Engineering Drawing EEE-113 Lecture 2

Muhammad Azfar Yaqub Jawad Mirza

• A Warrior of Light needs patience and speed at the same time. • The two biggest mistakes of a strategy are a] to act prematurely b] to let the opportunity pass by. • To avoid making these mistakes, the warrior copes with each situation as if it were unique, and applies no formulas, prescriptions or the opinions of others.
- Warrior of light by Paulo Cohelo

Lecture Contents:
• Projections & Views • Projection types • Practice

• Projection:
the production of a two-dimensional image of a threedimensional object The projection is achieved by the use of imaginary "projectors". The projected, mental image becomes our vision of the desired, finished picture…

• Projection types:
– Parallel projection – Perspective projection

• Perspective projection
– Perspective projection is a type of projection where three dimensional objects are not projected along parallel lines, but along lines emerging from a single point. – This has the effect that distant objects appear smaller than nearer objects. – Natural

• Perspective projection

• Parallel projection
– In parallel projection, the lines of sight from the object to the projection plane are parallel to each other. – Unnatural, made for our ease

• Parallel projections

• Parallel vs Perspective

• Parallel vs Perspective

• Types of Perspective projections
– Linear perspective – Curvilinear perspective, etc

• Types of Perspective projections
– Linear perspective
– One point Perspective – Two point Perspective – Three point Perspective

– Curvilinear perspective, etc

• One point Perspective

• One point Perspective

• Two point Perspective

• Two point Perspective

• Three point Perspective

• Three point Perspective

• Types of Parallel projections
– Oblique projection – Orthographic projection

• Types of Parallel projections
– Oblique projection
• Cavalier projection • Cabinet projection

– Orthographic projection

• Oblique projection
– One plane of the image is set parallel to the plane of projection. – This creates a true shape image of the chosen plane. – but lengths along z-axis are drawn at angle using a reduction factor

• Types of oblique projection
• Cavalier projection
– Full depth, No Z-scaling

• Cabinet projection
– Half depth, 0.5 Z-scaling

• General projection
– Other depths, other Z-scaling

• Cavalier projection
– – – – Cavalier means a horseman the way the things seen from high point Full depth, No Z-scaling. Gives correct perception of depth

• Cabinet projection
– – – – Famous in furniture industry Was used in early video games Half depth, 0.5 Z-scaling Easily drawn on paper

• Types of Parallel projections
– Oblique projection – Orthographic projection

• Types of Parallel projections
– Oblique projection – Orthographic projection
• Multiview Projections • Axonometric projection

• Orthographic projection

(type of Parallel projection )

– The word comes from the Greek ρθός (orthos), meaning “straight” – It is a form of parallel projection, where the view direction is orthogonal to the projection plane – Orthographic Projection gives us a very clear method of communicating ideas and objects. It is a method that every engineer in the world recognizes. Because of this we can reproduce any object drawn Orthographically.

• Multiview Projections (type of Orthographic projection )
– Multi-view simply means “multiple views” – So we use several 2D views(pictures) of the object instead of a single view – As it is a type of Orthographic projection so this we need to make these views at 90 degrees – up to six pictures of an object are produced, with each projection plane parallel to one of the coordinate axes of the object.

• Multiview Projections (type of Orthographic projection )

• Multiview Projections (type of Orthographic projection )

The Maximum 6 views:

• Multiview Projection Schemes
– first-angle projection – third-angle projection

first-angle vs third-angle projection

first-angle vs third-angle projection

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