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Properties of Microstripline
Prabhat Man Sainju, Rohit Ahuja firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Radio Frequency Electronics, Tampere University of Technology
Abstract—Microstripline is a planar waveguide fabricated in the integrated circuits and can be realized in the printed circuit boards. With their miniaturized formation, these waveguides are used in the modern day high frequency communication systems. They are highly cost effective compared to their larger counterparts such as rectangular waveguides. Different microwave components such as antennas, couplers, filters, dividers can be formed via microstrip lines. Index Terms—Microstrip lines, COMSOL, Simulation
referred. Assumptions made for the analytical solution are: Sidewalls at the sides of substrate are conducting. Dielectric substrate is electrically thin (h<<λ) Also the waves realized in microstrip lines are not perfect TEM but quasi TEM waves. With the dimensions of the basic Microstripline structure given, we can define the characteristic impedance of the line as:
ICROSTRIPLINES are the planar waveguides that can be realized in smaller scale enough to fit in the integrated circuits and can also be fabricated with printed electronics. The geometry of the Microstripline is simple and easily conceivable. Microstrip is just a thin conductor laid on the dielectric surface or the substrate.
Where the effective dielectric constant of the microstrip line is given by:
Effective Dielectric Constant here has been used to calculate the characteristic impedance and has not been included in the result table. The characteristic impedance of the stripline can be expressed in terms of its inductance and capacitance as in Eq. 3. The equation relates characteristic impedance with the capacitance in the medium and in the air.
Figure 1: Microstrip Structure 
The nature of propagation of waves through the waveguide depends upon the substrate height, width of the microstrip line and the dielectric constant of the substrate. The thickness of the microstrip itself is considered to be nominal. COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a® has been used here to describe the cross section of the structure in 2-D. II THEORY We can approximate the following parameters of the microstrip lines: Characteristic Impedance Effective Dielectric Constant of the substrate For the analysis, the structure specified in Figure 1 will be
A coupled coplanar Microstripline includes two identical striplines within the substrate. S is the new parameter which denotes the separation between the two coplanar striplines. If the equal potentials are supplied for both of the strips, then it is called an even mode and odd mode when the potential is opposite. In this report, only the even mode has been focused. The characteristic impedance is given by 
a Ω 62. The strips are aligned in the same plane separated by a distance. the surface area associated with the capacitance of the system decreases.5 0. The electric energy density of the configuration has been shown in figure 2.88 III RESULTS & OBSERVATIONS A.655 0.68 Zc.5 86.s in the TABLE I) as per the equation 2.5 0.07 As the Width of the stripline is decreased.3 Zc.s Ω 81.8 163 L μH/m 0.05 51.1 66.69 66.3 30.SMG-8306 Transmission Lines & Waveguides Where B.a in the TABLE I) as obtained from Equation 1.3 30. This can be verified with the analytical solution Zc.5 136 367 Ca pF/m 30.25.72 65.714 As the relative permittivity of the substrate is increased.5 151.1 0.35 65. TABLE II CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE FOR DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS And W cm h cm 0.6 Ca pF/m 30. Capacitance and inductance of the stripline was generated from the COMSOL 2 .163 52.2 0. The relative permittivity of the test stripline has been set to 3. From the COMSOL. Comparison with Coupled stripline with Coplanar Strip The coupled stripline with coplanar strip includes two identical metallic strips placed inside the substrate. Since the capacitance is decreased.1 0.3 26. the capacitance of the stripline increases.1 0.175 h cm 0.5 Er 3.828 32. Stripline for different substrate materials In this case we have used the different substrate materials over the same geometry for basic stripline configuration. On the other hand. Stripline with different dimensions In this section.5 S cm 0.4 66.1 C pF/m 98.s Ω 61. Figure 2: Electric Potential of basic stripline TABLE I CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE FOR DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES Figure 3: Electric Potential of Coupled Coplanar Stripline TABLE III CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE FOR COPLANAR STRIP W cm 0.5 0.1 0.a Ω 81.25 C pF/m 98. C.25 3. we deal with the same Microstripline but with different dimensions (variations in Width to Height ratio).724 Zc.6 20.05 69.2 0.640 Zc. 0.a Ω 62. the characteristic impedance increases.s Ω 61.5 0.2 h cm 0.624 90.791 90.25 4.778 0.5 0. This effect is also seen in the Ca values for the air medium. The results match with the simulation outputs.5 Zc. The tabular result above now includes the separation between the strips as a new parameter.2 0. W is the width of the metallic strip and h represents the height of the strip from the ground plane of the substrate (refer Figure 1).5 Er 3.5 0.2 C pF/m 118. The substrate materials have been varied depending upon its relative permittivity. The characteristic impedance can be calculated from these simulated values (Zc.175 0.25 3.335 Zc. the characteristic impedance of the stripline decreases.884 31. we get the Capacitance of the stripline for the particular substrate (C in the TABLE I) and for the air medium (Ca in the TABLE I).163 70.a in TABLE II which has been derived from the equation 1. This value has been compared to the analytical solution (Zc.216 W cm 0.5 12. The Table I shows the different values of characteristic impedances for different substrate materials.
in reality the characteristic impedance has also increased. The impedance equation 3 with the capacitance in the air medium was not applicable for different coupled Microstripline configurations. IV. steps involved in COMSOL for the simulation have not been included in the report. COMSOL was observed to be a very useful tool for the simulation of Microstripline behavior. Electrostatic simulation resulted in the capacitance of the line and magnetostatics simulation resulted in the inductance. the COMSOL simulation was divided into electrostatics and magnetostatics simulation.SMG-8306 Transmission Lines & Waveguides and the characteristic impedance Zc. the capacitance as well as inductance increased. COMSOL was used to simulate the Microstripline with the various field patterns to obtain its parameters such as capacitance and inductance. 3rd edition COMSOL Tutorials -ACDC_Module/Tutorial_Models/microstrip Foundations for Microwave Engineering (2nd Edition). Similarly. Robert E. Hence. CONCLUSION Microstriplines are basically used as the antenna feeds. it was found that the analytical calculations can be useful for the prediction of properties of the Microstripline. Collin. The results were compared to the set of analytical formulas provided in the standard text materials. Pozar. As the separation of the stripline was increased. Hence.s is the result of equation 3. The analytical solution was obtained from the equation 4. 3 . However. Hence. REFERENCE    Microwave Engineering. dividers and couplers and hence it becomes pretty much necessary to match its impedance with the connecting port. It was observed that the simulated results were close to the analytical solution. D.
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