural gas petroleum on a BTU basis. including fossil fuels. with small amounts of residual oil and LPG. resulting CO2 emissions for natural gas and petroleum are similar in magnitude. Line 2—Fossil Fuel Combustion Totals This line is the sum of fossil fuel combustion. LPG. Most commercial petroleum fuel use is gasoline or distillate. Only small quantities of coal and petroleum fuels are used in California. moderate amounts of petroleum. as explained below). This results because petroleum has greater carbon intensity per unit of energy and because much of the industrial petroleum use is in feedstock applications (such as asphalt manufacturing) rather than fuel applications (such as making steam for an onsite industrial process). and natural gas. non-fossil fuel CO2 emissions.

and natural gas. the inventory assessment uses the same national numbers as the 1990-1999 inventory. and the most likely use of the fossil fuel was estimated by the category name. Industrial uses of coal. it is necessary to subtract the amount of feedstock used and stored from the amount used as a fuel at the industrial facility. If it was most likely that the fuel was burned onsite for process heat or steam. and the computed emissions are zero. Otherwise. the national average storage factor was assumed to apply to that subcategory. petroleum. each industrial subcategory of end-use was examined individually. and natural gas must be adjusted to account for these feedstock uses and associated carbon storage. since the Energy Balance now provides much more state-level detail for industrial uses of coal. not a fuel. it is no longer necessary to assume that these national factors apply in California for every industrial use. and (2) the percentage of the feedstock that is stored rather than emitted in the associated industrial process. The 1990-1999 California GHG inventory used national data. if state-level data are not available. the carbon associated with the feedstock is locked into the pavement and assumed to never be emitted. 38 . and that is where the carbon emissions are accounted for in the normal inventory protocol to avoid double counting. national data can be used.not cause direct emissions because the carbon may be stored rather than emitted to the atmosphere. The percent feedstock use and storage factor were both assumed to be zero if the subcategory appeared to be a fuel use. the carbon is released during operation of a steam reformer located at or near a refinery and emitted after separating the hydrogen from the carbon. the carbon is used in a product that is burned at another step in the product cycle. In the new GHG inventory. In the second case. In the first case. The EPA guidance document indicates that state-level data should be used if available. In summary. These feedstocks can either be stored on a long-term basis (such as in asphalt pavement) or a short-term basis but later emitted (such as natural gas used as a feedstock to make hydrogen in a petroleum refinery). then all of the fossil fuel was assumed to be burned on site. The approach requires: (1) identification of the percentage of each industrial fuel that is used as a feedstock.60 However. For some feedstock applications. There is room for improvement with either method of assessing the industrial category of fossil fuel emissions. If it was most likely that the fossil fuel was used as a process input. petroleum. However.

the term “international bunker fuels” is used in GHG emissions inventories to describe distillate and residual fuels used for international business. On-road distillate fuel and jet fuel are the next two largest subcategories. depending on year. distillate fuel emissions were 32. The California GHG inventory includes jet fuel and residual and distillate oils used as domestic fuels.To determine the degree to which this change impacts the estimated industrial sector CO2 emissions.2 MMTCO2E. and are not used in jet aircraft. GHG emissions inventory guidance61 is to identify international jet and marine fuel uses and report their emissions separately from corresponding domestic uses. For this fuel. the 19901999 method yielded a value of 33. often require heating to flow. These are called “international bunker fuels. the average of 1990 to 2001 fuel usage rates was assumed for 2002 through 2004. For example. Prior to 39 . and cement. if sufficient data are available. It excludes international jet fuel and marine residual and distillate fuel uses.3 MMTCO2E. Bunker fuels are heavy. Motor gasoline is the single largest subcategory of transportation emissions at 131 MMTCO2E in 2004. glass.5 to 4 MMTCO2E. and the current method yields a value of 34. While reviewing the Energy Balance data file. Using national average data for feedstock use of fossil fuels is equivalent to assuming California has exactly the same industries as all 49 other states. However. with jet fuel higher in early years and distillate fuel use higher in the later years. Removing this double counting reduces emissions by 1. Emissions values do not include international aviation (or international marine) uses. Motor gasoline is used in light-duty vehicles in a wide variety of applications. not jet aircraft fuel use. for natural gas industrial emissions in 1999. In 2004. Line 6—Transportation CO2 emissions from the transportation sector constitute the single largest category of California’s GHG emissions: 188 MMTCO2E in 2004. clay. although most is used in privately owned vehicles. they were calculated each way. The results are similar using either approach.” This is a bit of a misnomer because the traditional use of the term “bunker fuels” is for marine fuel use. Industrial fossil fuel use data were available for all fuels each year except liquefied petroleum gas. but values are reported on separate lines for comparison purposes. it was determined that the 1990 to 2002 GHG inventory inadvertently double counted emissions from burning natural gas while manufacturing stone. This change is reflected in the 1990 to 2004 inventory for all years. The new approach was chosen because state-level energy data were available and the national values did not seem appropriate for some of the industrial subcategories.2 MMTCO2E and domestic jet fuel emissions were 22. Jet fuel is used in domestic aviation and military aviation.4 MMTCO2E.

California imported 22 to 32 percent of its electric energy from nearby states.74 gallon of fossil fuel to produce one gallon of ethanol. it was not possible to separate out all international and domestic aviation and marine fuel uses. utility-owned electricity generation and non-specified electricity generation. Electricity generated from burning coal releases relatively large amounts of GHG emissions while electricity generated from nuclear and hydroelectric power plants do not emit GHGs. Each is identified as a separate fuel used to generate electricity. the average of 1990 to 2001 fuel usage rates was assumed for 2002 through 2004. California Air Resources Board regulations required removal of methyl-tertiary butylether (MTBE) from gasoline by 2004. Transportation fossil fuel use data were available for each year for all fuels except liquefied petroleum gas. According to most estimates. 1. and electrical combined heat and power fuel uses. reported transportation GHG emissions values are lower for the entire reporting period than earlier inventories. This is a major improvement in the tracking of electricity generation and industrial CO2 emissions for the California GHG emissions inventory.2 MMTCO2E in 2002.the last two California GHG inventories.5 percent of California’s residual oil use and 1 percent of its distillate fuel use. commercial. but electricity produced by other entities was reported as a part of industrial emissions. In 2004. The method of generating this imported electric energy ranges from coal-fired power plants to nuclear and hydroelectric power plants. The petroleum industry responded beginning in 2002. The Energy Balance identifies industrial. as shown in Appendix B. as well as independent power producers. For this fuel. most fossil fuel used to produce electricity in California is natural gas (approximately 43 percent of the total electrical energy produced for use in California in 2001 and 36 percent in 2004).3 MMTCO2E in 2003 and 2. for the two most recent inventories. compared to earlier GHG inventories. international aviation accounted for approximately 38 percent of California’s total reported jet fuel use and international marine fuel use accounted for 94. Due to environmental and other restrictions. ethanol requires about 0. 40 . Line 45—Imported Electricity During the 1990 to 2004 period. 65 percent in 2003 and 98 percent in 2004 and beyond. Approximately 12 percent of the gasoline pool was converted in 2002.0 MMTCO2E in 2004.63 The net effect of switching from MTBE to ethanol is to reduce CO2 emissions from gasoline consumption by 0.62 A small percentage is exempt from this regulation. Line 7—Electricity Generation (In-State) CO2 emissions from electricity generation are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. The 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory identified utility-owned electricity production. Thus. replacing MTBE with ethanol.

The State of California’s Department of Finance publishes a table (J11) of electrical energy generation from utility-owned and non-utility owned power plants with gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electrical energy production intended for use in California 41 . The GHG inventory of in-state emissions could be reduced to account for the electricity exported from California. for electricity from the Southwest we assume 74 percent coal and 26 percent hydroelectricity. This data is based upon reported electrical energy transactions to estimate the percentage of energy from coal. Thus. energy imported from the Southwest is much higher in carbon content than is energy imported from the Pacific Northwest. after removing the two known coal-fired electricity generating facilities. data from the Energy Commission’s Electricity Office was used. The fuel used to generate this energy is known to be coal. 2000 experienced greater than average electricity exports due to the turbulent market conditions that existed at that time. and other sources. California occasionally exports a small amount of electricity. nuclear. it is oftentimes not possible to determine the type of facility and associated carbon-based fuel used to generate the imported electricity. Thus. Due to the nature of imported electrical energy transactions. However. but the amount is small enough to ignore this factor. we assume 20 percent was generated by coal and 80 percent from hydroelectricity. These percentages were used for 2001 through 2004. However. an estimate must be made of the fuel used to generate this portion of the imported electricity.Electricity imported from the Pacific Northwest has a large hydroelectric component compared to the Southwest. This report assumes that these percentages apply for the entire 1990 to 2000 time period. To estimate CO2 emissions from out-of-state electricity generation for 2001 and later years. but nearly all of the transactions are imports. To estimate the CO2 emissions from Pacific Northwest electricity imports. natural gas. to estimate carbon emissions from imported electricity. Additional electrical energy is also generated from two out-of-state coal-fired power plants65 owned by California electric utilities. The EPA GHG emissions inventory guidance document64 recommends that states estimate emissions from net imports of electricity. and there is no need to estimate its fuel source. which is largely coal based. Correspondingly. oil. These values were adopted for use in the 1994 Electricity Report for the 1994 to 1999 period. These emissions are calculated separately and the results added to the values estimated for the Pacific Northwest and Southwest to obtain overall carbon emissions from imported electricity. it is necessary to estimate the source(s) of electricity and associated rates of carbon emissions per gigawatt-hour of imported electricity.

with the bulk of production being Portland cement. they will be applied to out-of-state electricity imported to California to provide an improved estimate of these emissions. CO2 Emissions from Non-Fossil Fuel Emissions Sources Some human activities release CO2 gases without burning fuel. The associated CO2 emissions are listed on Line 8. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (various years): Table 1. this newer approach was not yet available. along with the percentage data above. Masonry cement and Portland cements were added to determine total cement manufactured. Line 8—No End-Use Specified The Energy Balance identified a small amount of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas use that could not be associated with a specific end-use. This table is used. After obtaining annual BTU estimates for each fuel type using the method described above. 42 . Line 9—Cement Production Cement production involves a chemical conversion process that releases CO2 gas as limestone is heated in a kiln to produce lime.000 BTUs per kilowatt-hour (BTU/kWh). to derive annual values for total GWhs of imported electrical energy by fuel type. See Table A-3 for Masonry and Portland cement production in California. Masonry & Portland Cement Production. To convert electrical energy into its British Thermal Unit (BTU) equivalent. CO2 emissions are calculated in the same manner as other sources of fossil fuel emissions for Lines 2 through 8.S. These sources contribute a modest portion of gross CO2 emissions (2. Additional emissions associated with kiln heating are included under fossil fuel combustion and are not repeated here to avoid double counting of these emissions. Quantities of masonry cement and Portland cement produced in California were obtained from U.66 The table also shows overall gigawatt imports from the Pacific Northwest and Southwest. This is an approximate value which could be refined. staff assumed a thermal conversion rate of 10.shown by fuel type. When these values become available. As of August 2006. The resulting clinker is further processed to produce cement. Appendix C discusses two other approaches for estimating CO2 emissions from electricity imported to California. The Energy Commission is developing a more refined way to estimate fuel used to import electricity into California.8 percent in 2004). but this step is deemed not necessary due to the uncertainty of other assumptions needed to estimate imported energy levels by type of fuel.

However.Clinker production was multiplied by 0. This value was multiplied by 1. pulp and paper manufacturing.68 but others do not. It is necessary to assume that the national percentage of uses applies equally to California and obtain California’s portion by ratio. Nationwide and California limestone and dolomite consumption are both available from the USGS. Line 10—Lime Production Lime is used in a wide variety of applications. California values are available from USGS for 1990 to 1998 but are withheld for later years to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.02 to account for clinker dust. Line 11—Limestone & Dolomite Consumption Some uses of limestone and dolomite (both are called “limestone” in mineral industry terms) produce CO2 emissions. releasing CO2. Future inventory methods may not be able to rely upon USGS for California lime production data. This explains why the lime production data are withheld after 1998. which is not likely. no better method is available to 43 .65 to obtain the lime content of the clinker and this value was multiplied by 44/5667 to convert to CO2. The analysis assumes that California’s lime production matches its lime use. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with new or revised data as available. Limestone is heated in a kiln to produce lime. and sewage treatment.usgs. Production decreased from 1990 to 1993 but increased thereafter. Lime production data for California are obtained from the USGS website [http://minerals. including construction. the ratio of the molecular weight of CO2 to lime (CaO). This assumes that the same mix of CO2-producing uses and non CO2-producing uses is the same (including flue gas desulfurization). There is a decreasing number of lime producing facilities in California. California emissions were obtained by adding limestone and dolomite production and obtaining emissions by ratio.gov/minerals]. Values for the 1999 to 2004 time period were extrapolated from 1993 to 1998 values. CO2 emissions are calculated by multiplying lime production by 44/56. California lime production data are shown in Table A-3. No data are available to differentiate limestone and dolomite uses in California that emit CO2 from those that do not. Lime production leads to CO2 emissions in a process similar to cement production. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory but with updated or revised data from the USGS Minerals Yearbook (various years) where available. Nationwide CO2 emissions were obtained from the United States GHG inventory.

and California’s soap-making payroll was 7. It is also used for a wide variety of activities. including chemical production. Line 12—Soda Ash Consumption CO2 emissions occur when soda ash (Na2CO3) is used to make glass and soap. The nitrous oxide emissions calculations (Line 31) are documented below. The small magnitude of these emissions means that further refinement of this data does not appear to be warranted at this time. and synthetic fibers. Line 14—Waste Combustion CO2 and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere occur when municipal solid waste (MSW) is combusted to make electricity.and soap-making activities.1104 tons of 44 . An average of 8. A portion of the waste stream is biogenic. and Ogden Martin Systems of Stanislaus. California’s CO2 emissions from CO2 consumption was scaled from national emissions by using the ratio of California’s CO2 production capacity to the national production capacity from year to year. Line 13— CO2 Consumption Nationally. as a by-product of chemical production. and these CO2 emissions are not counted because the carbon is recycled during the growth period of the biogenic materials.estimate these emissions. and consumption of carbonated beverages. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with new or revised data used (as available) for the national CO2 emissions from CO2 use. using the ratio of California to national payrolls to determine California emissions. These values were multiplied by 0. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with new or revised data as available. synthetic rubber. and this portion is counted because they are derived from fossil fuels.6 percent of the national soap-making payroll in 1996. Inc.5 percent of the national glass-making payroll in 1996. CO2 is emitted from natural gas wells. and when separating crude oil and natural gas. The payroll data were not updated. Representatives of each were contacted to obtain annual tons of municipal wastes processed for 1990 through 2004. Payroll data for California and nationwide were used to estimate the magnitude of CO2 released from these activities. food processing. California’s glass-making payroll was 8.0 percent was used to estimate the California CO2 emissions from glass. Southeast Resource Recovery. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with new or revised data as available. Another portion of the waste stream is made from plastic. There are three MSW facilities in California: Commerce Refuse-to-Energy.

Winrock provided emissions and removals of GHG by land-use sector for five-year intervals. LCMMP uses Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery to map vegetation and changes over five-year periods. The forested land was categorized by ownership. This was extrapolated to 100 percent of the area. and 0. and decomposition.carbon per ton of MSW for plastics. This method is updated from the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory. that is. Net changes in carbon stocks were tracked by modeling carbon flows related to tree growth. acreage data from the California Agricultural Statistics Services were used. California-specific information developed by the Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research Program. between 1994 to 2000 for 84 percent of the forests and 42 percent of the rangelands. use. For 1998 to 2004.70 Changes in canopy cover were tracked through the California Land Cover Mapping and Monitoring Program (LCMMP) conducted by the CDF’s Fire and Resource Assessment Program (FRAP). and changes in yard trimming carbon stocks in landfills. changes in agricultural soil carbon stocks. and type of vegetation. These emissions factors are national average values derived by the EPA.0343 tons of carbon per ton of MSW. Forested land in California was estimated based on California Department of Forestry’s (CDF) five-year inventories. with the last inventory conducted in 1994. 0. Results are summed and converted to million metric tons of CO2 to get total CO2 emissions from MSW. and 1993 to 1996. These values should be updated with future satellite imagery. all values for 1995 through 1999 were extrapolated from 1994 data. with new emissions factors for waste stream constituents. 1992. The current inventory uses a different approach to reflect methodology and quantification changes developed by Winrock International. Therefore. Emissions and reductions for 2002 and later years are based on forecasted reductions in land by the federal Secretary of Agriculture. This approach allows for use of newer.0174 tons of carbon per ton of MSW for synthetic rubber. 45 . Agricultural acreages were based primarily on the National Resource Inventory (NRI) database and provided in discrete values for 1987. Linear regression analysis was used to provide the values for 1990 to 1991. and 1997. Emissions and reductions for 1990 to 1994 were calculated using a FRAP analysis of a 7 percent reduction in forest land between 1953 and 1994.69 Land Use Change & Forestry Overview The 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory estimated net CO2 flux caused by changes in forest carbon stocks. Carbon flux estimates are derived principally from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. forest removals.

Inventory categories were changed to reflect the new methodologies and baseline. This may not be true for soils converted to viticulture and pasture. Liming of Soils Limestone and dolomite applied to agricultural soils degrades and releases CO2. Tonnage data of limestone and dolomite applied to California soils was obtained from the USGS’s Minerals Yearbook for various years. These values were multiplied 46 . crop type (for example. 1990-1999 NRI data points were correlated to CASS acreages to determine they were within the uncertainty range.and below-ground biomass. this inventory uses the 1990-1999 inventory method for land filling of lumber and urban wood waste and liming of soils as explained below. because carbon changes cannot be detected from satellite and there is a lack of data on carbon densities of cropland. nut. However. row crops. Field measurements by Winrock and literature sources indicated no changes in soil carbon with land use or management except in the conversion to some forms of agriculture. hay crops. nut. close crops. The amount of CO2 generated from using these soil treatments is estimated using the same method as used in the 1990-1999 inventory71 with new data as needed. emission categories attributed to forest and agricultural soils were removed from this inventory. Decreases in carbon stocks (gross and net changes) varied by the cause of the change. The apparent sudden. and vineyard) and planting densities. berry. vineyard.Carbon estimates for woody crops were made by Winrock based on above. fruit. Therefore. the inventory fluctuated between emissions and reductions for agricultural lands based on periods when woody crops increased and annual fluctuations in non-woody crop acreages. and this factor should be evaluated in future inventory updates. relatively large increase in reductions between 1997 and 1998 is an anomaly caused by a change in 1998 from NRI data to CASS data. Fire and harvest were the dominant causes of emissions on forestlands. Total carbon stock was estimated based on area and crop type within the broad categories (fruit. Changes in agricultural soil carbon were not tracked because it was assumed agricultural land in California has been under cultivation long enough that changes in soil carbon stocks based on soil types are minimal. Although there was an overall decrease in both woody and non-woody crops between 1987 and 1997. Line 15—Land Use Change & Forestry Emissions Winrock International tracked measurable decreases in canopy cover and the resulting decreases in carbon stocks (carbon emissions) separately from measurable increases in canopy cover (carbon storage). and other). and fire was the cause of emissions on rangelands. Agricultural land was categorized by the types of crop grown – woody or non-woody.

Line 16—Land Use Change & Forestry Sinks Since satellite imagery only identifies measurable changes in canopy coverage during the time interval.13 metric ton of carbon per metric ton of dolomite) and then converted to CO2 by multiplying by the molecular weight ratio of CO2 to carbon (44/12). Tonnage of lumber and urban yard trimmings disposed at landfills was obtained for 1990. Line 17— CO2 (Net) This line is Line 1 minus Line 16.30 metric tons of carbon per short ton of lumber. and 0.by the appropriate emissions factor (0. agricultural operations (enteric fermentation. waste operations (landfills and wastewater treatment). Therefore.12 metric ton of carbon per metric ton of limestone. moving acreage from private ownership to public ownership). and branches) were applied to obtain annual estimates of carbon emissions from theses sources. Agricultural sinks are estimated in the manner described above for Land Use Change and Forestry Emissions (Line 15).73 Emissions factors of -0. The methods used for Lumber Disposal and Yard Trimming Disposal are the same as the 1990-1999 inventory with new data as needed. rice fields and agricultural 47 .72 Tonnage values for 2004 were estimated by extrapolation from the 1999 and 2003 tonnage values. leaves. manure management.2082 tons of carbon per short ton of yard trimmings (grass. as was assumed in the 1990-1999 inventory. which is sequestered in anaerobic landfills. Methane Emissions Methane (CH4) emissions occur from operation of petroleum and natural gas supply systems. Landfilling Lumber and Urban Wood Waste Lumber and urban wood wastes disposed at landfills contain significant amounts of lignins. which contain carbon. Tracking carbon stocks through satellite imagery measured changes in canopy overcomes problems with apparent changes in stocks due to land reclassification (for example. carbon estimates are derived from FIA for forests and rangeland types with corresponding canopy closures. the tonnage reported represented lumber and wood trimmings entering the landfill and not the municipal waste stream. Emissions factors are negative because this carbon is sequestered within the landfill. These surveys inventoried disposal in place (in situ). and -0. and then converted to CO2 by multiplying by the molecular weight ratio of CO2 to carbon (44/12). 1999. and 2003 from the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) surveys.

Line 20—Natural Gas Supply System Additional natural gas supply system methane emissions were obtained in the same manner explained above for the petroleum and natural gas supply system. including emissions from the petroleum and natural gas supply system. Methane emissions were estimated by ARB from total organic gas (TOG) emissions using a speciation profile75 to determine the fraction of TOG comprised of methane. we used a GWP from the Second Assessment Report to be consistent with IPPC guidance and the U. Methane emissions are converted into CO2. well operations. Petroleum and natural gas field operations release fugitive methane from oil/water separators.burning).74 Essentially.9072 to convert from short tons to metric tons. ARB provided data in tons/day. and then by 0. 21. all will be evaluated using the newer number. and from mobile and stationary fuel combustion. Data were provided annually for 1990 to 2004. Petroleum marketing emissions also occur from barge loading. fittings and valves. The CARB’s most recent speciation profile is included in Appendix E. The current method uses data derived from local and regional analyses while the 1990-1999 GHG inventory method used national data. For this inventory. The current method is considered more representative of California’s GHG emissions. some subcategories were inadvertently evaluated using 23 times rather than 21 times. Line 18—Methane Total Emissions This line is the sum of Lines 19 to 28. all of the data have been made consistent using the older GWP. EPA methodology. local air districts provide detailed field data to ARB. These were multiplied by 365 to convert to tons per year. In the previous report covering the 1990 to 2002 period. Emissions also occur from operation of field reciprocating engines and from petroleum seeps. for this report. pumps and compressors. lightering and ballasting and tanker loading. ARB documents their methodology for estimating emissions and provides criteria pollutant emissions data on their website. who summarizes it into statewide emissions. Line 19—Petroleum & Natural Gas Supply System The ARB provided the Energy Commission a data file of estimated methane emissions from area sources. The current method combines emissions from both petroleum and natural gas extraction because they usually occur simultaneously in California due to the fact that natural gas is colocated and co-produced with crude oil. Once the newer GWPs become accepted for use (from the Third Assessment Report or later).S. Petroleum refining also releases small amounts of methane. In the meantime. 48 . The 100-year GWP for methane emissions is 21 times CO2 emissions.equivalent emissions by multiplying the methane emissions in millions of metric tons by their 100-year GWP.

if not. and climate at the waste disposal site. age of wastes placed. The amount of this oxidation is uncertain and varies by latitude of the landfill. 10 percent reduction due to oxidation is recommended. Current studies indicate emission factors used in the inventory for California cattle may be much higher than what is actually produced with the industry’s feeding regimes and may overstate 49 . which includes emissions associated with producing both petroleum and natural gas. These data are collected by local air regulatory agencies and are considered a better representation of California GHG emissions than the method used for the 1990-1999 GHG inventory. but the results are not yet available. soil characteristics. aimed at reducing the quantities of wastes placed annually. Line 21—Landfill Emissions Landfill methane emissions occur from organic decomposition of wastes placed in them. Quantities of methane generated by ruminant animals are much greater than from non-ruminant animals. Methane emissions from California landfills were obtained in the same manner explained above for the petroleum supply system.76 the age and weight of the animal. including methane recovery for electricity production. In California. and dairy products are the state’s number one agricultural commodity. These are included in Line 20. Local air pollution district personnel provided these data to the Air Resources Board and are in the process of reviewing and updating this information.Some natural gas methane emissions are embedded in line 19. The quantity of methane generated at a landfill depends upon the amount of waste placed. composition of wastes placed. These monthly values are estimates and the method implies an accuracy that is not justified. and characteristics of feeding. most landfills have methods of controlling these emissions. US EPA guidance is to use local oxidation rates if available. therefore. methane flaring. and other factors. Most methane production typically occurs one to two years after waste placement and significant emissions can occur for up to 60 years. California is the leading dairy state in the nation. the focus of the quantification is on California’s largest population of ruminant animals–cattle. Line 22—Enteric Fermentation The amount of methane emissions from a domesticated animal depends on whether the animal is a ruminant. Additional natural gas methane emissions occur from wet gas stripping and field separation and especially from natural gas transmission losses. California has an aggressive waste diversion program. the dairy cattle population has increased significantly. In addition. Although beef cattle populations have declined over the last 12 years. methane oxidation in the landfill cover material (or surface layer) also reduces the net emissions. The 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory77 modeled each stage of the cattle population monthly from birth to slaughter.

Livestock manure produces methane by anaerobic decomposition of the manure for that fraction that is managed in a liquid storage system such as lagoons. Diets higher in energy content produce more methane. or pits. for an explanation of the method used to estimate these emissions. Horses Non-equine animal populations were obtained from California Livestock and Dairy Reports. methane emissions increase. and by size) 2. Equine populations were estimated from 1999 data for horse populations but are probably low because data is not collected for groups of fewer than 50 horses. The ARB is developing new emissions factors for regulatory purposes. annual data for cattle and other agricultural livestock population (head) were taken from the California Agricultural Statistics Services (CASS). California specific emission factors from the 1990-1999 inventory were applied to these animal populations. ponds.emissions. Line 23—Manure Management Methane emissions from livestock are generated through manure management systems. and these should be used in future updates to the inventory. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with new or revised data as available. The reader is referred to the 1990-1999 California GHG inventory. Methane emissions are based on the quantity of volatile solids produced by livestock. and County Agricultural Commissioners’ Data. Poultry (by type) 4. 50 . Goats 6. tanks. As ambient temperatures and moisture levels increase. etc. The annual average animal populations were tabulated for: 1.0 representing practices that tend to maximize methane production. This is determined from typical animal mass (TAM) and livestock populations.78 pages 109 to 115. Little or no methane is produced from methane managed as a solid or deposited on rangeland. Cattle (by type such as dairy or beef. For this inventory. Emission factors for each type of livestock varies considerably since domestic livestock types vary from cattle to poultry. Sheep (by type) 5. This method increases the GHG emissions by approximately 10 percent within the category. These are adjusted by multiplying by a management factor to represent the percentage of emissions based upon type of management practice with zero representing practices that eliminate emissions and 1. Methane emissions are estimated using emissions rates typical of each type of animal. Swine (by type and by size) 3.

apricot. Adding cherry. barley. annual acreage in hectares is multiplied by an emissions factor of 122 kilogram methane per hectare. The percentage of the residues burned in the field was applied to these total amounts. The methodology for estimating GHG emissions from field burning of agricultural residues was based on the type and amount of residues produced. Acreage data for rice was obtained from the CASS. see Line 34) released during combustion. Methane emissions from rice cultivation is small – representing less than 2 percent of the total methane emissions tracked for California. This is multiplied by the GWP of 21 times CO2 from the Second Assessment Report. and the remaining methane is diffused to the atmosphere. These factors range from 18 percent for cattle and goats to 48 percent for swine.79 which represents rice soil temperatures and management practices throughout the eight rice-growing states. with all values depending on type of animal and typical management practice. Essentially. Some of the methane is oxidized. and then divided to obtain million metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Line 25—Burning Agricultural Residues and Other Wastes Field burning is often used to dispose of pruned branches from crops and to dispose of unwanted crop components such as rice straw and field stubble. The methane emission factor used was based on California studies and is lower than the average factor used by the EPA. Agricultural burning is divided into two categories – crop residue burning and other agricultural waste burning.Emission factors are based on national animal characteristics and should be updated to reflect California-specific values in future updates to the inventory. The inventory used California-specific factors for residue tonnages per crop acreage to determine total amounts of non-woody and woody residues. wheat. California does not grow ratoon rice. some is leached to ground water. and woody or orchard/vineyard residues. walnuts. California’s crop residue profile differs from the national profile. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory80 with new or revised data as available. Burning permits for other agricultural wastes were used to determine other non-crop agricultural burning. corn. primarily through the rice plants. Line 24—Flooded Rice Fields Anaerobic decomposition of organic material by methanogenic bacteria in flooded rice fields produces methane. Crop residues are identified as non-woody or field residues. and the crop specific emission factors for methane (and nitrous oxide. and rice produce almost 98 percent of the field and woody crop residue burned in California. and grape residue captures 51 . Although methane emissions increase significantly with ratoon or secondary crops grown from stubble. Almonds.

Other Waste Burning Some other agricultural wastes produced and burned in California cannot be calculated based on crop acreages. California’s cultivated rice acreage increased from 425. The methodology is the same as the 1990-1999 inventory.almost 100 percent of the agricultural residues burned in California.000 acres in 2004. except the data was generated by ARB staff.000 acres in 1990. biochemical oxygen demand estimated by the “five-day test” (BOD5) is estimated at 0. not local air quality districts. These are calculated using California population data and appropriate generation rates and emissions factors from EPA. to 595. First. Line 27—Mobile Source Combustion Methane emissions from mobile sources were obtained in the same manner explained above for the petroleum supply system. These emissions are tracked through agricultural burning permits administered by individual air districts. The ARB maintains a database of agricultural emissions based on these permits and supplements these data with estimates where permit information is not available. However. This change is reflected in the inventory data.6 kilograms of methane per kilogram of BOD5. except it uses ARB computer representation of the California fleet and is likely to be more detailed than the 1990-1999 approach. to 25 percent for 2001 and later years. especially since grape acreages have increased substantially in recent years. 52 .81 and rice residue tonnage has increased proportionally. The anaerobic treatment fraction of BOD5 is estimated at 16. Changes in rice residue burning practices have decreased the amount of rice straw burned. wild fires. the percent of rice residue burned has decreased from 99 percent before 2001.” These emissions include non-agricultural open burning. Line 26—Wastewater Treatment Anaerobic degradation of waste water produces methane emissions. The estimated Agricultural Crop Residues emissions based on acreages were subtracted from the emissions inventory provided by ARB to get a category we call “Other Agricultural Waste Burning. but the emission factors have been updated as of June 2003. This updated data source is similar to the overall approach used in the 1990-1999 inventory. and other miscellaneous waste burning. These factors are multiplied together to get the daily methane production rate and then multiplied by 365 to get a yearly value. Emissions for this subcategory are estimated as described above. and the methane generation rate is assumed to be 0.25 percent. Agricultural Crop Residues Acreage data for all crops are taken from the annual Crop Reports compiled by the California County Agricultural Commissioners and from the California Agricultural Statistics Service.065 kilogram per capita per day.

Commercial stationary source methane emissions include diesel and liquefied petroleum gas used in trains. cooking. natural gas. Industrial methane emissions also include natural gas used in airport ground equipment.90 (for natural gas and wood) to convert HHV to lower heating value (LHV).0 for petroleum. Multiply by 1055 to convert from LHV BTUs to Joules. and heavy-duty trucks). and commercial off-road equipment.0 for natural gas and coal. 3. which is consistent with the fact that they did not include all electricity production.95 (for coal and oil) or by 0. for diesel vehicles (passenger cars. light-. asphalt paving and roofing. and wood higher heating value (HHV) energy consumption data from the EIA for 1990 to 2004. off-road vehicles. 53 . oil. and 30. and other industrial processes. and trains. and others. Multiply by the appropriate emission factor (1. Additional commercial methane emissions are associated with wood and paper processing. food and agricultural processing. and others). Industrial stationary source methane emissions include gasoline and diesel used in a variety of equipment. boats. commercial lawn and garden equipment. Another commercial activity is commercial cooking. motorcycles. including manufacturing and industrial sectors. 4. Line 28—Stationary Source Combustion Methane emissions from electricity combustion were developed in the following manner: 1. light-. Methane emissions from other stationary source combustion were developed in the same manner explained above for the petroleum supply system. boats. ships and commercial boats. mineral processing. The ARB values were lower. The ARB data were not used for electricity production because the data indicated that these values were only for cogeneration. medium-. and heavy-duty vehicles. medium-. and for aviation. Multiply by the GWP (21 for methane. off-road equipment of all types. 6. Adjust to million metric tons. Commercial methane emissions also include natural gas emissions from commercial water and space heating. industrial equipment.The ARB provided data for gasoline vehicles (passenger cars. 5. Multiply by 0. surface treatment. using data from the ARB. 3. second assessment report) to convert to CO2-equivalents. 2.0 for wood) to convert from gigajoule to grams of methane. Obtain coal.

space heating. 1992. waste combustion. Line 29—Nitrous Oxide Total Emissions This line is the sum of Lines 30 to 37. EPA methodology. and values after 1998 were held constant at 1998 capacity. The GWP for nitrous oxide emissions is 310 times CO2 emissions. California’s percentage of the national production capacity decreased steadily from 3. and from mobile and stationary fuel combustion. For this inventory. and processing nuclear fuel. rocket propellant. we choose a GWP from the Second Assessment Report to be consistent with IPPC guidance and the U. and cooking. California’s nitrous oxide emissions were estimated using the same method as the 1990-1999 GHG inventory. for treating stainless steel.S. manure management. Nitrous oxide is a by-product of making nitric acid.0 percent in 1990. 1996. 1995. Values for intervening years were estimated by interpolation. 54 . and explosives. Other stationary source methane emissions include timber and brush fires. natural gas used in water heating. Line 30—Nitric Acid Production Nitric acid is used for producing synthetic fertilizer. all will be evaluated using the newer number. and burning of agricultural residues). 310. Residential methane emissions are also associated with wood combustion in wood stoves and fireplaces. structure fires. holding this percentage constant for 1999 through 2004 may slightly overstate California’s nitrous oxide emissions from nitric acid production. In the meantime. Nitrous oxide emissions are converted into CO2equivalent emissions by multiplying the N2O emissions in millions of metric tons by their 100-year GWP.82 The first step was to develop a ratio of California’s nitric acid production capacity to the federal production capacity and then multiplying this ratio times the national estimates of CO2-equivalent nitrous oxide emissions from nitric acid production. agricultural activities (agricultural soil management. California’s nitric acid production capacity data were available for 1990. Nitrous Oxide Emissions Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions occur from nitric acid production. 1993. In the previous report covering the 1990 to 2002 period. making adipic acid. the data have been made consistent using the older GWP. and 1998.Residential stationary source methane emissions include LPG and distillate oil combustion. and other processes not specified. Thus. Once the newer GWPs become accepted for use (from the Third Assessment Report or later). some subcategories were inadvertently evaluated using 296 times rather than 310 times. for metal etching.4 percent in 1998. human sewage treatment. to 1.

All values are specific to type of animal and the feeding regimen. these may evolve to anaerobic conditions after rainfall. and the amount of leaching and runoff.Line 31—Waste Combustion CO2 and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere occur when MSW is combusted to make electricity. This method is the same as used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory with the following exception. California specific factors for sorghum. Nitrous oxide emissions are estimated in the same manner but using an emission factor of 0. the residue-to-crop mass ratio and the fraction of residue applied was adjusted down for barley. the residue tonnages produced and incorporated into the soil were based on a residue-to-crop mass ratio. The remaining sources of nitrous oxide from manure management are estimated in this category of emissions. and wheat to reflect California factors for the amount of residue produced per acre and the fractions not burned. Line 32—Agricultural Soil Management Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils are affected by fertilizer use. followed by further decomposition to nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions. rye. and beans were not determined for this inventory. the type of soil. including manure and urine in pastures and rangeland. soybeans. and in paddocks. they were up to five times greater than were calculated for agricultural burning.80 (80 percent is assumed to not volatialize) and remain behind to decompose. A portion of the nitrous oxide generated from these wastes is included under Agricultural Soil Management (Line 32). See Line 14 (above) for a brief description of waste combustion and resulting CO2 emissions. corn. rice. oats. Therefore. This is called “total Kjeldahl nitrogen” and is estimated by multiplying animal population times TAM and the ratio of TAM to Kjeldahl nitrogen. TAM and Kjeldahl nitrogen values are based on national animal characteristics and should be updated to reflect California-specific values in future updates to the inventory. as well as manure used as a soil amendment. When these tonnages were compared to the total tonnages produced based on California factors (see Burning Ag Residues). In the 1990-1999 inventory. peanuts.0001 ton of nitrous oxide emitted per ton of municipal solid waste combusted. Dry lot systems are generally aerobic. Nitrous oxide emissions from this sector depend heavily on amount of un-volatilized organic nitrogen and ammonia in manure. amounts and types of residues incorporated into the soil. times 0. Line 33—Manure Management Nitrous oxide emissions from manure (and urine) occur from a nitrification process when ammonia in the waste first decomposes to nitrites in the presence of oxygen (aerobic conditions). However. animal manures. 55 .

Divide by 1. Line 36—Mobile Source Combustion Combustion of gasoline and diesel in internal combustion engines releases small quantities of nitrous oxide in the exhaust. analysis assumes the value also applies through 2004).S. These are not yet included in the California inventory but should be added. Multiply by GWP of nitrous oxide to obtain metric tons of CO2.Line 34—Burning Agricultural Residues Crop-specific nitrous oxide emissions are calculated in the same manner as methane emissions from burning agricultural residues (Line 25). These were adjusted to tons per year by multiplying by 365. Multiply by 44/28 (ratio of molecular weight of nitrous oxide to atomic weight of nitrogen). Industrial wastewater emissions occur from processing fruits and vegetables. red meat and poultry. Line 35—Wastewater (formerly. converting nitrate to nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions. Human Sewage) Nitrous oxide emissions occur as a natural by-product of organic-laden domestic (human sewage) and industrial waste water.equivalent.000 to get million metric tons CO2-equivalent.9072. Municipal wastewater emits nitrous oxide as a consequence of nitrogen in protein digested in the human diet. ARB staff provided annual nitrous oxide emissions from gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles from their EMFAC model. Multiply by 0. These emissions are estimated in the following steps: Obtain U. This is the same approach used in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory. per capita protein consumption from the EPA Emissions Inventory Improvement Program guidance document83 (this data shows the same value for 1998 to 2000. The rate of emissions depends on engine type and type of pollution control applied to the engine. 56 .01 kilogram N2O-N per kilogram N. except nitrous oxide emissions factors are substituted for methane emissions factors. and by the nitrous oxide GWP to convert to CO2-equivalents.000. Multiply by the state population for each year. then from short tons to metric tons by multiplying by 0. and pulp and paper.

natural gas = 0. Line 39—Substitution of Ozone-Depleting Substances Several anthropogenic substances have been linked to ozone depletion over the Earth’s Polar Regions and are being phased out due to international agreements. in units of grams nitrous oxide per gigajoule of fuel use: coal = 1. The exact combination of compounds is difficult to estimate. we choose GWPs for each gas from the Second Assessment Report to be consistent with IPPC guidance and the U. and wood = 4. Values were derived for electricity generation. and these are associated with global warming. about 12 percent. including trifluoromethane. emissions were calculated using fuel consumption data from the EIA’s State Energy Data Report for 1990 to 2001.S.85 Line 40—Semiconductor Manufacture Semiconductor manufacturing releases several compounds that have strong global warming impacts. Stationary Source Combustion (methane) for electricity production. etc. This is the same method used in the 1990-1999 GHG inventory. The GWP for high GWP gases is different for each gas.0 High GWP Gas Emissions High GWP gas emissions include atmospheric release of gases used in place of ozone-depleting gases.1. 57 . and residential fuel uses. The process is the same as Line 28. commercial/ institutional. A wide range of replacement substances are being used in increasing amounts in the United States. Because data were no more current than 2001 and magnitude of emissions is small.84 Line 38—High GWP Gas Total Emissions This line is the sum of Lines 39 to 41. High GWP gas emissions are converted into CO2-equivalent emissions by multiplying the methane emissions in millions of metric tons by their 100-year GWP. and SF6. except the emission factor in Step 4 is replaced with the appropriate value for nitrous oxide. solvents. perfluoromehtane. foams. ODS emissions by the ratio of California-to-United States population. Instead. perfluoroethane. semiconductor manufacturing. and electricity transmission and distribution. S. These ozone-depleting substances (ODS) were historically used in industrial refrigeration and space conditioning equipment.4.Line 37—Stationary Source Combustion Nitrous oxide data were not available from the ARB. petroleum = 0. Substitution of ozone-depleting gases involves a number of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). California ODS GHG emissions were estimated by scaling U. Most of the values used in this inventory are shown in Table 5 of the 1990-1999 California GHG inventory. For this inventory. EPA methodology.6. values for 2002 through 2004 were assumed to equal 2001 values. industrial.

8 42. especially in older equipment.S.88 Table A-1. Petroleum Products .California GHG emissions from semiconductor manufacturing operations were estimated by scaling U.0 43.6 44. SF6 emissions are estimated from national values. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is used to insulate this equipment and can leak out.Refinery Still Gas Emission Factor (lb C/mm BTU) 31.5 43. expressed in GWh. prorated by ratio of California to national energy consumption.6 58 . Fossil Fuel Emissions Factors and Percentage Oxidized (Fuels Where Values Do Not Vary from Year to Year) Percent Oxidized 99. Line 41—Electricity Transmission & Distribution (Sulfur Hexafluoride) Electricity transmission and distribution requires the use of circuit breakers.Kerosene .87 This approach probably overstates California’s sulfur hexafluoride emissions because California utilities are implementing procedures to control their SF6 emissions and reduce their maintenance costs.Asphalt . California utilities are finding that they can reduce maintenance costs by better management of SF6.9 45.86 This approach may underestimate California emissions due to the significance of this industry to California.Misc.8 44.Liquefied Petroleum Gas .5 99 99 99 99 99 99.7 61. The Second Assessment Report GWP for SF6 is 23. This is the same method as the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory.Aviation Gasoline .5 41.Jet Fuel . and switch gear. Fortunately. This method is the same method as the 1990-1999 GHG inventory.5 99 99 99 99 Fuel Natural Gas Petroleum Products .5 37.Petroleum Coke .Distillate . However. so a small amount of SF6 can significantly impact global warming. semiconductor manufacturing emissions by the ratio of California-to-United States population.Motor Gasoline . since California-specific data are not currently available. Emissions also occur during installation and servicing. about 12 percent. gas-insulated substations.4 38.900 times that of CO2.

66 55.66 55.80 56.69 56.Commercial .78 2000 to 2004 55.75 1997 55.75 1996 55.66 55. Fossil Fuel Emissions Factors and Percentage Oxidized (Fuels Where Values Vary from Year to Year) Percent Oxidized Coal .62 1991 55.71 56.66 56.66 55.67 55.66 56.80 56.Industrial .66 55.66 55.67 1994 55.66 55.78 1999 55.65 1992 55.78 (Assume 2000 to 2004 values are constant at 1999 values) 59 .66 55.66 56.80 56.Utility 99 99 99 1990 55.70 1995 55.79 56.69 55.78 1998 55.65 1993 55.Table A-2.66 55.66 56.80 56.

910 198 10.510 8.6 (Shaded areas extrapolated from 1993-98) 17.200 637 11.410 1999 10.9 199.6 185.Portland .3 23.9 28. 1992 assumed equal to 1993) 502 506 502 501 520 511 518 514 514 511 510 514 60 .9 35.2 207.100 564 10.766 2000 10.2 178.2 193.3 27.5 23.7 182.510 1994 9.178 1992 7.Table A-3.289 7.837 313.2 23.2 228.874 8.178 8.300 466 10.7 185. Minerals Production in California (Thousand Metric Tons) 1990 Cement .108 1997 10.289 1993 8.640 99 9.360 154 9.469 1998 10.300 169 10.0 203.000 410 10.664 2002-04 11.4 25.874 1991 8.0 26.2 25.2 181.Masonry Total Cement Lime Production Limestone & Dolomite Soda Ash Consumption 522 8.900 484 11.7 254.514 1996 9.8 18.2 278.384 2001 10.7 (1990 assumed equal to 1991.739 1995 9.

Table A-4
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Full Detail--California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO 2E)
2004

pe

Gas/Source

61

Carbon Dioxide Residential Natural Gas Petroleum LPG Kerosene Distillate Commercial Coal Natural Gas Education College School Food Services Restaurant Food & Liquor Retail & Wholesale Retail Warehouse Warehouse, refrigerated Health Care Hotel Office Transportation Services Transportation Water Transportation Airports Communication U.S. Postal Service Telephone & Cell Phone Service Other Message Communication Radio Broadcasting Stations Non-Specified (Communication) Utilities Electric, Nat'l Gas, Steam Sewerage Systems Water Supply Street Lights National Security Non-specified (Services) Petroleum LPG Motor Gasoline Kerosene Distillate Residual Oil Industrial Natural Gas Agriculture Crop Production Livestock Production Irrigation Other Mining Metal Coal Minerals Manufacturing Food Food Processing Sugar & Confections Non-specified (Food Processing) Tobacco

317.43 28.97 27.52 1.44 1.30 0.05 0.09 12.65 0.05 9.40 1.41 0.69 0.71 1.88 1.62 0.25 0.60 0.29 0.31 0.00 1.31 0.67 1.45 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.34 0.14 0.07 0.12 0.00 0.56 1.09 3.20 0.23 0.71 0.07 1.78 0.41 66.12 27.81 0.54 0.44 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 12.32 3.05 1.19 0.46 1.40 0.00

310.78 29.54 27.84 1.70 1.57 0.04 0.08 11.99 0.09 8.71 1.27 0.60 0.67 1.87 1.63 0.25 0.55 0.26 0.29 0.00 1.32 0.65 1.39 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.16 0.07 0.10 0.00 0.64 0.57 3.18 0.28 0.61 0.04 1.89 0.37 64.77 27.56 0.50 0.42 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 11.68 3.25 1.32 0.47 1.46 0.00

316.28 27.86 26.62 1.24 1.09 0.05 0.10 9.70 0.00 7.94 1.08 0.53 0.55 1.85 1.61 0.24 0.54 0.22 0.32 0.00 1.12 0.62 1.27 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.16 0.08 0.11 0.00 0.54 0.48 1.77 0.19 0.55 0.02 0.99 0.02 61.32 24.25 0.48 0.41 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 10.51 3.21 1.36 0.37 1.49 0.00

311.35 28.42 27.15 1.27 1.14 0.04 0.10 9.61 0.27 8.00 1.12 0.54 0.57 1.87 1.62 0.25 0.61 0.23 0.24 0.15 1.05 0.60 1.31 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.27 0.10 0.07 0.10 0.00 0.54 0.56 1.35 0.20 0.10 0.01 1.03 0.01 64.30 24.70 0.41 0.34 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 10.43 3.26 1.33 0.41 1.53 0.00

329.76 29.26 28.00 1.26 1.13 0.04 0.10 10.25 0.34 8.59 1.27 0.69 0.58 1.90 1.64 0.26 0.65 0.24 0.26 0.15 1.22 0.62 1.40 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.29 0.11 0.08 0.10 0.00 0.50 0.65 1.32 0.20 0.08 0.01 1.03 0.00 66.00 25.15 0.62 0.45 0.05 0.12 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 11.04 3.25 1.24 0.47 1.53 0.00

313.68 26.65 25.46 1.20 1.11 0.01 0.08 9.80 0.27 7.83 0.98 0.51 0.47 1.89 1.64 0.25 0.59 0.19 0.37 0.03 1.13 0.60 1.31 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.32 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.00 0.40 0.53 1.70 0.20 0.09 0.01 1.40 0.00 62.58 28.31 0.53 0.40 0.05 0.08 0.00 0.31 0.01 0.00 0.30 11.10 3.16 1.35 0.42 1.39 0.00

318.60 26.61 25.59 1.02 0.92 0.03 0.06 9.58 0.38 7.82 0.94 0.47 0.47 1.94 1.68 0.26 0.49 0.19 0.27 0.03 1.14 0.60 1.36 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.41 0.17 0.13 0.11 0.00 0.36 0.47 1.38 0.16 0.08 0.01 1.12 0.01 68.81 31.89 0.59 0.49 0.05 0.05 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.34 11.47 3.11 1.39 0.27 1.44 0.00

328.82 26.34 25.41 0.93 0.83 0.03 0.07 9.61 0.22 8.07 1.04 0.56 0.48 2.02 1.74 0.28 0.55 0.19 0.32 0.03 1.15 0.61 1.35 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.39 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.00 0.46 0.40 1.32 0.15 0.08 0.01 1.09 0.00 73.00 35.24 0.66 0.57 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.32 11.14 3.14 1.37 0.23 1.54 0.00

346.40 30.60 29.12 1.49 1.38 0.04 0.07 13.49 0.23 11.70 1.26 0.68 0.58 2.15 1.84 0.31 0.56 0.23 0.30 0.04 1.24 0.64 1.54 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 3.98 3.71 0.18 0.10 0.00 0.34 -0.12 1.55 0.24 0.09 0.01 1.17 0.04 75.37 38.72 0.72 0.63 0.06 0.03 0.00 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.39 12.57 3.56 1.60 0.30 1.66 0.00

348.69 31.91 30.50 1.41 1.29 0.05 0.08 14.77 0.06 13.15 1.38 0.74 0.64 2.26 1.93 0.33 0.62 0.25 0.33 0.04 1.35 0.67 1.75 0.06 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 4.10 3.79 0.17 0.13 0.00 0.29 0.60 1.56 0.23 0.08 0.03 1.22 0.00 70.96 35.09 0.86 0.70 0.08 0.08 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.32 12.04 3.74 1.66 0.36 1.73 0.00

368.30 30.25 28.53 1.71 1.55 0.06 0.11 15.63 0.05 13.88 1.39 0.84 0.55 2.33 1.99 0.33 0.60 0.22 0.33 0.04 1.31 0.67 1.60 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 4.85 4.53 0.16 0.16 0.00 0.24 0.78 1.70 0.23 0.09 0.02 1.37 0.00 76.17 36.70 0.95 0.75 0.09 0.11 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.33 12.37 3.72 1.51 0.40 1.81 0.00

372.52 27.21 25.92 1.29 1.07 0.10 0.13 12.04 0.00 10.46 0.95 0.54 0.41 2.10 1.80 0.31 0.22 0.20 0.00 0.02 1.15 0.61 1.35 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 3.16 2.94 0.14 0.09 0.00 0.30 0.52 1.58 0.23 0.09 0.03 1.21 0.02 80.48 36.66 0.63 0.54 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.29 13.07 3.17 1.19 0.34 1.64 0.00

365.35 27.32 25.98 1.34 1.20 0.08 0.06 17.84 0.00 16.56 1.14 0.62 0.53 2.23 1.93 0.30 0.58 0.26 0.29 0.03 1.18 0.62 1.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.00 3.51 3.34 0.08 0.09 0.00 0.17 5.21 1.28 0.23 0.09 0.01 0.95 0.00 71.53 31.34 0.65 0.57 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.39 10.72 3.15 1.43 0.00 1.73 0.00

347.08 26.40 25.06 1.33 1.20 0.08 0.05 15.06 0.00 13.93 1.10 0.63 0.47 2.33 2.02 0.30 0.58 0.27 0.27 0.04 1.21 0.61 1.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.01 3.86 3.47 0.13 0.25 0.00 0.17 2.21 1.12 0.23 0.09 0.02 0.78 0.00 65.47 27.30 0.64 0.57 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.00 0.00 0.41 8.28 2.83 1.24 0.00 1.59 0.00

355.88 27.86 26.49 1.37 1.20 0.11 0.06 12.19 0.00 11.13 1.15 0.66 0.49 2.49 2.11 0.38 0.57 0.25 0.26 0.06 1.27 0.63 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.01 2.89 2.43 0.26 0.20 0.00 0.18 0.00 1.05 0.23 0.10 0.03 0.70 0.00 67.13 30.41 0.67 0.61 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.13 7.73 3.02 1.30 0.00 1.72 0.00

Table A-4
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Full Detail--California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO 2E)
2004

pe

Gas/Source

Textiles Textile Mills Leather Apparel Wood & Furniture Lumber & Wood Products Furnature & Fixtures Pulp & Paper Pulp Mills Paper Mills Paperboard Mills Non-specified (Pulp & Paper) Printing & Publishing Chemicals & Allied Products Plastics & Rubber Plastics Non-specified (Plastics & Rubber) Stone, Clay, Glass, Cement & Other Flat Glass Glass containers Cement

Non-specified (Stone, Clay, Glass & Cement)

62

Primary Metals Metal Durables Fabricated Metal Products Computers & Office Machines Industrial Machinery & Equipment Electric & Eletronic Equipment Telephone & Broadcasting Equipment Semiconductors & Related Products Non-specified (Elec. Equipment) Transportation Equipment Instruments & Related Products Construction Non-specified (Industrial) Energy Industrial Sector Transformation at Refinery Refining Oil & Gas Extraction Flaring Natural Gas Liquids Petroleum LPG Manufacturing Chemicals & Allied Products Non-specified (Industry) Oil Refinery Use Motor Gasoline Construction Non-specified (Agriculture) Non-speified (Industrial) Refinery Still Gas Kerosene Industrial Agricultural Distillate Agriculture Industry Oil and Gas Extraction Oil Refinery Use Residual Oil Refining Oil & Gas Extraction Industry

0.38 0.32 0.01 0.04 0.23 0.18 0.05 1.79 0.06 0.39 0.90 0.44 0.11 1.75 0.23 0.18 0.05 1.82 0.09 0.68 0.18 0.87 0.94 0.91 0.58 0.13 0.20 0.35 0.06 0.19 0.10 0.53 0.07 0.12 0.04 14.78 0.00 4.38 10.39 0.15 0.10 35.23 1.63 0.83 0.19 0.64 0.80 1.17 0.00 0.00 1.17 15.69 0.01 0.01 0.00 7.35 3.29 3.85 0.21 0.00 0.82 0.21 0.01 0.59

0.35 0.30 0.01 0.04 0.22 0.18 0.04 1.52 0.08 0.33 0.73 0.38 0.12 1.57 0.22 0.17 0.05 1.64 0.06 0.64 0.19 0.75 0.89 0.82 0.58 0.12 0.12 0.33 0.04 0.20 0.09 0.53 0.09 0.11 0.03 15.28 0.00 4.11 11.17 0.07 0.06 34.15 1.47 0.55 0.19 0.36 0.92 1.21 0.00 0.00 1.21 15.63 0.01 0.01 0.00 6.01 2.70 3.20 0.11 0.00 0.81 0.21 0.03 0.57

0.35 0.31 0.00 0.04 0.23 0.19 0.04 1.04 0.13 0.25 0.35 0.32 0.11 1.21 0.19 0.15 0.04 1.60 0.08 0.62 0.17 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.55 0.10 0.12 0.32 0.04 0.19 0.09 0.53 0.08 0.08 0.03 13.14 0.00 3.73 9.41 0.08 0.08 34.41 2.36 0.79 0.22 0.58 1.57 1.22 0.00 0.00 1.22 15.11 0.01 0.01 0.00 5.45 3.17 2.14 0.14 0.00 0.81 0.16 0.06 0.58

0.39 0.34 0.01 0.04 0.25 0.22 0.04 1.15 0.05 0.40 0.40 0.30 0.12 0.97 0.19 0.15 0.04 1.53 0.09 0.61 0.19 0.65 0.76 0.78 0.55 0.10 0.13 0.29 0.03 0.18 0.09 0.51 0.10 0.09 0.03 13.78 1.30 3.68 8.81 0.04 0.08 37.65 1.65 0.59 0.21 0.39 1.05 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.99 18.72 0.01 0.01 0.00 5.63 3.10 2.37 0.16 0.00 0.75 0.18 0.00 0.57

0.43 0.38 0.01 0.04 0.26 0.22 0.04 1.55 0.03 0.67 0.54 0.30 0.13 1.12 0.19 0.15 0.04 1.47 0.08 0.60 0.13 0.66 0.85 0.76 0.53 0.09 0.14 0.29 0.02 0.18 0.08 0.51 0.09 0.09 0.03 13.43 1.89 3.15 8.39 0.03 0.08 38.57 1.80 0.64 0.22 0.42 1.16 1.02 0.00 0.00 1.02 18.95 0.01 0.01 0.01 6.09 3.17 2.77 0.14 0.01 0.74 0.18 0.00 0.56

0.43 0.39 0.00 0.04 0.40 0.36 0.04 1.57 0.00 0.65 0.65 0.27 0.15 1.11 0.20 0.16 0.04 1.54 0.09 0.53 0.19 0.73 0.79 0.79 0.56 0.08 0.15 0.28 0.02 0.18 0.08 0.47 0.08 0.09 0.03 16.34 1.26 4.27 10.81 0.04 0.07 31.85 1.34 0.55 0.22 0.33 0.79 1.05 0.00 0.00 1.05 13.26 0.01 0.01 0.00 5.12 2.55 2.47 0.10 0.00 0.77 0.12 0.00 0.65

0.45 0.40 0.00 0.04 0.35 0.31 0.04 1.84 0.00 0.71 0.82 0.31 0.14 1.16 0.20 0.16 0.04 1.64 0.16 0.53 0.19 0.77 0.82 0.81 0.57 0.08 0.16 0.29 0.02 0.20 0.07 0.43 0.09 0.11 0.03 19.42 2.62 5.61 11.18 0.07 0.04 34.06 1.01 0.45 0.24 0.21 0.56 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.99 15.33 0.01 0.01 0.01 5.12 2.87 2.20 0.05 0.00 0.21 0.09 0.00 0.12

0.48 0.43 0.00 0.05 0.30 0.27 0.04 1.48 0.00 0.48 0.72 0.28 0.14 0.98 0.23 0.18 0.04 1.70 0.17 0.51 0.16 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.59 0.08 0.16 0.31 0.02 0.21 0.08 0.44 0.09 0.13 0.04 23.04 2.01 5.86 15.18 0.07 0.04 34.38 0.84 0.39 0.24 0.14 0.46 1.04 0.00 0.00 1.04 15.16 0.01 0.01 0.01 6.07 3.62 2.39 0.05 0.00 0.10 0.06 0.00 0.04

0.51 0.46 0.00 0.04 0.31 0.26 0.04 1.78 0.20 0.57 0.69 0.32 0.15 1.31 0.25 0.21 0.04 1.87 0.16 0.54 0.23 0.94 0.86 0.86 0.60 0.09 0.17 0.33 0.03 0.22 0.09 0.48 0.10 0.15 0.06 24.94 2.52 5.48 16.94 0.09 0.04 32.77 0.66 0.37 0.25 0.12 0.29 1.17 0.00 0.00 1.17 14.93 0.02 0.02 0.00 5.61 3.33 2.22 0.06 0.00 0.08 0.06 0.00 0.02

0.56 0.52 0.00 0.04 0.30 0.26 0.05 1.39 0.00 0.56 0.53 0.30 0.15 1.05 0.27 0.22 0.04 1.70 0.17 0.51 0.14 0.88 0.88 0.81 0.59 0.09 0.13 0.37 0.03 0.23 0.11 0.51 0.11 0.13 0.06 21.76 1.87 5.00 14.90 0.10 0.04 31.44 0.78 0.52 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.69 0.00 0.00 0.69 13.66 0.05 0.04 0.00 6.51 3.91 2.48 0.11 0.00 0.33 0.03 0.01 0.28

0.57 0.53 0.00 0.04 0.30 0.26 0.05 1.61 0.20 0.54 0.58 0.29 0.12 1.28 0.27 0.23 0.04 1.67 0.15 0.50 0.16 0.86 0.91 0.81 0.60 0.09 0.12 0.34 0.03 0.22 0.09 0.50 0.10 0.12 0.06 22.98 2.07 5.57 15.34 0.07 0.21 34.95 0.76 0.30 0.24 0.06 0.47 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.71 13.12 0.07 0.07 0.00 8.16 3.98 4.09 0.10 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.05

0.46 0.42 0.00 0.03 0.32 0.28 0.04 1.43 0.00 0.50 0.63 0.30 0.11 1.06 0.20 0.16 0.03 1.49 0.12 0.45 0.11 0.82 0.75 0.75 0.57 0.07 0.10 0.26 0.03 0.16 0.07 0.44 0.09 0.10 2.43 22.55 1.81 4.87 15.86 0.11 0.19 39.44 0.97 0.30 0.22 0.08 0.66 1.64 0.47 0.36 0.81 14.80 0.07 0.06 0.00 9.18 3.99 5.07 0.10 0.02 0.23 0.00 0.22 0.01

0.10 0.07 0.00 0.03 0.16 0.12 0.04 0.93 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.19 0.08 1.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.31 0.00 0.57 0.17 0.56 0.67 0.81 0.53 0.17 0.10 0.21 0.00 0.17 0.04 0.41 0.00 0.09 1.76 19.48 0.65 5.45 13.38 0.09 0.03 35.90 0.76 0.51 0.22 0.29 0.25 1.74 0.51 0.39 0.85 14.70 0.03 0.01 0.01 6.28 3.58 2.58 0.12 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.07 0.02

0.08 0.06 0.00 0.02 0.13 0.09 0.04 0.94 0.00 0.66 0.09 0.18 0.08 0.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.00 0.53 0.17 0.53 0.67 0.68 0.44 0.15 0.09 0.18 0.00 0.15 0.03 0.28 0.00 0.10 0.47 17.84 0.65 1.82 15.36 0.14 0.03 33.87 0.99 0.51 0.22 0.29 0.48 1.81 0.51 0.40 0.90 15.68 0.01 0.01 0.00 4.62 2.82 1.70 0.10 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.02

0.09 0.07 0.00 0.02 0.11 0.07 0.04 0.56 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.18 0.08 0.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.32 0.00 0.53 0.18 0.60 0.46 0.78 0.48 0.17 0.13 0.15 0.00 0.12 0.03 0.25 0.00 0.17 0.13 21.79 0.65 6.68 14.47 0.08 0.03 32.51 0.88 0.51 0.22 0.29 0.37 2.04 0.59 0.51 0.95 14.84 0.02 0.01 0.00 5.92 3.35 2.44 0.12 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01

Table A-4
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Full Detail--California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO 2E)
2004

pe

Gas/Source

63
4.62 0.25 0.16 0.22 0.08 0.12 4.51 4.26 0.22 0.15 0.21 0.08 0.12 4.50 3.80 0.20 0.13 0.21 0.07 0.13 4.49 4.43 0.15 0.13 0.21 0.08 0.13 4.48 5.07 0.16 0.17 0.21 0.08 0.13 4.48 4.96 0.18 0.23 0.22 0.08 0.13 4.48 5.27 0.16 0.26 0.21 0.07 0.13 4.48

Petroleum Coke Oil Refinery Use Cement Lubricants Waxes Asphalt Special Naptha Other Petroleum Products Coal Transportation Natural Gas Rail Road Freight Passenger Private Auto Taxi & Buses Non-spedified (Local Transit) Water Air Non-specified (Air Transport) Pipeline Natural Gas Other Than Natural Gas Pipeline Petroleum LPG Motor Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Jet Fuel Domestic Jet Fuel Aviation Distillate Railroad Road Transportation Water Transportation Non-specified (Transport) Residual Oil Water Transportation Non-specified (Transport) Lubricants Electricity Generation (In State) Natural Gas Commercial CHP Electric CHP Industrial CHP Utility Merchant Power Refinery Self Generation Other Coal Electric CHP Industrial CHP Merchant Power Not Sector-Specific; Other End Use Natural Gas Liqueified Petroleum Gas 5.45 0.16 0.20 0.22 0.07 0.12 4.48 5.42 0.15 0.21 0.21 0.08 0.12 4.48 5.61 0.14 0.25 0.21 0.07 0.13 4.48 5.93 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.08 0.12 4.48 5.56 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.07 0.13 4.47 6.11 0.14 0.23 0.21 0.08 0.13 4.47

6.76 6.76 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.00 2.98 161.08 0.16 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.00 0.07 160.92 0.21 111.33 0.38 24.00 24.00 22.66 2.24 18.28 0.30 1.82 1.19 1.19 0.00 1.16 36.53 36.42 0.64 6.46 4.19 24.89 0.24 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.07 0.04 0.00 1.09 1.09 0.00

7.48 7.42 0.05 0.78 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.00 3.00 156.70 0.18 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.00 0.09 156.52 0.17 108.69 0.38 22.77 22.77 22.49 2.37 17.78 0.69 1.64 0.97 0.97 0.00 1.04 36.62 36.51 0.57 6.70 4.52 24.37 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.10 0.01 0.00 0.57 0.57 0.00

7.76 7.61 0.15 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.00 2.58 161.88 0.17 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.00 0.09 161.71 0.15 115.01 0.37 21.92 21.92 22.50 2.16 18.52 0.41 1.43 0.70 0.69 0.01 1.06 43.75 43.61 0.64 7.36 4.38 30.78 0.46 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.10 0.03 0.00 0.48 0.48 0.00

8.20 7.66 0.55 0.81 0.00 0.00 0.89 0.00 1.87 158.85 0.17 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.00 0.09 158.69 0.15 113.14 0.28 22.56 22.56 20.79 1.90 18.33 0.14 0.41 0.68 0.67 0.01 1.08 40.10 39.96 0.66 7.65 4.41 25.34 0.62 1.29 0.00 0.14 0.11 0.03 0.00 0.56 0.56 0.00

8.42 7.52 0.90 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.69 0.00 2.20 163.86 0.17 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.07 163.69 0.23 112.72 0.27 24.98 24.98 23.55 2.06 19.95 0.44 1.10 0.82 0.81 0.01 1.13 48.27 48.13 0.73 7.87 4.55 32.66 0.42 1.91 0.00 0.13 0.10 0.04 0.00 0.65 0.65 0.00

8.87 7.43 1.43 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.60 0.00 2.35 166.16 0.17 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.00 0.08 165.99 0.13 114.84 0.28 24.10 24.10 24.48 2.35 21.00 0.02 1.12 1.07 0.99 0.08 1.11 36.41 36.28 0.75 7.85 4.58 21.40 0.42 1.28 0.00 0.13 0.09 0.03 0.00 0.53 0.53 0.00

10.09 9.50 0.60 0.81 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.00 2.81 167.38 0.21 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.00 0.09 167.17 0.11 113.85 0.27 26.24 26.24 24.65 2.51 21.26 0.06 0.82 0.98 0.91 0.07 1.08 33.90 33.79 0.77 7.80 5.05 17.23 0.34 2.60 0.00 0.11 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.47 0.47 0.00

9.83 9.09 0.74 0.85 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.00 3.34 170.84 1.42 0.01 0.11 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 1.29 1.21 0.08 169.42 0.08 114.51 0.29 26.08 26.08 26.78 2.48 22.99 1.09 0.21 0.56 0.52 0.03 1.14 36.49 36.39 0.73 8.23 4.75 20.33 0.34 2.01 0.00 0.10 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.40 0.40 0.00

8.71 8.07 0.65 0.89 0.00 0.00 0.69 0.00 3.85 173.34 0.71 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.55 0.48 0.07 172.62 0.15 116.91 0.20 26.64 26.64 27.02 2.61 23.50 0.68 0.23 0.51 0.50 0.02 1.19 39.85 39.75 0.74 8.16 4.78 14.57 9.05 2.44 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01 0.00 -0.12 -0.12 0.00

7.59 6.95 0.64 0.90 0.00 0.00 0.94 0.00 4.39 176.26 0.73 0.01 0.14 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.57 0.50 0.06 175.53 0.09 120.21 0.29 24.95 24.95 28.08 2.70 24.70 0.57 0.11 0.72 0.71 0.01 1.20 43.03 42.94 0.73 8.15 4.76 7.68 19.78 1.84 0.00 0.10 0.08 0.01 0.00 0.60 0.60 0.00

10.56 9.77 0.79 0.89 0.00 0.00 0.63 0.00 4.30 181.68 0.77 0.01 0.14 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.57 0.50 0.07 180.92 0.36 122.01 0.25 26.04 26.04 30.23 2.97 26.45 0.71 0.10 0.84 0.84 0.00 1.19 51.93 51.84 0.71 7.98 4.73 6.85 29.44 2.13 0.00 0.10 0.08 0.01 0.00 0.88 0.78 0.10

10.97 10.25 0.72 1.08 0.00 0.00 0.51 0.00 4.18 182.49 0.78 0.01 0.11 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.64 0.56 0.08 181.71 0.43 125.28 0.23 24.58 24.58 29.58 2.80 26.40 0.00 0.38 0.79 0.79 0.00 0.81 56.09 56.00 0.65 7.30 4.80 6.35 35.04 1.86 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01 0.00 0.68 0.52 0.17

10.56 9.71 0.85 1.07 0.00 0.00 0.66 0.00 4.26 190.19 0.74 0.01 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.57 0.50 0.07 189.45 0.19 130.97 0.25 25.87 25.87 30.61 2.94 27.17 0.00 0.50 0.77 0.76 0.01 0.81 41.86 41.76 0.64 9.60 5.22 4.73 20.91 0.67 0.00 0.10 0.09 0.01 0.00 5.38 5.21 0.17

9.23 8.38 0.85 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.00 4.27 180.64 0.65 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.50 0.45 0.05 179.98 0.19 126.30 0.25 20.92 20.92 31.02 2.69 27.87 0.05 0.41 0.56 0.55 0.01 0.74 44.08 43.99 0.81 8.21 4.90 5.20 20.58 4.29 0.00 0.09 0.08 0.01 0.00 2.38 2.21 0.17 6.32 0.14 0.19 0.21 0.11 0.13 4.47

7.48 6.63 0.85 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 4.18 187.95 0.87 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.74 0.67 0.07 187.09 0.19 130.92 0.21 22.24 22.24 32.16 3.08 28.58 0.00 0.50 0.61 0.61 0.00 0.75 47.14 47.14 0.82 9.12 7.49 5.37 23.99 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.17 6.49 0.13 0.27 0.21 0.10 0.12 4.46

Cement Production Lime Production Limestone & Dolomite Consumption Soda Ash Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption Waste Combustion Forests

32 0.12 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 1.04 0.14 0.19 0.37 0.23 0.15 0.11 0.11 0.28 0.01 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.06 0.54 0.09 0.05 0.01 0.96 1.53 0.07 1.78 0.02 7.32 0.14 0.13 0.05 0.21 0.25 3.07 0.07 0.00 0.03 7.00 0.16 0.64 (0.16 27.00 0.00 0.45 0.01 1.59 3.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.21 0.00 0.05 4.07 1.07 0.03 0.79 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.58 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.14 0.55 0.01 1.01 0.06 0.53 3.03 0.88 0.18 0.09 0.13 0.41 0.00 0.17 0.27 0.04) 0.08 5.00 1.01 0.01 4.06 0.01 1.01 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.16 0.04 0.13 0.03 0.11 0.01 0.35 8.00 0.24 0.15 0.31 0.07 1.01 0.64 (0.39 0.00 0.02 0.48 7.02 0.02 0.01 1.49 0.64 0.24 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.31 7.03 0.00 0.00 4.01 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.07 1.00 0.24 Rangeland Woody Ag Soils Non-Woody Ag Soils Ag soil Liming 64 Methane Emissions Petroleum & Natural Gas Supply System Field Production Marketing Natural Gas Supply System Processing Transmission Landfills MSW (Class II & III) Other Class II & III Others Enteric Fermentation Dairy Cattle Beef Cattle Horses Sheep Swine Goats Manure Management Beef Cattle Dairy Cattle Swine Poultry Sheep Goats Horses Flooded Rice Fields Burning Ag Residues Agricultural Crop Residues Non-woody/Field Barley Corn Rice Wheat Other Woody/Orchard & Vineyard Almonds Walnuts Other Other Agricultural Waste Burning Wastewater Treatment Mobile Source Combustion Gasoline Highway Vehicles Passenger Cars Light-Duty Trucks Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks Motorcycles Diesel Highway Vehicles Passenger Cars Light-Duty Trucks Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks Aviation Other Transportation Stationary Source Combustion Electricity Generation Industrial Petroleum Natural Gas Other 25.02 0.24 pe Gas/Source 1991 2004 0.45 0.00 0.06 1.04 0.00 1.00 0.09 5.00 0.65 1.20 0.18 0.75 2.56 2.00 0.14 3.19 26.00 0.20 0.01 0.09 0.06 0.01 0.48 0.09 3.37 0.00 7.08 5.25 0.26 0.01 0.11 0.25 0.26 8.41 0.49 0.00 0.52 0.00 6.00 0.51 0.67 3.93 0.09 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.93) 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.88 0.10 0.76 0.00 0.80 0.64 0.34 0.01 0.09 3.14 1.71 0.25 3.45 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.13 0.56 0.31 0.62 0.55 0.00 0.01 0.83 0.19 26.07 1.02 0.00 0.12 1.37 0.01 0.20 0.26 0.00 0.51 8.70 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.13 0.20) 0.30 0.08 5.32 0.64 (1.01 0.01 0.14 0.00 5.21 0.29 7.30 0.56 0.07 1.00 0.01 6.23) 0.96 0.03 0.00 0.24 0.10 2.00 0.01 0.15 0.60 0.37 3.00 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.13 0.36 0.58 0.06 0.92 0.04 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.49 0.09 0.01 1.00 0.00 0.12 1.32 6.83 0.82 2.01 0.36 0.13 0.18 0.41 0.02 0.07 0.00 0.06 0.15 0.25 0.04) 0.08 25.30 0.01 0.30 8.02 0.33 0.10 0.00 1.21) 3.00 0.00 0.00 5.13 1.01 1.03 0.10 0.51 0.00 0.72 0.01 0.52 0.30 0.23 0.02 7.01 0.13 1.00 0.16 0.04 0.64 (0.08 0.79 7.02 0.02 0.27 0.00 0.14 0.48 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.56 0.07 0.25 0.02 0.00 0.44 0.13 0.72 0.06 0.95 0.24 0.74 0.06 0.10 0.03 1.29 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.88 3.00 0.07 0.03 1.00 0.07 1.82 0.53 0.65 0.75 0.01 0.00 7.03 1.14 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.07 1.00 0.19 0.08 0.06 1.80 0.07 0.18 0.01 0.85 0.06 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.13 0.39 0.68 0.44 0.55 0.41 0.04 0.02 0.28 0.17 0.62 0.26 7.00 0.00 0.00 4.16 0.48 0.01 1.07 0.20 1.66 0.31 0.09 1.10 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.00 0.24 0.11 0.55 0.05 1.63 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.62) 0.02 0.01 0.10 0.32 0.88 2.01 0.06 1.00 0.09 4.01 0.24 0.02 0.15 0.04 0.02 0.84 3.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.06 1.00 0.11 0.13 1.19 0.01 0.68 0.23 Full Detail--California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO 2E) 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.33 0.07 1.43 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.78 2.11 0.06 0.14 0.28 7.00 0.09 1.00 0.01 0.00 0.64 (1.77 3.01 0.01 7.01 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.36 0.00 1.23 0.41 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 3.12 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.44 8.09 0.00 0.14 0.00 5.76 0.01 0.01 0.17 0.00 0.23 0.34 0.31 0.49 2.72 0.00 0.45 8.07 1.41 0.32 0.06 0.01 0.29 0.58 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.24 0.18 23.08 4.00 0.00 0.63 0.24 0.25 0.00 0.12 1.02 0.00 0.26 0.00 0.38 0.19 24.65 0.07 1.64 0.55 2.17 26.02 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.70 4.01 0.97 7.12 0.15 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.59 0.35 0.00 0.13 0.56 5.04) 0.52 0.29 0.03 0.21 0.01 1.01 0.50 0.06 0.02 0.00 1.16 0.36 0.03 0.22 6.00 0.13 0.14 0.12 1.04 1.12 0.57 0.36 0.27 0.02 0.00 0.86 7.02 0.54 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.05 2.29 0.09 4.92 0.02 0.25 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.51 0.00 0.50 0.12 0.10 1.03 0.00 1.17 0.19 4.25 0.07 0.48 0.00 6.33 8.47 0.16 .01 0.07 0.00 0.06 6.23 0.14 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.00 4.24 0.01 0.64 (0.58 0.03 7.00 0.18 25.09 4.04 0.00 0.60 0.55 0.07 0.01 0.12 1.00 5.11 0.03 0.00 0.09 4.24 0.06 0.87 0.00 0.14 0.19 27.55 0.02 0.00 0.10 0.14 0.01 0.00 0.13 0.44 0.87 6.00 3.21 0.19 26.65 0.74 3.00 0.00 0.46 7.17 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.27 0.11 0.00 0.65 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.62 0.14 0.01 0.55 0.00 0.15 24.36 8.49 0.00 0.50 0.07 1.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.36 0.09 0.83 0.48 0.84 0.00 0.36 0.05 0.24 0.94 0.00 0.27 0.61 0.09 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 2.01 0.69 0.02 1.11 0.03 0.29 0.17 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.10 1.03 0.95 0.07 1.04 0.67 0.55 0.86 3.01 7.01 0.02 0.82 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.42 8.04 0.02 0.65 0.09 0.17 8.06 0.02 0.01 0.13 0.49 0.02 0.09 3.08 0.00 1.66 0.06 1.18 0.00 0.25 0.Table A-4 1990 0.64 0.53 0.41 0.00 0.10 0.08 5.01 1.04 0.00 0.00 0.06 1.49 0.25 0.00 5.03 0.05 0.02 0.09 4.09 0.24 0.03 0.00 0.50 0.80 0.24 0.60 0.76 0.00 3.40 7.25 0.00 0.01 0.11 0.39 0.02 0.01 0.59 0.35 0.02 0.04 0.41 0.14 0.02 0.41 0.64 0.64 (0.00 4.00 7.09 0.25 0.69 2.00 0.36 0.16 25.21 0.69 2.11 0.02 0.28 0.02 0.51 0.01 0.01 0.74 7.61 0.14 0.03 6.17 4.00 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.00 0.24 0.50 0.47 0.02 0.87 0.01 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 27.19 8.31 8.34 0.01 0.54 0.00 0.88 0.08 1.07 0.69 0.14 0.04 0.00 0.42 0.02 0.11 0.54 0.07 0.03 7.18 0.06 0.16 0.00 0.07 1.14 0.00 0.37 0.35 0.06 1.45 8.27 0.03 0.09 2.02 0.22 0.07 1.00 0.03 0.24 0.54 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.17 0.02 7.06 0.15 0.17 25.02 0.25 0.10 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.07 0.64 0.64 (0.67 0.36 0.24 0.13 8.28 0.28 0.93 7.02 0.00 0.00 0.59 0.05 0.14 0.21 -1.69 0.02 0.00 0.54 0.52 0.01 0.12 0.

50 0.02 0.10 1.12 0.03 0.37 0.39 0.91 0.01 0.88 0.00 0.45 0.46 0.45 7.09 2.01 0.38 30.26 0.14 0.22 0.00 0.00 1.03 0.09 0.00 0.02 0.78 3.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.98 0.22 6.24 6.00 0.37 0.49 2.02 0.00 0.01 0.19 0.14 1.06 0.19 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.06 33.03 0.98 0.06 34.02 13.67 3.08 0.04 0.24 0.01 29.17 0.02 19.02 0.04 0.03 0.18 0.00 0.65 8.03 0.01 0.92 5.72 0.35 8.00 0.00 0.19 0.25 0.09 0.00 0.01 0.70 0.66 0.99 0.00 0.02 0.39 0.02 15.00 0.90 0.37 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.88 2.00 0.03 0.50 2.08 0.13 1.02 0.15 0.95 12.00 0.24 0.71 2.60 7.11 0.14 0.14 0.14 1.08 0.14 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.14 1.07 2.00 0.00 0.09 0.15 1.00 0.00 0.99 5.02 0.11 5.00 0.13 0.05 0.00 0.98 5.26 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.17 0.12 0.42 5.00 0.03 0.11 0.16 1.03 0.00 0.16 0.14 2.09 0.02 0.16 2.00 0.00 0.01 0.08 0.90 0.00 0.00 0.02 14.00 0.70 0.04 31.11 0.00 0.23 0.23 0.00 0.54 0.03 0.07 0.37 0.02 0.09 0.00 0.48 0.48 0.00 0.17 0.25 0.02 0.42 3.00 0.07 0.00 0.02 0.27 0.03 0.25 0.01 0.04 0.15 0.02 0.70 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.15 0.02 0.13 1.08 0.45 0.01 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.72 3.10 1.00 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 3.00 0.38 0.09 0.05 30.45 0.01 0.83 3.70 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.27 6.03 0.00 0.03 0.08 0.13 6.00 0.21 0.01 0.20 0.74 2.03 0.01 0.27 0.09 0.07 0.13 0.04 0.24 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.02 0.05 0.56 6.03 0.84 (Category not yet included in inventory) 15.28 6.00 0.09 0.46 0.02 0.00 0.80 4.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.48 0.Table A-4 1990 0.03 4.20 0.20 0.02 14.00 0.04 0.19 8.84 31.00 0.46 0.03 0.01 0.08 0.24 6.28 0.00 0.14 0.12 13.00 0.00 0.99 0.04 0.05 Full Detail--California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO 2E) 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 0.38 0.00 0.25 0.02 0.02 0.71 0.60 0.21 0.00 0.02 0.85 30.92 12.02 19.93 3.18 0.14 0.62 14.00 0.65 2.04 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.27 6.11 0.04 0.15 1.14 1.84 0.00 0.00 1.70 2.46 0.15 0.09 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.62 3.53 5.03 0.56 5.00 0.98 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.25 0.88 28.35 0.13 1.26 3.00 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.75 6.02 0.05 Commercial Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Other Residential Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Other 65 14.02 0.37 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.43 2.00 0.50 7.08 0.25 0.00 0.05 0.28 0.05 2.00 0.23 0.13 1.07 0.46 0.84 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.92 13.26 6.04 0.16 7.22 7.00 0.17 0.08 0.23 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.81 0.03 0.05 4.19 2.92 0.21 6.02 0.02 0.06 0.66 2.16 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.64 0.57 2.76 0.18 0.48 0.31 1.00 0.33 5.10 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.23 0.02 15.09 0.03 1.01 1.15 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.09 0.12 0.99 3.11 0.07 11.96 3.36 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.81 3.45 0.00 0.19 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.14 0.00 0.01 0.83 0.08 0.33 0.06 33.12 0.04 0.00 0.18 0.28 1.01 0.48 0.07 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.49 2.00 0.00 0.55 0.02 0.00 0.64 5.02 0.27 0.00 1.05 14.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 1.00 0.02 0.17 0.14 0.91 2.01 0.07 0.79 0.09 4.06 0.00 0.01 0.95 0.17 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.30 0.22 0.05 30.27 2.04 0.10 1.06 4.60 3.96 8.86 0.00 0.10 1.02 15.03 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.57 2.02 0.06 0.61 3.75 13.10 1.00 0.02 0.00 0.32 0.39 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.42 5.30 5.75 5.07 .14 0.02 0.02 2.09 0.25 3.08 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.96 0.02 0.04 12.02 3.29 1.48 0.19 0.45 0.10 1.20 0.15 1.00 0.37 3.14 1.00 0.32 0.05 13.07 0.00 0.15 1.00 0.45 0.01 0.92 0.02 19.00 0.07 0.00 0.85 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.17 6.09 0.03 13.12 0.00 0.02 0.19 0.03 0.00 0.98 0.17 8.85 7.05 0.48 0.02 0.48 0.00 0.82 2.05 0.00 0.04 1.92 0.02 7.00 0.04 0.94 14.12 4.00 0.47 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.92 0.82 5.00 0.02 0.01 0.12 5.03 0.07 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.15 7.26 5.00 0.05 14.07 0.73 0.78 8.47 2.04 0.02 15.74 5.03 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.14 0.00 0.27 0.02 0.24 0.00 0.02 0.32 0.45 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.70 0.81 7.02 14.54 0.98 29.00 0.02 0.14 0.24 0.14 4.00 0.02 0.58 7.10 1.35 0.00 0.94 6.06 0.02 0.52 2.02 13.03 0.25 4.00 0.72 0.25 0.08 0.02 0.26 0.84 3.00 0.34 0.09 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.02 0.68 13.00 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.02 0.15 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.19 0.17 7.09 0.11 7.15 1.22 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.03 0.45 0.00 0.03 0.96 3.25 5.58 0.90 0.49 0.08 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.09 4.03 0.12 0.80 7.00 0.45 0.14 0.23 0.02 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.80 0.25 0.06 Nitrous Oxide Emissions Nitric Acid Production Waste Combustion Agricultural Soil Management Direct Fertilizers Crop Residues N-Fixing Crops Histosols Livestock Indirect Fertilizers Livestock Leaching/Runoff Manure Management Beef Cattle Dairy Cattle Swine Poultry Sheep Goats Horses Burning Ag Residues Non-woody/Field Barley Corn Rice Wheat Other Woody/Orchard & Vineyard Almonds Walnuts Other Wastewater Municipal (formerly Human Sewage) Industrial Mobile Source Combustion Gasoline Highway Vehicles Diesel Highway Vehicles Aviation Stationary Source Combustion Electricity Generation Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Industrial Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood 32.03 0.00 0.54 3.00 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.23 0.06 0.10 0.27 2.38 0.12 0.35 5.19 8.02 0.89 0.01 0.75 0.37 0.57 0.03 0.19 3.09 0.74 0.05 31.16 1.11 0.08 0.04 12.03 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.14 0.83 2.00 0.11 0.82 2.03 0.03 0.92 0.08 0.33 7.22 0.03 0.00 0.86 0.34 0.84 0.24 0.03 0.18 0.04 0.00 0.92 0.27 0.21 0.05 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.85 0.48 0.00 0.05 pe Gas/Source 1991 2004 0.02 0.45 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.18 0.32 1.29 0.00 0.04 4.03 0.57 3.00 0.03 0.13 0.48 0.54 0.03 0.10 4.37 7.48 0.16 0.61 3.02 0.02 0.02 0.19 0.00 0.10 0.49 0.00 0.02 13.00 0.72 0.00 1.91 0.75 30.76 0.18 0.31 0.01 0.00 0.38 7.06 3.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.30 2.08 0.

56 9.14 7.31 6.82 43.43 0.44 (13.00 0.99 0.98 419.26 0.04 Full Detail--California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO 2E) 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 0.79) (3.09) (3.11 0.95 18.80 15.00 0.89 1.04 14.09) (3.76 0.02 Commercial/Institutional Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Residential Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood High Global-Warming Potential Gas Emissions Substitution of Ozone-Depleting Substances HFC-23 HFC-32 HFC-125 HFC-134a HFC-143a HFC-236fa CF4 C2F6 Others Semiconductor Manufacture Electricity Transmission & Distribution (SF6) 66 383.52 1.43 35.01 0.00 0.05) (2.05) (1.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.36 2.64 0.01 0.22 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.38 416.87 6.63 399.48 (13.00 0.47 12.00 0.54 0.89 6.67 2.01 0.87) 410.00 0.32 0.61) (3.06 0.30 398.01 0.00 0.52 421.00 0.00 0.45 378.54) (13.14) 390.18 0.44 0.01 0.00 1.12 8.02 40.00 0.01 0.86 (13.32 0.00 0.62 9.20 443.88 16.72) 416.00 0.00 0.04 1.01 0.54) 365.00 0.74 14.01) (1.03 15.98 441.73) (4.10 0.43 0.46 2.20 12.00 0.65 470.07 0.00 0.10) (3.43 1.11 0.01 0.47 0.02 0.04 12.01 0.01 0.85 27.07 0.69 15.36 2.83 15.27 421.06 360.00 0.08 7.74 39.00 0.37 (13.95 437.02 0.04 10.33 1.59 10.30 0.76 14.11) (1.08 0.09 0.40 46.04 0.65 0.00 0.19 9.10) (2.23 23.01 0.00 0.07) (1.69 0.00 0.13 380.55 11.10) (2.00 0.01 0.96 1.96 0.74) 360.38 5.43 441.04 60.00 0.48 0.28 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.86 5.04 0.99 0.01 0.18 0.40 33.00 0.82 15.00 0.01 0.20 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.23 0.46 12.07 0.71 30.77 2.00 0.09 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.16 8.02 0.57 (13.00 0.04 0.07 7.51 40.00 0.01 0.06 0.86 406.30) 418.68 (13.52 2.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.03 446.31 373.78 1.00 0.09 0.00 0.72 1.01) (1.01 0.86 0.81 35.01 0.01 0.22 0.92 457.01 0.14 3.05 26.07 43.00 0.23 0.51 31.01 0.00 0.72 GROSS TOTALS: Gross California Emissions with Electricity Imports 394.52 2.01 0.10) (2.00 0.00 0.23) (3.00 0.02 1.00 13.99 414.32 0.04 1.01 19.45 417.00 0.33 0.25 351.88 14.10) (2.17 0.01 0.05) (1.57 11.81 (13.05 0.76 3.00 0.00 0.54 1.00 0.01 0.33) (2.83 457.54) (4.99 0.00 0.35 16.00 40.01 0.00 0.73 (13.10) (3.00 0.69 13.00 0.07 26.54 376.27 393.54 10.01 0.00 0.84 0.14 426.02) (1.95 13.00 0.53 1.00 0.04 1.32 0.01 0.47 0.01 0.44 0.40 0.93 438.00 0.04) (1.49 27.31 (13.78 0.09) (4.79 6.93 34.84 16.61 0.46 4.09 0.40 15.74) 43.95 0.08 394.05) (1.00 0.08 431.42 32.00 0.05 3.88) (2.49 6.86 0.65 354.01 pe Gas/Source 1991 2004 0.00 0.37 8.00 0.34) 374.05) (1.38 31.53 477.00 0.43 403.85 51.10 0.45 43.88 4.94 11.40 3.14 4.01 0.56 0.58 0.00 0.52 9.01 0.05) (1.10) (3.95 (13.85 16.01 0.08 0.84 0.01 0.36 2.05 0.17 465.05 0.00 0.00 0.10) (2.04 1.88 7.28 0.00 0.64 0.88 416.81 0.00 0.10) (2.05 1.00 0.00 0.01 0.51) 421.35 477.11 0.03 19.00 0.52 421.54 0.23 11.00 0.09 0.94) (13.00 0.56 0.00 0.10 12.07 0.10) (2.00 0.77 2.02 0.01 0.27 436.80 56.00 0.00 0.27 24.22 492.89 0.01 0.01 0.09) (5.34) (13.00 0.01 0.49 386.19 9.05) (1.23 4.24 471.54 2.01 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.32 4.30 0.97 395.00 0.00 0.14) (13.63 6.01 0.50 1.01 0.02 0.97 0.00 0.00 0.18 38.00 0.35 5.09) (1.09 0.01 0.67 2.79 372.72 462.17) (4.02 0.00 0.01 0.09 0.00 0.80 15.04 0.74) (2.08 0.28 0.08 0.09) 400.00 0.67 51.06 0.05) (1.00 0.37 Electricity Imports Forest Sinks Rangeland Sinks Landfill Lumber Disposal Sinks Yard Trimming Landfill Disposal Sinks NET TOTALS: Net California Emissions with Electricity Imports International Bunker Carbon Dioxide Emissions Jet Fuel (Aviation) Distillate Oil (Marine) Residual Oil (Marine) .57 1.04 0.92 1.00 0.43 4.10) (3.04 1.00 0.61 13.00 0.11 0.77 0.00 0.34 0.50 409.01 0.49 0.14 468.01 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.63 28.00 0.94) 395.00 0.Table A-4 1990 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.55 8.15 426.14) (1.81 0.97 (13.31) (2.98) (3.01 0.74 3.65 0.00 0.99 7.09 488.22 0.76 1.05 1.01 0.47 13.01 0.01 0.05 0.09 0.00 0.21 0.87 1.00 0.00 0.35) (4.16 356.00 0.00 0.59 52.01 0.42) (3.08 4.01 0.52 3.00 0.71 13.00 0.00 0.46 47.06 0.42 12.30 15.00 0.03) (1.02 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.94 490.00 0.48 8.

APPENDIX B FUEL USED IN CALIFORNIA (TRILLION BTUS) Sources: California Energy Balance89 California Energy Commission Data 67 .

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Energy Flows in Trillion (10^12) BTUs 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source 69 Statewide Energy Use (Trillion BTUs) Residential Natural Gas Petroleum LPG Kerosene Distillate Commercial Coal Natural Gas Education College School Food Services Restaurant Food & Liquor Retail & Wholesale Retail Warehouse Warehouse.24 2.36 35.00 0.02 0.53 5.45 1.91 4.33 22.03 2.76 263.56 0.05 464.40 1.20 71.57 1.18 1.32 23.27 1.68 0.90 0.01 0.72 540.24 5.88 25.36 10.60 17.99 2.42 5.44 0.05 14.68 20.02 0.10 21.24 1.73 30.83 32.66 6.80 287.27 0.15 2.06 0.46 5.00 0.20 1.14 271.95 0.74 12.09 0.91 10.40 0.15 0.07 513.77 13.27 1.13 2.68 0.66 4.20 11.36 0.88 70.27 25.18 1.02 20.88 36.79 9.89 21.63 249.92 492.67 14.75 70.84 30.61 12.48 7.27 18.00 0.15 1.78 148.03 262.53 0.17 0.11 0.00 26.64 3.74 0.12 10.21 523.62 11.00 0.00 0.08 0.10 0.00 0.93 521.08 1.17 19.00 0.763 5.21 3.39 0.50 0.07 0.89 13.95 0.73 34.20 4.908.83 223.00 .27 0.83 0.29 0.451.422.00 1.58 73.77 7.83 22.61 7.13 4.79 98.84 9.09 6.15 1.11 24.77 0.90 0.06 59.08 0.04 575.21 3.71 23.74 0.21 521.56 577.76 0.64 0.15 474.43 20.06 1.62 0.52 4.54 22.01 0.00 0.18 814.08 0.44 185.06 0.73 8.38 2.11 0.65 7.49 29.20 6.00 0.00 0.04 12.58 7.00 0.00 0.38 0.75 2.72 481.19 1.33 0.00 0.38 1.56 59.36 0.17 1.30 13.00 0.00 1.93 4.09 0.80 26.61 21.93 16.24 27.24 643.66 4.41 24.47 67.41 33.00 0.51 1.00 0.99 848.64 3.52 12.37 234.57 13.29 0.57 0.70 16.12 11.80 0.44 0.00 0.14 0.30 1.35 587.00 0.18 3.22 30.003 6.11 0.80 26. Nat'l Gas.02 10.06 10.85 1.77 5.64 3.16 9.00 0.988 5. refrigerated Health Care Hotel Office Transportation Services Transportation Water Transportation Airports Communication U.05 0.00 0.77 11.82 25.68 11.49 0.46 5.00 2.01 0.19 16.36 10.07 0.03 23.74 13.34 1.00 0.81 3.50 34.33 5.00 178.49 711.22 575.75 501.00 0.97 15.41 1.04 10.69 0.51 20.48 5.84 59.00 0.97 0.18 24.44 20.34 551.66 42.23 671.39 1.12 8.67 0.43 0.00 0.94 2.78 2.27 0.16 554.08 47.10 0.375 6.36 6.02 5.88 1.97 24.73 5.01 0.26 1.83 61.74 9.00 6.08 0.89 5.73 0.48 6.79 35.96 25.94 210.78 5.00 0.00 0.22 501.53 24.72 0.11 17.28 4.97 11.26 0.33 11.70 1.85 0.08 7.52 0.37 0.54 1.80 38.81 0.01 0.83 246.00 0.92 29.07 0.42 25.12 0.669 6.08 0.13 0.66 34.20 974.56 0.64 6.13 1.83 59.94 6.41 2.30 0.88 19.10 0.32 14.00 0.48 0.51 11.57 12.515 6.56 12.64 57.14 9.00 10.02 1.14 10.61 26.44 0.64 713.54 1.82 21.23 0.81 2.577.00 0.87 13.28 0.69 14.76 0.90 19.23 16.24 1.84 2.63 12.00 0.080.00 0.25 0.00 0.59 565.22 493.63 24.74 0.67 10.07 3.917 6.00 0.20 1.27 4.06 19.05 0.64 3.00 0.33 18.38 1.00 0.52 490.13 1.393.50 3.60 0.49 70.07 0.14 7.08 12.05 1.48 1.00 0.35 173.66 1.42 4.68 981.83 1.24 0.31 1.86 11.30 11.26 10.03 1.11 1.55 25.00 1.26 5.87 11.25 4.18 649.00 0.32 40.94 30.18 33.32 514.82 0.61 1001.10 3.00 0.80 1.00 0.24 12.84 25.01 31.51 2.03 0.66 23.99 226.33 482.02 0.56 -2.00 17.08 0.16 18.41 0.21 1.52 26.75 2.98 7.09 5.00 0.52 27.75 2.51 11.73 8.71 8.71 0.00 0.92 2.00 0.74 0.30 0.36 0.46 0.09 0.52 0.40 7.48 7.11 17.46 2.27 530.97 5.16 23.55 27.68 4.12 1.58 35.48 6.00 0.95 0.49 0.134.28 5.05 12.14 0.711.07 0.60 5.36 35.99 10.55 1.89 3.63 9.38 1.00 0.85 44.22 19.01 0.07 0.55 6.624.07 0.61 5.67 0.92 4.00 0.12 0.03 1.00 0.47 0.00 0.98 23.66 2.93 35.66 1.24 0.00 0.14 11.25 0.05 13.78 1.00 0.34 27.00 0.26 0.92 13.95 5.46 1.31 9.99 279.12 0.96 7.64 0.00 44.87 23.84 23.42 8.02 19.12 24.73 4.49 24.81 0.22 31.00 1.04 1173.46 9.21 9.88 10.76 534.45 3.51 0.49 0.98 12.06 18.00 0.40 0.28 10.01 165.00 0.32 11.11 0.30 1.38 12.36 527.75 7.51 21.52 0.13 0.00 0.89 61.86 9.89 18.16 32.65 0.87 1.16 1.94 66.88 1.00 0.36 0.75 11.32 151.01 12.89 0.11 0.00 0.23 0.80 10.44 175.32 1.28 0.07 0.85 8.22 1.00 0.80 19.49 10.00 0.34 25.23 4.30 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.22 14.52 1.69 6.00 0.61 44.64 10.34 0.70 1.65 37.20 11.04 6.804.00 0.85 8.11 0.26 1.42 0.39 0.77 496.92 26.66 5.714 5.26 0.35 3.32 11.56 24.51 13.883 6.00 0.40 18.70 0.95 0.00 0.34 1.47 1.93 10.26 10.43 15.24 460.81 0.32 5.18 1.62 1.00 0.15 313.10 0.58 0.879 6.00 2.82 2.68 6.00 0.11 0.17 11.38 10.20 0.93 0.21 18.00 5.00 0.30 504.25 44.63 28.53 7.51 220.81 61.05 1.68 528.00 0.S.95 8.00 0.35 1.19 484.31 65.79 25.02 555.39 1.02 0.78 0.34 10.61 0.03 31.19 0.42 0.657 5.04 21.67 91.346.16 171.74 1.17 10.07 26.67 2.78 6.68 11.37 26.00 0.10 600.60 2.98 10.71 1.00 0.74 55.45 10.73 11.34 148.04 0.85 1.04 21.78 36.58 0.77 8.76 53.77 9.98 19.17 1.04 0.31 3.00 0.07 0.64 3.71 23. Postal Service Telephone & Cell Phone Service Other Message Communication Radio Broadcasting Stations Non-Specified (Communication) Utilities Electric.63 21.54 1.73 4.58 1.609.84 0.47 77.30 0.89 18.97 35.66 0.11 20.34 11.09 0.54 2.85 11.69 41.14 7.68 34.08 26.770 5.69 5.45 28.75 8. Steam Sewerage Systems Water Supply Street Lights National Security Non Specified (Services) Petroleum LPG Motor Gasoline Kerosene Distillate Residual Oil Industrial Natural Gas Agriculture Crop Production Livestock Production Irrigation Other Mining Metal Coal Minerals Manufacturing Food Food Processing Sugar & Confections Non-specified (Food Processing) Tobacco 5.20 0.55 24.43 0.88 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.11 0.15 0.20 31.56 1.00 0.11 0.42 0.84 9.75 11.71 173.31 3.720.12 2.49 8.21 1.00 0.27 40.81 4.66 4.82 1.11 5.02 22.16 0.57 7.97 16.07 18.05 2.02 0.00 0.80 17.70 22.39 0.48 3.194.30 1.16 175.01 0.05 15.08 1.65 1.70 31.78 4.01 0.05 18.50 0.50 0.53 1.84 6.06 20.00 0.05 0.99 34.06 567.02 0.00 0.43 3.76 5.08 1.28 3.75 46.09 0.05 0.80 25.05 39.01 0.71 5.25 19.414.73 10.58 0.00 0.30 29.12 12.07 0.52 32.52 60.77 30.77 1.27 4.21 0.93 5.88 0.51 12.22 30.02 0.23 0.01 1.58 0.31 0.00 0.14 0.382 544.37 1.08 732.37 0.96 1.94 8.98 12.27 14.42 331.96 22.95 0.00 0.03 7.89 3.26 0.54 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.15 731.43 25.08 4.00 0.23 6.38 60.49 162.13 0.09 9.14 6.26 31.64 38.47 21.77 4.33 550.00 0.68 3.98 3.51 30.25 0.58 511.00 0.45 4.209.39 0.05 4.25 0.32 11.57 1.52 22.39 0.11 10.04 36.82 42.92 198.91 1.00 0.00 0.97 27.72 0.00 0.83 221.33 0.73 521.99 0.15 0.75 7.90 26.15 511.44 6.96 7.02 0.00 0.12 210.09 32.46 4.827.74 1000.11 450.65 24.24 3.40 18.64 3.15 0.98 8.97 679.01 0.88 85.94 10.11 17.01 0.34 6.00 0.10 1.43 0.42 6.10 54.61 12.00 0.264 6.06 6.46 3.689.50 0.33 75.84 6.97 4.16 152.39 0.06 150.46 0.01 16.78 58.13 28.16 500.37 1.28 22.647 5.71 0.106.75 3.36 0.66 63.34 22.97 8.85 9.64 57.12 17.72 6.08 0.38 15.58 0.

00 0.98 287.00 0.68 2.43 17.58 2.49 1.53 23.00 24.88 15.40 1.47 2.37 2.31 0.76 2.05 241.88 1.00 0.84 0.77 0.67 16.34 9.84 2.72 17.21 0.00 17.51 1.53 368.13 0.23 1.02 0.88 79.91 1.36 6.45 3.54 13.01 1.23 2.94 4.67 0.71 45.03 102.47 14.00 7.91 37.70 3.74 9.17 12.36 3.08 84.64 45.68 3.12 0.31 237.25 0.68 12.68 5.18 0.58 248.05 64.67 8.94 47.83 27.01 1.07 6.49 38.03 2.82 7.57 290.73 0.57 5.08 0.44 1.98 8.04 231.40 0.00 0.28 3.70 0.93 5.09 435.35 0.03 4.73 27.06 1.18 7.52 8.67 1.21 6.81 31.75 237.00 1.78 0.45 2.90 1.53 40.03 110.81 6.99 2.92 0.70 10.47 0.37 47.10 1.06 24.03 196.00 9.18 253.55 1.27 4.74 1.98 3.68 5.12 24.69 178.31 2.75 10.74 8.07 0.78 0.00 10.46 1.41 6.55 57.34 0.92 0.82 4.00 7.00 10.08 .94 2.72 0.02 10.04 2.67 309.06 9.17 1.95 12.53 11.99 6.00 16.54 39.47 1.07 525.85 1.76 14.13 1.93 9.97 3.76 3.74 10.03 35.77 0.98 0.12 0.83 0.78 4.72 4.17 8.90 1.11 0.53 11.38 1.09 0.00 9.59 34.48 16.42 10.62 3.49 11.26 42.05 10.48 15.13 1.53 25.46 458.52 5.97 0.41 0.00 3.00 0.85 29.00 0.93 34.65 33.86 0.58 3.03 113.20 3.70 0.50 10.55 34.29 30.57 1.88 1.00 14.71 10.23 0.65 11.96 0.31 7.00 13.88 26.01 0.19 0.56 1.04 7.70 3.59 158.30 10.02 2.78 30.92 0.57 1.45 35.76 17.88 1.43 1.44 11.33 92.75 0.15 0.31 17.13 10.73 7.96 0.46 3.47 0.72 0.04 20.66 5.77 17.30 0.12 5.42 3.02 10.34 0.75 2.59 0.67 29.90 80.13 3.78 16.55 10.66 6.02 83.00 0.05 0.76 14.38 0.53 15.14 436.67 1.09 0.00 14.75 3.96 15.26 14.09 23.73 7.68 0.54 9.83 0.21 3.06 17.00 3.57 43.00 0.72 1.09 9.48 407.64 3.04 2.96 441.00 0.20 0.04 78.64 15.07 2.85 8.58 0.05 3.58 234.25 4.35 16.88 30.36 0.04 16.54 20.03 71.90 53.82 6.17 11.10 0.18 27.09 0.71 14.43 1.33 33.07 12.24 10.42 0.20 0.13 0.00 17.28 6.08 0.82 41.26 211.15 0.59 5.46 16.62 2.24 1.43 1.82 4.42 428.31 1.67 28.12 0.34 103.76 0.00 16.66 0.02 15.93 3.58 10.30 11.08 6.74 34.88 249.28 300.11 0.60 5.63 282.08 0.64 2.79 4.29 5.00 0.02 1.30 0.65 9.51 2.47 6.30 105.00 0.91 0.38 10.55 12.50 1.37 5.56 12.88 12.33 1.82 29.59 69.49 5.74 4.87 10.68 0.07 2.53 0.72 166.98 1.98 0.90 2.77 8.00 14.65 1.28 0.07 0.00 0.25 7.82 33.55 3.98 3.46 31.96 208.42 3.21 29.53 8.21 4.81 7.05 12.44 0.05 1.40 0.00 24.63 0.26 28.41 0.94 12.43 4.27 2.98 0.67 19.19 2.27 0.00 10.80 9.02 0.65 6.52 33.79 0.17 1.36 17.11 5.17 0.98 0.34 0.82 4.75 17.00 10.78 1.71 1.85 15.41 11.13 5.68 28.62 6.81 31.54 1.89 52.16 10.63 46.24 0.54 4.54 1.17 46.21 10.61 12.15 1.28 18.61 16.04 1.79 238.59 0.50 21.10 2.24 15.05 10.58 0.52 12.09 0.43 15.43 3.30 1.00 0.27 35.79 0.82 4.75 28.59 0.86 1.01 13.53 11.33 94.08 472.99 12.72 9.47 27.82 2.65 4.17 245.88 34.46 1.36 0.68 34.80 4.61 0.99 0.77 49.09 0.94 53.00 0.55 1.97 0.25 3.00 13.80 4.28 404.32 64.99 2.68 12.01 1.76 0.90 0.05 2.51 6.99 294.71 10.34 23.72 1.82 34.83 54.49 0.39 0.94 14.00 23.93 0.69 27.44 0.20 13.99 0.54 4.74 7.21 55.85 15.79 0.70 2.83 0.50 3.39 1.26 8.59 4.96 0.12 8.65 4.00 2.24 0.19 464. Equipment) Transportation Equipment Instruments & Related Products Construction Non-specified (Industrial) Energy Industrial Sector Transformation at Refinery Natural Gas Use at Refinery (Not transformation) Oil & Gas Extraction Flaring Natural Gas Liquids Petroleum LPG Manufacturing Chemicals & Allied Products Non-specified (Industry) Oil Refinery Use Motor Gasoline Construction Non-specified (Agriculture) Non-speified (Industrial) Refinery Still Gas Kerosene Industrial Agricultural Distillate Agriculture Industry Oil and Gas Extraction Oil Refinery Use Residual Oil Refining Oil & Gas Extraction Industry 7.00 0.83 32.12 44.98 36.94 31.70 12.74 70.74 0.40 11.42 17.11 0.85 2.86 13.84 31.53 2.29 8.19 0.21 0.32 2.12 34.24 12.27 1.03 0.52 0.96 1.67 11.79 16.07 0.48 10.49 0.60 16.95 0.71 29.27 3.77 5.08 0.82 12.99 0.48 298.24 2.00 83.30 38.00 0.01 10.17 0.27 3.26 39.77 214.33 12.96 0.96 55.91 2.04 8.54 9.31 0.07 0. Cement & Other Flat Glass Glass containers Cement Non-specified (Stone.58 4.76 5.48 11.74 7.28 1.45 0.64 12.93 3.86 1.17 0.44 0.01 0.28 2.05 90.07 0.37 34.74 1.74 0.70 2.00 7.00 0.90 7.16 0.02 14.61 3. Glass & Cement) Primary Metals Metal Durables Fabricated Metal Products Computers & Office Machines Industrial Machinery & Equipment Electric & Eletronic Equipment Telephone & Broadcasting Equipment Semiconductors & Related Products Non-specified (Elec.69 22.19 0.71 10.57 126.65 11.82 10.03 16.09 6.19 7.01 3.82 9.31 0.60 0.46 12.21 10.19 5.22 0.60 27.30 1.61 0.30 0.06 128. Glass.00 12.20 18. Clay.59 1.69 0.40 3.39 0.24 0.00 0.67 3.66 254.44 11.00 3.62 4.73 7.64 0.68 7.12 10.76 320.83 0.60 4.60 261.11 0.24 0.03 9.28 4.07 1.11 2.43 8.96 483.59 2.09 23.64 44.34 0.38 0.29 14.22 25.66 9.10 0.01 1.62 29.74 2.09 0.59 2.97 33.16 13.17 0.32 11.67 27.08 7.00 9.75 10.Energy Flows in Trillion (10^12) BTUs 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source 70 Textiles Textile Mills Leather Apparel Wood & Furniture Lumber & Wood Products Furnature & Fixtures Pulp & Paper Pulp Mills Paper Mills Paperboard Mills Non-specified (Pulp & Paper) Printing & Publishing Chemicals & Allied Products Plastics & Rubber Plastics Non-specified (Plastics & Rubber) Stone.64 0.80 1.43 1.00 0.00 0.46 1.93 22.61 9.68 10.73 49.16 14.73 15.21 14.38 1.09 0.72 3.50 0.64 25.91 1.48 0.65 106.75 20.42 1.72 0.34 8.87 0.09 71.00 9.97 0.23 0.83 1.18 13.49 30.99 0.05 7.90 3.13 14.50 1.59 16.64 2.90 25.40 0.50 3.00 0.02 0.89 3.40 15.07 16.36 5.00 12.73 0.75 3.27 6.30 9.82 21.90 3.48 1.29 2.26 46.47 3.19 4.45 232.12 6.61 1.00 0.98 0.42 3.34 2.37 0.47 464.56 7.62 5.02 0.68 1.34 11.34 0.86 1.29 2.59 0.81 5.00 14.12 30.01 1.63 3.28 2.38 6.98 13.13 2.47 3.28 6.21 10.20 13.02 206.35 14.00 5.58 19.33 39.05 1.61 477.33 8.68 367.17 9.92 1.24 0.08 412.17 0.62 9.55 11.13 2.00 70.45 3.00 2.75 2.93 5.68 4.20 87.16 0.60 8.75 1.59 14.42 11.44 0.78 0.32 15.59 3.52 0.93 211.00 0.83 0.31 523.71 21.60 460.38 462.00 77. Clay.25 0.71 279.07 78.89 20.49 7.84 0.00 23.89 3.11 0.13 3.88 14.15 0.24 32.99 1.14 0.81 0.17 5.31 0.63 427.16 4.62 5.81 5.95 30.00 0.04 5.90 0.20 13.00 3.04 1.42 1.83 35.38 3.92 0.97 3.00 1.85 32.94 2.17 0.90 5.98 0.51 1.29 19.79 0.00 0.73 3.13 10.93 4.36 10.06 11.21 31.82 5.91 0.36 35.09 0.82 0.36 8.00 0.07 76.63 23.78 28.04 44.93 204.80 8.00 0.11 0.72 0.63 1.08 0.78 103.00 8.77 2.13 34.87 0.94 497.84 4.07 0.99 0.26 5.03 0.89 2.80 29.86 15.51 14.54 12.90 0.71 2.48 481.15 1.49 0.45 274.55 1.65 2.09 85.52 5.07 82.36 4.72 436.00 10.26 2.62 9.66 1.07 9.26 16.60 246.32 14.14 1.51 0.52 290.81 59.90 2.81 2.92 2.48 14.06 3.00 0.67 1.92 2.99 9.70 19.07 0.69 2.87 0.69 2.19 0.44 30.85 15.56 1.47 18.13 0.59 20.00 0.29 1.00 2.69 50.95 2.84 1.59 289.93 4.64 1.60 0.86 4.00 1.81 1.48 12.90 24.74 5.36 0.31 2.55 3.14 543.

01 0.96 177.86 9.25 86.83 597.97 384.12 757.72 336.20 1.53 3.42 1.27 22.18 1.85 97.14 9.18 0.0 26. Other End Use Natural Gas Liqueified Petroleum Gas 66.10 2.14 11.0 17.87 247.36 6.14 75.06 11.38 0.667.58 16.95 365.24 9.35 6.00 0.71 141.44 7.73 14.05 0.80 0.00 3.35 6.72 269.72 1.62 251.00 0.39 103.31 9.01 1.66 8.58 5.02 4.18 327.05 13.63 557.00 0.80 9.53 191.03 1.85 154.98 135.00 0.02 0.17 0.24 9.40 8.00 0.06 188.32 12.66 45.57 253.54 211.95 89.1 31.46 0.46 0.42 8.16 361.00 0.00 0.71 11.37 981.44 3.14 0.92 1.02 7.71 0.18 0.4 6.52 1.30 0.81 2.58 317.27 1.56 83.00 0.66 98.14 0.68 12.03 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.75 225.42 16.00 0.36 754.21 0.61 1.73 41.00 0.94 12.02 0.579.31 3.04 0.96 689.76 0.82 0.14 0.731.00 0.13 26.56 3.49 314.39 370.14 192.39 10.6 28.00 0.80 92.27 0.963.26 640.98 8.79 1.70 5.00 0.28 0.74 9.14 .79 340.69 1.25 0.61 6.68 342.06 15.52 8.1 32.17 16.25 0.53 93.03 17.33 7.00 0.34 1.62 1.14 2.96 13.00 0.11 0.38 588.30 364.816.4 24.21 0.75 55.35 7.96 7.632.72 10.90 29.90 4.00 12.7 25.93 454.28 0.18 220.18 0.55 0.53 1.26 0.13 12.502.21 0.46 122.71 827.35 1.67 10.44 335.63 98.19 0.98 8.41 13.75 32.4 24.72 3.32 16.42 0.86 9.00 0.73 0.861.39 6.14 1.16 3.24 0.00 0.45 0.78 2.06 195.00 0.00 0.88 73.12 17.56 0.1 20.18 0.49 0.75 1.777.73 3.560.02 182.20 1.69 4.06 10.09 220.6 15.73 141.57 43.40 37.00 0.01 317.32 11.47 9.53 913.14 4.53 691.64 4.93 40.14 2.12 1.36 1.28 2.26 9.00 12.73 8.36 326.48 584.29 85.5 29.40 12.00 0.47 172.599.00 211.65 538.0 11.50 6.8 0.825.25 0.42 22.02 1.00 0.05 10.43 203.37 16.41 7.02 364.00 0.02 203.00 0.75 0.20 10.52 129.56 0.39 5.47 8.56 0.64 1.55 8.15 0.37 12.95 1.25 0.36 0.29 0.46 219.92 6.32 2.90 10.02 911.16 540.89 98.57 89.33 2.29 61.39 4.024.00 0.36 2.01 34.14 13.05 2.35 0.763.23 0.23 49.79 35.43 75.00 0.5 28.00 24.30 12.22 1.13 314.06 480.49 35.20 81.05 22.0 0.22 580.663.89 13.34 3.02 31.038.00 0.14 2.36 1.35 0.89 6.46 12.32 2.15 0.51 1.34 144.15 3.66 0.00 0.74 0.605.19 1.45 0.58 53.55 86.36 1.29 215.9 15.563.49 1.18 0.25 9.67 23.00 0.78 687.89 9.21 13.28 0.68 11.00 0.78 0.99 315.15 0.499.15 3.5 2.579.74 101.18 1.37 13.16 0.00 0.38 20.40 252.15 0.95 2.45 1. Landfill & MSW) Natural Gas Commercial CHP Electric CHP Industrial CHP Utility Merchant Power Refinery Self Generation Other Coal Electric CHP Industrial CHP Merchant Power Wood & Wood Waste (exclude for carbon dioxide) Landfill & MSW (exclude for carbon dioxide) Not Sector-Specific.27 0.92 0.4 24.49 0.8 2.23 0.10 0.09 2.25 0.00 0.69 1.17 26.04 148.16 3.18 0.32 11.19 12.00 0.88 0.25 11.22 690.26 2.00 0.1 15.88 83.20 0.05 129.03 9.05 3.50 0.00 0.74 1.10 104.38 2.40 171.632.23 1.00 1.56 28.56 0.98 1.42 0.11 0.00 1.06 429.49 101.57 15.08 469.00 0.50 1061.61 1.42 73.00 0.00 3.5 20.13 2.26 2.36 0.92 9.62 17.74 1.75 323.29 385.65 8.73 1.33 62.38 245.34 10.15 3.53 0.00 0.837.43 340.00 0.06 218.97 1.05 10.4 46.91 14.05 7.08 689.13 4.52 506.50 445.70 90.25 0.56 11.96 76.93 3.71 4.39 126.90 158.11 21.6 46.0 16.01 1.40 204.88 41.33 324.08 37.00 0.03 0.85 1.27 2.713.88 10.00 0.82 0.20 59.00 0.00 0.01 0.38 1.78 14.56 -2.37 3.93 0.00 0.04 1.00 49.04 618.37 1.67 6.33 87.00 0.25 3.02 814.59 583.66 155.02 275.22 688.18 3.01 0.00 0.02 3.12 30.91 12.77 13.24 0.01 0.61 108.01 0.79 164.15 1.00 0.517.52 104.897.54 0.19 75.69 792.45 16.26 0.83 18.67 265.74 10.32 9.36 1.05 11.92 40.24 22.51 409.24 0.19 0.629.50 1.9 47.00 0.89 79.49 0.69 36.0 5.44 1.97 0.36 0.27 0.80 68.26 0.82 293.02 1.04 813.22 2.77 81.39 374.25 0.79 98.13 292.00 4.35 418.48 12.911.95 2.00 2.93 0.17 834.47 374.32 14.95 10.00 22.61 16.00 0.84 4.7 36.40 0.91 139.15 1060.31 9.18 0.34 151.00 60.71 394.05 1.85 15.60 13.22 0.64 5.628.14 288.Energy Flows in Trillion (10^12) BTUs 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Source 71 Petroleum Coke Oil Refinery Use Cement Lubricants Waxes Asphalt Special Naptha Other Petroleum Products Coal Cement Other Industrial Use Transportation Natural Gas Rail Road Freight Passenger Private Auto Taxi & Buses Non-spedified (Local Transit) Water Air Non-specified (Air Transport) Pipeline Natural Gas Other than Natural Gas Non-specified (Transport) Petroleum LPG Motor Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Jet Fuel International Jet Fuel Aviation Domestic Jet Fuel Aviation Distillate Railroad Road Transportation Water Transportation Non-specified (Transport) Residual Oil Water Transportation Non-specified (Transport) Lubricants Marine Bunkers (Report separately in GHG Inventory Distillate Bunkers Residual Oil Bunkers Electricity Generation (Excludes Wood.22 0.66 2.41 0.4 30.00 1.09 1.64 13.00 0.26 343.61 21.17 2.69 41.80 13.69 2.18 10.49 0.33 7.33 33.76 74.01 12.31 753.49 0.00 0.62 11.00 0.00 0.16 83.30 38.43 0.22 23.00 0.27 0.51 9.86 0.45 66.686.59 90.66 0.02 0.76 396.51 81.23 2.01 0.16 0.54 826.43 317.41 15.66 491.67 10.03 0.66 134.36 0.67 9.56 12.28 76.5 46.48 7.00 0.34 0.18 0.29 2.00 0.00 0.48 82.00 0.51 13.00 0.0 0.18 0.31 51.56 17.00 0.0 32.40 10.35 2.13 0.56 758.02 8.04 82.26 0.18 0.05 90.00 24.20 1.77 208.30 363.61 24.62 641.00 0.18 20.7 46.83 44.36 96.607.69 141.92 0.00 0.07 14.72 2.75 2.15 0.615.8 0.39 15.41 366.61 17.88 0.50 13.25 149.11 6.01 6.00 0.06 2.6 22.47 171.91 208.66 234.38 0.03 9.01 2.08 2.84 0.19 12.87 20.31 3.25 0.1 2.09 306.90 16.42 255.54 559.79 0.39 289.16 8.18 0.00 0.35 0.46 5.83 12.73 1.58 4.91 120.27 0.25 4.54 82.92 14.02 692.00 0.49 1.29 14.00 0.07 3.58 1.71 0.89 149.16 12.50 128.40 8.68 1.22 0.62 373.88 4.79 6.810.91 388.70 0.91 305.17 7.39 584.71 99.18 0.11 86.02 1.18 1.32 90.23 3.06 1.93 45.16 79.10 498.02 17.17 1.4 41.58 471.41 0.04 389.45 1.27 1.34 1.46 3.34 9.99 6.00 0.72 45.26 4.77 11.34 129.81 217.624.72 95.51 5.6 0.41 0.53 39.83 13.19 1.77 0.4 32.80 0.97 0.47 461.00 0.57 154.77 96.48 1.56 12.67 663.00 0.65 81.24 0.49 21.09 833.48 187.99 9.36 0.6 30.69 1.13 1.00 0.52 424.56 7.51 138.00 0.00 0.0 25.21 4.45 100.02 0.31 125.72 2.01 560.86 15.72 791.08 46.658.26 16.94 1.98 9.604.49 6.25 0.09 14.12 192.45 0.26 181.22 0.73 405.11 1.08 6.12 20.48 2.17 1.22 0.00 0.50 1.50 177.00 0.74 0.99 348.97 82.0 23.41 127.885.09 12.08 89.00 6.62 94.63 0.02 1.28 0.27 0.75 185.82 691.57 1.17 25.66 1.18 12.61 13.25 0.53 1.67 3.77 10.01 0.05 4.74 3.705.0 2.13 0.96 2.26 34.31 75.830.05 0.60 2.10 13.18 0.50 13.90 155.46 7.00 0.13 12.40 1.00 0.00 0.27 1.10 1.29 0.88 73.947.97 222.00 0.88 16.04 310.45 0.02 348.15 255.40 36.04 145.11 41.09 2.4 45.86 13.28 89.10 3.41 1.90 7.72 90.34 893.39 0.00 0.57 14.93 12.84 2.00 551.17 1.30 7.35 4.4 45.67 3.96 7.06 0.46 0.06 74.66 2.01 0.542.02 0.00 17.61 1.48 1.00 0.18 5.65 2.82 13.514.02 8.39 982.23 0.97 229.08 0.56 -2.10 24.777.99 9.00 2.14 13.45 0.62 1.48 1.00 0.22 181.48 9.913.30 894.13 276.898.576.86 9.34 5.22 0.00 0.57 14.12 510.78 1.30 0.03 7.94 26.05 205.06 10.75 147.08 371.58 92.00 0.46 12.42 8.69 1.39 0.27 0.98 32.12 10.00 2.

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APPENDIX C DISCUSSION OF ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF ESTIMATING CO2 EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRICITY IMPORTED TO CALIFORNIA 73 .

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75 . He then used each company’s annual percentages of GWh by fuel type each year and assumed that these percentages applied to electrical energy sold to California. Joseph Loyer Method Joseph Loyer of the Energy Commission’s Electricity Office estimated percentages of various fuels used to generate electricity for import to California for the 1994 and 1995 calendar years. and corresponding CO2 emissions. in 1994 coal comprised 18. and described below. Emissions from two out-of-state coal-fired power plants owned by California electric utilities are evaluated in the normal manner and reported as out-of-state emissions.1 percent. and (3) the method used in the 1990-1999 inventory. To determine CO2 emissions from the Pacific Northwest and Southwest. 1994 and 1995. the author used data from the DOE to determine the amount of energy (measured in GWh) sold by each company to California in 1994 and 1995. Energy imported to California from the Pacific Northwest and Southwest is not correlated to specific fuel types and the fuel types need to be estimated. and presented his results in a report titled Fuel~Resource Profiles of Electricity Generation and Related CO2 Emissions for The State of California. 1998.Introduction At least three approaches have been used to estimate out-of-state CO2 emissions from electricity imported to California: (1) the current GHG inventory method.0 percent of the total GWh imported for use in California. in 1994 imported coal-based electricity comprised 18. To determine CO2 emissions from the two out-of-state coal facilities. (2) a method used by Joseph Loyer. This report is dated April 2. Using Loyer’s data. Current GHG Inventory The method used to develop the current GHG inventory is described in the main body of this paper. From this. Correspondingly.9 percent of the total GWh imported for use in California. he estimated the amount of energy in GWh by fuel type for electricity sold for use in California. the author used data appropriate for coal-fueled combustion.7 percent of California’s total GWh consumption while using the current GHG inventory method yields imported coal energy comprising 16. Using the approach described above for the current GHG inventory. for 1995 Loyer’s method yields imported coal energy comprising 17.

it assumed an emissions factor of 800 metric tons CO2 per GWh. These values were rounded to 800 due to data uncertainty. and was not officially adopted for the entire 1990 to 2000 period. That analysis used the conventional approach to estimate CO2 emissions from the out-of-state coal facilities owned by California utilities. However. Summary of Options to Estimate CO2 Emissions from Electric Imports All three methods used conventional data and emissions factors for the two out-of-state coal fired electric power plants owned by California utilities. This estimate was somewhat arbitrary. 76 . (2) The method used by Loyer was only done for 1994 and 1995. This emissions factor was said to be uncertain because the underlying mix of fuel used to generate the GWh was unknown. and 861 metric tons of CO2 per GWh for 1995. This emissions factor was calculated from 1994 and 1995 data in the Loyer reference. The April 2. documentation in the 1990-1999 GHG emissions inventory report cautioned that the approach may overstate emissions because the total amount of GWh imported in 1994 and 1995 was relatively low compared to other years during the 1990 to 1999 period. each method was different and had one or more limitations: (1) The approach used for this inventory is based upon an Energy Commission adopted estimate of the fuel profile used to generate electricity imported from the Pacific Northwest and Southwest. and it assumed each import providing company’s annual average fuel profile applied to the electricity that California imported.1990-1999 Inventory Method The 1990-1999 inventory90 also included estimates of GHG emissions from out-of-state electric power production imported to California. To estimate CO2 emissions from electrical energy imported from the Pacific Northwest and Southwest. This emissions factor was assumed to apply to the imports for the Pacific Northwest and Southwest for the entire 1990 to 1999 period. For the remainder of the electrical energy imported to California from the Pacific Northwest and Southwest. (3) The method used in the 1990-1999 inventory assumed that the fuel mix used to import electricity from the Southwest and Pacific Northwest in 1994 and 1995 matched the fuel mix for the entire 1990 to 1999 period. 1998 version of the Loyer reference produces an emissions factor of 808 metric tons of CO2 per GWh for 1994.

3 57.6 1993 40.9 70.3 67.1 1996 40.4 77 .6 62.5 1991 43.5 1998 52. The Loyer approach is mid range. The current approach shows the lowest estimates for each year and the 1990-1999 inventory method shows the highest.7 73.1 65.Table C-1 compares these three different approaches for estimating CO2 emissions from imported electricity.7 2003 56.5 1995 38.4 1992 43.5 2001 47. Comparing Three Methods to Estimate CO2 Emissions from Imported Electricity (Million Metric Tons of CO2) Inventory Approach -Current -Loyer -Previous 1990 43.8 55. The Loyer approach was only done for 1994 and 1995.0 59.4 2002 51.2 48.5 45.5 1999 51. Table C-1.0 67.6 55.7 1997 47.0 1994 43.0 2000 40.

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APPENDIX D DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CURRENT INVENTORY AND JUNE 2005 INVENTORY 79 .

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8 to 1. more consistent with other years. industrial. Glass. Commercial See above for changed data source. Cement & Other” emissions. and nonsector specific categories.8 to 6. These changes are due to how natural gas used for thermal purposes in combined heat and power facilities are allocated.5 MMTCO2E) and decreases them somewhat in 2001 and 2002 (0. commercial.7 MMTCO2E in 1999) in emissions from this sector.8 and 2. Reductions are shown in parentheses. This factor increases “Transformation” emissions slightly in 2000 (0.3 MMTCO2E). followed by increases in 2001 (0.3 MMTCO2E). Residential Residential natural gas use In the current (1990 to 2004) GHG inventory is based on Energy Commission data from utilities.5 MMTCO2E). This factor reduces inventory 0. Clay. There is a large decrease (6. The text is followed by a table showing the differences. For Electricity Producers’ own fuel use (not generation) the previous inventory was based on very high fuel uses for 1998 to 2000. 81 . electricity generation. The new energy balance shows much lower numbers for these years. followed by a decrease of 1 MMTCO2E in 2001 and then a medium increase in 2002 (2.6 MMTCO2E). There are small decreases in the early 1990s followed by fairly large decreases in 1998 to 2000 (2.7 MMTCO2E). Natural Gas Combustion CO2 Emissions This section summarizes differences for CO2 emissions from natural gas combustion in residential. There is a modest increase in 2000 (0. older inventory used EIA data.6 MMTCO2E.8 MMTCO2E) and 2002 (2. Refinery natural gas use now based on Energy Commission data. Industrial The 1990 to 2002 inventory inadvertently double counted “Stone.Introduction This appendix describes the emissions categories and sub-categories with more significant changes from the 1990 to 2002 inventory published July 2005.

Electricity Generation In the current 1990 to 2004 GHG inventory. Non-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions This section includes CO2 emissions from agricultural soils and woody crops. Coal Combustion CO2 Emissions This section summarizes differences for CO2 emissions from coal combustion in the electricity generation sector. Electricity Generation Revised EIA data used in the current 1990 to 2004 GHG inventory indicates a much lower number for electricity generation in California using coal. in the previous inventory.5 MMTCO2E. Agricultural Soils. with some difficulty in linking them together. Non-Sector Specific Fuel not ascribed to a specific end use is greater in 2002 due to changed data sources. natural gas used for electricity generation is from EIA’s Electric Power Annual Report. Emissions increase and decrease each year by up to about 3 MMTCO2E. causing minor changes in this category. In 1998 emissions increase 3. data collection changed from SIC categories to NAICS categories. 82 . The biggest change is in 1998. Non-sector emissions decrease by 4. This caused increases in the “non sector specific” category. caused by moving from one data set to another for agricultural soil CO2 emissions.7 MMTCO2E in 2002. Specifically. These are now consistent. Woody Crops Previous inventory used different data sets for this category and for wood waste combustion. but this does not represent a change in fuel use or GHG emissions. Emissions decrease about up to about 3 MMTCO2E.

Enteric Fermentation Previous inventory used TAR GWPs. Petroleum & Natural Gas Supply System Emissions decrease 0. enteric fermentation. N2O Emissions This section includes methane emissions from fertilizer uses in agricultural applications.3 to 0. and manure management. Natural Gas Supply System (Gas Transmission Subcategory) Emissions decreases 0.Methane Emissions This section includes methane emissions from the petroleum and natural gas supply system.6 MMTCO2E.6 to 1.2 to 0. Agricultural Soil Management (Direct Fertilizers and Indirect Fertilizers & Crop Residues) Minor changes (increases of about 0.5 MMTCO2E are caused by changing data sources to California Agricultural resources Directory for consistency with other sub-categories.8 MMTCO2E due to updated data from ARB.8 MMTCO2E due to updated data from ARB. landfills. This change reduces methane emissions in carbon-dioxide equivalents by 0. Manure Management Previous inventory used TAR GWPs.7 MMTCO2E. Landfills Emissions decrease about 2 MMTCO2E. This change reduces methane emissions in carbon-dioxide equivalents by 0. 83 . not SAR values. not SAR values.

5 to 5 MMTCO2E). 84 . Nationwide GHG inventory values change each year the GHG inventory is updated. Values affected are smaller for 1990 to 1997 (about 2 MMTCO2E) and somewhat larger after that (2.High GWP Emissions California High GWP gases are scaled from the nationwide GHG inventory proportioned by population.

63) (1.00 0.13) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.37) (0.00 (0.00 (2.02) (0.30 0.69) (0.68) (0.00 0.01) (3.06 (1.36) (0.61) (2.00 0.04) 0.19) (3.38) (0.00 0.00 0.32) 0.19) 0.09 0.00) 0.00 0.00 (0.18) (1.17) 0.00) (0.27) (0.84 (2.00 0.38) 0.00 0.02) (0.02 0.00) (0.01) (4.27) 0.35) (0.13) 0.00 0.00 0.01 (0.00 (1.01) (0.00 0.06 (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.38) 0.02 0.28) (0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04) 0.00 0.11) (6.25) (0.02) (0.00 0.28) 0.00 0.13) (0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.66) (0.00 0.00 0.46) (0.01 (0.45) (1.00 0.00 3.00) 0.52) .00) 0.35) 0.33) (0.00) (0.01) (0.35) 0.86) 1.48) (1.11 0.00) (0.00 0.93 (0.42) (0.00 0.92) 2.00 0.39) 0.05 (1.00 0.00 (0.00 (1.02 0.01) (0.00 0.00 (2.00 0.00 0.00) (0.59) 0.00 0.00 0.57) (0.00 (0.33) (0.00) 0.70) (0.64) (0.43) (0.00 (1.03 0.00 0.04 (0.91) 0.00 0.00 (0.91) (2.97) 1.00 0.00 0.16 2.00 (0.45) (0.02) (0.00 (0.00 0.50) (0.00 (0.00) (0.07 0.00) (0.01) (0.39) (0.02) 0.00) 0.26) (0.00 0.00 0.09 0.00 (1.43) (0.00 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.27) 0.00 (0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.02) Petroleum Natural Gas Electricity Generation (In State) (2.67 Coal Natural Gas Not Sector-Specific (0.00 0.00 0.05 0.01 (0.00 0.22) (2.60) (1.55 3.00) (0.00 0.00 (1.02) (0.90) 0.00 0.00 (0.81) (0.34) (0.99) (4.01) (0.08 0.01) (0.00 0.13) 0.27) (1.00 0.13) (0.32) (0.13 (0.00 0.00 0.62 0.51) 0.00) (0.00 0.00 (0.46) (0.46) (0.86 (1.00) 0.00 0.82) (4.00 0.05 0.82) (5.00 0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.28) (0.82) (1.00 0.00 0.00) (0.02 2.31) (0.00 0.40) (0.62) (2.04) (1.00 0.01) (0.17) 0.00 (1.45) 0.64) 0.01) 0.38) 0.00 (1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.29 (2.01) 0.08 0.00 (2.02) (0.05) 0.01) (0.00 0.29) (0.00 (1.79) (0.67) (0.02) (0.21) (0.00 1.00) 0.00 (0.21) (0.00 0.25 (4.00 0.00 0.02) (0.38) (1.69) (0.01 (0.99) 0.66 85 (5.34) (0.92) 0.01 (1.00 0.00 0.00 (0.25) (0.13) (7.01) (3.00 0.60) 0.00 0.00 0.35) (0.28) 0.00 (0.09) (0.45 0.58) (2.00 0.00 0.84) (6.00 0.76) (0.00 (1.68) (1.00 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.37) (0.45) (5.01) (0.37) 0.02) 4.29) 0.43) 0.90) 0.00 (0.00 0.33 (0.00 0.00 0.93) (8.21) (0.60 (2.65) 0.00 0.00 0.31) 0.00 0.27) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 (2.28 (2.23 (1.00 (0.09 0.02) (0.04) 0.00 (1.00 0.45) (0.00) 0.05) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.01 0.95) (5.00 0.18) 0.75) (1.00 3.00 0.00 0.44 (2.64) (1.37) (0.41) (5.01) (0.00) (2.00 0.13) 0.62) (1.16) 2.04 (3.00 0.00 0.00 0.33) (1.00 0.00 0.32) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.26) (4.01) (0.36) (0.82) 0.00 0.00) 0.10) (6.40) 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00) 5.00) 0.00 (0.00 0.41) (0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.50) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.02) 0.00) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.68) (1.00 0.40) Cement Production Lime Production Limestone & Dolomite Consumption Soda Ash Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption Waste Combustion Land Use Change & Forestry Forests Carbon Emissions Carbon Reductions Rangelands Carbon Emissions Carbon Reductions Agricultural Soils Woody Crops Non-Woody Crops Liming of Soils Landfills Lumber Disposal Yard Trimming Disposal (2.29) (0.01) 0.36) (1.01) 0.30) (0.00 (0.63) (0.00 0.00 (1.25) 0.00) (0.00 0.97 (3.53) (1.00 0.01 0.90) (1.48) (0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.64) (0.00) 0.00 0.36) (0.11 0.00 (0.00 0.08 0.00) (0.39) 0.02) (3.02) (0.00 0.00 (1.00 0.00 0.34) (0.06) (1.00 0.00 0.03 (0.16) (0.43) (0.00 (0.37) (1.00 0.43) (0.00 0.32) 2.33 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Industrial (0.13) 0.01) (0.67) (0.00 (1.00 0.00 (0.00) (0.33) (0.00 0.54) (1.00 0.79) (2.01 (1.00 0.04) 0.00) (0.00 0.42) (1.01 (1.02 (0.01) 0.40) 0.10) (3.00 0.00 0.93 0.27) (0.40) (0.01) (0.00 0.00) 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.51) (0.00 (2.01) (0.00 0.01 0.Appendix D--Differences between current.02 (0.55) (0.06 (1.00 0.00 0.00 0.87) (2.70) (1.65) (0.00 0.03) 0.02) (0.02) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 (4.34) (0.81) (1.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.99) 0.42) (0.00 (1.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.42) 0.01) (0.01) 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.06 (1.60) 1.00) 0.01) (0.37) (0.92) 0.31) (0.72) (0.00 0.00 (0.79) (0.00 0.02 (1.00) (0.62) 0.58) 0.99) (3. 2006 values and values published in 2005 1990 (5.00 0.00) (0.40) 0.00 0.00 0.21) (0.53) (0.46 0.31) (0.00 2.00 (0.05) (0.02) (0.00 0.15) (1.00 0.42) 0.52) (0.36) (0.37) (0.01) (0.44) (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) (0.00 0.06) (1.10) 0.00 0.00 0.06 (1.01) 0.02) (0.52) (3.00 0.03) (3.00 (2.59) (1.00 0.39) (0.11) 0.29) (1.02 0.76) (4.32 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.37) (0.00 (1.29) (0.00 0.90) Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Net) Methane (CH 4) Petroleum & Natural Gas Supply System Field Production Refining Marketing Natural Gas Supply System Processing Transmission Landfills MSW (Class II & III) Other Class II & III Others Enteric Fermentation Dairy Cattle Beef Cattle Horses Sheep Swine Goats Manure Management Beef Cattle Dairy Cattle (0.34) (1.00 0.00 0.00) 0.53 (0.00 0.00 (1.43) 0.00) 0.00 0.07 0.14) 1.09 (2.00 0.00 0.68) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.25) (0.00) (0.00 0.33) 0.00 0.25 1.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22) 0.01 (0.31) (0.55 0.00 0.06) 0.00 0.00) (0.41) (0.79) (0.00 0.00 0.00 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Natural Gas Liquids Transportation 0.02 0.02) (0.00 (2.00 0.00 0.05 (2.52) (4.00 0.00 (0.02) (0.00 0.00 0.88) 0.00) 0.06 0.00 0.00 (1.00 0.03) (2.14) (1.00 0.52 (1.03 (0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.10) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22) (7.00 1.00 0.41) (5.00 0.34) (0.01) (0.00 (0.00 0.73) 0.00 (1.29 0.00 0.00 0.01) 2.05) (0.21) 0.40) (2.00 0.00 0.02) (0.24) (0.52) (2.41) (0.00 0.00) 0.00) (0.00 0.67) (0.00 0.20) (0.00 0.00 0.76) 0.01) 0.57) (1.00 0.11 5.54 2.42) 0.05 0.19) (5.36) (0.00 0.00 0.55 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Carbon Dioxide (Gross) Fossil Fuel Combustion Residential Petroleum Natural Gas Commercial (0.00 0.01 (0.01 (1.00 0.01) (0.14) (0.11 (4.00 (7.06) (0.76) (4.00 0.19) (2.00 0.00) (0.37) (0.00 0.00 0.01 (5.01) 0.00 0.93) (4.65) (3.86) (1.36) 0.35 0.02 0.62 1.00 0.34) (0.00) (3.00 (1.01 (0.06 0.00 0.05 0.45) (5.00 0.01 (1.68) (0.00 (6.00 0.94) (0.01 (0.37) (1.09 0.00 0.02) (0.00 0.01) 0.00 0.83) 0.00 0.06) (3.70) (0.33) (0.00 0.55 Gas/Source (5.00 0.03 (0.05) 1.01 0.00 0.31) (0.00 (0.

03) (0.05 0.05 0.06 0.15 (0.11 0.00) Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks 0.00) (0.00 0.01) 0.07) (0.19) (0.50 0.02) Natural Gas (0.09 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01) (0.00) (0.01 (0.12 0.10 0.00 0.10 Commercial 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.00) (0.30 0.00 0.00) 0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.16 0.00 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Nitric Acid Production Waste Combustion Agricultural Soil Management Direct Fertilizers Crop Residues N-Fixing Crops Histosols Livestock Indirect Fertilizers Livestock Leaching/Runoff Manure Management Beef Cattle Dairy Cattle Swine Poultry Sheep 0.03) (0.01) (0.00 0.21) (0.01) Flooded Rice Fields 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.15) (0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.28 0.02 0.01 0.03) 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.02) Wood (0.00 0.01) (0.14 0.00 0.17 0.11 0.00 0.02 (0.00 0.00 0.13 0.01 0.24) (0.00 0.24 0.00) (0.05 0.00 0.31) (0.01 0.01) 0.00 0.01 0.01) 0.00 Almonds 0.00 0.01 0.03 (0.00 Wood 0.00) (0.02 0.00 0.02 0.06) (0.00 0.06 0.05 0.15) (0.01) (0.27 0.00) (0.06 0.18) 0.00) 0.01 0.06) 0.03 (0.01 0.01) (0.20 Petroleum (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) Natural Gas (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) Wood (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) Other (Previous Inventory did not include this sub-category) Industrial (0.09) Motorcycles (subcategories revised) (0.02) 0.00) (0.00 0.05) 0.00 0.02 0.01) (0.02 (0.05 0.00 0.00 0.02) (0.05 0.05) 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.04 0.01) (0.16) (0.04 0.18 0.59 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.05) (0.00 0.06) (0.01) (0.00) (0.00 0.05) 0.00 (0.01) (0.06) Non-woody/Field 0.00 0.12 0.01) 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.04) (0.99) (0.09 0.18) 0.59 0.62 0.25 0.01 (0.03 (0.18 0.00 0.60) Passenger Cars (subcategories revised) (0.02 0.13 0.00 0.01 0.00) (0.01 0.01) (0.00) (0.14 (0.00 0.11 (0.00 0.00 0.04) 0.18 0.11 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 .00 0.04 0.01) (0.00 Rice 0.15) (0.13 0.00 0.00 0.01) Sheep (0.26 (0.00 0.10 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 (0.01) (0.01 0.11 (0.07 0.00) 0.29 0.02 (0.25 0.02) (0.00 (0.01 0.06 0.61 0.00 (0.02) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01) (0.00) (0.25) (0.19) (0.54 0.02 0.01) 0.15) (0.00) (0.13) (0.00 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.04) 0.07) (0.00 0.00 0.25 (0.01) 0.01 0.00 0.26 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.61 0.00 0.59 0.14) (1.00) (0.04) (0.00 0.15) (0.13 0.00) 0.00) (0.12) Medium & Heavy-Duty Trucks (subcategories revised) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00) (0.07 0.06) (0.00) 0.00) (0.00 0.06 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.57 0.13) (0.16 0.00 Walnuts 0.10) (0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01) 0.06) (0.21 (0.00 0.05) (0.00 Passenger Cars (0.13 0.01) Petroleum 0.02) 0.12 (0.01 0.02 Natural Gas 0.01 0.00 0.02) 0.00 0.02) 0.01) 0.30 0.00 0.01 (0.00 0.11) (0.00 0.00) (0.01 0.11 0.01) 0.00 0.01) (0.05 0.19) (0.00 0.01) (0.00) 0.16 0.13 0.27 (0.02) Diesel Highway Vehicles 0.00 0.01 0.12) (0.06 0.01) 0.02 0.00 (0.05 0.05) 0.28) (0.05) 0.00 0.01 (0.02 0.16 0.00 Swine (0.01 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.05) 0.01 0.00 Other (was listed separately from residential in previous in 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00) (0.00 (0.00 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.54 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.01 (0.00 0.16 0.20) (0.01 0.03 0.01) (0.51) (0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00) (0.01 0.00) (0.02 Wastewater Treatment (0.00 0.15) (0.11) (0.01) (0.00 0.02) (0.26 0.02 0.07) 0.01 0.03 (0.12 0.00 0.01) (0.02) (0.52) (0.05 0.00) (0.01) 0.04 0.01) (0.03) (0.19) (0.17) (0.01) (0.00) (0.31 0.19) 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.06) (0.12 0.00) 0.00) 0.00) (0.02) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.24 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 86 (0.17) 0.00 0.27 0.12 0.00 0.00) (0.39) (0.00 Corn 0.00) (0.01 0.00) 0.05 0.04 (0.00 0.05) 0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00 0.15 (0.04) (0.05 0.50 0.04 Other Transportation (subcategories revised) (0.01 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 (0.05 (0.00) (0.00) 0.04 (0.14) (0.00) (0.00 0.16 0.00 0.21) (0.00 0.06) (0.22) (0.05 0.00 0.01 0.29 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.50 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.17) (0.03) (0.26 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.10) (0.00 (0.02 (0.98) (1.01) (0.00) 0.01) (0.00 Other 0.18) (0.20 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.16 0.00 0.00) Other (0.00) (0.00 0.18) 0.46 0.00 0.05 0.00) 0.00 (0.00 Aviation 0.66 0.12 0.14 0.06 0.01) 0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.01) (0.06 0.14) (0.15) (0.00) (0.08 0.59 0.65 0.20) 0.05 Petroleum 0.00) (0.01) Residential 0.00) (0.00 0.00) Goats (0.00) Light-Duty Trucks (0.01 0.00 0.01) (0.23 0.00) (0.02) (0.01) (0.11 0.00 0.02 0.14 0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.27) (0.02 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.46) (0.01) (0.03 0.00) (0.01) (0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.32) (0.01) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.02 (0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.60 0.23 0.03 0.00 Other Waste Burning 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.11 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.02 0.43) 0.03) (0.00 0.05 0.31) (0.02 (0.16) (0.46) (0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 (0.05 0.02 Other 0.02 0.00 0.29) (0.28) (0.00 0.00) (0.01 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.04) (0.02 0.01 0.23 (0.00 0.02) 0.09 0.00) (0.24) (0.00 0.00 (0.01) (0.00 0.30 0.15 0.00 0.04 0.14 0.00 Woody/Orchard & Vineyard 0.00) Horses (0.01) (0.50) (0.00 (0.01) (0.14 (0.00 0.21) 0.06) (0.00 0.02 0.09) (0.02) (0.01) 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.07 (0.06 0.03) (0.00 0.18 0.00 (0.00 0.01) (0.01 0.03 0.02 (0.09) 0.12 0.01 0.02 0.28 0.03) (0.17) 0.07) (0.23) (1.41) (0.03 (0.00 Natural Gas 0.03 (0.00 0.02 (0.00 0.00 0.51 0.01) Poultry (0.Gas/Source (0.00) 0.03 0.10 0.13) (1.03 0.01) 0.11 0.01 (0.10) 0.00 0.01 0.17 0.09) (0.00 0.27 0.00 0.03) 0.19 (0.00 0.09 (0.06) (0.05 Electricity Generation 0.00 0.60 0.00 Barley 0.03 (0.61 0.00 (0.04 (0.00 0.01 0.00 0.03) (0.18 0.23 0.00 0.13) Petroleum (0.01) (0.01) (0.02) Stationary Source Combustion 0.06 0.00 Burning Ag Residues (0.00 0.04 (0.01) (0.07) (0.02 0.00 0.00 (0.12 0.00 Wheat 0.01 (0.02 0.25) Light-Duty Trucks (subcategories revised) (0.01 0.00 0.03 0.00 (0.53 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.00 0.01) 0.00 0.03) (0.01) 0.11 0.00 0.02) (0.10 0.02 0.19 (0.01) 0.00 0.12 (0.01) (0.00 0.48 0.02 (0.03) (0.23) Wood (Previous inventory did not include this sub-categor 0.00 (0.03 0.01) (0.00 (0.00 0.03 (0.00) (0.14) (0.00 0.00 0.01 0.16 0.22) (1.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.01 0.13 0.47) Gasoline Highway Vehicles (0.13 0.00 0.58 0.01 0.01) (0.03 0.01) 0.01 0.04 (0.01) 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.06) 0.00 (0.02) (0.00) 0.10) (0.00 0.00 0.14) Mobile Source Combustion (0.00 0.01 0.01 0.05) 0.00 Other 0.30 (0.01 (0.03 0.00 0.16) (0.09 0.10 (0.01) 0.00) (0.01 0.01) (0.01) (0.36) (0.21 0.15 0.28) (0.00 0.00 0.24 0.01) 0.00 0.00) (0.00) (0.01 0.13 0.00 0.97 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.76 0.01 0.01) (0.00 0.05 0.02) (0.01 0.10) (0.00 0.03 (0.00 0.00 0.01) 0.86) (0.22 (0.00) (0.22) 0.02 0.06) 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.01 (0.23 (0.01 0.30) (0.11 0.

00) 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 (6.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.25 (0.11) (0.00) 0.00 0.56) (2.00 0.62) (0.00 0.01) (0.04 (0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.59) 5.00 (0.00 0.01 0.62) (18.00) (0.13) (0.01 0.00 0.08) (0.00 0.00 (0.09) (0.01 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 (0.86) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10) (0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.00 (3.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.13) (0.70) (2.00) (0.69) 0.01) (0.87) (2.01 (0.00 0.00) (0.08) (2.00 0.12) (0.59) (0.00 0.04 0.01) (6.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.01 (0.26) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.50) (4.00 0.00 0.00) 0.82) (5.00 (0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.97) 0.86) (9.00 0.00 0.13) (0.13) (0.17) 0.11) 0.03) (0.00) (0.36) 0.59) 0.00 0.00 0.76) (3.00 0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.13) (0.27) (3.02) (0.00 0.00 0.52) (2.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.45) (8.00) (0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.02) (0.01) (0.59) 0.01 (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.25) 0.01) 0.00 0.00 (14.59) 0.04) (0.00 0.95) 0.01) 0.00 0.00) (0.01) (0.00) (0.59) 0.92) (10.00 0.00 (0.38) (5.00) 0.00 (5.00 (0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.13) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (4.13) (0.00 0.00 (11.00 0.00 0.59) (0.27) 0.00 0.78) (6.00 0.01) (0.00) (0.00 (9.18) (0.00 0.04 0.00 (0.00 (0.00 0.01 (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.01 (0.01 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.01 0.01) (0.13) (0.00 0.89) (14.02) (1.00 0.23 1.00 0.01) (0.08) (0.00 0.12) (0.10) (7.00 (0.95) (9.00 (1.30) (0.66) 0.00 (1.00 0.00 0.00) 0.02) (0.00 (1.00 0.59) 0.14) 0.03 0.01) 0.00) (0.29) (0.48) 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.60) (10.00 (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25) (0.00 0.00 0.16) (0.00 0.19) (6.22) (5.01) (0.00 0.92) Goats Horses Burning Ag Residues Non-woody/Field Barley Corn Rice Wheat Other Woody/Orchard & Vineyard Almonds Walnuts Other Wastewater Municipal (formerly Human Sewage) Industrial Mobile Source Combustion Gasoline Highway Vehicles Diesel Highway Vehicles Aviation Stationary Source Combustion Electricity Generation Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Industrial Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Commercial/Institutional Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood Residential Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Wood 0.08) (0.90) (4.00 0.01) (0.44) (8.04) (10.00) (0.00 0.00 (0.41) (0.00 (1.01) 0.00 0.00 0.01 (0.00) 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11) (0.00 0.04 0.52) (0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 (0.01) (0.00 0.85) (12.00 (0.00 0.01) (0.12) (0.95) 0.10) (0.01 (0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.77) (7.95) (11.00 0.01) (0.04 (0.60) (10.05 0.09) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.62) (18.02) (0.00 0.36) (0.00 0.01) 0.39) (2.31) (8.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.80) (0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.85) 0.00 0.00) (0.01) 0.00 0.58) (1.00 0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.02) (0.31) (0.00 (0.00 (10.00 0.00 0.19) (0.00 0.82) (9.59) (0.00) (0.00 0.04 (0.01 (0.00 0.01) 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.49) 0.13 0.00) 0.00 0.00 (13.00 0.07) (0.26) (5.06) (4.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.08) (0.04 0.Gas/Source 0.00) 0.00 0.01) (0.01 (0.11) (0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.59) 0.00) 0.31) (4.00 (0.13) (0.00 0.01) (0.00) (0.00 0.08) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04) (8.00) (0.00 0.10) (0.00) (0.00) (0.34) (3.02) 1.23 (8.00 0.02) (0.00 (1.00 0.00 0.23) (3.11) (0.00) 0.01) (0.13) (0.00 0.00) (0.45) (5.22) 0.00) 0.95) (11.00) (0.00) (0.00 (1.01 0.85) 0.12) (0.04 0.00) 0.00 0.23) (5.01 0.00 0.60) (2.00 0.00 (0.00 (0.00 0.86) (9.00 (2.02 0.00 0.69) (13.00 0.00) (0.11) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.62) 0.00 0.00 0.39) 0.42) 0.81) (1.00 0.59) (0.00 (0.41) (7.00 0.00 0.05) (1.00 0.16 (8.00) (0.34) (0.00 0.00) 0.01) (0.00 0.73) (1.00) (0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00 (1.69) (13.00) (0.90) 0.00 0.14) (0.00 0.36) (7.02) (0.07) (0.01 0.19) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.01) (0.00 0.00) (0.00 (0.05 0.00 0.07) (0.00) (0.23) 0.44) (8.00) (0.89) (14.60) 0.00 (9.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) 0.01 (0.00 0.00 0.70) (1.01) (0.00 0.00) (0.00) (0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 0.00 (1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.26) (0.01) (0.49) (1.07) (1.11) (0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00) 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.05) (2.01) (0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.14) (0.00 0.92) (1.01 (0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00) (0.74) (2.01) (0.00) (0.99) (5.04 (0.59) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03) (0.00) (0.04 (Category not yet included in inventory) 0.36) (7.00 0.59) 0.01) (0.00 0.00 0.11) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.93) 0.04 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 87 (2.00) (0.25) (10.00) (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (0.12) (0.00 0.00 (0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 High Global-Warming Potential Gases Substitution of Ozone-Depleting Substances HFC-23 HFC-32 HFC-125 HFC-134a HFC-143a HFC-236fa CF4 C2F6 Others Semiconductor Manufacture Electricity Transmission & Distribution (SF6) Electricity Imports Net California Emissions w/o Electric Imports) Gross California Emissions with Electric Imports Net California Emissions with Electric Imports International Bunker Carbon Dioxide Emissions Jet Fuel (Aviation) Distillate Oil (Marine) Residual Oil (Marine) Gross Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide = (3.00 0.00 (12.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 0.81) 0.00 0.21) (0.27) (0.00 0.22) (0.00 (6.00 (0.56) (6.16) (0.00 (5.00 0.85) (12.00 0.00 0.00 0.12) 0.52) (5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.66) (12.04 0.00 0.00) 0.04 0.00) (0.00) 0.00 0.00 0.25) (10.11) (0.00 0.00 0.89) 0.19) (3.66) (12.00 (7.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00) (0.37) (3.09) (0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.00 (0.04 0.00 (0.01 0.05 0.17) 0.00 0.08) (0.00 0.00) (0.00 0.00 0.03) (0.28) 0.04 0.43) Gross FF CO2 & Imports & International Fuels = Non-Fossil Fuel CO2 Portion of GHG Inventory = .00 0.44) 0.00 0.00 (0.01) (0.00 0.16 5.00 0.00) 0.00) (0.00 0.08) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01) (0.04 (0.00 (0.01) (0.03) (0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.02) (0.00 (10.00) (0.00 (0.00 (4.00 0.01) (0.55) (8.00) (0.08) (0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00) 0.00) (0.01 (0.00) (0.01) (0.99) (3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (18.34) (0.00 0.38) (1.00) 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.32) (0.02) (0.00 0.00 0.10) (0.00 0.95) (9.00 0.00 0.00) (0.00 (0.00 0.23) (0.00 0.00 0.27) (3.00 0.00 (1.10) (3.00 0.01 (0.59) (0.00 0.00 (12.08) (0.00 0.04 0.00 (7.00 0.00) 0.00) (0.09) (0.00) (0.92) (1.00 0.11) (0.00 0.04 0.25 0.00 0.00) (0.00) (0.00) 0.76) (2.00 (0.00 0.00 (1.00 0.27) (0.05 0.00 (0.00 0.00 (0.00) (0.00 0.35) 0.00 (0.41) (5.71) 0.39) 0.00 (8.00) 0.

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APPENDIX E METHANE SPECIATION PROFILE PROVIDED BY CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD 89 .

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stabilized exhaust .primary metals Composite jet exhaust JP-5 (EPA 1097-1099) Composite natural gas Crude oil .catalyst .8% 5.stabilized exhaust .ARB IUS summer 1990 Gasoline .ARB IUS summer 1987 Gasoline .4% 5.5% 25.bituminous .ARB summer 1995 Percent Methane 43.1% 15.ARB summer 1989 Gasoline .stabilized exhaust .6% 14.coke oven gas External combustion boilers.AVERAGE (EPA 9004) Coal combustion .3% 21.Kern county Crude oil evaporation.stabilized exhaust .8% 23.0% 21.3% 26.0% 7.ARB summer 1991 Gasoline .storage tanks .stabilized exhaust .catalyst .stabilized exhaust .catalyst .FTP Bag 1-3 STARTS .8% 11.catalyst .vapor composite from fixed roof tanks Daytime biogenic profile.5% 20.9% 45.ARB summer 1992 Gasoline .2% 27.8% 25.catalyst .1% 83.7% 30.0% 4.7% 24.diesel .1% 13.catalyst .tar kettle Bar screen waste incinerator.1% 13.AVERAGE (EPA 9007) Animal waste decomposition Asphalt roofing .6% 91 .solid waste Carbon black manufacturing Cat stabilzed exhaust 2004 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2005 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2006 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2007 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2008 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2009 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2010 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2011 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2012 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2013 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2014 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2015 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2016 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2017 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2018 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2019 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat stabilzed exhaust 2020 SSD etoh 2% O (MTBE phaseout) Cat start exhaust 1996 SSD etoh 2.FTP Bag 1-3 STARTS .catalyst .1% 17.catalyst .ARB summer 1988 Gasoline .6% 29.distillate or residual Farm equipment .3% 11.6% 40.(ems=actual weight) Forest fires Gasoline .process gas Coke oven stack gas .5% 30.0% o (MTBE phaseout) CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING .ARB summer 1993 Gasoline .7% 19.light & heavy .catalyst .fluidized bed Coke oven blast furnace.catalyst .ARB IUS summer 1994 Gasoline .Kern county crops Evaporative emissions-distillate fuel External combustion boiler .1% 5.4% 22.0% 12.4% 17.3% 31.8% 28.2% 56.stabilized exhaust .7% 6.stabilized exhaust .stabilized exhaust .natural gas External combustion boiler .0% 12.2% 5.4% 93.3% 70.3% 11.process gas External combustion boiler.0% 27.2% 22.6% 15.6% 82.ARB IUS summer 1996 Gasoline .catalyst .0% 22.ARB IUS summer 1996 Gasoline .0% 4.Type of Source ALCOHOLS PRODUCTION .9% 18.3% 80.0% 8.

7% 17.gasoline .AVERAGE (EPA 9009) Primary metals .0% 13.ARB IUS summer 1994 Gasoline . USEPA LANDFILL EMISSION MODEL MINERAL PRODUCTS .4 cycle .AVERAGE (EPA 9012) Petroleum industry .0% 73.8% 73.CalPoly 1991 Utility equipment .ARB IUS summer 1996 Gasoline .0% o etoh (MTBE phaseout) OCS .stabilized exhaust .5% 8.gasoline .3% 37.0% 59.catalyst .pump seals Oil & gas extraction .composite Refinery.1% 11.basic oxygen furnace PRINTING/PUBLISHING .catalyst .FTP Composite .ARB summer 2003 Gasoline .non-cat .Kern county crops Non-cat stabilized exhaust 1996 SSD 2.fcc Refinery flares.1% 6.0% 5.9% 28.ca.3% 18.fugitive emissions PRIMARY METAL PRODUCTION .catalyst -stabilized exhaust-from 96IUS summer 2000 Gasoline .0% 2.6% 3.stabilized exhaust .7% 75.7% 6.non-cat .stabilized exhaust .ARB IUS summer 1996 Geysers power plant main steam ICE-reciprocating-natural gas Industrial ice.8% 17.htm (ORGPROF] Percent Methane 16.0% 15.non-cat .3% 25.fugitive emissions from covered drainage/separation pits Refinery.AVERAGE (EPA 9026) Red oak combustion .ARB summer 1999 Gasoline .AVERAGE (EPA 9011) Nighttime biogenic profile .1% 36.4% 18.stabilized exhaust .ARB IUS summer 1994 Gasoline .6% 85.stabilized exhaust .6% 18.8% 9.9% 29.3% 92 .catalyst .4% 9.distillate oil INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES .0% 0.natural gas Refinery.composite Species unknown.2 cycle .3% 6.all category composite Utility equipment .6% 45.stabilized exhaust .catalyst .ore charging Iron sintering .Type of Source Gasoline .wood stove (w/o catalyst) Refinery co boiler .gov/ei/speciate/speciate.8% 56. valves & flanges.non-cat .0% o etoh (MTBE phaseout) Non-cat start exhaust 1996 SSD 2.catalyst .ARB summer 2002 Gasoline .0% 5.3% 16.refinery catalytic reformer .7% 49.well heads & cellars/oil&water separator Oil & gas production fugitives-gas service Oil & gas production fugitives-liquid service Oil & gas production fugitives-valves-unspecified Open burning dump.steel production .0% 20.gas seeps Oil & gas extraction .ARB summer 1997 Gasoline .FTP Bag 1-3 STARTS .ARB summer 1998 Gasoline .catalyst .1% 18.5% 61.6% 11.blast furnace .pipes.stabilized exhaust .CalPoly 1991 Derived as a subset from: [http://www.ARB summer 2001 Gasoline .landscape/pruning (modified KVB 121) PETROLEUM INDUSTRY .non-cat .3% 98.stabilized exhaust .primary metals LANDFILLS.pipeline valves & fittings Oil & gas extraction .3% 37.1% 10.pump seals.AVERAGE (EPA 9003) Iron production .6% 60.arb.FTP bag1-3 STARTS .compressor seals Oil & gas extraction .9% 76.0% 2.ARB IUS summer 1994 Gasoline .6% 9.0% 51.

APPENDIX F COMPARING THE CURRENT 1990 TO 2004 GHG EMISSIONS INVENTORY AND 2005 INTEGRATED ENERGY POLICY REPORT TO CORRESPOINDING VALUES USED BY THE CALIFORNIA CLIMATE ACTION TEAM 93 .

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transportation fuel use. Oregon. Also. and the Air Resources Board. As data and methodologies to perform this function improve. These are detailed in various places elsewhere in this report. These two categories of factors cause changes in both the historical GHG emissions and in the emissions projections. The CAT emissions reduction needed to meet the Governor’s 2010 goal was 59 MMTCO2E (from Table 5-5 of the CAT report) while the current GHG inventory and projections would require 68 MMTCO2E reductions in 2010. 95 . the Energy Commission updates its Integrated Energy Policy Report every two years. direct fuel use. not the 2005 IEPR. the CAT report indicates that 174 MMTCO2E reductions would be needed in 2020 while the current GHG inventory and projections indicates that 177 MMTCO2E reductions are needed in 2020. and Washington. This work was initially conducted as part of a tri-state effort to address global warming issues and included California. including double counting one sub-category and instances of not using consistent GWPs to determine CO2 equivalents for methane and nitrous oxide emissions. then extended it to 2010 and 2020. This appendix compares the current GHG inventory and projections based upon the 2005 IEPR to the 1990 to 1999 GHG inventory and projections based upon the 2003 IEPR as used by the CAT.Introduction GHG emissions inventories are by necessity approximations derived from numerous calculations and assumptions. In addition. The Tellus work was refocused to include only California and was initially produced as a draft in December 200491 and then in revised form in July 2005. and non-carbon GHG emissions. the CAT removed international bunker fuels from the Tellus values. emissions estimates changed from previously published values for a variety of reasons. revisions are needed. including revised estimates of fuel used in California and to correct problems in the previous inventory. The Climate Action Team (CAT) used the 2003 Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR) to project fuel demand. They first projected the 1990 to 1999 GHG inventory to 2002.92 Tellus Institute summarized emissions from in-state electricity production. out-ofstate electricity produced for use in California. Projections based upon 2003 IEPR The California Climate Action Team used work products prepared earlier by the Tellus Institute. Likewise. the Energy Commission. They made adjustments to reflect the impact of recent policies that were adopted by the California Public Utilities Commission. California GHG emissions estimates as used by the CAT are shown in Table F-1. In this GHG inventory.

Updated values from the 2005 IEPR were 96 . Projections based upon 2005 IEPR The current inventory and publication of the 2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report provide opportunities to update the Climate Action Team (CAT) data. (5) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from mobile and stationary sources were held constant at 1999 values. Methane emissions from wastewater and nitrous oxide emissions from human sewage were projected using the PIER report.Out-of-state electricity emissions were projected by first assuming California’s Renewables Program goal of having 20 percent of our electrical energy supplied by renewables by 2017 and assuming 32 percent of California’s electricity is supplied by out-of-state resources. except the PIER report was used to project nitric acid emissions. (4) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management were projected using the PIER report while methane emissions from enteric fermentation and other agricultural activities were held constant at 1999 values. and (6) High GWP gas emissions from substitution of ozone depleting substances. (2) Soils and forest sinks were held constant at 1999 values. this appendix presents the results of projecting emissions using the 1990 to 2004 GHG inventory and the 2005 IEPR. An approach similar to that used by the CAT was used to project the 1990 to 2004 inventory to 2010 and 2020. semiconductor manufacturing and sulfur hexafluoride use were all projected using the PIER report. (3) CO2 and nitrous oxide emissions from waste combustion were both held constant at 1999 values. several of the sub-categories were either held constant at their 2002 values or projected using draft data from a report from the Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The non-renewable portion of the growth in our-of-state gigawatt hours was assumed to be 50 percent coal and 50 percent natural gas. As an alternative. it is not expected to be available by January 2007.93 Specifically: (1) GHG emissions from cement manufacturing and other industrial processes were held constant. Although the major emissions categories were projected to 2010 and 2020. While it would be prudent to use the forthcoming 2007 IEPR work. These updates may prove useful to the CAT when they update their work in January 2007. Table F-2 summarizes the results.

as was done in the earlier CAT report projections. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) has a current regulatory proceeding94 to develop an appropriate emissions rate in term of pounds carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour. including petroleum coke and waste tires. This projected demand included California Public Utilities Commission decisions and Energy Commission adopted standards for both appliances and buildings. The remaining growth in electricity demand was assumed to be met by 100 percent natural gas for both in-state and out-of-state electricity supply resources. Although other fuels are likely used. CPUC staff has proposed a rate of 1. or data from a technical report prepared for the Energy Commission’s PIER Program by ICF Consulting and titled Emissions Reduction Opportunities for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in California95 or projected using fuel demand data from the 2005 IEPR: (1) GHG emissions from industrial processes were held constant at 2004 values. Statutes of 2006) will ensure all electrical load growth will be served by facilities that emit no more than a modern. Chapter 598. These emissions tend to be small in magnitude and do not tend to change over the 1990 to 2004 time period. Also.used to project electricity demand. These were projected to continue to decline by about 15 percent to 2020 as stated in the ICF Consulting report. the amount of CO2 emissions from cement clinker production was assumed to correlate better to expected future natural gas demand values than holding them constant. Since historical values fluctuate over time. Non-carbon emissions were either held constant at 2004 values. The recently-adopted SB 1368 (Perata. Methane emissions from landfills were assumed to increase as stated in the ICF Consulting report. The CAT report held the waste combustion and wastewater treatment emissions constant and used a 97 . (2) Soils and forestry sink emissions were estimated at the average of their 1990 to 2004 values. (3) Methane emissions from oil and natural gas production decline steadily over the 1990 to 2004 period. Emissions from cement manufacturing were assumed to grow in proportion to the projected demand for natural gas use in the cement manufacturing sector. This assumes that the fuel mix remains constant. were projected using either underlying data. This treatment matches the earlier CAT report projections. this seems to be a better representation than holding them constant at near-year values. This value was used to project 2010 and 2020 emissions from the non-renewable portion of electricity demand growth. combined-cycle natural gas power plant.100 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions per megawatt-hour. (4) GHG emissions from waste combustion and wastewater treatment were projected to increase with population. the renewable program goals were assumed to be met.

The CAT projections held these constant.draft of the ICF report for landfill projections (no change in data in the final report). However. Methane emissions from flooded rice fields and agricultural burning as well as nitrous oxide emissions from manure management and agricultural burning were each held constant at 2002 to 2004 average values. (6) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from mobile source combustion were projected using gasoline and diesel demand forecasts from the 2005 IEPR. with the exception of non-refrigeration gases. were projected using data from the ICF Consulting report. In the most recent projections. and this was incorporated in the current projections. these gases are combined in that report but need to be separated out for the projections. 98 . Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management and nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soil management were projected using extrapolation. (7) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from stationary source combustion were projected using population data from the 2005 IEPR. The CAT projections held these constant. The ICF Consulting report treats refrigeration gases separately. the non-refrigeration gases are held constant at the average of their 2002 to 2004 values. (8) GHG emissions from high GWP gases. (5) Agricultural emissions of methane and nitrous oxide were projected using either an extrapolation of historical trends or assumed constant. The earlier CAT projections for manure management were projected from the ICF report.

4 0.7 12.6 97.4 19.9 72.1 116.4 190. Industry.1 (1.1 0.4 19.6 1.7 104.1 2.9 100.2 0.1 423.3 18.3 1.6 103.0 (18.5 2.9) 2.0 0.5 211.3 7.8 35.8 15.2 1.5 23.7 14.2 2.1 18.1 10.8) 10.1 23.1 38.3 0.2 4.5 TOTAL BASELINE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2010 2020 446 426 432 410 430 418 423 413 444 435 434 423 436 426 449 439 463 454 472 462 483 473 491 481 486 475 542 532 610 600 Totals Excluding International Bunker Fuels Reductions Needed to Meet Governor's GHG Reduction Goals: 59 174 99 .3 203.7) 18.6) (1.3) 0.7 46.3 17.3 10.2 0.7 36.2 30.8 1.7 8.0 10.2 4.2 15.9 23.3 44.3) 5.5 1.8 113.5 20. 2004/2005 Only) 2005 Building Standards Direct Fuel Use Natural Gas Coal Oil (largely in refineries) Impact of Recent Policies CPUC Energy Savings Goals (IOUs.1 17.5 189.0 0.5 1.9 204.4 34.6 47.3 94.0 61.1 8.8 2.2 7.4 8.3 29.5 80.4 1.0 3.4 1.1 51.0 148.6 40.5 26.5 3.4 5.3) 109.6 44.3 25.9) (1.6 2.6 49.1 50.6 467.7 103.0 28.0 0.5 0.2 11.0 20.7 104.4 31.8 77.8) 7.) Natural Gas Jet Fuel .7 11.6 5.0 17.4 5.2 92.4 20.5 102.8 4.7) 0.6 1.9 26.5 1.2 9.9 1.6 5.1 0.0) 0.6 60.1 18.7 2.1 0.4 50.4 5.4 51.3 56.3 3.4 15.6 3.0 36.0 2.3 8.3 107.8 522.0 100.4 63.2 15.1 38.3 0.0 26.4 65.9 8.6) 0.3 61.6 3.9 8.3 23.3 207.2 (19.1 10.7 40.5) (1.5 28.9 10.5 23.1 112.7% ethanol in CaRFG3) On-Road Diesel Outlook International Bunker Fuels (mostly residual oil) Other Petroleum (Off-Road Diesel/Gasoline.1 30.2 15.0 41.0 110.3 32.7 114.6 4.8 42.3 31.0 (0.8) 9.0 46.4 67.5 102.4 6.9 1.4 (1.2 15.8 106.5 247.4 36.4 203.4 45.5 37.5 34.8 (18.8 6.7 94.5 48. and International Fuels Included: Base Case Projections (Carbon Dioxide Only) 404.4 0.4 (19.9 6.8 1.9 17.4 3.9 108.7 60.6 63.2 7.0 100.5 60.6 (18.1 (19.4 8.8 33.7 5.0 28.4 6.3 7. Landfill Gas.5 90.3 46.7 (25.7 110. 2004/2005 Only) 2005 Building Standards Direct Fuel Use With Impact of Recent Policies 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2010 2020 86.7 60.3 8.1 44.4 101.6 95.4) (2.0 28.3) (0.3) 109.0 385.9 5.3 22.3 0.2 0.7 3.1 0.1 10.3 0.9 3.4 287.8) 19.7 41.6 97.3 3.9 3.Commercial (non-military) Transportation Totals with Impact of Recent Policies 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2010 2020 110.2 50.0 28.3 28.6 29.4 46. Bunker Fuel.3 0.3 0.1 33.8 19.0 76.6 108.2 39.7 40.7 3.8 6.6 74.6 Non-Carbon GHG Emissions (in CO2 Equivalents) Agriculture (CH4 and N2O) Soils and Forests Carbon Sinks ODS substitutes Semi-conductor manufacture (PFCs) Electric Utilities (SF6) Cement.9 37.8 37.1 6.9 42.8 45.4 5.2 1.6 87.3 0.3 0.2 19.2 15.6 95.8 197. final numbers used by CAT) Buildings.4 4.0 2.3 0.1 29.8) 31.8 32.4 70.2 0.2 15.4 6.7 41.0 10.5 25.6 209.8 100.5 27.9 1.0 3.1) (0.8 6. Other Industrial Processes Solid Waste Management.3 208.1 104.6 60.6 42.5 3.3 28.2 43.8 0.1 6.8) 8.6 1.9 3.2) 0.2 12.9 110.5 3.8 54.Table F-1 -.1 28.0 0.6 52.3 7.9 27.1 19.7 391.2 15.9 110.1 (25.6 63.1 46.8 20.3 0.1 104.9 73.7 1.5 4.8 5.6 89.1 214.7 113.5 1.2 17.3 (19.0 5.California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (from Tellus Institute.6 99. Electricity Electricity Generation Totals with Impact of Recent Policies In state generating resources Existing Coal Plants Existing Gas Plants Existing Oil Plants New (non-renewable) Electricity Generation Sources Out of state generating resources Utility owned out of state (Coal) Imports from NW Imports from SW New (non-renewable) Electricity Generation Sources Impact of Recent Policies CPUC Energy Savings Goals (IOUs.7 5.2 7.7 36.8 24.0 0.9 414.9 3.0 10.4 101.4 13.8 (20.4 20.7 1.9 216.4 54.0 1.7 5.8 5.0 19.0 (0.7 125.5 1.5 23.2 106.8 2.1 21.1 16.2 0.0 39.6 42.3 106.7 16.9 6.8 55.2 199.6 1.2 106.6 77.1 0.1 0.5 102.9 2.3 2.4 6.5 41.5 45.5 10.8 2.0 28.2 52.5 56.6) 4.7 14.9 377.8 44.8 32.6 61.7 28.7 41.7 30.0 110.5 28.6 422.5 122. etc.9 165.1 26.2 10.0) (0.3 67.0 65.4 6.3 96.4 77.4 (18.7 48.6 57.5 1.0 2.2 30.2 3. Military jetfuel.4 80.2 396.5 398.3 26.9 20.3 41.8 4.3 17.9 50.7 110.9 384.2 7.2 17.7 2.2 7.7 19.0 54.4 9.7 41.7 28.2 13.8 37.4 5.7 3.7 40.6 19.0 26.2 0.9 3.5 4.3 0.3 (21.7 14.6 1.8 8.9 0.7 0.1) (0.8 27.6 (20.7 45.6 42.1 42.3 39.3) 1.2 429.1 124.5 15.4 1.4 5.0 108.2 54.3 29.1 21.9 1.1 0.3 1.2 18.5 37.2 22.2 0.6 103.8 3.7 (18.6 0. and Wastewater Methane from oil and gas systems Methane and N20 from Fossil Fuel Combustion Total Non-Carbon GHG Emissions 27.1 0.7 71.8 (18.1 1.1 Transportation On-Road Gasoline Demand Impact of Recent Policies (switch to 5.3 1.0 3.5 27.3 35.6 2.7 49.1) 6.2 96.7 21.2 20.2 119.2 382.2 61.2 2.1 11.5 Fossil Fuel CO2 Subtotals 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2010 2020 With Electric Imports.0 129.3 419.

Military jetfuel.) 3 3 2 2 Natural Gas 0 0 0 0 Jet Fuel .California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Energy Commission's 1990 to 2004 GHG Inventory & 2005 IEPR for Projections) (Projections are 3-yr average centered on 2002) 1990 80 37 0 36 0 43 17 6 21 80 37 0 37 0 43 19 5 19 87 44 0 44 0 43 27 4 12 81 40 0 40 0 41 19 3 19 91 48 0 48 0 43 21 3 19 75 36 0 36 0 39 16 4 19 74 34 0 34 0 41 21 6 14 83 36 0 36 0 47 23 5 19 93 40 0 40 0 53 30 4 19 95 43 0 43 0 52 31 5 16 92 52 0 52 0 40 31 4 6 103 56 0 56 0 47 22 4 22 94 42 0 42 0 52 22 6 24 101 44 0 44 0 56 22 8 27 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2010 108 47 0 47 0 61 23 7 31 119 63 0 63 0 56 22 N/A N/A 34 2020 129 69 0 69 0 61 22 N/A N/A 38 Buildings. 2004/2005 Only) 2005 Building Standards Direct Fuel Use Natural Gas Coal Oil (largely still gas & pet.1) 50 26 2 0 38 233 Transportation On-Road Gasoline Demand (before switch from MTBE to Ethanol) 111 109 115 113 Impact of Recent Policies (switch to ~6% ethanol in CaRFG.Commercial (non-military) 24 23 22 23 Transportation Totals with Impact of Recent Policies 161 157 162 159 .Table F-2 -.0) 38 26 2 0 29 211 116 145 (2. 2004/2005 Only) 2005 Building Standards Direct Fuel Use With Impact of Recent Policies 109 65 3 40 1 0 107 64 3 39 1 0 99 59 3 37 0 0 103 60 2 40 1 0 106 62 3 41 1 0 100 62 3 35 1 0 105 65 3 36 0 0 109 69 4 37 0 0 119 80 4 36 0 0 118 79 4 34 1 0 123 79 4 38 1 0 120 73 4 42 1 0 122 74 4 39 5 0 105 114 25 35 2 0 26 167 109 115 27 27 2 1 26 171 119 117 27 27 2 1 27 173 118 120 28 30 2 1 25 176 123 122 30 34 3 1 26 182 120 125 30 32 2 1 25 182 122 131 31 32 2 1 26 190 109 66 4 36 2 0 107 68 4 35 0 0 113 74 4 35 0 0 116 79 4 32 0 0 109 126 31 24 2 1 21 181 107 131 32 26 2 1 22 188 113 144 (2. Coke used in refineries) Non-specified Fuel Use (balancing entry) Natural Gas Liquids Impact of Recent Policies CPUC Energy Savings Goals (IOUs. Electricity 100 109 107 99 103 106 113 24 32 2 0 25 164 100 115 24 36 3 0 24 166 Electricity Generation Totals with Impact of Recent Policies In state generating resources Existing Coal Plants Existing Gas Plants Existing Oil Plants Out of state generating resources Utility owned out of state (Coal) Imports from PNW Imports from PSW GWH Growth Impact of Recent Policies CPUC Energy Savings Goals (IOUs. etc. only needed for 2010 & 2020) On-Road Diesel Outlook 23 22 23 21 International Bunker Fuels (mostly residual oil) 40 35 28 28 Other Petroleum (Off-Road Diesel/Gasoline. Industry.

7 60.3 6.5 10.6 58.2 11.9 27.3 54.5 0.7 54.California Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Energy Commission's 1990 to 2004 GHG Inventory & 2005 IEPR for Projections) (Projections are 3-yr average centered on 2002) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2010 2020 Fossil Fuel CO2 Subtotals 350 26.1 0.0 (11.8) 6.1 2.6 (15.4 1.9 7.9 53.3 1.0 1.4 11.7 (15.4 16.2 6.1 15.9 64.5 0.8 1.8 With Electric Imports and International Fuels Included: Base Case Projections (Carbon Dioxide Only) Non-Carbon GHG Emissions (in CO2 Equivalents) Agriculture (CH4 and N2O) Soils and Forests Carbon Sinks ODS substitutes Semi-conductor manufacture (PFCs) Electric Utilities (SF6) Cement.7 2.5) 8.7) 9.6 1.4 (17.3 12.8 1.0 (14.4 2.5 0.9 67.0 6.5 2.7 0.4 0.3 11.6 1. Other Industrial Processes Solid Waste Management.5 1.1) 19.4 29.4 (12.7 28.0 57.9 (14.9 15.2 4.0) 9.7 0.8 (14.1) 5.9 1.0 26.2 5.9 2.9 15.1 16.5 2.8 (14.1 478 40.0 15.3 10.1 57.4) 7.1) 5.7 10.2 62.8 (17.4 2.8 2.4) 6.6 (15.4 12.8 14.2 25. Landfill Gas.9) 6.5 2.3 27.7 2.2 5.1 16.1 7.0 10.9 1.5 1.0 7.8 0.5 1.9 444 35.0 15.4 2.7 26. and Wastewater Methane from oil and gas systems Methane and N20 from Fossil Fuel Combustion Total Non-Carbon GHG Emissions 101 1990 404 394 400 396 416 399 407 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 422 443 447 2000 457 2001 2002 2003 469 470 457 2004 2010 471 526 2020 581 TOTAL BASELINE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Reductions Needed to Meet Governor's GHG Reduction Goals: CAT Reductions: 68 59 177 174 .5 7.7 2.5 2.7) 4.8 0.8 2.3 8.8 2.8 10.3 11.0 2.2 26.0) 10.3 0.3 57.1) 30.7 10.2 6.9 51.9 1.5 (16.9 0.2) 4.8 (16.1 6.1 6.7 2.2 26.6 0.7 1.5 0.0 10.7 27.5 1.9 102.3 10.Table F-2 -.6 18.9 14.1 6.9 34.9 1.3 16.5) 8.3 5.6 (14.2 343 348 343 361 341 347 364 385 389 397 406 406 33.7 (14.9 15.2 15.3 6.7 5.6 29.9 11.9 16.2 11.8 2.0 (15.0 1.5 13.6 390 403 33.9 15.5 82.1 6.3 10.6 0.3 59.6 51.6) (14.5 0.9) 11.8 66.

These GWPs are studied and reported through an international review process. 3 2 NRDC comments to the Energy Commission. Since the magnitude of the differences among the ranked governmental bodies (all are countries except for California and Texas) are small. [http://www.html]. These non-CO2 gases cause the atmosphere to heat (called “radiative forcing”) at a faster rate than CO2. Summary for Policy Makers. Washington.energy. To determine CO2-equivalence of these non.3 trillion dollars in 1990 to $1.gov/2005publications/CEC-600-2005-025/index. Strictly speaking. Texas’ GSP grew from $384. Sacramento. August 2004. Gross emissions represent emissions without taking into account emissions reductions. California. and the other gases are given a weighting factor that represents their rate of warming compared to CO2.grida. P500-04-058. 11 EPA. Sacramento.html]. for an increase of 83 percent. June 2003 and subsequent updates.5 trillion dollars in 2003. California was the sixteenth largest emitter of CO2 in 2002. Department of Commerce. November 2002. Correspondingly. from World Resources Institute’s Climate Analysis Indicators Tool. nitrous oxide. The term “CO2-equivalent” (also expressed as “CO2-equivalent”) is used to describe the ensemble of GHG gases that contribute to global warming. June 6. The term “anthropogenic” is used to describe something that is human-derived rather than naturally occurring.CO2 gases. 8 7 6 5 4 Energy Commission. Data are for total greenhouse gas emissions and include emissions from electricity imported into California.ca. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. [http://www. the exact ranking is rather arbitrary and not worth debating. and rankings as high as tenth are possible. Washington. CO2 is given a weighting factor of 1. California and Texas are both major contributors to world-scale greenhouse gas emissions. 10 9 Energy Commission.gov/bea/regional/gsp/]. 2005.5 trillion dollars in 2003.ca. 2006). June 2003 and subsequent updates. S. June 2005.Endnotes 1 Derived from U. [http://www. [http://www. California Energy Balances Report. Sacramento. P600-02-001F. These weighting factors are called “GWPs” and are usually based upon the impact of the subject gas estimated over a 100-year period of time. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 to 2002 Update. DC. (accessed October 3. 102 .gov/reports/60002-001F/index. California. April 5.1 trillion dollars in 1990 to $828. for an increase of 115 percent. EPA. DC.410.bea. and a class of gases called high GWP gases (see end note 20 for this definition). Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Other estimates place the California ranking higher. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. 2006.htm].no/climate/ipcc_tar/vol4/english/076. Bureau of Economic Analysis. or sinks.energy. CEC-600-2005-025. California. November 2002.0. including CO2. California’s GSP grew from $788. methane. November 2002. Energy Commission. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001). page 2.

The term “industrial” includes CO2 emissions from coal use and petroleum use (including LPG. The term “international bunker fuels” applies to fuels used in international aviation or marine transportation. Final Staff Report. October 1990. Sacramento. Sacramento. and industrial fuel combustion. jet fuel. lubricants. P600-02-001F. and special naphtha). California. page 108. and air (most likely ground support equipment at airports). Publication CEC-600-2005-025. including wood. for semiconductor manufacturing. and nitrous oxide emissions from on-road and off-road uses of petroleum and natural gas fuels. The term “high GWP gases” is applied to a series of gases used in industrial processes.energy. CA. Sacramento. lime production. Comparability and Implications. distillate. distillate. petroleum coke. Finally.gov/2005publications/CEC-600-2005-025/CEC-600-2005-025. staff used estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion to compare California emissions to other states and to evaluate how they compare in relative GHG emissions intensity. hydrofluorocarbons. 1988 Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions. California. These are used mainly as replacements for ozone-depleting industrial gases (see separate end note for definition). limestone and dolomite consumption. California’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory 1990. Volume 4. road.html].ca. Historical and Forecasted Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories for California. P500-97-004.PDF]. and pipeline transport of fuels. including perfluorocarbons. California Energy Commission. Petroleum transportation fuel use includes liquefied petroleum gas. and industrial fuel use.Uncertainties in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories—Evaluation. Industrial GHGs also include nitrous oxide emissions from waste combustion. Appendix A. as byproducts of manufacturing processes. January 1998.ca. Environmental Science and Technology. It also includes industrial activities that produce CO2 directly from their production or use. and for electric power transmission and distribution switchyard gear. 2001. The term “transportation” includes CO2. November 2002. municipal waste (formerly called “human waste”). refinery still gas. 21 California Energy Commission. and SF6. Sacramento. transmission. June 2005.energy. industrial GHGs also 24 23 22 103 . California Energy Commission. 15 14 13 12 See Footnote 4 for definition. March 1997. pages 107 to 116. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. Natural gas transportation fuel use includes rail. 19 18 Ibid. [http://www. waste water treatment.Because it was not possible to obtain full GHG inventory data for the other states. water. storage and marketing. California. aviation gasoline. soda ash consumption. residual oil. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 to 2002. landfill emissions. California. kerosene. residual oil. including cement production. in the current inventory these emissions are calculated and reported separately but are not considered a part of the California GHG emissions inventory. methane. motor gasoline.gov/reports/60002-001F/index. In accordance with international GHG emissions reporting procedures. P500-98-001V3. Sacramento. Industrial GHGs also include methane emissions from petroleum and natural gas extraction. 17 16 California Energy Commission. and waste combustion. lubricants. motor gasoline. [http://www. 20 Energy Commission.

healthcare. emissions reductions from expanding rangelands and associated increased CO2 removal from the atmosphere are excluded. The term “residual oil” is applied to one of the distilled products from refining crude oil. woody crop. distillate. and lubricating oil. and nitrous oxide emissions from coal. and distillate. and natural gas (includes education. and other minor sources. The term “commercial” includes CO2 emissions from coal. Because the trend analysis is based upon gross emissions to the degree possible. It is often used in other states as an industrial fuel but ARB regulations often preclude its use in California. transportation services. in-state GHG emissions for electricity exported are small and included as in-state GHG emissions. 31 The category “Other Transportation Fuels” includes CO2 from aviation gasoline. The term “residential” includes CO2 emissions from liquefied natural gas. Out-of-state GHG emissions from electricity production are reported separately from in-state emissions in the GHG inventory. communication. residual oil. petroleum. natural gas. Agricultural GHG gases also include nitrous oxide emissions from manure management and agricultural residue burning. nitrous oxide from diesel fuel and aviation gasoline. and agricultural burning. As noted elsewhere in this document. natural gas. and non-specified services). including the Energy Commission. food services. Residual oil is the heavy residue that remains in liquid form after more valuable products such as gasoline and distillate are recovered. methane emissions from petroleum. kerosene. These “other” emissions are CO2 emissions from fuel end-uses not specified in the California Energy Balances Report. and residual oil). and wholesale. and wood. The term “agriculture” includes CO2 emissions from natural gas used in crop production. manure management. out-of-state GHG emissions do not need to be considered when developing GHG inventories. Because the trend analysis is based upon gross emissions to the degree possible. livestock production and irrigation.include high GWP gases used as substitutes for ozone-depleting gases (see definition in separate note) and in semiconductor manufacture. petroleum. kerosene. liquefied petroleum gas. and non-woody crop management and soil liming. and non-specified fuel uses. retail. Agricultural GHG gases also include methane emissions from enteric fermentation. office. Commercial GHG gas also include methane emissions from petroleum. it excludes emissions reductions from yard trimmings and lumber disposal and associated increased CO2 emissions atmosphere. rangeland. national security. will affect emissions both within and outside the state. and nitrous oxide emissions from coal. utilities excluding electricity production. natural gas. Because the trend analysis is based upon gross emissions to the degree possible. Policy decisions in other end-use sectors such as petroleum fuel use should consider out-of-state emissions affected by the policy decision to the extent possible. emissions reductions from expanding forestry management and associated increased CO2 removal from the atmosphere are excluded. 30 29 28 27 26 25 The trend analysis includes out-of-state GHG emissions because energy policy decisions made by the State of California. and wood use. The term “forestry” includes CO2 emissions from forestry management. 32 104 . wood and non-specified fuel use. petroleum (includes LNG. rice field flooding. hotel. natural gas. and wood. motor gasoline. Thus. GHG inventory guidelines established by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and by the EPA do not require reporting emissions from within one political boundary that that supply energy to another political entity.

halons. On the other hand. [http://epa. 38 37 36 35 34 33 California’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion comprise about 83 percent of total GHG emissions when imported electricity is excluded or about 84 percent when imported electricity is included. Bureau of Economic Analysis. October 26. Revised September 2005. The Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere--chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). 67. [http://www.5 percent in 2000).2 percent in 1990.gov/bea/regional/gsp. 2004. CEC-400-2005034-SF-ED2. once emitted to the atmosphere. Percentages for the United States overall were 77 percent in 1990. October 26.htm]. This term is not to be confused with the term “carbon intensity.html]. Staff Energy Demand Forecast. California’s gross emissions are second from the top in Figure 5 but near the bottom of Figure 6. Scientific theory and evidence suggest that. U. U. 43 42 105 . it is in the middle of Figure 6. These emissions per gigawatt-hour (GWH) are based upon all sources of electricity used. 2006. U. (April 2005). such as a year. These percentages are consistent with the percent gas composition for Washington (81 percent in 1990. The percentage changes very little over the 1990 to 2001 period. Wyoming is near the bottom of Figure 5. The treaty was originally signed in 1987 and substantially amended in 1990 and 1992. Data from Form 1. September 2005. Although Texas is at the top of Figure 5. carbon tetrachloride. The California Energy Balances Report indicates a small amount of coal is combusted in utility and industrial combined heat and power facilities. but at the top of Figure 6. The term “emissions intensity trends” as used in this section represents the efficiency of using carbon-based fuels and other activities that emit GHGs.3 percent in 1999) and Michigan (86.2. and methyl chloroform--are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform). The intensity is measured with respect to the economic activity as measured by Gross State Product and as measured by the magnitude of the population. California Energy Demand 2006-2016. [http://bea.bea. 2006. S.5 percent in 2002) but somewhat greater than Iowa (79. these compounds could significantly deplete the stratospheric ozone layer that shields the planet from damaging UV-B radiation. 41 40 39 The term GSP means the total value of the goods and services produced by the residents of the state during a specific period.9 percent in 1990. Department of Commerce.2 percent in 1999). Pennsylvania (90. 85 percent in 2000).1 percent in 2000) and Oklahoma (58. including those that are carbon free. Department of Commerce.gov/climatechange/emissions/state.5 percent in 1990. S. Bureau of Economic Analysis web site.gov/bea/regional/gsp/]. The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark international agreement designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. 80 percent in 2004).These industrial gases are being used in increasing amounts due to the Montreal Protocol to mitigate loss of high-altitude ozone. 86. Connecticut (90.S.” which often refers to the carbon content of a fuel relative to other fuels. California Energy Commission. December 15. Environmental Protection Agency web site. natural gas is considered to be a fuel with low carbon intensity while coal is considered to be a fuel with relatively high carbon intensity. 58.

2003 Integrated Energy Policy Report.S. [http://www. June 2003.html&sCatTitle=Exec+Order]. Washington. March 2006. DC. 52 51 50 U. 2006. prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 2005.ca.governor. December 2003. California. EPA. California. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California.html]. [http://cait. June 1.jsp?BV_SessionID=@@@@1044157 704. California. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 49 48 47 46 Energy Commission.gov/2003_energypolicy/index. Sacramento. CEC-500-2005-121. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001).climatechange.gov/state/govsite/gov_htmldisplay.S. [http://www. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999.asp].ca. November 2002. Washington. June 21.gov/reports/60002-001F/index. P500-04-058. 45 Energy Commission. Summary for Policy Makers. Environmental Protection Agency. April 15. July 24.html]. California Environmental Protection Agency. Climate Analysis Indicator Tool.energy.wri.ca. [http://www. page 2.energy. DC. DC. Personal communication with Scott Murtishaw. 2006. 2006.nsf/content/ResourceCenterPublicationsGHGEmissio nsUSEmissionsInventory2006. 2006. CEC-500-2005-068. November 2002.no/climate/ipcc_tar/vol4/english/076. Sacramento.ca. July 31.44 World Resources Institute.org]. November 2002. 54 53 Ibid. Sacramento. [http://yosemite. Washington. Climate Action Team Report to Governor Schwarzenegger and the Legislature. June 2005. Inventory of U. Lawrence Berkley Laboratory. 106 . P600-02-001F. 2006. 2005. October 26. [http://www. Sacramento. 55 Energy Commission. California. page 1-6.grida.0&iOID=69591&sTi tle=Executive+Order+S-3-05&sFilePath=/govsite/executive_orders/20050601_S-305. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2004. 56 57 California Energy Commission. Emission Reduction Opportunities for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in California. Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. [http://www. Publication Number 100-03-019.un.epa.html]. and subsequent updates. Version 3. 59 58 Ibid.htm]. October 26.1119371305@@@@&BV_EngineID=cccdaddemgghlmicfngcfkmdffidfng. August 2004. [http://unstats. Executive Order S-3-05. United Nations.html]. July 2005. California Energy Balances Report. 2006. California Energy Commission.gov/oar/globalwarming. June 2003 and subsequent updates.gov/climate_action_team/index.org/unsd/snaama/dnllist. July 19. EPA.

and flue gas desulfurization processes do not produce CO2 emissions. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 74 CARB. [http://www.no/climate/ipcc_tar/vol4/english/076. California. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999.htm]. 65 64 63 These are the Intermountain Power Plant and the Mohave Power Plant. August 2004. Staff Report: Initial Statement of reasons for Proposed Rulemaking. Energy Commission. California.ca. July 28. page 2. 67 Limestone uses as flux (or purifier) in metallurgical furnaces. 71 70 69 68 Energy Commission. Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. Washington. Areawide Source Methodologies. California Energy Commission. and subsequent updates.ca. Energy Commission.html].html]. 72 73 CIWMB. P600-02-001F.energy. June 2003. Economic Research Unit. Table 6.org/title/castat03. December 2004. November 2002.gov/reports/60002-001F/index. March 2004.energy. For 2004 and beyond.energy.html].cdlib. P500-04-069. 2004. California. July 28.ca.gov/ei/speciate/speciate. Sacramento. [http://www.ca. Sacramento. DC. Table 14.4-1. California. California Air Resources Board.htm]. [http://countingcalifornia.gov/reports/600-02-001F/index. Statewide Waste Characterization Study. Washington.ca.htm]. Sacramento.gov/ei/areameth. 66 California Department of Finance. [http://www. CARB. November 2002. P600-02-001F. EPA. June 2003. glass manufacturing. 107 .html]. Speciation and Size Fractions. Baseline Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Forest. Sacramento.grida. DC. P600-02-001F. November 2002. (dynamic dating). November 2002. November 2002. EPA. April 2005. Gordon Schremp. 62 61 60 Personal Communication. and Agricultural Lands in California.ca. California Statistical Abstract 2003. Range. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999.gov/reports/60002-001F/index.arb.html]. This adjustment accounts for the molecular weight of CO2 (CO2=44) and lime (CaO=56). [http://www. 2006. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001).energy. Publich Hearing to Consider Adoption of Regulations to Control Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Motor Vehicles. [http://www. [http://www. and subsequent updates.gov/pier/final_project_reports/500-04-069. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. April 2005. 76 75 Ruminant animals re-chew food that has been swallowed and usually have a four-chamber stomach. California. California.This can be found in Energy Commission. Sacramento. Summary for Policy Makers. the percentage is slightly less than 100 percent because some regions of California are not required to use oxygenated gasoline. [www. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.arb. Sacramento. Emissions Inventory Methods.

California. November 2002. Office of Atmospheric Programs.gov/electricpower-sf6]. June 2003 and subsequent updates. and subsequent updates. 86 87 EPA. 79 EPA. December 2004.06-04-009.gov/reports/60002-001F/index. Final Workshop Report. 78 Ibid. 108 . Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. [http://www.energy. California Department of Food and Agriculture.htm]. 80 Energy Commission. November 2002. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.energy. California Leadership Strategies to Reduce Global Warming Emissions.77 Energy Commission. 2006. P600-02-001F.html]. 89 88 Energy Commission. [www. California. 95 94 93 92 Ibid.ca. 82 81 Ibid. R.gov/reports/60002-001F/index.energy. July 2005. Sacramento. November 2002. California Public Utilities Commission. P600-02-001F. Reducing SF6 Emissions Means Better Business for Utilities. November 2002.gov/reports/60002-001F/index. [http://www. 85 Ibid. Introduction to Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.html]. P600-02-001F.ca. November 2002. [http://www.epa. California. Sacramento.cdfa.html]. Sacramento. Alison Bailie and Michael Lazarus California Energy Commission.ca. California. EPA. Washington. October 2. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. California Leadership Strategies to Reduce Global Warming Emissions. http://www. Interim Emissions Performance Standard Program Framework. 91 Tellus Institute. Ibid.ca. Sacramento.gov/reports/60002-001F/index. November 2002. July 2005. P600-02-001F. DC 84 83 Energy Commission. Washington. California. Alison Bailie and Michael Lazarus. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999. June 21-23. January 2004. DC.ca. June 2003. Ibid.energy. 2006. Tellus Institute. California Agricultural Resource Directory 2005. CEC-500-2005-121. [http://www. Emissions Reduction Opportunities for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in California. 90 Ibid.gov/card/card_new04. Sacramento. Inventory of California Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999.html.

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