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2nd Year – Semester 4
Computer Aided Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, CAM2 Medical Mechanical Engineering, MEDM2 Mechatronic Engineering, ME2
Dr. Paul Young Room: S374 Phone: 01 700-8216 E-mail: Paul.Young@dcu.ie
2003 Dublin City University
MM203 - Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual
Paul Young Julfikar Haider
1. Gears 2. Clutch 3. Planar Mechanisms 4. Gyroscope 5. Static & Dynamic Balance
A) Eating, drinking and smoking are prohibited in the laboratories at all times. Extreme care must be exercised operating lab equipment. Examine equipment before use, and ask demonstrators for assistance when necessary. Use the lab handouts as a guide for start up and shut down procedures.
2004 Paul Young, Dublin City University
MM203 - Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual
There are five practicals available for this module, although each student will only do four. As a result, at each session, all five will be available. Laboratory manuals are only available online. It is the responsibility of the student to download the laboratory sheet and bring it with them. Hardcopy is essential. Students must purchase a hardback laboratory book with graph paper and each report will be written within the 3 hour scheduled session. The books must be left in the classroom at the end of the session and will be graded before the next scheduled session.
Comprehensive guidelines for reports were given in MM101 & MM102, and those still apply here. The first page of each report should be a title page and should include page numbers. Contents should be listed in the same manner as a text book. Take all rough measurements on paper first and keep the book for the report only. As outlined in the lectures, laboratory reports should be kept relatively short, but should include some essential components: • • • Introduction - a brief description of the subject matter Aims/Goals - bullet point statements of what you intend to achieve Procedure - Just putting 'as per handout' is not quite enough. Describe the procedure in minimalist terms and include any relevant diagrams, particularly those which assist in understanding the measurements recorded. It is important to clarify any methods which are not explicitly stated in the instructions. Results - The information recorded and, if not in the procedure, any relevant information about the manner in which ambiguous results were decided in a consistent fashion reported. (i.e. enough information for others to repeat the experiment and arrive at the same results) Calculations - Any subsequent calculations based on the results Discussion - A discussion of the contents of the results and calculations. If there are three graphs, then some comment on each graph is necessary. Conclusions - These should relate directly to the goals/aims. Bullet point format is fine.
• • •
There is enough information in the handouts to complete the experiments. Any apparent lack of information may be overcome through consulting reference books in the library, asking the demonstrators or discussion with the lecturer.
2004 Paul Young, Dublin City University
By determining the out-of-balance moment for each of four masses an analytic solution to balancing the system is undertaken.Scotch Yoke. 3.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Brief Description The numbers shown here relate to the experiment number in the timetable. Proof of the solution is found through application of the solution on the apparatus. 5. Static & Dynamic Balancing Static and dynamic imbalance/balance are demonstrated initially in a simplified arrangement. 2004 Paul Young. Gears Using a simple configurable arrangement this laboratory seeks to provide an understanding of simple and compound gear trains before gaining experience with the calculation of gear ratios for epicyclic gear systems. Dublin City University 4 .MM203 . 2. Gyroscope This experiment demonstrates the relationship between precession and the gyroscopic couple. Clutch Using a simple arrangement of axial load and applied torque the limits of friction are determined for three different clutches. Planar Mechanisms This laboratory uses linkages attached to drawing boards to demonstrate the kinematic properties of three mechanisms . 1. The readings are the used to validate the theory. Using a series of balance readings the relationship between the speeds of rotation/precession and the gyroscopic couple is investigated. Elliptic Trammel and Single/Double Toggle 4.
Dublin City University 5 . a frame. three axle pins and a vernier callipers. In addition. These can then be used to determine the module of this gear system. The module is the Pitch Circle Diameter divided by the number of teeth.MM203 . several spacers and washers are included to allow alignment of the gears and ensure tight meshing. Record your results in table G1 below: 2004 Paul Young. Figure G1 – Gear Train Apparatus Procedure Initial Inspection The four gears should be inspected and the measurements of the pitch circle diameter and the number of teeth taken for each gear.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Gear Train Experiment Aims To gain an understanding of the speed ratios and directions of rotation of simple and compound gear trains Equipment The apparatus consists of four spur gears. The pitch circle is shown in the figure below where it can be seen that the two pitch circles intersect at a single point.
400 20.350 5.4 mm Table G2: Standard Metric & Imperial Modules Metric Module mm 0.016 Imperial Closest Standard Imperial Gear teeth/inch 6 5 4 3 2.8 1 1.117 1.MM203 .320 16.3 0.588 1.500 50. Dublin City University 6 .540 2.667 63.5 0.080 4.160 8.750 25.5 1.933 12.5 2 2.25 1.175 2.5 2 1.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Label DG DP Description Pitch Circle Diameter Gear Pitch Circle Diameter Pinion DRG Root Circle Diameter Gear DRP Root Circle Diameter Pinion DOG Outside Circle Diameter Gear DOP Outside Circle Diameter Pinion hk ht a b c p t C Working Depth Whole Depth Addendum Dedendum Clearance Circular Pitch (measured along Pitch Circle) Tooth Thickness (measured along Pitch Circle) Centre Distance Figure G2: Diagram of Gear Train Table G1: Gear Measurements Gear # 1 2 3 4 Convert the module to equivalent teeth/inch and using the information in table G2 of metric and imperial gear sizes determine whether the gears are metric or imperial.270 1.700 10. Hint: 1 inch = 25.4 0.233 3.800 31.5 3 Equivalent Diametral Pitch teeth/inch 84.467 Imperial Closest Standard Imperial Gear teeth/inch 80 64 48 32 24 20 16 12 10 8 Module mm 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 Metric Equivalent Diametral Pitch teeth/inch 6.25 1 Diameter (mm) # of teeth Module (mm) 2004 Paul Young.
2004 Paul Young. Rotate the gear (not the pinion) anticlockwise one revolution and count the number of revolutions (including any fractional rotation) and direction of the pinion.MM203 . Figure G3 Table G3: Two Gear System Results Assy 1 2 Simple Gear Train .Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Simple Gear Train . Note the gear ratio for this pair of gears and repeat using the other two gears. Select any two gears and fix them to the arm using the pivots provided. Mark the mesh points and again rotate the gear through one anticlockwise rotation. Replace the idler gear with the remaining gear and repeat the experiment. Table G4: Idler Gear System Results Tooth Ratio Gear:Pinion Teeth Gear Teeth Idler Assembly Gear Idler Pinion Rotation Ratio Gear:Pinion 7 Teeth Gear Teeth Pinion Gear Rotation Dir Revs AntiClock AntiClock Pinion Rotation Dir Revs Tooth Rotation Ratio Ratio 1 1 Teeth Pinion Dir AntiClock AntiClock Revs 1 1 Dir Revs Dir Revs 1 2 Note the effect of the insertion of the idler gear and the change in size of the idler gear on the overall ratio. insert a third gear as an 'idler' between the two gears and ensure a good meshing between the gears.Part 2 Using the last pair of gears from Part 1 above.Part 1 The simplest gear train involves only two gears. Dublin City University . Count the rotations and direction of the final gear. Mark the mesh point on both gears.
An epicyclic gear system allows concentric input and output shafts. Rearrange the meshing of the gears so that the larger gear on the idler is uppermost as shown below.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Compound Gear Train The term compound gear train refers to systems that involve four or more gears where at least two gears rotate together on the same shaft.MM203 . rotate the Input gear through one anticlockwise revolution noting the direction and rotation of the other gears. Place this with the smaller gear uppermost first. Dublin City University Rev Ratio Gear:Pinion 8 Assembly . Epicyclic Gear System The epicyclic gear system consists of at least three gears – sun gear. sun : 2004 Paul Young. The two smaller gears can be fixed together with a pin forming the central compound idler. There are three possible combinations of input and output available … sun : link (lock ring). Assembly 1 Assembly 2 Figure G4: Compound Gear System As before. Rotate the input gear again and repeat the observations. Determine the gear ratios between the input and output gears from these observations. planet gear & ring gear . The gear train should be built as shown in the diagram below. Find the relationship between the tooth rations and the rev ratio.and a rotating carrier (or link). The example system allows you to see the operation of a complete assembly – a mechanism at the back allows either the link or the ring gear to be fixed and the handwheel drives the sun gear. Table G5: Compound Gear System Results Tooth Ratio Compound:Pinion Tooth Ratio Gear:Compound Gear Compound Pinion Dir Anti-Clock Revs 1 1 Dir Revs Dir Revs 1 2 Anti-Clock Again note how the gear ratios are affected by the introduction of the compound gear and the effect of changing the gear on the system.
Mark all the gears so that their orientation is clearly visible. Step 2 – Effect of Fixing Link Fix the arm and rotate the sun gear. Record the movement of the other two gears in the second row of table G6. The goal of this is to gain an understanding of the relationships between the movement of the gears so that the relationship between the movement of the sun and the link for the supplied example system may be calculated. Ring Link Sun Planet The behaviour of the individual gears may be simulated using the same equipment as before. This gives the gear ratio between the link and the sun gear. Any gear positioned at the centre of rotation will operate as a sun gear. Unlock the arm from the frame and.MM203 . ring : link (lock sun). but the internal teeth on the ring gear mean that it rotates in the same direction as the planet gear. Add the smallest gear so that it meshes with the sun acting as a planet gear. 2004 Paul Young. Note the direction of rotation of each gear pair on the sample system with the link locked … the sun & planet behave as seen from the previous part of the experiment. Holding this gear in the same orientation (with respect to the room) by hand while rotating the link through one revolution. Step 1 – Effect of Rotating Link Place the second largest gear on the shaft at the end of the arm to act as the sun gear. Simulation of the ring gear is achieved by placing a third gear on the arm and holding it so that it cannot rotate. Step 3 – Simulation of Locked Gear To simulate the operation of the epicyclic system with the ring gear locked the outer gear must be prevented from rotating. Dublin City University 9 . Record the rotation in the first row of table G6. The largest gear should be placed to mesh with the planet gear. ensuring that the sun gear rotates with the arm rotate the arm through one revolution anticlockwise.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual ring (lock link). A gear meshing with the sun gear will behave like a planet gear. Stop the movement at quarter cycles to help keep track of the movement. Note how the system behaves and the relationship between rotation of the gears and their teeth. The arm on which the gears are mounted can rotate simulating the link.
the planet gear has 20 teeth and the ring gear has 70 teeth. Dublin City University 10 . The gear ratio in an epicyclic gear system may be analysed using the following steps. Sun +1 -1 0 Planet +1 + 30 20 Ring +1 + 30 70 Link +1 0 +1 +2½ +1 3 7 2004 Paul Young.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Table G6: Epicyclic Gear system Arm Revs 1 1 Direction Anti-Clockwise Anti-Clockwise Sun Gear Revs Direction 0 none Planet Gear Revs Ring Gear Direction Revs Direction 0 none Analysis of Example System There is a fully assembled sample system on the bench. 1. Calculate the gear ratio between the Ring and the Link with the sun gear fixed. Rotate whole system together one revolution anti-clockwise 2. Revolutions Procedure 1 Rotate whole system 1 rev anticlockwise 2 Fix Link and Rotate Sun Gear 1 rev clockwise 3 Sum steps 1 & 2 The gear ratio between the ring and the link is +1 3 7 :+1 Count the number of teeth on the example system and calculate the ratio between the sun and the link with the ring gear fixed. Fix the Link and rotate the gear which is normally fixed one revolution clockwise recording the movement of the other gears 3. Add the movements from steps 1 & 2 Example: In an epicyclic gear system the sun gear has 30 teeth.MM203 .
The rings are held by pairs of pegs that fit holes on a diameter of each ring.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Clutch Plate Experiment Aim The purpose of the experiment is to verify the application of the expression for maximum torque T = µWRmean Where T = torque. They lift off the pegs. Dublin City University 11 .5 Weight (N) Procedure The apparatus must be kept free of oil or grease (the bearings are sealed). By loading the turntable a normal force or pressure acts between the upper plate and the ring in use. 4 2 50 20 No. produces a pure torsional drive for the plate that acts as a turntable on the friction rings. W = axial load & Rmean is the mean radius and in particular that a) torque at slip is proportional to the normal force and b) the torque at slip is proportional to radius of the friction ring Apparatus A wall bracket with a stationary horizontal plate supports three rings of brake friction material concentrically to a central ball bearing that locates a rotating upper plate of aluminium alloy. µ = coefficient of friction.Weight Set for Clutch Experiment Weight (N) No. 2004 Paul Young.MM203 . Table 1 . The periphery of the upper plate is grooved to guide two cords over a pair of diametrically opposed pulleys and thence down to two equal load hangers. 2 0. 4 2 2 1 Weight (N) No. This system. and are meant to be used one at a time. and the turntable must NEVER be put in place without a friction ring in position to keep the turntable off the ring location pegs. 2 2 10 5 Weight (N) No. when loaded with equal weights.
Check the mass of the hangers using the weighing scales: MH kg. Measure the internal and outer diameters of each of the friction rings while the turntable is removed (push the central locating spigot upward to help lift it). Calculate the self load due to gravity of the hangers: WH Newtons 5. and replace the turntable with the torque cords taken over their pulleys. With only the self-weight of the turntable as its load add equal value weights to the load hangers until. Check the mass of the turntable using the weighing scales: MT kg. Measure the mean diameter at which the torque is applied: D mm. Hook on the load hangers. 2. (mm) Mean Radius Rmean = (OD+ID)/4 2004 Paul Young.D. Inner Diameter I.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Figure C1: Key Dimensions for Clutch Apparatus 1. Calculate the self load due to gravity of the turntable: WT Newtons 3. (mm) Outer Diameter O. Repeat the procedure adding increments of 50N onto the turntable up to 200N. with a slight start. Record the load per hanger in the table on the following page. Ring A: Small B: Medium C: Large 7. leaving the smallest (A) in position. the turntable very slowly revolves at a constant speed.MM203 . Remove the two larger friction rings. Dublin City University 12 . 6. 4.D.
Again comment on the form of the graph and its relation to the theory.MM203 . Torque LxD Load on 1 Pulley. L = WH + WA Torque LxD Load on 1 Pulley. position all three friction rings on the stationary plate and replace the turntable. Results Rmean Nominal Actual W: Load on 1 Pulley. On a second graph plot Torque vs Rmean for a load of 150 Newtons on the friction rings.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual 8. Note the nature of the graphs and comment on the relationship between the three sets of readings. Unload and remove the turntable. At the end of the experiment. 2004 Paul Young. L = WH + WA Torque LxD A: Small B: Medium C: Large Final Challenge: From your graphs calculate the coefficient of friction between the clutch material and the underside of the turntable and suggest why using the second graph for this calculation might improve the result. L = Self Load + Load Added Load WH + WA Self-Load 50 N 100 N 150 N 200 N 9. use the largest friction ring in a similar way. On a single graph plot the Torque vs Load for each ring. Dublin City University 13 . Finally. Exchange the friction ring for the next larger one and repeat the above procedure.
The design and use of machines demands a knowledge of the overall motion and the relative motion of all parts of the machine. The types of relative motion commonly required are sliding. Another issue is the concept of how specific motions can be generated.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Planar Mechanisms Experiment Introduction The motion of complex assemblies is determined by the configuration of links and joints. Two parts of a machine with are in contact. Two mechanisms are available on the drawing boards • • Slotted Link (Scotch Yoke) Single & Double Action Toggle 2004 Paul Young. Machines are made up from a number of parts connected together in various ways to produce the required movements. In some cases it is self evident. Here we have reduced the complexity by limiting the movements to be planar and controlling the scope of the links and the joints. but in others some ingenious mechanisms only careful analysis will show the precise nature of movements. Dublin City University 14 . All other motions (partial turning. The information recorded during the experiment will be used as the basis for for calculations later on. partial sliding) are called higher pairs. allowing for insertion of the drawing paper. Care should be taken in the execution of the experiment as the equipment is designed to disassemble easily. so errors in the 'operational' element of this laboratory will affect the end results and possibly marks.MM203 . turning (rotation) or screwing. Goals of the Experiment • • • • Understand the movement of interconnected rotating links Understand the behaviour of pinned and sliding joints Practice velocity and acceleration diagrams To investigate the loci of pairs on a selection of mechanisms. Using the three configurations supplied the operation of rotational and sliding joints may be examined and explored. The pairs which permit these motions are known as lower pairs. and which undergo relative motion are called a pair.
Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Slotted Link (Scotch Yoke) Introduction The slotted frame A is fixed and also carries the fixed axis 0 of the revolving link OP. that the graoh paper is aligned with the movement of the end of the link. Choose a line outside the range of travel of the point Q and set out points along this line. Place a sheet of graph paper under the link ensuring. The vertical lines are now perpendicular to OQ. To assist in this P is on a circular protractor with a centre 0. 2004 Paul Young. One application is for driving the paddle of a wave making machine in hydrological models.Slotted Link Apparatus Procedure To plot the locus of Q it will be necessary to use a base line related to the angular position of OP. The slotted link BC contains the slider pinned to the revolving link at P. Dublin City University 15 . providing points at 20° intervals from 0 to 80° and then from 90° to 350° with a final point at 360°. by eye. The link OP is commonly part of a complete disc which then acts as a flywheel to even out variations in the forces and driving torque. Two positions for P at 50 and 25 mm radii are provided. As OP revolves the element BC reciprocates in the slotted frame with a pure simple harmonic motion whose amplitude is governed by the radius OP. at a scale of 1 cm = 20°.MM203 . Figure PM1 . This mechanism is always used where it is required to produce perfect simple harmonic motion in a line.
Find the slope of the line at 90° and comment on your finding. Repeat this procedure every 20° up to the 80° point and then advance 10° to 90°. where φ is a constant and θ the angle of rotation. Carry on as before plotting the locus or Q as the link OP revolves. If the general equation for a cosine function is y = x Cos(θ . or by eye. If we assume that the disk is rotating at a constant speed of 1 rad/s mark this base line in seconds.MM203 . Dublin City University 16 . Add a base line through the 90° and 270° points and check the symmetry of the loci and the amplitudes. Repeat the whole procedure with P at 25 mm radius. in your log book.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual With the protractor 0° on the line OQ (Q at its leftmost position) and P pinned at 50 mm radius mark the position of the point Q at the intersections of the line visible through Q and the lines representing 0° and 360°. Using a French curve. Reporting Include the graph. or a copy. draw in the two loci of P through the plotted points. The loci should be cosine curves. describe how the equipment could be used to generate this graph. Advance the protractor by 20° and mark the intersection of the position of Q and the 20° line.φ). Comment on your observations and indicate how you would generate a sine wave from the equipment. 2004 Paul Young.
Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Single & Double Action Toggle Introduction In the single toggle mechanism Figure PM3 the links AB and BC are pivoted at B to the connecting rod BD which is operated by a crank OD. Nevertheless the rightmost travel of A will be the same for the two strokes. Thus. The force at A attains maximum value when the links AB and BC are in line.Single Action Toggle Where two strokes are required it is usual to employ the double action mechanism shown in Figure PM4. The location of the crank is such that the links AB and BC are straightened before the crank has completed one half of its revolution. 2004 Paul Young. Dublin City University 17 . The link CB pivots about the fixed point C. as the crank continues to revolve. Consequently its use is normally restricted to machines where only a single stroke is required to complete the operation. The first and second strokes may be of equal or unequal lengths dependent upon the position of the crank relative to the line of the straightened toggle.MM203 . The pivot B does not travel beyond the line of action drawn between A and C. Any force applied to BD by the crank OD is greatly magnified at A due to the relatively slight movement produced at A compared with that of D. and A is attached to a sliding member constrained to move in a straight line. after the first stroke the links are carried beyond the centre line and. a second working stroke is produced. Figure PM3 .
Mark the graph 2004 Paul Young. the 0o position is in line with the crank when the point A is at the left end of its travel. graphical and experimental answers Procedure The crank OD revolves on a removable peg which can be located in one of two holes in the drawing board. B and D1 for one revolution of the crank. To understand space and velocity diagrams To compare mathematical. this kind of mechanism could be used for upsetting the head of a nail on round wire rod. Place the peg in the lower hole insert a sheet of A3 paper and position the crank on this centre using the shorter radius OD1 = 40 mm. Remove the A3 paper carefully and insert and orient a piece of graph paper such that point A tracks along one of the short lines. Insert the disk marked in 10o angles under the crank and orient it carefully . Then find the position of the mechanism at the mid-travel of A. or in stone crushing or embossing machines.Double Action Toggle As the maximum force coincides with the limit of travel.the zero degree line should be visible through the hole at point D. For accuracy a 360o disk is provided to determine the orientation of the crank. Mark the position of Point C and draw the loci of A. Divide the right hand locus of D1 into approximately 30° intervals and for each position of D1 mark and number the corresponding positions of B and A.MM203 . Dublin City University 18 . Objectives • • • To determine the motion of point A on the mechanism as link OD rotates at constant angular velocity. Clamp the paper carefully in place.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Figure PM4 .
Draw the curve for the locus of A. Mark and number sufficient corresponding positions of D2. Analysis • • • • If the crank is rotating anti-clockwise at 30 rpm. mark and draw the position of the mechanism with the crank in the 50° position. Mark the long axis of the graph of A vs θ with the appropriate time in seconds. From the space diagram. Move the crank centre peg to the upper hole and change the crank radius to OD2 = 65 mm.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual paper along the long axis (outside the travel of point A) at 20°/10mm. As before use your judgement to mark enough points to allow you to draw the graph showing the position of A with respect to the crank angle. Remove the A3 paper and insert a new sheet of graph paper.MM203 . With the crank at 0° mark the position of A on the graph paper at the 0° and 360° lines. with the crank at the 50o position Reporting Discuss the differences in the two mechanisms and the reasons for the difference. Determine from the graph the velocity of the point A at the 50o position. Repeat this at 20° intervals (if required use 10° or 30° increments) to mark the intermediate positions of point A on the graph paper. using graph paper draw the velocity diagram for the mechanism. Replace the A3 sheet. 2004 Paul Young. Determine those amplitudes and suggest where the centre O should be positioned for equal strokes of A? What further modification is needed to produce two equal strokes of A of the same length as the single toggle did? Include all graphs and diagrams in your report. Dublin City University 19 . aligning it as before and marking the long axis in degrees (10mm = 20°). The two strokes of the double toggle have different amplitudes. Explain how the system magnifies the force available at point A. B and D2 for one revolution of the crank. Insert a new A3 sheet and draw the loci of A. B and A to show how the mechanism performs.
The angular momentum of the rotating body causes the axis of rotation to remain in the same direction so long as no external couple acts on the body. The resultant motion of the axis of rotation therefore lies in the X-Z plane. indicated on the diagram as a rotation about the Y axis. 2004 Paul Young. fixing the axis of rotation with respect to the vehicle generates forces and couples at the mounting points when the vehicle accelerates. The rotor is often kept spinning by driving it with an electric motor. If a couple is applied about an axis normal to the axis of rotation. It should be noted that. Alternatively. In this case the axis of rotation is the Z axis. Any attempt to change the axis of rotation requires work as it is an attempt to change the angular momentum.MM203 . Mounting the spinning rotor in gimbals which isolate it from any external couple results in a system capable of providing a constant reference direction which is used for example as a gyro-compass in moving vehicles. Conversely. if the axis is precessed a couple will result about the orthogonal axis.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Gyroscope Introduction A gyroscope is made up of a rotor spinning about an axis. angular velocity of the rotor and the precession of the axis of rotation Background Whenever the direction of the axis of rotation of a body is changed gyroscopic action occurs. Dublin City University 20 . for the same rate of precession. and the couple is applied about the X axis. a torque reaction is produced which results in the axis of rotation turning in the plane in which lie the axis of rotation and the axis of the applied couple. The diagram below shows the directions involved. This movement is termed Precession. As long as the system keeps spinning the orientation of the axis of rotation will remain constant unless an outside force or couple is applied. This is the Gyroscopic Couple. These can form the inputs of an electronic system which controls actuators on the vehicle to provide gyro-stabilizers Goals • • • Investigate the direction of the gyroscopic couple Determination of the Moment of Inertia of the Rotor Investigate the relationship between the gyroscopic couple. the Applied Couple (CA) and the Gyroscopic Couple (CR) will have the same magnitude but the opposite sense.
Before removing the dome ensure that all controls are switched off and that the system is at rest. 1. Replace the safety cover. Determination of the Direction of the Gyroscopic Couple 1. the cover must be replaced and securely fastened before the controls are switched on. Ensure that the rotor assembly is balanced about the pivot point on the bracket. The equipment used in this experiment has been designed to ensure that there is no change in the axis of precession. Procedure The equipment is covered by a plexiglass dome for your safety. a penalty which will affect the final mark for this module.MM203 . Failure to observe this rule will result in zero marks being awarded to the group for this laboratory. Dublin City University 21 . it should be noted that the direction of the precession does not change over time. If necessary move the balance weight on the torque arm by slackening the retaining screw.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Important Comments: CA : Applied Couple ω : Angular Velocity Ω : Rate of Precession ω >> Ω Figure GE1 When the axes are orthogonal as shown above. 2004 Paul Young. If this was not the case then the movement of the axis of precession would also generate a gyroscopic couple. Take care to re-tighten the screw in the new position. After any adjustments.
Given that the mass of the armature is 1. 5. The arm will move in the same direction as the gyroscopic couple. 6. Then reverse the polarity of the precession motor and repeat. Set the precession motor running. Dublin City University 22 . Measure the length of the wires.09kg. 4. 5. Fold out the support arm attached to the casing. calculate the moment of inertia of the rotor using the equation below: 2004 Paul Young. d. Note the direction of the precession and whether the torque arm rises or fall.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual 2. 4. Using the plugs on the front of the equipment reverse the polarity of the rotor motor and repeat steps 2 & 3. Finally change the polarity of the rotor motor back to its original direction and repeat. The armature will start to twist about the vertical axis passing the equilibrium position and then oscillating about that position. taking care not to move the axis too much and ensuring that the wires are kept taut. by about 10o and then release. Set the motor driving the rotor running and check to ensure that the system is still balanced and that no precession of the rotor occurs. l. Draw schematics of the gyroscope similar to that shown below and indicate the relationships derived from these observations. Carefully twist the assembly about its vertical axis. Hang the spare armature from the arm using the wires. T. Use the stopwatch to determine the time for (say) 50 oscillations and calculate the periodic time. and the distance between them. 3. Determination of the Moment of Inertia of the Armature 1. 3. The balance of the rotor should be affected by this action.MM203 . Repeat until you are satisfied that you have a good result. Figure GE2 2. Note the direction of rotation of the rotor. 2.
the Gyroscopic Couple and the Rate of Precession In this part you will vary two control parameters. Connect the rotor and precession motor controllers so that the gyroscope will tend to raise the torque arm.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual I= T2 d2 mg 4π 2 4l where m is the mass of the armature and g is the acceleration due to gravity. and measure the resultant rate of Precession (Ω). The values for the control parameters are given in the table below: For each combination of the input parameters: 1. 3. CA. Add the mass onto the end of the torque arm. Set the rotor speed using the indicator. Calculate the torque on the system and the direction. 3. Determination of the relationship between the angular velocity of the rotor. Gyroscopic Torque (CR) and Rotor Speed (ω). This is the Applied Couple. 2. 4. Dublin City University 23 . 2004 Paul Young.MM203 . 5. Vary the rate of precession until the torque arm is level (the scribed line on the arm should line up with the stripes on the bracket). In this state the Gyroscopic Couple is equal to the Applied Couple. Measure the rate of precession by timing a suitable number of revolutions of the assembly (total measuring time should be at least 30 seconds). Record the rate of precession.
500 Balance Mass Couple CR Actual Rotor Speed ω RPM rad/s Rate of Precession Ω rev/s Rad/s 1/ Ω s g Nm 2004 Paul Young.000 1.MM203 .000 350 2.500 150 2.000 2.000 1.000 1.500 1.500 1.500 1.000 2.000 2.500 100 2.500 2.000 700 3.000 1.000 250 3.500 250 2. Dublin City University 24 .000 3.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Table GE1 Nominal Rotor Speed ω RPM 3.
3. Report In your report compare the experimental findings with the theory. Using the information from this graph. If possible show how the restoring torque returning the armature to the equilibrium is a function of the angle of rotation. Draw a Free Body Diagram of the armature in part 2. Explain any sources of errors and estimate their magnitude. From graph 1 estimate a value for I and compare this with the results from part 2.5 rad/s. CR = Iω X Ω For each of the masses applied to the torque bar. 2004 Paul Young. CR. Dublin City University 25 . plot CR vs Ω for ω = 300 rad/s. I.MM203 . is constant then for a particular mass the equation can be rewritten as CR/I = K = ω X Ω where K is a constant. Again from the first graph plot CR vs ω for Ω = 2. Using a single graph plot 1/Ω vs ω for each mass. the balance position represents a constant gyroscopic couple. the angular momentum and the rate of precession.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Analysis of the Results The results obtained from these three experiments can now be used to verify the theoretical relationship between the gyroscopic couple. Since the moment of inertia. 2. 1. Since ω and Ω are perpendicular then ω = K/Ω or ω = Kx(1/Ω) This means that for a given mass the graph of the reciprocal of the rate of precession (1/Ω) against the rotor velocity (ω) should be a straight line.
control of the car may be difficult and the wheel bearings and suspension will wear rapidly. it will stay in any angular position without rotating. If the shaft is only just out of balance and revolves slowly the vibration may merely be a nuisance but catastrophic failure can occur at high speeds even if the imbalance is small.MM203 . If it is dynamically balanced. and then to assess the accuracy of his results by setting up and running a motor driven shaft. especially if the frequency of vibration coincides with any of the natural frequencies of the system.000 rev/min. Dublin City University 26 .Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Static & Dynamic Balance Experiment Introduction Shafts which revolve at high speeds must be carefully balanced if they are not to be a source of vibration. since they may rotate at speeds between 15. The shaft has to be balanced both statically and dynamically. the student being required to find the positions of the third and/or fourth blocks necessary to statically and dynamically balance the shaft. • Theory A shaft with masses mounted on it can be both statically and dynamically balanced. static balance. However if the wheel is seriously out of balance. At such speeds even slight imbalance can cause vibration and rapid deterioration of the bearings leading to catastrophic failure of the engine. For example if the front wheel of a car is slightly out of balance this may be felt as a vibration of the steering wheel. To demonstrate the dynamic balancing of an unbalanced shaft using two added eccentric masses. periodic centrifugal forces may be developed which give rise to vibration. It is not enough to place the balancing mass such that the shaft will remain in any stationary position. When the shaft rotates. The apparatus requires the student to balance a shaft by calculation or by using a graphical technique.e. Aims The goals of this experiment are: • To gain an understanding of the meaning of the terms static and dynamic balance. i.000 and 50. shafts are balanced on a machine which tells the operator exactly where he should either place a balancing mass or remove material. Usually. These problems can be avoided if a small mass is placed at a carefully determined point on the wheel rim. It is even more important to ensure that the shaft and rotors of gas turbine engines are very accurately balanced. it can be rotated at any speed without 2004 Paul Young. If it is statically balanced. The shaft is deliberately made out of balance by clamping four blocks to it.
Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual vibration.Static Balance of Three masses The moments tending to turn the shaft due to the out of balance masses are:- 2004 Paul Young. but the reverse is not necessarily true. Figure SDB 2 . Figure SDB 1 . as shown in figure SDB2.MM203 . m1r1cosα1 = m2r2cosα2 The same principle holds if there are more than two masses mounted on the shaft. If the shaft is to be statically balanced. Dublin City University 27 . Static Balance Figure SDB1 shows a simple situation where two masses are mounted on a shaft. the moment due to weight of mass (1) tending to rotate the shaft anti-clockwise must equal that of mass (2) trying to turn the shaft in the opposite direction. It will be shown that if a shaft is dynamically balanced it is automatically in static balance.Static Balance Hence for static balance.
The moment vector has a length proportional to the product mr and is drawn parallel to the direction of the mass from the centre of rotation. The order in which the vectors are drawn does not matter. the moment figure is a closed polygon as shown in Figure SDB3(b). The latter technique uses the idea that moments can be represented by vectors as shown in figure SDB3(a). Dynamic Balance The masses are subjected to centrifugal forces when the shaft is rotating. its direction is opposite to the assumed position of that mass. If on drawing the closing vector. Direction m1. Dublin City University 28 . r and α have to be chosen such that the shaft is in balance. If the angular positions of two of the masses are fixed.(a) MR Vectors from Centre to Mass show Closed Polygon (b) Rearrangement to For static balance the triangle of moments must close and the direction of the unknown moment is chosen accordingly.MM203 .g. Figure SDB 3 .r1cosα1 Anticlockwise m2. as indicated by the two examples on the figure. However.r can be measured directly for each mass and only the angular positions have to be determined for static balance. b) There must be no out of balance moment or couple trying to twist the axis of the shaft. If there are more than three masses. Two conditions must be satisfied if the shaft is not to vibrate as it rotates: a) There must be no out of balance centrifugal force trying to deflect the shaft.r3cosα3 Clockwise m1r1cosα1 = m2r2cosα2 + m3r3cosα3 In general the values of m. the position of the mass must be reversed for balance.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Mass Moment 1 2 3 For static balance.r2cosα2 Clockwise m3. the position of the third can be found either by trigonometry or by drawing.g.g. 2004 Paul Young. for this experiment the product W.
ω. Dublin City University 29 . Unlike static balancing where the position of the masses along the shaft is not important.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual If these conditions are not fulfilled. the dynamic twisting moments on the shaft have to be eliminated by placing the masses in carefully calculated positions. Thus.MM203 . the shaft is not dynamically balanced. a1F1 = a2F2 For this simple case where m1 and m2 are diametrically opposite and F1 = F2 (condition a) then dynamic balance can only be achieved by having a1 = a2 which means that the two masses must be mounted at the same point on the shaft. The second condition is satisfied by taking moments about some convenient datum such as one of the bearings. 2004 Paul Young. is common to both sides then for dynamic balance m 1r 1 = m2r 2 This is the same result for the static balance of the shaft. Figure SDB 4 . Therefore if a shaft is dynamically balanced it will also be statically balanced. If the shaft is statically balanced it does not follow that it is also dynamically balanced.4 gives: F1 = F2 The centrifugal force is mrω2 Therefore: m1r1ω2 = m2r2ω2 Since the angular velocity.Dynamic Out-of-Balance for a Two Mass System Applying condition a) to the shaft shown in Figure SDB.
Dublin City University 30 . where the eccentric masses differ on each rotor and the directions are not exactly opposite is shown in Figure SDB6. the simplest arrangement to give balance is shown in Figure SDB 5 .r value of the two masses on either side and is equidistant from both masses.MM203 .Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual In order for static balance to be achieved the sum of the vectors representing the couple due to each rotor must form a closed polygon. The general case.Dynamically Balanced Shaft with 3 Eccentric Masses In this case. 2004 Paul Young. it is clear from the first requirement that: F2 = 2 x F1 The second criterion then says that: a2F2 = a1F1 + a3F1 2a2F1 = a1F1 + a3F1 a2 = (a1 + a3)/2 or that the eccentric mass in the middle has twice the m. In the case where there are three rotors.
The plate should be clamped for the static parts of the experiment. Two guides.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Figure SDB 6 .General Case for Three Out-of-Balance Masses The method for balancing such shafts requires the addition of two extra eccentric masses to the system at locations chosen by the engineer. while this experiment shows a method that uses preset out of balance forces and determines the orientation and position of the masses relative to the eccentric masses already on the shaft. Two hexagonal keys (Allen keys) are provided to clamp the blocks on the shaft and the inserts into the blocks. An extension shaft and pulley are stored on the base and used in conjunction with the string/buckets and ball bearings to determine the imbalance associated with each block. Equipment: The Static and Dynamic Balance Equipment consists of a shaft mounted on a plate isolated from the base by rubber bushes. one on the pulley at the end of the shaft and one on the plate. are used to measure the relative angle and position along the shaft of each block. At either side of the plate two clamps allow the plate to be locked to the base. These masses are determined in many ways.MM203 . One method will be outlined in the lectures. may be used to drive the shaft using a belt. also attached to the plate. Four identical eccentric mass blocks are provided. If the motor is in use then the clamps should be released and secured away from the plate by tightening the screws. A motor. together with four individual inserts which may be used to alter the imbalance on each block. Dublin City University 31 . 2004 Paul Young.
Observation of the phenomenon 2. Attach one of the blocks securely to the shaft near the pulley. Align this block such that the protractor reads 180o. The mark on the protractor should align with zero when the block is positioned against the guide. Step 2 . Ensure that all loose components are removed from the equipment and then place the safety cover over the motor and shaft.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Figure SDB 7 .Dynamic Imbalance Release the plate and secure the clamps clear of the plate. Switch on the motor controller and the motor. Record this and compare with step 1. Rotate the shaft and observe the behaviour. Slide the guide clear of the block. 2004 Paul Young. Implementation of the solution Demonstration of Static and Dynamic Balance For this part of the experiment the four blocks will be used without the inserts.Static Balance Attach a second block near the opposite end of the shaft. Step 1 . Calculation of a solution to a posed problem 3. Slowly increase the speed of the motor and observe the behaviour of the shaft and plate. Record your observations. Dublin City University 32 .Eccentric Masses and Axial Positioning Experimental Procedure: The experiment is divided into three parts: 1. Step 3 . Rotate the shaft and observe the behaviour. Attach the belt between the motor and the pulley on the end of the shaft. This provides four identical eccentric masses for use in demonstration of static and dynamic balance.Static Imbalance Lock the plate to the base.MM203 .
These have a length proportional to the number of ball bearings and a direction relative to the angular orientation. Loop the string and buckets around the pulley so that there is no slip. Dublin City University 33 . Switch off both the motor & controller and allow the shaft to come to rest before removing cover. Add ball bearings to one bucket until the protractor reads 90o. Step 3 . The length is proportional to the number of ball bearings and the axial distance from the reference. On the graph. 2. The vector should go from the centre of the shaft along the block. The solution is calculated graphically in two parts. The drawing should like Figure SDB 3b with the m1r1 and m2r2 vectors only. Record the angular orientation of the two balancing vectors. Assemble all the information into a table indicating the eccentricity (mr) of each block. The relative axial position and angular orientation of the two largest eccentricities should be selected first and will represent the dynamic imbalance to be corrected.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Record your observations. At this point the moment due to the bearings is equal to the eccentric moment of the block. complete the four sided closed polygon. its axial location (l) and its angular orientation (θ). the static balance of the system is obtained by a. On a new diagram draw a vector representing the axial turning moment of the second eccentricity. it is simplest to take the largest eccentricity as the reference axial location. The axial position of the two balancing masses needs to be calculated next. Initially. 2004 Paul Young. In this case. b. From the scale calculate the axial distance associated with each eccentricity. knowing the lengths of the other two imbalances. Preparation of the imbalances Clamp the plate and remove the blocks from the shaft. c. Complete the closed triangle using the directions for the balancing eccentricities found in b. d. eliminating it from this part of the calculation. The main limitations are the total length of the shaft and the thickness of each block. Calculation of the solution The problem for solution must be posed carefully if a satisfactory solution is to be found in the time available. Remove the drive belt from the motor and attach the pulley extension to the shaft so that the pulley overhangs the end of the bench. An axial spacing of 100 mm and relative angle of 150o provide a reasonable starting point.MM203 .Dynamic Balance There are three steps to this part of the experiment 1. Attach one of the blocks to the shaft with the protractor reading 0o. Record the number of bearings and repeat for the other three blocks. Draw vectors representing the two imbalances set above. Insert the four circular imbalances into the blocks and clamp them securely.
Reporting Your report should give a detailed description of your observations and include all rough work and calculations. Dublin City University 34 . Record whether dynamic balance has been achieved and if necessary revise calculations. The graphs should be clearly labelled and neat.MM203 .Graphical Solution to Dynamic Balance 3. 2004 Paul Young. Remove the pulley from the system and reattach the motor drive belt. Put safety cover in place and run motor.Mechanics of Machines 1 Practical Manual Figure SDB 8 . Release the platform clamps and secure them to the base. Test the result Carefully attach the blocks to the shaft at the locations and orientations in the table.
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