This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
his publication contains guidance for builders engaged in or interested in green building products and practices for residential design, development, and construction. This publication is not intended to be exhaustive and all-inclusive, and the enclosed guidelines are not to be considered the only method of green building. These guidelines for green building originate from the collective experience of leading personnel in the green building movement (marketplace) but must, due to the nature of the responsibilities involved, be presented only as a guide for the use of a qualified developer, builder, remodeler, or design professional.
Nothing in this directory should be construed as policy, an endorsement, warranty (express or implied), or guaranty by the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB), the NAHB Research Center (Research Center), or any persons or organizations involved in the creation of this publication, of any technical descriptions, systems, details, requirements, materials, or products. NAHB, Research Center, and the publication’s authors and publishers expressly disclaim any responsibility for any damage arising from the use of, application of, or reliance on the recommendations and information contained herein.
CO P Y R I G H T
COPYRIGHT © 2006, by NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HOME BUILDERS, All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written consent of the National Association of Home Builders. The green home building guidelines provided as Part One of this document are for the intended use of home builders and home builder associations, which agree to treat the guidelines as proprietary.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
PA R T 2
TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Section 1 Lot Design, Preparation, and Construction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Select the Site Identify Goals With Your Team Design the Site Develop the Site Innovative Options
57 57 58 59 67 68
Section 2 Resource Efficiency 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8
70 Reduce Quantity of Materials and Waste 70 Enhance Durability and Reduce Maintenance 80 Reuse Materials 86 Use Recycled-Content Materials 88 Recycle Waste Materials During Construction 90 Use Renewable Materials 91 Use Resource-Efficient Materials 93 Innovative Options 93 95
Section 3 Energy Efficiency 3.1
Implement an Integrated and Comprehensive Approach to Energy-Efficient Design of Building Site, Building Envelope, and Mechanical Space Conditioning Systems 95 Performance Measures Prescriptive Path Building Envelope HVAC Design, Equipment, and Installation Water Heating Design, Equipment, and Installation
3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7
96 97 97 100
108 Lighting and Appliances 110 Renewable Energy/Solar Heating and Cooling 112 Verification 120 Innovative Options 122 127 127 132 134 134 134 139 143 148
PA R T 2
Section 4 Water Efficiency 4.1 4.2 Indoor/Outdoor Water Use Innovative Options
Section 5 Indoor Environmental Quality General Resources 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
Minimize Potential Sources of Pollutants Manage Potential Pollutants Generated in the Home Moisture Management (Vapor, Rainwater, Plumbing, HVAC) Innovative Options
Section 6 Operation, Maintenance, and Homeowner Education 6.1
Provide Home Manual to Owners/Occupants on the Use and Care of the Home That Includes All of the Items Below 149 Optional Items to Include in the Home Manual (Choose at Least Five) 150 Provide Education to Owners/Occupants in the Use and Care of Their Dwellings Solid Waste Innovative Options
151 151 152 153 153 154 156 156 157 159 165 167
Section 7 Global Impact 7.1 7.2 Products Innovative Options
Appendix A Site Planning and Land Development 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Identify Goals With Your Team Select the Site Design the Site Develop the Site Innovative Options
PA R T 2
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
www.1. and other infrastructure.SECTION 1 LOT D E S I G N . P R E PA R AT I O N . ecologists.1 SELECT THE SITE Avoid environmentally “sensitive areas” as identified through site footprinting process or existing third-party data.1. or habitat sanctuary. landscape architects. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines PA R T 2 57 ..3 Choose a greyfield site.asp • Society of American Foresters. www.htm.g. www. By avoiding environmentally sensitive areas. a builder can help preserve land that might function as a corridor for wildlife. By selecting a site that has at any time been identified as an environmentally sensitive area.org/certifiedforester/ • The Ecological Society of America.asca-consultants.html • American Society of Landscape Architects. A N D D E V E LO P M E N T 1.esa.org/ 1. 1. Infill Incentives.com/home. recreational open space. Resources: • Policy Link.policylink. Intent: Building on an infill site can effectively conserve resources (e. infrastructure) and preserve open space that could be lost from “green field” development. sewer and water. Other excellent sources of detailed environmental information about a site are professionals such as arborists. Strategies for Successful Infill Development (2001).nemw.cfm • International Society of Arboriculture.isa-arbor. These experts can provide assistance in identifying a potential site’s natural resources and environmentally sensitive areas. www.org/members/pigroups. or by the local jurisdiction.asla.org/why. power lines. and wildlife biologists.org/EDTK/Infill/. Intent: Redevelopment of a greyfield site can provide an efficient use of land and infrastructure. Greyfield redevelopment allows for the preservation of open space and wildlife habitat in the midst of growth. www.org/infillbook.2 Choose an infill site. Intent: Thoughtful site selection can be the first step in building a green home.1. www. Resources: • American Society of Consulting Arborists. Information / How to Implement: Infill areas are vacant or underutilized lots of land served by existing physical installations such as roads.1 1.safnet. Information / How to Implement: “Sensitive areas” may be identified within a comprehensive plan. by a wetland institute. Equitable Development Toolkit. a builder will receive no credit for this line item. www. regardless of the site’s classification at the time of construction. • Northeast-Midwest Institute and Congress for the New Urbanism.
loans.htm 1. a greyfield is defined as “any site previously developed with at least 50% of the surface area covered with impervious material. American Planning Association.uli. www.Information / How to Implement: Within these guidelines.pdf • Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers.S. B. Urban Land Institute. Intent: Remediation of a brownfield results in the environmental restoration of a polluted site. and training are available through the EPA’s Brownfield Initiative to assist builders and developers in the remediation and development of brownfield sites.1 I D E N T I F Y G OA L S W I T H YO U R T E A M Establish a knowledgeable team.epa. and development.” The EPA estimates that there are 450. Brownfields Cleanup and Redevelopment: www. Go to www.org • Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers. redevelopment.1.cnu. The tools allow residents to locate brownfields in their area and provide access to information about cleanup grants. Environmental Protection Agency. and tax breaks. Identify team member roles and how they relate to various phases of green lot design.org/cnu_reports/Greyfield_Feb_01.icsc.org • International Council of Shopping Centers.gov/Brownfields/index.000 such sites around the country.S. or contaminant. a transformation that makes an abandoned site habitable.cnu. Greyfields into Goldfields: From Falling Shopping Centers to Great Neighborhoods (February 2001). www. www. For more information.4 Choose an EPA-recognized brownfield. Create a mission statement that includes the project’s goals and objectives. contact the Congress for the New Urbanism.planning.org • American Planning Association. contribution from the local government in the development of offsite improvements. 58 SECTION 1 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . www. brownfield development provides an efficient use of land and infrastructure while allowing for the preservation of open space and wildlife habitat in the midst of growth.cnu. www. the expansion. or the International Council of Shopping Centers.org • Urban Land Institute. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) characterizes brownfields as “real property. prep.2.” The development of a greyfield site can be daunting. pollutant.gov/Brownfields/bfwhere.html • The EPA has introduced two Web-based tools to give the public additional access to information about brownfield properties and cleanup efforts.2 1. A.pdf 1. but local or national incentives may exist to reward those builders who go through the process. Incentives may include the elimination of developmentrelated fees. Information / How to Implement: The U. Grants.org/cnu_reports/Executive_summary. www. Resources: • Congress for the New Urbanism. or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance. Like greyfield and infill development. Greyfield Regional Mall Study (January 2001). Resources: • U.epa.
B.1 Conserve natural resources. www.html • American Society of Landscape Architects. www. trees. the team) should understand that the lot will be developed as a green site. Participate in a natural resources conservation program.org/members/pigroups. restore. what it means to be a green lot. Once this baseline is established. www. site superintendents.. the builder should work with the team throughout the development process to identify and delegate responsibilities of team members.3 DESIGN THE SITE Minimize environmental impacts.asla.g. A natural resources inventory should be completed to identify the site’s environmental attributes. water. Provide basic training in tree and other natural resource protection to onsite supervisor. Resources: • American Society of Consulting Arborists.) C.. Those involved in the development phase must understand what the mission of the site is. individuals.asca-consultants.asp • Society of American Foresters. A.Intent: One of the earliest challenges for a builder in developing a green lot is assembling an effective team to help the builder implement best green practices throughout the process. all parties that will be involved in lot development (i.3. Whoever ultimately conducts the inventory should be able to discern between invasive and regionally appropriate vegetation. such as previously developed sites or farmland.cfm • International Society of Arboriculture. and arborists. as well as facilitate coordination between the members to achieve best green practices. Information / How to Implement: Before ground is broken.org/why.esa. understand how to site a house to achieve maximum solar energy potential. (See Section 1.safnet. waterway. and geological formations. and understand how natural features can be used in managing storm water onsite. and why green practices should be followed. fauna. might be adequately inventoried by knowledgeable. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 1 59 . a natural resources inventory may be performed by a qualified professional such as an arborist.com/home. wildlife biologists. Complete a natural resources inventory used to drive/create the site plan. D. and enhance the natural features and environmental quality of the site. Intent: Onsite natural resources concern such features as solar energy availability. Once the green intent of the builder is communicated to the lot development team. protect. soil. ecologists. www. Create a protection and maintenance plan for priority natural resources/areas during construction. 1. excavators. Building with Trees. www..org/ 1. landscape architects. Simpler sites. or landscape architect. Information / How to Implement: On complex sites.g. but less qualified. Team members may include staff. wildlife biologist. coordination and communication with and among the various team members is essential to successful development.4 for guidance in forming the plan.isa-arbor. e. be able to identify areas important to wildlife habitat. A builder can then identify high-priority resources for conservation (e.org/certifiedforester/ • The Ecological Society of America. flora.e. and micro-habitats) and plan for the conservation of those resources during each stage of site development. snags. utilities.
A. and restabilization techniques. include plans and information on fertilizing and watering trees as needed before. retaining walls.3 Minimize slope disturbance.a or 3.asla.3.1. The final decision in siting generally involves a compromise among these many factors. In addition to protecting priority areas from intrusion during development.2 Site the home and other built features to optimize solar resources (refer to Energy Efficiency module for guidance on solar resource optimization).3. Align road or extended driveway with natural topography to minimize its grade and reduce cut and fill. Information / How to Implement: A builder should consider such issues such as slope. which can pollute water sources and damage local ecology.safnet. 1.3. reduces the pollution caused by a home during its life. therefore. Limit development footprint on steep slopes (slopes greater than or equal to 25%).3.com/home.A protection and maintenance plan should be drafted to detail how resources identified through the inventory will be protected throughout development. laying of mulch to reduce soil compaction.1.org/certifiedforester/ • Article on preserving trees during construction: www. etc. during.html 1.5. Resources: • American Society of Consulting Arborists. D. One way to verify that the plan is implemented as planned is to create construction documents that explain how to implement the plan at each phase. C.1. Resources: • See Sections 3.3.org/why. Reduce long-term erosion effects through the design and implementation of terracing.5. Section 4 of this module describes how to protect existing onsite vegetation and minimize soil disturbance and erosion through such means as installation of fencing. a maintenance plan should be created to ensure that priority vegetation survives development.5.5. local solar angles. (Note—do not include these points if you get points from 3.umass. storm water management. 60 SECTION 1 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . www.b in the Energy Efficiency section. and use this study to guide the design of all structures onsite.and short-term erosion on the site.cfm • International Society of Arboriculture.b of this User Guide for resources. Complete a hydrological/soil stability study for steep slopes. www.) Intent: Thoughtful orientation of a home can maximize solar heating potential in the heating season and minimize solar gains in the cooling season.a or 3.asp • Society of American Foresters.3.1.edu/bmatwt/publications/articles/preserving_trees_during_construction. and after development. B. Intent: Leaving a slope undisturbed reduces the risk of disturbing natural hydrological drainage and causing long. identification of specified washout and material storage areas.asca-consultants.html • American Society of Landscape Architects.org/members/pigroups. Within the maintenance plan. and high-priority vegetation when determining the optimum site for each home.isa-arbor. www. Orienting a home to optimize its solar resource reduces energy use and. www.
gov/ddes/acrobat/esa/kcswdm-d. Department of Environmental Resources. King County. store.cfm?id=62 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 1 61 . sediment traps. More permanent solutions include biomechanical devices such as swales and vegetated buffers. 2005. www. environmentally responsible method for preventing erosion is to use compost filter berms. and placement of utilities under streets instead of yards. A. Schedule construction activities to minimize time that soil is exposed. Storm Water Permitting also contains technical information. and/or surface application of compost erosion control. promote water quality. Nebraska: 1998). MD: June 1999). compost erosion socks.Information / How to Implement: Within these guidelines. sample Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plans. Use alternative means to install utilities. vegetated buffer areas. such as tunneling instead of trenching. Washington Surface Water Design Manual Appendix D: Erosion and Sediment Control Standards (Seattle: September 1998). Minimizing soil disturbance and erosion both reduces stressors on downstream water bodies and saves valuable topsoil for the site. use of smaller equipment. B.3.metrokc. on over 50 of the most commonly used Best Management Practices. including recommendations for use and cost estimates. Low-Impact Development Design Strategies: An Integrated Design Approach (EPA 841-B-00-003) (Largo. and mulching. Fazio. Information / How to Implement: NAHB’s Storm Water Permitting: A Guide for Builders and Developers contains information about the federal Phase I and II storm water permitting program and the equivalent requirements for state storm water permits (see Resources section). Resources: • Prince George’s County. Storm Water Permitting: A Guide for Builders and Developers. Resources: • National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). Trenching and Tunneling: A Pocket Guide for Qualified Utility Workers (Nebraska City. See Section 1.4 Minimize soil disturbance and erosion. Turf and plant material—which help to facilitate the re-establishment of a natural environment—are established more quickly when organic compost is used. ftp://ftp. Demarcate limits of clearing and grading. and wood chips.gov/owow/nps/lid/lidnatl. Methods for preventing erosion include silt fences.4 for further guidance. and reduce damage caused to native vegetation.builderbooks. including how to handle visits from inspectors.epa. Note: Points should be awarded only if there are developable steep slopes in the area. Intent: Sediment and the pollutants contained in it are recognized sources of water quality problems. www. steep slopes are defined as those slopes that are greater than or equal to 25%. Exposed soils should be minimized to reduce erosion.org/shopping/merchandise/merchdetail.arborday. and tips on compliance. Maryland. shared trenches or easements. Another highly effective. C.pdf 1. James R. The compost should be from organic sources like bioshields. Reduce cut-and-fill practices to help prevent unnecessary stripping of vegetation and loss of soils and reduce the need for additional resources to be brought in from offsite. National Arbor Day Foundation.com or 800-368-5242 x8163 • King County Department of Natural Resources. Heavy equipment and excessive digging can result in compaction or loss of topsoil along with the introduction of invasive and problematic flora. yard waste.pdf • Dr.
pdf • Betty Rushton. Intent: Percolation through soil is one of the most effective means for filtering pollutants carried by storm water.html • Tom Schueler. E. Washington State Department of Ecology Water Quality Program. builders can reduce harmful pollutants carried off-site while safely and effectively managing much of their storm water load onsite. F.5 Manage storm water using low-impact development when possible. provide habitat for native fauna. selecting native and regionally appropriate trees and vegetation in a way that complements the natural setting. B. D. Center for Watershed Protection.org/SPSP/TOC. Select turf grass and other vegetation that are native or regionally appropriate species. and patios. G. Establish an integrated pest management plan to minimize chemical use in pesticides and fertilizers. Brooksville. and selecting regionally appropriate plants is a key component to responsible building. Specify planting of trees to increase site shading and moderate temperatures (see also Energy Efficiency Guideline 3. french drains. www. wetlands.S. H. Design vegetative windbreaks or channels as appropriate to local conditions. dry wells. Ellicott City. Group plants with similar watering needs (hydrozoning). September 2001. Southwest Florida Water Management District. Conservation of this valuable resource through such techniques as hydrozoning. U. Low Impact Parking Lot Design Reduces Runoff and Pollutant Loads: Annual Report # 1.c specifying siting of trees to reduce the energy consumption of the home). Thoughtful selection and placement of plants can also reduce heating/cooling loads of a home. minimizing impervious surfaces. Intent: Landscaping water use accounts for approximately 50% of a home’s total water needs. and rain gardens that promote water quality and infiltration. 1995.org/publications/destech/lowimpactdevl. Resources: • The Practice of Low Impact Development. and distributing storm water flows.1.wa.1. Develop and implement storm water management plans that minimize concentrated flows and seek to mimic natural hydrology. 62 SECTION 1 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Limit turf areas of landscaped area.htm • Lisa Austin.cwp. A. walkways. Florida.4. 1999 1. Formulate a plan to restore or enhance natural vegetation that is cleared during development. www. Within this plan. A.3. B. reducing turf area. Information / How to Implement: Use open space and natural systems such as vegetative swales.ecy.6 Devise landscape plans to limit water and energy demand while preserving or enhancing the natural environment. Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington (Publication 99-12). Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). www. parking areas.3. phase landscaping to ensure denuded areas are quickly vegetated. C. Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection. Require onsite tree trimmings or waste of regionally appropriate trees to be used as protective mulch during construction or as a base for walking trails. MD. C. Preserve and utilize natural water and drainage features. and minimize the heat-island effect of developments.huduser.gov/pubs/9912. By using natural water and drainage features. Minimize impervious surfaces and use permeable materials for driveways.
Careful selection and integration of trees and vegetation can reduce a developer’s initial costs while providing value to a development or neighborhood later. and will be able to coexist with other native plants over time. Use the calculated water budget to apply water according to the needs of the plants and manage irrigation. B. Other benefits of landscaping with native plants: minimizes maintenance (reduces emissions of equipment). shrubs. The water budget should be developed by the landscape architect or designer as part of the plant selection and grouping process (turf. overhangs. 1995. etc. Research has shown that homeowners are comfortable with having as little as 50% of the front yard composed of turf. Basic Practice Guidelines A. 161-170. care should be taken to grind only regionally appropriate plants. Regionally appropriate plants will also not be overly prolific or invasive. Overall property water budgets can be developed to include both indoor and outdoor water requirements.gov/reg3esd1/garden/what. etc. One of the best ways to reduce energy consumption is through passive solar design of a home—using orientation. Fewer regulations are imposed on turf-to-landscaping ratio in the backyard. The irrigation maintenance process should be based on calculation of a monthly and annual water budget for exist- NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 1 63 . Deciduous trees allow the sun’s rays through in winter and provide shade in the summer. drought. Properly selected plants can be grouped to serve as a bioretention zone. Joan. When planting trees. and rain. so good gains might be made more easily there. heat. Grinding of invasive species can increase their propagation and result in the ultimate destruction of native species. storm water processing. In areas with low annual rainfall. See EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Region Green Landscaping www. trees. ground covers. fosters wildlife habitat. Trees that shade the streets can keep a neighborhood cool while also increasing the neighborhood’s attractiveness. The landscape design process should incorporate a general outdoor annual water budget as a guideline for irrigation design and long-term landscape management. one way to account for water usage is through the development and implementation of a water budget. several factors should be taken into account such as the value of shading (trees shading asphalt will mitigate a site’s temperature more than trees shading landscaped areas). Below is Built Green Colorado’s water budgeting information.epa. If grinding and scattering cleared plants. land area. consider the multiple services that natural areas can provide: natural habitat. Regionally appropriate plants are hardy plants that can withstand local water and temperature conditions such as freeze. For research on turf and landscape of front yard with native species. shading. Landscaping to reduce energy consumption is only part of the whole effort. etc. Messy Ecosystems. It is good practice to limit ratio of turf area to total landscaped area due to maintenance requirements of turf versus native plants and regionally appropriate trees and vegetation. there may be restrictions on the percentage of turf that the front yard must contain. Landscape Journal. fenestration. and irrigation system efficiency. When planning for the revegetation of a site. In some areas. Developers may wish to consider enforcing guidelines for the protection of onsite vegetation. Orderly Frames.htm for more information. see Nassauer. Evergreens can provide an effective windbreak. ultimate tree size. etc.). 14 (2). windbreak. maintaining a safe distance from the house (especially in areas prone to natural disasters). Some developers even fine builders for damage to areas designated for protection.Information / How to Implement: Select landscaping materials and vegetation to fit site conditions. Water Budgeting Description Calculate the water needs of irrigated landscapes based on plant types.
Temperature. For properly established turf. Calculate the site landscape water budget by summing the water requirements calculated for each hydrozone of the landscape using either of these general formulas: Approach #1. which should be corrected. and light all influence the ET rate. In either wetter or drier years. humidity. The water budget provides the annual irrigation that the site needs in order to thrive in addition to natural precipitation. The water budget does not apply to the initial establishment period for plantings. J. Water features. water use estimates may need to be increased or decreased based on climate and location characteristics. Excessive water use may also be attributed to irrigation system deficiencies. and/or any other outdoor water uses should be included in the water budget. the actual irrigation water needs of turf can vary. One year is typical for many perennials and shrubs to become established. For other areas. depending on desired appearance. for the metro-Denver Front Range area. Water use estimates may also be reduced when more efficient irrigation systems such as drip irrigation are used.623 = Conversion Factor (to gallons per square foot) IE = Irrigation Efficiency (varies based on irrigation system) Approach #2. it is necessary to provide accurate information on factors such as crop coefficients. D. When watering. ft. If a property manager/landscaper knows the water budget for each month.greenco. In order for water budgets to be accurate.) x Estimated Plant Water Use (gallons/sq. I.) Where: Estimated Plant Water Use = Estimated water use in gallons/sq. The rate at which plants lose water to the surrounding air is called evapotranspiration (ET). G. the water budget will need to be adjusted. when Reference ET is known: Water Budget = (ETo)(Kc)(LA)(0. See the GreenCO Web site www. F.org and Appendix E for recommended crop coefficients to be used in calculating water budgets. H. it is only necessary to replace the amount of water that has been lost due to ET. ft. The annual water budget assumes a normal year of natural precipitation (14 inches of annual precipitation for the Front Range area).623) E Where: Water Budget = Water Needed for Plants (gallons per year) ETo = Reference evapotranspiration (inches per year) for bluegrass in your area Kc = Crop coefficient for plant type (See Appendix E for more information. wind. which can vary from two to four weeks for annuals to several growing seasons.) LA = Landscaped Area (square feet) 0. when Reference ET is not known: Water Budget = Land Area (sq. ft. he/she can compare actual use to the site water budget and adjust irrigation practices accordingly. depending on plant type and the timing of planting.ing sites. outdoor pool(s). 64 SECTION 1 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . It should be noted that the ET0 (reference ET) in the water budget equation does not reflect that Kentucky bluegrass can be attractive and viable at much lower ET rates and can be very drought tolerant. C. E.
ca.highlandsranch. 1.org/6/6-1a.state. The Restoration Group. 2004. Regional or Industry Considerations/Adaptations A. White. 1993.dola.gov/landscape/ord/ord. At the time of this manual’s publication. 2004. Water Efficient Landscape Design Model Ordinance. CO: Colorado Department of Local Affairs.dola. www. Centennial Water and Sanitation District. provides incentive to conserve.us/smartgrowth/) is based on water budgeting with a goal of 15 gallons/square foot/year of water required for a landscaped area. C.owue. 1998. Key References Ash. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Drought Task Force. Model Water Efficient Landscape Ordinance.. www. Inc. Colorado’s Water Efficient Landscape Design Model Ordinance (see www. Water Budget Calculator at www. Often the retrofitting of poor irrigation systems and the use of “smart” controllers will provide a payback in saved water.highlandsranch. 2004. by gradually increasing the price of water as consumption rises. A. Highlands Ranch.org) for more information on water budgeting techniques. T. www. Low-water-use plants don’t automatically save water (they are easily.colostate. along with local water rates and irrigation system cost.co.K.dola. CO: Colorado Department of Local Affairs. and frequently. Check the GreenCO Web site (www. See Centennial Water and Sanitation District in Highlands Ranch. To calculate the payback time.state.greenco.GreenCO provides a simple water budget calculator on its Web site www. Denver.greenco. and G. Water Conservation Program. Design Studios West. GreenCO. 2004.M. WaterWise Landscaping Best Practice Manual: A Companion Guide to Water Efficient Landscape Design.edu/.org.water. versus how much has historically been used. CA: Municipal Water District of Orange County. High-water-use plants (such as turf) don’t automatically waste water. Denver. B.co.co.. M.state. this approach had been adopted in other water-limited states such as California and Arizona. Using a “smart” controller can ensure the proper irrigation is applied to high-water-use plants. www. Water budgets can be used by water utilities to determine how much water is needed versus how much the utility sells or has.. www. Office of Smart Growth. use the water budget to measure how much water is actually needed. 2004.greenco. 2. or how much more water needs to be purchased. Water budgets can be used by water utilities to determine how much water they need versus how much they sell or have. Using a “smart” controller can ensure the proper irrigation is applied to low-water-use plants. E. Colorado. over-watered).org.org/06_wsan/06_3watercons. The difference is how much water could be saved. California Department of Water Resources. Orange County.html. HydroSystems KDI. Landscape Management for Water Savings: How to Profit from a Water-Efficient Future. Water budgeting approaches adopted by utilities typically include ET-based irrigation scheduling combined with tiered pricing for increasing water usage. J. CO: Centennial Water and Sanitation District. They are also often over-watered. for information on their program http://www. D. L. Knopf.html.us/smartgrowth/. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 1 65 . Colorado Department of Local Affairs.drought.cfm. Evapotranspiration (ET) or “smart” irrigation controllers can facilitate landscape irrigation according to the needs of the plants (and therefore the water budget). Tiered pricing. Green industry professionals can use this calculator with customers to demonstrate that water budgeting is a manageable approach to understanding water needs for a given property and adjusting watering practices accordingly. Inc. Inc. Office of Smart Growth.us/smartgrowth/.
Leave snags (dead tree or portion that’s left for habitat). www. • Become a certified participant in the National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program. or the National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program. through selective plantings and site design. Resources: • Center for Plant Conservation. Loveland.org). Slack. Intent: As the frontier of home building continues to expand. Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System.7 Maintain wildlife habitat. CO: McStain Neighborhoods. suburban. Mecham. CO: Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District. Turfgrass Irrigation Management Program. the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System’s Treasuring Home Initiative. 2003. Water Conservation Standards for Common Areas and Open Space Landscapes. February 1999 1. 2001. Provide birdhouses. March/April. www. Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District. Native Plant Information Network National Suppliers Directory. Information / How to Implement: (Extra points) Participate in a wildlife conservation program.ncwcd.ncwcd. Boulder. diversity of habitat.asp. CO: Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District. (www. www. or rural setting. Loveland.irrigation.org/CPC/ • Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. and protective areas.org/ims/ims_info/scheduli. home builders can work to create a habitat where both wildlife and humans can thrive—whether in an urban. E. sharing the land with wildlife becomes an increasing challenge to builders..newfs. Examples of programs: USDA National Resources Conservation Service’s Backyard Conservation Plan.org/nps. Scheduling Methods Using ET as a Management Tool.org/programs/acss/.wildflower2. 2004. Case History: Irrigation on a Water Budget.pdf. Resources: • Audubon International. including food sources. www. Native Plant Societies of the United States and Canada. 66 SECTION 1 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . B.htm • NAHB Research Center Inc. Irrigation Business and Technology.org/ims/scheduler. Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System’s Treasuring Home Initiative. Enhance quality of habitat.mobot. Onsite Grinding of Residential Construction Debris: The Indiana Grinder Pilot.audubonintl. www.McStain Neighborhoods. Through individual initiative or participation in a wildlife conservation program.html • New England Wildflower Society. www.org/NPIN/Suppliers/suppliers.3. 2004.
significant changes in grade.4 D E V E LO P T H E S I T E Minimize environmental intrusion during onsite construction. and root system of designated vegetation. Intent: After a builder has identified (during the planning stage) the existing vegetation that will be conserved onsite. http://osuextra. A. Stockpile and cover good soil for later use. practical steps must be taken during the development stage to achieve the intended conservation.org/programs/Buildingwithtrees/index. Create construction “no disturbance” zones using fencing or flagging to protect vegetation and sensitive areas from construction vehicles. A qualified member(s) of the builder’s team should be onsite as these activities progress to ensure that each objective is achieved according to targeted green lot specifications. Prepare designated existing trees and vegetation for the impact of construction by pruning.4). Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. F. grading. Resources: • National Arbor Foundation. and washout. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Site Disturbance and Tree Decline (OSU Extension Facts F-6429). C. Information / How to Implement: See documents line item 1.4. and installation of utilities to ensure that targeted green development practices are implemented (see 1. 1. Oklahoma State University.1 Provide onsite supervision and coordination during clearing. B. Pratt and Michael W. root pruning. E.org/backyardwildlifehabitat/certify/page1. and compaction of soil and critical root zones.com/pdfs/F-6429web. Demarcate limits of clearing and grading. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 1 67 . fertilizing.cfm 1.secure. September 2003. trenching. www.2 Conserve existing onsite vegetation. A.4. 1. Building With Trees.3. Such steps include pre-development preparation of the vegetation and protection of the foliage. Install and maintain sediment and erosion controls.pdf 1. and watering.4. chipped wood.4. B.nwf. paving. D.3. Stabilize disturbed areas within the 14-day period recommended by the EPA. or plywood sheets. material storage. Reduce soil compaction from construction equipment by laying mulch.arborday. Minimize disturbance of and damage to trees and other vegetation designated for protection through installation of fencing and avoidance of trenching. soil.cfm • Phillip A.3 Minimize onsite soil disturbance and erosion. Schnelle. Intent: The noblest intentions when designing a site are practically achieved through onsite supervision during the lot development phase.
and other EPA-approved by-products. Information will be added in Version 2. Rejuvenation of the unimproved soil to its original form will take several years. processed pallets. use mulch that results from onsite recycling efforts such as yard waste. 1. thereby decreasing storm water and pollution runoff. compost is recommended for this purpose. In addition to keeping these materials out of community landfills. When additional soil must be brought in. 68 SECTION 1 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Ideally.gov/ddes/acrobat/esa/kcswdm-d.5 I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S Seek to obtain waivers or variances from local development regulations to enhance green building. The use of organic mulch is an excellent way to conserve water in landscape beds and to build soil quality. Intent: Sharing driveways or parking can reduce the amount of impervious material on a lot. Intent: This guideline seeks to ensure the field implementation of conservation plans. Each measure identifies a practical way to foster water quality and conserve onsite ecological habitat by reducing soil disturbance and erosion. and other clean wood from construction waste. while the use of stockpiled onsite soil is a preferred method.2 Other (specify).pdf 1. Improve the soil with organic amendments and mulch.1 Share driveways or parking. Washington Surface Water Design Manual Appendix D: Erosion and Sediment Control Standards (Seattle: September 1998).G.metrokc. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. King County.5. Information / How to Implement: Soil stabilization may be temporary or permanent. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Keep in mind that. and screening destroy the ecological microsystem of the soil. the incorporation of compost and sand is an effective method for more rapidly rebuilding the structure and ecosystem of the topsoil and allowing turf and plants to establish more quickly. As indicated above. excavation. stockpiling. grinding. Resources: • King County Department of Natural Resources. To offset this phenomenon. 1. processing techniques produce superior topsoil. there are environmental advantages of using industrial by-products as ingredients in topsoil including foundry sand.5. ftp://ftp. biosolids compost.
composite decking or treated lumber).(A note regarding defining “low maintenance” materials: For certain types of building products. lower-maintenance products. the buyer should be on the lookout for materials that have below-average maintenance needs compared with other products in that same material category (e. third-party certifications.) NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 1 69 . and sources such as GreenSpec Directory. “ A possible approach that green home building program administrators can use at this time is to give credit for extended warranties on materials and workmanship. warranty duration. The person choosing the building product should consider using manufacturer claims. there is no standardized method to assess the durability of residential construction materials or systems or to define “low maintenance. Although existing green builder programs provide good information for builders to emphasize the long-term advantages and savings of more durable. and Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools that are under development as proxies to identify “low maintenance” or “durable” materials during the purchasing process..g.
The average 3 BR house is 37% larger than the average 2 BR. For example. home is 40% larger than a 1. Dedicate one “wet wall” per floor. Two-foot modules work well for floor plans.5.555 sf. Locate walls that contain drain/waste/vent and supply pipes on interior walls. In order to determine how much the homes with 3.) When homes require forced-air space conditioning.825 sf. Information / How to Implement: NAHB Research Center national survey data regarding average size of homes: • 2 BR = 1.. incorporate the HVAC duct layout in the architectural plan and design the ducts into the conditioned space of the building to maximize system efficiency. rooms. also covers the design practice of installing water supply lines on interior walls. 4. These percentages were used in the table below to determine the house size thresholds. • 5+ BR = 3.1.3. ft.648 sq.890 sq.382 sq. home is 29% larger than a 2. 70 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . kitchen sink and powder room or master and guest baths with back-to-back layouts that share a plumbing wall. and wall heights based on available material sizes. Size homes. • a 3. note that the square footage of a 2 BR house must be reduced by 50 square feet to obtain an additional point. the average 4 BR is 40% larger than the average 3 BR. home. • a 2. home. and get credit for building a home with the same number of bedrooms but with fewer square feet than an average-sized house. minimized pipe runs.424 sq. ft. ft.. Indoor Environmental Quality.1. Wall height should be based on availability of structural framing members in pre-cut lengths (i. Create an efficient floor plan that maintains a home’s functionality Intent: Use the local data regarding the average size of homes built (taking bedrooms into account).825 sf. • 3 BR = 1. • 4 BR = 2. the average 5+ BR home is 29% larger than the average 4 BR. Use designs that incorporate efficient mechanical systems layout. home is 37% larger than a 1.555 sf.e.SECTION 2 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY 2. ft.332 sf.1 R E D U C E Q UA N T I T Y O F M AT E R I A L S A N D WA S T E 2. home.296 sf.e. we referenced the national data (see above). i. and 5+ bedrooms must be reduced. • a 1. like stacked “wet walls” for efficient plumbing layout. In the table below. (Section 5. precut stud lengths). and rapid hot water delivery.
In general. and the initial use of these techniques may temporarily slow down framing operations. Efficient and Beautiful. more planning is needed to implement these elements.1. Accordingly. homes with steel framing can incorporate advanced framing techniques. the user will note that some advanced framing techniques receive points for both Resource Efficiency and Energy Efficiency.html • There are many resources available to help a builder create efficient home floor plans. 1998).greenbuilder. GreenSpec Directory www.org/tertiaryR. 17 Space Design Tips. Framers unfamiliar with the techniques may need training.com/BOOKS/GreenSpecs.2. For example.nahbrc.html 2.G U I D E L I N E S F O R E F F I C I E N T F LO O R P L A N D E S I G N # of Bedrooms 2 1382 1332 1282 1232 1182 1132 1082 1032 982 932 3 1890 1825 1756 1688 1619 1551 1482 1414 1345 1277 4 2648 2555 2459 2363 2267 2171 2075 1979 1883 1788 5+ 3424 3296 3172 3048 2925 2801 2677 2553 2430 2306 Points 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Resources: • Use the newly modified American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z765-2003 to calculate square footage. 2000) • GreenBuilder. including 24-inch on-center spacing for steel floors and walls.greensage. Sustainable Building Sourcebook. Information / How to Implement: Advanced framing elements can be applied independently. www.com/sourcebook/ • Environmental Building News and BuildingGreen. http://oikos. or adopted in their entirety. depending upon the specific requirement(s) of the project. Use advanced framing techniques that reduce the amount of material used to build a home while maintaining the structural integrity of the home. Sarah Susanka’s Not So Big House series of books can assist in home design.com. described in the HUDUSER’s Prescriptive Method for Residential Cold-Formed Steel Framing (see Resources section of this line item for additional information). The Not So Big House (The Taunton Press. Intent: Advanced Framing or Optimum Value Engineering refer to framing techniques that reduce the amount of materials used to build a home while maintaining its structural integrity.com/esb/52/smallefficient. Area of Home (Square Feet) (Based on ANSI Z765-2003) NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 71 .asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1652&DocumentID=2636 • Oikos®. In addition to the advanced framing techniques described below for wood. Available from the NAHB Research Center Bookstore— www. Creating the Not So Big House (The Taunton Press. An optimum value-engineered assembly tends to use less energy for space conditioning because the omitted (and redundant) structural components can be displaced with insulation. Small.
72 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . bearing walls • 24-inch on-center framing.2-inch or 24-inch on-center framing.2-inch and 24-inch ON-CENTER FRAMING Details: Wall and floor framing spacing can often be engineered for 19. crews are likely to be slowed down until they become more familiar with the method. 19. but the reduction in lumber required for the building usually offsets the price increase from having larger floor joists. Floor joists may need to be deeper for wider spans. This strategy can be combined with modular layout and single top plate for added economy but can also be used independently. Careful spacing of window and door openings will maximize the economy of wider spacing.2-inch (one-fifth of an eight-foot sheet) or 24-inch on center (one-fourth of an 8-foot sheet). Bracing and fastening schedules and sheathing thickness requirements increase with framing spacing. over walls and floors spaced 16 inches on center. The need for thicker deck sheathing will also offset a portion of the savings. floor systems • 19. Roof framing that utilizes trusses is most frequently spaced at 24-inches. When first implementing advanced framing elements.Some of the benefits of advanced framing include: • Reduced first cost (3% to 5% of framing cost) • Improved energy efficiency (2% to 5% per year) • Improved resource efficiency (less wood consumption and waste). Installation: Installation should be in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications and model building code prescriptive methods. A careful analysis or a trial prototype is needed to determine whether the wider spans make economic sense for a particular plan. simpler plans designed on a two-foot module are much more likely to result in savings with 24-inches on center framing than are complex plans with odd dimensions and many small offsets. Benefits/Cost: Approximately one-third of the lumber can be eliminated from the wall and floor framing of a value-engineered house. An additional point may be added for each additional technique employed to a maximum of eight points. However. The following list covers different principles that form an advanced framing system: • 19. In general. Advanced framing uses engineering principles to minimize material usage while meeting model building code structural performance requirements. Designs that are built repeatedly should include wall framing layout drawings to guide the framing crew.2-inch or 24-inch on-center framing. roof systems • 24-inch on-center interior partitions • Single top plate walls • Right-sized headers or insulated (box) headers (where required) • Eliminate headers in non-bearing walls • Doubling the rim joist in lieu of header (2x6 or deeper wall framing) • Ladders blocking at interior-wall-to-exterior-wall intersections • Two-stud corner framing Builders need to employ at least two of the items above in order to get four points for this line item. resource savings will occur regardless of economic savings.
Limitations: May not work on homes in high-wind or earthquake zones. SINGLE TOP PLATE—INTERIOR NON-BEARING PARTITIONS Details: Any non-bearing partition can be built with a single top plate. but is more likely than other OVE practices to raise questions from building officials. Code/Regulatory: Model codes allow bearing walls framed with 2x4 studs spaced 24 inches on center or single top plates on bearing walls within defined structural guidelines. In a 2. By stacking the wall and roof framing.Wider stud spacing contributes to energy efficiency by reducing the amount of lumber in a wall cavity.2 inches on center framing. Installation: Bracing is needed to steady and plumb recently erected walls. Designs in high-wind zones or with tall walls may not allow 24-inch on-center spacing. An alternative would be to use half-inch “anti-sag” or five-eighths-inch” gypsum board. home. temporary bracing should be left in place until the floor and/or roof is completed to permanently brace the structure. increasing stud spacing increases the overall R-value of the wall system. Because one plate is omitted. Material fastening schedules and sheathing thicknesses become more stringent when wider spans are employed. Since more insulation and less lumber is used. As with all light frame structures. roof sheathing. Steel plates or straps are used to maintain continuity of the plate in the absence of a second. slightly improving energy performance. and cost of accessories. wall cladding. Limitations: Floor decking. using this spacing in an insulated wall assembly may require changing type or brand of insulation. ft. Some manufacturers do not make insulation batts for 19. although it is commonly used. Therefore. it is possible to use a single top plate because the top plate merely transfers compressive vertical loads to the stud below. One-half-inch-thick gypsum board will deflect somewhat more over 24-inch framing than 16-inch framing. In some markets. and since insulation has a higher R-value than lumber. installation time. tying the structure together. which may affect quantities. the amount of wall insulation is increased. will assure that the system performs well. SINGLE TOP PLATE—EXTERIOR AND BEARING WALLS Details: Single top plates are typically incorporated with advanced framing designs that include 24 inch on center framing. overlapping plate. Code/Regulatory: Meets model codes in some designs. Benefits/Costs: In a 28-foot x 40-foot two-story house. Benefits/Costs: Savings depend on the design’s linear feet of non-bearing walls. This bracing should be left in place until the floor or roof above the walls is completed. there is a perception that wide-spaced framing is a mark of inferior construction. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 73 . Requires purchasing a longer stud.200-sq. including fastening and bracing schedules. If floor joists are chosen that have wide flanges. and interior finish material (such as gypsum wallboard) need to be sized to span the added dimension without undesirable deflection. Installation: Temporary bracing is needed to steady and plumb newly erected walls. the savings from eliminating second top plates in bearing and non-bearing walls is equivalent to eliminating about 35 studs. this will reduce the clear span of the floor decking. the equivalent of two or three dozen studs is likely to be saved on interior walls. Attention to all of the details of assembly.
Limitations: None. on hand at the rough frame stage makes the bill of materials more complex. a boxed header design consists of a top and bottom 2x4 on the flat. as well as sizing and constructing box headers. and a plywood face on one or two sides. The need to have an additional material. single-ply. Thus. An alternative would be to site-fabricate and insulate box headers of a consistent depth and install these in lieu of dimensional or engineered wood headers. Installation: Headers of various sizes require framers to pay attention to plans and customize openings. use insulated box headers that facilitate load transfer above openings and use fewer resources than two-ply solid sawn members. material economies associated with fabricating box headers of consistent depth will be offset by labor involved with fabricating these onsite. it is not always obvious which partitions are load bearing and which are not. Benefits/Costs: Material cost and usage economies must be balanced against the chance of installing the wrong-sized header and slowing down the framing process by making opening head framing inconsistent. Code/Regulatory: Model building codes include prescriptive methods for sizing headers and girders. Code/Regulatory: Model codes do not prescribe headers in non-bearing locations. and conserves resources by reducing the use of wide-dimension lumber. The practice requires cutting different-sized cripples over headers. although it may be necessary to demonstrate to the inspector that a partition is non-bearing. RIGHT-SIZED HEADERS or INSULATED BOX HEADERS Details: Instead of sizing all headers in bearing walls to accommodate the greatest load case. Typically. Benefits/Costs: Saves material and labor cost. The hollows in the header interior allow insulation to be added. Reducing the use of large-dimensioned lumber is environmentally desirable. the layout framer can determine which openings need headers. two lengths of wall studs are required on the job. Installation: If a method of identifying bearing walls versus non-bearing partitions is included on the plans. right-sizing headers could result in uneven window and door head heights. Code/Regulatory: Meets codes but is more likely than other OVE techniques to inspire questions from the building official. For instance. Similarly. Eliminating these headers saves both material and labor. framers often put headers over every opening to be safe. Also consider the benefit of using a deeper. and engineered wood header. If the tedium of framing different header depths to uniform head heights at openings is daunting. NO HEADERS IN NON-BEARING PARTITIONS Details: Although it is obvious that headers are not needed in non-bearing partitions.Limitations: If used along with a normal double plate on bearing and exterior walls. Limitations: Without thoughtful implementation. 74 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . some end and interior cripples. which could be confusing. insulation. solid blue walls can denote bearing and uncolored walls can be non-bearing. size each header for its actual load and span using the appropriate wood species.
Availability: Drywall clips are readily available. Most important. 5 1/2-inch or greater actual wall dimension. at the door or window openings located below that member. three 22-1/2-inch scrap pieces are set at 24 inches on center vertically to replace two studs. Installation: If using a third stud for gypsum board backing. one at the end of each intersecting wall end. even if the wall is composed of 2x6 studs. Benefits/Costs: With a two-stud corner. (With 24 inches on center wall framing. The concept works best for long spans where the extra depth of the member or additional height of the opening is needed. insulation in the exterior wall can be installed continuously behind the ladder frame. Multiple-member headers should be properly fastened to assure load sharing. but extra labor and thought are involved in fitting perpendicular joists inside the two-ply assembly and framing the opening height down.) Installation: Cutting and nailing three pieces of blocking requires approximately the same labor as installing two studs. the extra stud can be a 2x4. Exterior corner trim or cladding may result in being secured to the sheathing only and not to the stud. Gypsum can be supported either with a flat stud. or one member of a two-ply girder or header assembly. it must be continuous across the opening. Benefits/Costs: Less lumber is used. In all cases. thus eliminating the need for a third stud. Code/Regulatory: The system has no impact on model codes. Any additional framing is needed only to support the gypsum board at the inside corner. TWO-STUD EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING Details: Only two studs are needed at an outside building corner. it is possible to have the floor system rim board act as the header. Code/Regulatory: This is an unusual technique and may inspire questions from the inspector. Limitations: Drywall clips are unfamiliar to some builders and subcontractors. Installation: The joists that frame into this structural member will be shorter than other joists if the design requires a two-ply member to carry the span across the opening. one stud is eliminated. DOUBLING THE RIM JOIST IN LIEU OF HEADER (2x6 or wider wall construction) Details: In thick wall construction. to leave an open-ended cavity at the corner. or with drywall clips. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 75 . Code/Regulatory: More studs may be required at corners in high-wind or earthquake zone construction. Limitations: If the rim joist is intended to act along with the extra member (or by itself). eliminating the need for the framer to insulate a closed cavity before the sheathing goes on. the open cavity at the corner can be insulated along with the wall. The horizontal blocking stiffens the wall junction. The design is also an efficient method for use above openings in foundations. Limitations: Blocking should be set so that it does not conflict with light switches and outlets. Benefits/Costs: Some labor may be saved in framing the header. and scrap pieces can be used for blocking.LADDERS AT PERPENDICULAR WALL INTERSECTIONS Details: Use flat horizontal blocking between studs to secure a perpendicular wall rather than solid vertical framing.
Prescriptive Method for Residential Cold-Formed Steel Framing.html • Building American. purchase. www.3 Use building dimensions and layouts that maximize the use of the resources without the need to cut materials. Intent: Recognize the benefits of careful planning in the design. 2002).nahbrc.2. Intent: Use of standard or modular dimensions in layout will reduce waste by not having to cut materials.org/tertiaryR. 123. R602.us/code/respub/res10. Resources: NAHB Research Center. and installation phases. and Fig.7. 76 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . • Building dimension in the direction perpendicular to the primary joist span is evenly divisible by two feet. Advanced Framing for Walls and Ceilings.1. Provide an onsite cut list for all framing and sheathing material. A plan eliminates redundant (off-layout) studs at window openings or joists at stair and mechanical chase openings that can act as thermal bridges. www.state.or. Advanced Framing Techniques: Optimum Value Engineering (OVE). Information / How to Implement: Modular dimensioning was adopted in the late 1960s and is widely used.org/publications/destech/pm2. www. with both side studs located at normal 16-inch or 24-inch stud positions. • Modular window sizes used. Adherence to modular dimensioning can reduce waste of material on the job site. • Building dimension in the direction parallel to the primary joist span is evenly divisible by four feet.pdf • DOE.com/pubs/OptimumValueEngineering.pdf • International Code Conference. pg. window sizes and placement should be coordinated with the two-foot module. • One side of a door and window opening located at regular 16-inch or 24-inch stud positions. 2003 International Residential Code®. Panel Box Headers.1.2. 124 2. PATH technology list.energy.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2021&CategoryID=70 2.toolbase.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2021&CategoryID=70 • HUDUSER.org/tertiaryT.huduser. A framing plan provides a blueprint for the layout of each piece of lumber.Resources: • NAHB Research Center. Table R602.ibacos. Few homes can be entirely confined to a rigid module because typical dimensions such as the width of a tub or corridor are not in two-foot modules.4 Create a detailed framing plan and detailed material takeoffs. Advanced Framing Techniques: Optimum Value Engineering. (September. pg. DOE. Building to a 2-foot module and using 24-inch on-center wall and floor framing will maximize framing material resource efficiency and cost savings.7. www. The layout provides an accurate count for generating a bill of materials that reduces job-site waste. To maximize savings. Optimum Value Engineering Best Practices. www.
wall. lumber. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 77 . headers and girders.Information / How to Implement: A detailed framing plan can be as complex as a three-dimensional perspective generated in a computer-assisted-design (CAD) program or as simple as a one-eighth-inch scale drawing detailing the floor. or component layout. The following pages show examples of a wall framing plan using advanced framing techniques. roof. dimensions for rough opening(s). and blocking locations.
78 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .
fewer resources are needed for recurring maintenance.1. Pre-manufactured component packages—Open-web floor or roof truss packages also benefit from the efficiencies listed above for pre-cut material packages. D. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 79 . Contractor-focused lumberyards and component manufacturers that supply engineered wood will have the resources to provide this value-added service. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Less time (site impact) and resources are spent onsite. or six points for using both. A. Not having to cut or calculate the position of the components of the floor system speeds assembly.5.1. Provide a pre-cut (joist) or pre-manufactured (truss) floor and roof framing package (points provided for a flooring or roof framing package—additional points provided if both packages are done). Information / How to Implement: Ask manufacturer or installer whether a product requires any additional finish. Intent: Materials that do not require additional finish resources save on priming. • Exterior trim not requiring paint or stain. Often. three points for a roof framing package. the reduced amount of board feet of lumber in the component facilitates easier handling because of the reduced weight. Another resource is building material supply dealers that supply steel stud framing packages. Examples (not an exhaustive list): • Pigmented and stamped concrete-surfaced interior floors (of a slab-on-grade foundation). and saves labor. B. Use building materials that require no additional finish resources to complete application onsite.6 Use pre-cut or pre-assembled building systems or methods. Because building components can be engineered with 2x4 and 2x6 lumber to perform as capably as wide-dimension lumber. and/or additional resources at the installation stage. Package delivery can be scheduled for just-in-time delivery to minimize site disturbance. Provide a panelized roof system. eliminates onsite waste. C. • Windows with finished surfaces not requiring paint or stain. Provide modular construction for the entire house. components present an opportunity to reduce the resources in a home. Additionally. Provide a panelized wall framing system. 2. Intent: Utilizing materials that do not require additional resources and/or onsite assembly optimizes plant manufacturing efficiencies and offers protection from the elements. Pre-cut material packages—A pre-cut floor or roof package can be bundled and shipped for sequencing of use in layout and covered to minimize exposure to the elements. Information / How to Implement: For Option A.2. • Siding not requiring paint or stain. Pieces are marked by location on a layout plan that is provided on the blueprint or with the package. painting. the builder would receive three points for using a flooring package.
and lessen maintenance needs. Resources: • NAHB Research Center. 80 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . HUD. Modular housing goes further in reducing waste onsite. Frost-protected shallow foundations use fewer materials than conventional foundations. product. automated cutting and fastening methods. Using panels can save several days in the critical path of assembly and speed the process of “closing in” the home.pdf 2. Information / How to Implement: Durability may be defined as the ability of a material.huduser. where FPSFs have been installed for the past 75 years. Performance has been proven in cold climates like Scandinavia. enhance life expectancy of the assembly. Homes can be made ready for move-in within one week. since the unit is delivered to the site 70 to 85% finished.S.aspx?sectionID=455&genericContentID=10216 and www.toolbase. Revised Guide to Frost-Protected Shallow Foundations www.org/Publications/PDF/steelfloor. or building to maintain its intended function for its intended life expectancy with intended levels of maintenance in intended conditions of use. Builders’ Guide to Residential Steel Floors.2 ENHANCE DURABILITY AND REDUCE MAINTENANCE Intent: Building designs.Panelized construction—Open wall panels manufactured in a factory benefit from efficient purchasing and use of materials. and tied in to utilities.org • U. A thorough review of resource publications will provide a solid foundation. material choices.org/docs/SubsystemNav/Foundations/4495_RevisedFPSFGuide.1.buildingsystems. Fortunately. thereby allowing foundation depths as shallow as 16 inches for almost all areas of the continental United States Model codes have recognized frost-protected shallow foundation design principles since 1995. www. Building Systems Council. repaired at common junctions. many of the best practices meant to improve durability require little more than good judgment and a basic knowledge of the factors that affect building durability.nahb. and installation techniques should seek to minimize the effects of degradation and weathering. Modules are moved onto a site-built foundation.org/generic. Modular construction—Entire sections of the home are constructed and transported to the site. A layout plan aids the carpenter in assembling the walls onsite. Panels are custom manufactured and delivered to meet the builder’s schedule. Intent: Minimize the excavation and site disturbance for foundations.7 Install a frost-protected shallow foundation (FPSF). www. Resources: • NAHB. and assembly in an environment that is protected from the elements. Information / How to Implement: An FPSF incorporates strategically placed insulation to raise soil temperature and the frost depth around a building. Fast Facts: Systems-Built Housing. connected.pdf 2.
Intent: Protect the building envelope and enhance the home’s durability through the use of overhangs. covered porch) at exterior doors to prevent water intrusion and subsequent rotting of joists. Intent: A roof over an entry to a home sheds precipitation and keeps sunlight from the opening.g.buildabetterhome. minimizing the need for maintenance of these areas.1 Provide a covered entry (e. awning. and finishes. Publications on foundations. Roofs over entries also are convenient for the occupant during foul weather and are an architectural feature that can enhance a home’s visual appeal and provide an outdoor living space. Information / How to Implement: Designs should include a roof or recessed front opening of a depth equal to or greater than the recommended roof overhang for the region. Use recommended-sized roof overhangs for the climate.rmmn.org/ • Installation details for wood framed construction that will minimize moisture intrusion into the building envelope can be found at www. www. roofs. sills. trim and threshold. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2..AND TWO-STORY WOOD FRAME BUILDINGS* Climate Index (see map below) Less than 20 21 to 40 41 to 70 More than 70 Eave Overhang (inches) Rake Overhang (inches) N/A 12 18 24 or more N/A 12 12 12 or more NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 81 .html • Canadian Architect.2.com/asf/perspectives_sustainibility/measures_of_sustainablity/measures_of_sustainablity_ durability.2. Information / How to Implement: The following table presents the recommended roof eave and rake overhangs for varying the climates: RECOMMENDED MINIMUM ROOF OVERHANG WIDTHS FOR ONE. and walls can be downloaded by going to each of those sections under the “builder tips” and then clicking on “get the brochure. protecting the door finish and penetration of moisture around jambs.org/publications/destech/durdesign.org.cdnarchitect. www.htm • The Residential Moisture Management Network is working on addressing issues related to moisture management in homes. 2.2. Durability by Design.huduser. www. Measures of Sustainability.” 2. Use overhangs to shade windows from summer heat gain.Resources: • NAHB Research Center for PATH.
huduser. Durability by Design. Intent: Moisture intrusion of foundations is avoided by moving runoff water beyond the foundation.2. and the pit requires mechanical removal. Pipe should be wrapped with filter fabric and surrounded with a prescribed minimum of (IRC® 12 inches x 6 inches. Intent: The drip edge directs roof runoff water into the gutters and away from the fascia and roof sheathing. www. Verrall and Terry L. prepared for the U. Resources: • NAHB Research Center for PATH. Install drip edge at eave and gable roof edges.2.5. 1978. 82 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Resources: • Truini. Install gutter and downspout system to divert water at least five feet away from foundation and into the overall onsite drainage area.org/publications/destech/durdesign.S. Larger overhangs should be considered for taller buildings or wall systems susceptible to water penetration and rot. pipe should be installed for outfall 10 feet away from foundation wall that does not cause localized erosion. Intent: Divert surface and subsurface water away from the house. www. * Table based on typical two-story home with vinyl or similar lap siding. dry well. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Source: Modification of Prevention and Control of Decay in Homes by Arthur F.com/toh/knowhow/solutions/article/0. Information / How to Implement: Drip edge is an inexpensive accessory that can be included in the roofer’s scope of work and roofing material package. Department of Agriculture and U. Amburgey.193154.4. DC. If the outfall is to a sump pit. and limit water seepage through the foundation walls and basement slab.2.html 2. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Install perimeter drain for all basement footings sloped to discharge to daylight.00. 2. This Old House. Information / How to Implement: A perimeter footing drain system of perforated pipe should be installed below the level of the basement slab on the inside and outside of the foundation wall and interconnected. Roof Runoff Remedy.S. Joseph.3.thisoldhouse. exterior) clean gravel or crushed stone.html 2. Washington. or sump pit.16417.
Intent: Moisture intrusion of foundations is avoided by moving runoff water beyond the foundation. Keep untreated wood away from contact with concrete. paper. Information / How to Implement: IRC Fig.2. A. heavy. Thermal—Termites love moisture and moisture comes from many sources. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 83 . and untreated wood in contact with concrete may decay or attract termites. www. Resources: Steven Winter Assoc. Slope finish grade away from the house. leaves..2(6) has a Termite Infestation Probability Map of the United States dividing the country into different zones of infestation levels.6 Divert surface water from all sides of building. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2.org/docs/SubsystemNav/Foundations/4406_rehab1_found. for HUD. The local HBA may offer information on the regional probability of termite infestation in consultation with the cooperative extension service and other termite experts. reduce the amount of mowing needed. When preparing a site for construction.Information / How to Implement: Storm water can be diverted from the roof and into a rain garden. and food (cellulose in the form of wood. Chapter 4. Roots act as underground bridges through chemical or physical termite barriers. Landscaping—Keep homes dry. After the foundation is built. Termites can form hills or tubes that extend from the soil to food. B. and reduce the need to use potable water for watering. Site. Concrete is a good conductor of water. Install a continuous and physical foundation termite barrier in areas where subterranean termite infestation is a problem.) stored underground may lead termites to a house. Following is a breakdown of the home building process and a list of the tactics that can be used in an environmentally aware fashion to accomplish termite resistance. Selection—termites dislike dry conditions. Intent: Providing a non-chemical termite obstruction offers a long-term solution to termite infestation avoidance. Keep plantings well away from homes. etc. etc. moderate to heavy. I. II. B.2. Volume 1 Rehab Guide: Foundations. Plants such as shrubs and trees can prevent ventilation to the home and prevent drying after precipitation events. Such a technique can help beautify the yard. Choose a site that is well-drained and ventilated.toolbase.7. don’t bury vegetation and construction debris. Greater clearance between ground and wood elements prevents this situation and allows more time for detection should termites use tubes to reach aboveground food sources. 2.pdf 2. Ensure that wood elements are stopped at least eight inches above finish grade. Using a foundation termite shield is only one way a builder can effectively combat infestation. don’t include wood scraps in the backfill. R 301. Layout—Keep houses dry. C. Slope top of backfill to achieve settled slope of at least six inches of fall within 10 feet of the foundation walls. Inc. Proper design of the exterior envelope will prevent condensation from occurring. Sanitation—the majority of termites that infest homes live underground. Design A.
and other vegetation from growing over ventilation openings. and roof are all vulnerable to moisture intrusion. Termite Control—Should termites need subsequent control. Materials—Areas of the home that are particularly susceptible to moisture.org • Terminate the Termites.uky.php • NAHB Research Center.pdf • Western Wood Preservers Institute. and covered. consider using one of new physical barriers in the marketplace. Termite Baits: A Guide for Homeowners. floor joists. Use termite-resistant materials for walls.2.ca/publications/building_performance/termites/structural. Resources: • Durable-Wood.8.com/ 2.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1402&DocumentID=2153 • University of Kentucky Entomology.com. Describe prevention features of the home and how these features can become compromised. Properly flash and seal all penetrations to prevent moisture accumulation. should not be detailed with cellulose materials. Arrange to have materials delivered as close to the time of installation as practical. white oak.toolbase. treated wood (borate or ground contact solutions). www. and other exterior wood in regions known to be termite infested. To protect against foundation penetrations. www. Forintek Canada Corp. and care should be taken to minimize them. www. walls. the home’s durability is enhanced. masonry.org/tertiaryT. Post Construction A. Information / How to Implement: Use the IRC® infestation map referenced in Section 2.wwpinstitute.com/termites/termitecontrol-e. Penetrations through the foundation.htm • Termiticide fabric and mesh manufacturers. Termite Control and Wood-Frame Buildings durable-wood. IV. III. Never bury wood scraps or waste lumber in the yard. www.2.com 84 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/struct/ef639. B. trusses. Flashing—Penetrations through the exterior envelope are particularly vulnerable to moisture intrusion. Inform the homeowner to keep firewood piles away from the house. Intent: By eliminating the cellulose food source for termites or by repelling termites. vines.termi-mesh. Keep shrubs. and don’t incorporate compromised products into the house.com/ and http://www. steel.impasse. Construction Process A.g. Termiticides bonded between a polymer fabric and a stainless-steel mesh small enough to keep out termites are some of the innovations available. B. Termite Control and Wood-Frame Buildings: Slab and Foundation Details. Material Storage—Keep moisture-sensitive materials dry. Termite-resistant materials include naturally pest-resistant species of wood (e. redwood. Remove old tree stumps and roots around and beneath the building. www.steelframingalliance.. black locust). Resources: • Canadian Wood Council. Termite Baiting www. and concrete. exterior decks. raised off the ground. Owner Education—Inform homeowners about the value of dry homes and practices they can perform to keep the house free of termites and decay.. consider targeted poisons such as baits. cedar.cwc. like shower and bath surrounds.C.7 to determine the probability of infestation for the region. Reduce humidity in crawl spaces.
and freeze-thaw cycles after winter snowfalls. As part of a whole-wall design.10.2. in areas where the average daily temperature in January is 25°F or less. www. Intent: The eave edges of a roof are particularly susceptible to water intrusion from wind-driven rain. Install ice flashing at roof edge. vapor retarder. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 85 . Resources: • NAHB Research Center. or both.9 Provide a weather-resistant barrier (WRB) or a drainage plane system behind the exterior veneer system or the exterior siding.pdf 2.2. weather-resistant barriers need to be integrated with other wall system components. and flashing systems. exterior-wall water management system. air retarder (if separate). A number of products are available to provide a more permanent barrier to moisture at the exterior of the foundation. A comprehensive approach to water management prevents water from reaching the sheathing or framing. Secondary (redundant) water management to protect the sheathing and framing from moisture damage can be in the form of a weather-resistive barrier. Information / How to Implement: The IRC® requires that. It is recommended that the ice barrier approach be used for green home construction because the redundant protection provided by an ice-barrier is efffective against many weather phenomena such as rain storms with high winds and winter snow.toolbase. Primary water management strategies include water-shedding architectural features such as overhangs and exterior claddings. Weather-Resistant Barriers. including structure. Intent: To protect the building envelope from water intrusion by installing a secondary.umn. Ice barrier or flashing is a redundant barrier that protects the sheathing near the roof edges and keeps water out of the attic and walls.2. an ice barrier consisting of at least two layers of underlayment cemented together or a self-adhering polymer modified bitumen sheet that extends from the edge of the eave to a point at least 24 inches inside the exterior wall line of the building be installed.org/docs/MainNav/MoistureandLeaks/3950_weatherresistantbarriers. clogged gutter backup. Resources: • University of Minnesota Extension Service. www.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/DK1068. Ice Dams. Information / How to Implement: Wind-driven rain and air pressure differentials allow water intrusion into and behind most exterior claddings and veneers. Intent: To keep moisture out of the foundation by providing a waterproof exterior coating or engineered exterior drainage plane. a distinct drainage plane.2.extension.11 Install enhanced foundation waterproofing.html 2. insulation. Information / How to Implement: Foundation coatings that are required by the model building codes help prevent moisture from penetrating the foundation.
Foundation Drainage Panels. chimney step flashing. The action decreases both material use and waste. Resources: • Brick. unneeded transportation costs associated with hauling can be eliminated.3 2. www. • Valleys.nrel. 2. Information / How to Implement: Product manufacturer’s installation guides and association best practices details are good sources for the correct detailing of systems.gov:8020/BASIS/nich/www/bapublic/SDF • Wood. Some waste material can easily be refitted into a structure. construction. regardless of their origination.org/ • EEBA Water Management Guide—www. In addition.gobrick.eeba. http://pix. 86 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .asp—This guide presents a variety of ways to minimize water intrusion into homes.1 R E U S E M AT E R I A L S Disassemble existing buildings (deconstruction) instead of demolishing. www. • Deck/house juncture. Information / How to Implement: Develop and implement a plan to use materials prudently.nrel. Intent: Construction activities may comprise as much as 40% of all raw materials extracted from the earth.com/html/frmset_thnt. and • Drip cap above windows and doors. www. All junctions of dissimilar material and flashing details are to be shown on plans. and deconstruction are blamed for generating 136 million tons of waste annually. http://apacad. Intent: To specify and call out the details of systems integration on the blueprints rather than leaving them to the half dozen or so specialists who perform installation of adjacent materials on the jobsite.org/tertiaryT.ncma.toolbase.org • Various.12 Employ and show on plans the following flashing details: • Around windows and doors. remodeling.htm • Masonry products.Resources: • ToolBase Services. • Roof/wall junctures.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2063&CategoryID=1010 2.3.org/mall/water.gov:8020/BASIS/nich/www/bapublic/SDF • Windows and doors. http://pix. At the same time. These recommendations are not intended to apply to every conceivable situation but are intended to illustrate principles.2.
i.ca.1. and cabinets. installed costs) is equal to or greater than 1% of construction costs.wa. Points can be provided if the total cost of the salvaged materials (including material costs and labor costs. Salvaged windows and exterior doors should not be used at the expense of energy efficiency. 2.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=34 • Whole Building Design Guide.doc 2. Materials include crushed concrete. Information / How to Implement: Note: Building materials can come from the deconstructed building in 2.. Salvaged materials can be used for fill material.ciwmb. where possible. Ideally.1. A component is defined as part of an entire building system. Inc. Construction Waste Management Guide. Community Waste Prevention Toolkit: Construction and Demolition Fact Sheet.1).6.gov/EAS/CWM/ContractorsGuide.gov • CIWMB.php • Washington State Department of General Administration. 2.2. and architectural materials such as windows. salvaged materials should be reclaimed from a nearby or onsite demolition or remodeling project to minimize transportation. www. The Resourceful Renovator: A Gallery of Ideas for Reusing Building Materials (Chelsea Green Publishing Company. base for paved areas.2.4.1. 2.8. steel..gov/health/environmental/waste/sw/pdf/constdem.ga. 2.e. www. Recycled-Content Product Directory.gov/RCP/Product.org/fact_CWPconstruction. www. www.ciwmb. December 2000) NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 87 .6.hawaii. www. Be careful of lead paint and other potentially hazardous finishes that could be part of existing materials.5. or within building(s).toolbase. such as: • footing • foundation walls • slab • floor framing • interior partitions • wall framing • roof framing • wall sheathing • roof sheathing • wall insulation • attic insulation • windows • interior doors • exterior doors • interior trim • flooring trim • finish trim • siding • other. Construction Waste Management Database.ca. Intent: To minimize the waste stream by reusing materials.org/ccbref/cwm. Disclaimer—Salvaged materials must meet minimum standards where applicable. paneling. doors. brick. ToolBase Services.3.7. Construction Waste Management.wbdg.org/secondaryT. 2. Minimizing Construction and Demolition Waste. salvaged wood. Note—The word “component” is used in certain line items in this section (2.informinc.pdf • California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB).3. www. Resources: • Jennifer Corson.1 or from another source.3.2 Reuse salvaged materials.Resources: • Inform.php#basics • Government of Hawaii. and 2.asp?VW=CSI&CATID=269 • NAHB Research Center. www.3.
Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. The results of a California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) study on building material emissions indicate that recycled-content products perform about the same as standard products. but are incorporated into a product’s manufacturing process (e. A builder can obtain three points by incorporating at least two different types of recycled-content building materials into the home’s construction. Intent: To minimize the impact of home building on the environment. Information / How to Implement: Points: To obtain the three points. Here are some typical ranges of recycled content found in various construction materials: 88 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Intent: This practice will establish a central storage area to encourage maximizing usage of all materials on the site.co.html 2.us/environment/ubma/index. www. the project must have a minimum of two types of recycled-content materials.1 U S E R E C YC L E D .ca. Old to New Design Guide Salvaged Building Materials in New Construction 3rd Edition (January 2002). Workers are less likely to waste material that will be subject to future inspection.ciwmb. Both alternative and standard products have the potential to emit chemicals of concern.3 Dedicate and provide onsite bins and/or space to facilitate the sorting and reuse of scrap building materials. For a copy of the study. fly ash for concrete).g. type. Resources Scopes of work should include the removal of remnants to a designated central area. Post-industrial can include waste materials from within a manufacturing site that are fed back into the manufacturing process as feedstock and materials from outside the plant that are waste elsewhere.CO N T E N T M AT E R I A L S Use recycled-content building materials. see www.ca/pdfs/DesignGuideMaster. Post-consumer means that the materials have been used by a consumer. to a maximum of six points.3. 2.gov/Publications/GreenBuilding/43303015.buildsmart. have not gone to a landfill or consumer yet.• Greater Vancouver Regional District Policy and Planning Department. Each type of recycled-content material used thereafter would give the project another point each.doc.4 2.boulder. An additional point is awarded for each additional type of material for a maximum point total of five points. Those same workers are more likely to seek and use scraps if they know where to find them quickly and the remnants that were not incorporated into the job are already sorted for grinding or recycling. and quantity of material expected. http://bcn.4.pdf • Used Building Materials Association.. The reuse area should be conveniently located and marked or delineated for the size.
medium-density fiberboard [MDF]. composite panels (particleboard.recycle-steel. fly ash. Additionally. Products that are either recycled or recyclable will display the triangle logo (see above). Check with local jurisdictions regarding recycling programs. or other possible uses in place of limestone or gravel. a base for pavers or bricks. Examples include contaminated soils. it is certified in accordance with ASTM 739 and the Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. www.ca. The product literature must note the recycled content. and hardboard) can be certified to have 100% recycled or recovered fiber.carpetrecovery. See the Resources section of this line item for further information.epa. www. can provide a baseline for total recycled content (TRC) that is achievable with some products.and pre-consumer recyclables Steel framing: 25% of which no less than 10% should be post-consumer recycled Carpeting: Recycled-content carpet is available for residential construction Fly ash or slag: Fly ash or slag. Concrete is ground into usable materials for temporary construction roads.com/AboutCPA/EPP. inclusion of bottom ash from coal-fired generators. The reference section contains additional information on this. by-products of the steel production process. Through the Composite Panel Association’s Environmentally Preferable Product (EPP) Specification CPA 1-02. Green Product Information http://oikos.com/products/index. concrete suppliers have developed and tested mixes in which some recycled concrete is used.S. Check with local concrete suppliers or landfills to see if recycled concrete aggregate is available. Products Category: Construction. scrap soils from excavations. Also. and production scrap from other ceramic products.gov/procure/green/carpet. In some cases. Environmentally Responsible Carpet Choices. and some have reported that the use of fly ash or slag is standard practice.gov/oppt/epp/tools/toolsuite. www. The amount of recycled materials in clay brick depends on the type of material added. gravel: In many parts of the country. if any. In some cases. may not be suitable for exposed flatwork or poured walls. Recycled Product Directory. www. Resources: • King County (WA). www. but typical values range up to 7% by weight.Clay brick is manufactured with a variety of recycled materials. Many concrete suppliers are familiar with recycled-content options.htm • Green Building Source. Check with your local concrete supplier.html NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 89 . can be used in concrete as a replacement for some of the cement. www.epa.asp?VW=CAT&CATID=257 • Details on the Composite Panel Association’s Environmentally Preferable Product (EPP) Specification CPA 1-02 and a list of certified manufacturers.metrokc. Environmentally Preferable Purchasing.asp • Carpet America Recovery EffortSM.ciwmb. efforts are underway to recycle concrete waste.or slag-content concrete may have some dark streaking and therefore.htm • U. Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines.org/construction.pbmdf. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Cellulose insulation can contain as much as 85% recycled paper stock (wood-based) content.lasso • California Integrated Waste Management Board. Several contractors have reported that the fly ash-content concrete sets up more slowly. The use of recyclable materials is also recommended.gov/RCP/Product. Fiberglass insulation: 25% combination post.org/ • Steel Recycling Institute. Road and paver base. as much as 40% of the cement can be substituted while maintaining required strength and durability. and adjustments must be made in the timing of finishing. www.gov/cpg/ • EPA.
and approximate quantities.. demolition. because of its shape. Strategies for Waste Reduction of Construction and Demolition Debris from Buildings (EPA-530-F-00-001) (June 2000).epa. the destination. www. is recyclable. CA. Intent: Create a C & D waste management plan that sets goals to recycle or salvage a minimum of 50% (by weight) of construction. www. Conduct onsite recycling efforts. should not be marketed as recyclable…” Source: Federal Trade Commission. separated or otherwise recovered from the solid waste stream for reuse. that a product or package is recyclable. A sample plan can be obtained from the City of Oxnard. A product or package that is made from recyclable material. excluding minor incidental components. and land-clearing waste. Residential Construction Waste information.ftc. Claims of recyclability should be qualified to the extent necessary to avoid consumer deception about any limited availability of recycling programs and collection sites.htm • U.org/recycling/buildingdebris. is not accepted in recycling programs for such material. size or some other attribute.pdf 2.Excerpt from the Federal Trade Commission’s Part 260 —GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS…(d) Recyclable: “It is deceptive to misrepresent. directly or by implication. www.5. Resources: • City of Oxnard (CA). Part 260–Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims. For products or packages that are made of both recyclable and non-recyclable components.. www. 2.1 Develop and implement a construction and demolition (C & D) waste management plan that is posted at job site.S. Information / How to Implement: A C & D plan can be a simple spreadsheet that covers the materials used or deconstructed on site and the plan for reusing them onsite or recycling them. thus reducing transportation-related costs. Building Savings. divert from the landfill a minimum of 50% (by weight) of construction.ilsr. www. and land-clearing waste.oxnard. use grinder and apply materials onsite. a claim of recyclability would be deceptive. or in the manufacture or assembly of another package or product. in the Resources. Reduce transportation-related environmental costs. Unqualified claims of recyclability for a product or package may be made if the entire product or package.g. If an incidental component significantly limits the ability to recycle a product or package. e.gov/osw • Institute for Local Self-Reliance.2. through an established recycling program. Inc. Environmental Protection Agency Solid Waste and Emergency Response.ci. C & D Solid Waste Management and Recycling Plan. include the name of the hauler.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427. but.pdf • NAHB Research Center.us/pubworks/refuse/worksheets/c_dplan. Intent: Through grinding.epa. If recycling. A product or package should not be marketed as recyclable unless it can be collected. Recycling markets and tipping fees vary greatly. demolition.5 R E C YC L E WA S T E M AT E R I A L S D U R I N G CO N S T R U C T I O N Recycling waste materials is driven by market conditions at the local level. 90 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . the recyclable claim should be adequately qualified to avoid consumer deception about which portions or components of the product or package are recyclable.htm 2.5.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/debris/mgmt.ca.
block. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 91 . wood. however. • American Forest and Paper Association. Grinding and other methods of onsite processing and reuse of waste require an economic analysis. bamboo.recycle-steel.Information / How to Implement: This task may also be part of the builder C & D plan. Each type of material recycled thereafter yields two points each to a maximum of 12 points. be a local business that could efficiently perform this service for a small job.org/Recycle/RecyHowTo.htm • California Integrated Waste Management Board. Large home builders have reported successful integration of a grinder into field operations.g. Access the database at http://cwm.html 2. metals. www.pdf • Steel Recycling Database.corrugated. that are made from plants that take carbon from the atmosphere and store it as fiber. www. and land clearing waste. Environmental Protection Agency Municipal and Industrial Solid Waste Division Office of Solid Waste.e.wastehandling.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=34&DocumentID=2301 2.wbdg.toolbase.6... http://cpc. Information / How to Implement: At least two types of materials must be recycled to obtain the six points. www. Intent: Through a recycling program.org. National Wood Recycling Directory. or wood-based products. divert from the landfill a minimum of 50% (by weight) of construction.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Environment_and_Recycling/Recycling/Wood_Recovery1/Wood_Recycli ng_Directory1/Wood_Recycling_Directory_Intro.com/july/major.3 Recycle construction waste offsite. www. it not likely be cost effective to own or rent grinding equipment.epa. General Services Administration (GSA) has recently updated its online Construction Waste Management Database to assist the building industry in reducing construction and demolition waste.org/tertiaryT.) For small-volume builders. demolition.aspx • U. drywall. (See Waste Handling Equipment news article in References. RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION WASTE: FROM DISPOSAL TO MANAGEMENT. cardboard. i.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/sqg/c&d-rpt. Resources: • The U. Resources: • Waste Handling Equipment News. Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States (EPA530-R-98-010) (June 1998). www.5.S. This task may also be part of the builder C & D plan. There may. asphalt roofing shingles.ca. concrete. Recyclers of construction and demolition waste may advertise their services free on this site. Intent: Use building products that use carbon sequestration. Major Home Builders Benefit from On-site Recycling.S. e. ToolBase Services.ciwmb. plastics.6 2. www.gov/ • Corrugated Packaging Council.html • NAHB Research Center.afandpa.1 U S E R E N E WA B L E M AT E R I A L S Use materials manufactured from renewable resources or agricultural by-products such as soy-based insulation. How to Recycle Corrugated.org/database/main. other.
www. and hardwood plywood substrates must be certified to low formaldehyde emission standards ANSI A208. Careful review of the material manufacturer’s claims and material specifications is required for this task.5). An additional point can be obtained for each additional type of material for a maximum total for this line item not to exceed five points. for their products.1. Forest certification systems help identify producers that assure a reliable supply without damaging forests.certifiedwood. composite wood or agrifiber panel products should not contain process-added urea-formaldehyde resins or must be third-party certified for low formaldehyde emissions. Similarly. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Resources: • Forest Certification Resource Center. bamboo flooring manufacturers should produce a copy of the lab test results.pefc.org/ • The Canadian Standards Association’s Sustainable Forest Management System Standards (CAN/CSA Z809) www. ANSI A208.1. Below is a list of the third-party-certified wood sources. Comparison of Forest Certification Systems. respectively (see Section 5.6.2 Use certified wood for wood and wood-based materials and products from all credible thirdparty-certified sources.Information / How to Implement: A builder can obtain three points for this line item by incorporating at least two different types of renewable resources into the home’s construction.org/internet/html 92 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . The results should include a formaldehyde test and a hardness and stability (expansion/contraction) test.org/search-modules/compare-systems/comparison-of-systems/comparison-of_systems. www.htm • The Sustainable Forestry Initiative® Program.fsc. by an American laboratory. Intent: Preserving our natural resources includes the commitment to best practices in forest management. Information / How to Implement: A comparison list of the North American certifiers is provided by the Forest Certification Resource Center in the Resources section. medium-density fiberboard (MDF). • The Sustainable Forestry Initiative® Program • The American Tree Farm System® • The Canadian Standards Association’s Sustainable Forest Management System Standards (CAN/CSA Z809) • Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) • Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Systems (PEFC). 2.com/welcome.aboutsfi.2 and ANSI/HPVA HP1. Note: Products used should also comply with the Indoor Environmental Quality section of the User Guide. For example. Points should be given for each material specified and used.org/fsc • Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Systems (PEFC) www.org/ • The American Tree Farm System® www.treefarmsystem. and • Other such credible programs as they are developed and implemented.htm • Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) www. Particleboard.sfms. like practices that maintain and restore their health and ecosystems.
8. more energy or binders may be needed to create the final product. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 2 93 . I-joists that use 35% less fiber material than solid-sawn products.2. our intent is to reduce the core source of material going into the product’s creation.E F F I C I E N T M AT E R I A L S Use products that contain fewer resources than traditional products. An additional point can be obtained for each additional type of material for a maximum point total of five points. including cost.g. and manufactured within a 300-mile radius or within a 1000-mile radius if shipped by rail. processed. choose the most environmentally preferable product for that building component. When specifying materials. Examples are specifying hollow brick that meets the requirements of ASTM C 652 and is made from less material than face brick meeting ASTM C 216.1 Use locally available. Intent: Minimize the resources consumed by and the environmental impact of building a house. Information / How to Implement: A builder can obtain three points for this line item by incorporating at least one type of locally available. Intent: To make the home building process more environmentally acceptable by minimizing transportation and processing costs and using materials that are common to the local region.8. specifying engineeredwood products.g.1 U S E R E S O U R C E . e. or a combination of the two distances. www.7. Intent: To highlight the best use of resources. Caveat: Even though engineered products can reduce the amount of feedstock used in a product. While this may be the case. e. Guidance to program administrators: Points should be awarded in this section based on criteria such as 10% of the building materials are extracted..html#construction 2. Or.eere. Appearance and durability requirements are identical. 2. Information / How to Implement: A project must use resource-efficient materials for at least two different types of components to receive the three points. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Based on the analysis.2 Use a life-cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental burden/effects of building materials..energy. Energy and Environmental Guidelines for Construction.8 I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S 2. to assure that all of the guiding principles have been considered.7 2. indigenous materials. consider the amount of resources going into the product and whether alternatives are available. Resources: • DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.gov/buildings/info/design/construction. indigenous material into the home’s construction. wood fiber in I-joists.
A software tool such as BEES (www. making it possible to explore the environmental effects of design options or material mixes in order to arrive at the best green design.) included a life-cycle assessment. Suggested course of action: 1. and can experiment with alternative designs and material mixes to arrive at the best environmental footprint. Provide evidence that the selection of the foundations and floor assembly materials.html • The AthenaTM Sustainable Materials Institute.athenasmi. such as concrete.ca/news/down/LCI_Database_Project_News_1.bfrl. www.gov/oae/software/bees. and solid-waste emissions. Designers can use modeling tools such as Athena™ to examine the life-cycle environmental effects of a complete structure or of individual assemblies. ecologically weighted resource use.nist. Evaluate building materials for each lifecycle phase using either the manufacturer’s data or a reputable LCA. 2.nist. windows etc. Conduct preliminary research and an evaluation of building materials generically. Survey manufacturers to analyze the environmental impacts at each phase of a product’s life. Develop building design using materials with a low environmental impact. 2. www.pdf 94 SECTION 2 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability software. structural system (column and beam. and wood.gov/oae/software/bees. air and water toxicity index. roof and envelope assembly materials (cladding. 3. Use the AthenaTM tool to assess building assemblies. Another suggested two-step process: 1.Information / How to Implement: A life cycle assessment (LCA) is a reliable way to calculate and compare the cradle-to-grave environmental effects and costs of common building materials. steel.bfrl. GWP. Establish a process to compare and assess similar building materials in similar categories. or post and beam combinations). The objective of the modeling is to aid the designer in selecting building assemblies and/or materials with the lowest reported impact in terms of energy consumption.html) can also identify the life-cycle costs of select building components. Explore the environmental effects of different design options or material mixes. Resources: • National Institute of Standards and Technology. 4.
S.org/technology/publications/hec/default.htm • Whole House Energy Checklist (U. sealed ductwork kept within the conditioned space. A N D M E C H A N I C A L S PAC E CO N D I T I O N I N G S YS T E M S Intent: To use a whole-systems approach in designing and building an energy-efficient home.S. consider the implications of each choice on the performance of the whole house. DOE fact sheet). climate-appropriate heating and cooling equipment that balances efficiency with cost-effectiveness. For more detailed information and explanation about the sizing and design of space heating and cooling. NAHB Research Center fact sheet. Moisture and indoor environmental quality are closely related factors that are affected by energy-efficiency measures. walls. a thorough and carefully implemented air sealing package. Key concepts are integrated and comprehensive.pdf • Considerations for Building a More Energy Efficient Home.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1809&DocumentID=4168 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 95 .southface.pdf • Energy Efficiency Pays (U. www. Balance the cost and performance of each component of the home system. www. DOE fact sheet). such as the R-value of attic insulation. and/or local energy professionals.E F F I C I E N T D E S I G N O F B U I L D I N G S I T E.org/web/resources&services/publications/technical_bulletins/WH-Energy%20Checklist%20GO10099-766. and efficient water heating equipment and distribution.toolbase. B U I L D I N G E N V E LO P E. and attic). Information / How to Implement: Pay attention to multiple facets related to energy efficiency during the design and construction process. rather than simply focusing on individual decisions related to energy efficiency. the Department of Energy.org/tertiaryT. such as a well-insulated building envelope (foundation. Available at www.SECTION 3 3.southface. windows recommended for the climate by experts such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative.org/web/resources&services/publications/technical_bulletins/EEP-Efficiency_pays%2099-746. Resources: • Home Energy Checklist (EEBA) www. For instance.1 ENERGY EFFICIENCY I M P L E M E N T A N I N T E G R AT E D A N D CO M P R E H E N S I V E A P P R OAC H TO E N E R G Y . refer to “Understanding HVAC System Design Issues” at the end of this Energy Efficiency section.eeba.
2 3. If you do not follow the IECC 2003.org for additional approved third-party software providers. When multiple homes of the same model are to be built by the same builder.1.gov.2 PERFORMANCE MEASURES Optional guidelines—At least 37 points must be obtained from the line items under the Energy Efficiency section to qualify your project as a green home at the Bronze level. Hydronics Institute Division of GAMA. 3. a free.energycodes. www. Conduct third-party plan review to verify design and compliance with Section 3.1.org • Third-party plan review: A Certified Home Energy Rating System (HERS) rater. 3. A directory of Home Energy Raters can be found on the ENERGY STAR® website at www. The Silver level requires 62 points and the Gold level 100 points.energystar. Space heating and cooling system/equipment shall be sized according to building heating and cooling loads calculated using ANSI/ACCA Manual J 8th Edition or equivalent. Resources: • REScheck is a free software tool that can be downloaded at www. Also. see www.gov/rescheck/. • Heat Loss Calculation Guide H-22. 3.1.2.com/Merchant2/merchant. Available from the International Code Council.Requirements: 3. you can determine if your project meets this energy code by using REScheck. easy-to-use software package. is more stringent.3 Intent: To establish a minimum energy threshold for all NAHB-certified green homes Information / How to Implement: If you are building under the jurisdiction of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).acca.iccsafe. 15% B. a representative sample of homes (15%) may be reviewed subject to a sampling protocol. Conformance shall be based on plan analysis using software such as REScheck or other as approved by green building program administrator or NAHB. 2001 • International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) 2003.1 Home is equivalent to the IECC 2003 or local energy code whichever. 40% Home is X % above IECC 2003: 96 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .accaconference. Computerized software recognized by ACCA as being in compliance with Manual J 8th Edition may be used. • Manual J 8th Edition is available through the Air Conditioning Contractors of America and can be purchased online at www.1 A.mv?Screen=SFNT&Store_Code=ACCOA. your home will meet this requirement. 30% C.
Increased effective R-value of building envelope using advanced framing techniques. Measures may include but are not limited to: • SIPS* • ICFs* • Advanced framing • Insulated corners and interior/exterior wall intersections* • Insulated headers on exterior walls • Raised heel trusses • Continuous insulation on exterior walls. An ENERGY STAR home is approximately 15% more energy efficient than a home that meets the IECC 2003. and/or integrated structural insulating system.iccsafe.org 3. ladder blocking at wall intersections. and raised heel roof trusses can eliminate thermal bridges. and space conditioning equipment efficiencies to identify a cost-effective system for your project.. performance-based means of achieving higher levels of energy performance than the IECC 2003. www.energycodes.3 P R E S C R I P T I V E PAT H Alternate method for gaining points for energy efficiency 3. i.Intent: To offer builders a flexible. but building to the equivalent of ENERGY STAR is usually cost-effective for consumers in most regions of the country. cathedral ceiling.1 B U I L D I N G E N V E LO P E A. Information / How to Implement: Use REScheck to examine the effect of different levels of insulation. window U-values and SHGC factors. Resources: • REScheck—REScheck. Framing details such as two-stud corner framing. continuous insulation. areas where there is no room for insulation. attics * This line item also has a resource-efficiency benefit Intent: To enhance the insulating value of the building envelope by selecting an efficient and cost-effective framing package or alternative structural wall system.gov/rescheck/ • International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) 2003. The appropriate level of energy performance above IECC 2003 will vary depending upon the severity of the climate. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 97 .e. Some builders are now achieving a 40% or 50% improvement.3. Available from the International Code Council. available for free download at: www.
Air can pass through very small cracks. basement. • Caulk/foam all electrical.pdf • Advanced framing: www.2. available for purchase at www. • Caulk/foam HVAC register boots to subfloor or drywall that penetrate the building envelope. it not only carries heated (or cooled) air to the outdoors. Resources: • Reduce Framing Costs with Advanced Framing Techniques. • Insulate. it is equally or more important to prevent air infiltration as it is to provide a high R-value wall system. coffered or dropped ceilings. 98 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . DOE: www.) • Use sill sealer between foundation and sill plate.Information / How to Implement: The Resources listed below will help identify methods for insulating walls to the fullest extent and avoiding thermal bridging. crawl space.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2584&CategoryID=917 B.org/tertiaryR. caulk.gov/ia/partners/bldrs_lenders_raters/downloads/BuilderGuide3D. and garage) and to exterior. • Caulk bottom plate of exterior walls.org/docs/MainNav/WoodFrameConstruction/3949_advancedwallframing1.htm • Cost Effective Homebuilding: A Design and Construction Handbook. U. air infiltration can compromise the efficiency of a building because it brings conditioned air directly outdoors (or outdoor air inside). Although insulation reduces energy loss. • If a fireplace is installed. U. air-tight Type IC housings. soffits. resulting in energy loss and condensation. install a sealed-combustion gas fireplace that is sealed combustion or a wood-burning fireplace with gasketed doors.S. Information / How to Implement: See also Section 5.com/housesthatwork/advancedframing/default.pdf • Advanced Framing Fact Sheet. EPA: www. Air leakage can account for as much as 20%-30% of energy loss through the building envelope. Indoor Environmental Quality section for more information about mechanical ventilation options. plumbing. 1994. (All measures that apply to project must be performed.toolbase.nahbrc. but may also create moisture problems as water vapor in the air moves from a warmer to colder location and condenses. or foam between window/door jambs and framing. • Block and seal cantilevered floors and kneewalls.energystar. Use the list above to make sure that you seal the nooks and crannies where air may escape. heating penetrations between floors (including attic. • Air seal band joist cavities between floors.buildingscience.S. and behind tub/shower units on exterior walls. • Weatherstrip attic hatches.2. use rated. Incorporate air sealing package to reduce infiltration. kneewall doors. In addition. • Ensure air barrier continuity at all framed cavities such as air chases. so it is necessary to be very detail-oriented when it comes to air sealing. bypassing the insulation. Intent: When building an energy-efficient home. • If installing recessed lights in ceilings adjacent to unconditioned space. NAHB Research Center.
.To perform air sealing. foam.gov/ia/partners/bldrs_lenders_raters/downloads/BuilderGuide3E. or aluminum with a thermal break. For passive solar designs and homes that are constructed with large amounts of glazing in a specific orientation. Window area often comprises a substantial portion of the wall area in new homes. and gasket materials. but often an automatic mechanical means of introducing fresh air may be the most reliable way to ensure adequate ventilation.com/library/airsealing/index.g. and indoor air quality.efficientwindows.energystar.pdf NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 99 .gov/consumerinfo/fact sheets/bd8. use a window that has a low SHGC.g. e. Alternately. they are a source of direct solar gains in the summer.org/web/resources&services/publications/fact sheets/24ada_drywal. Low-expanding foams should be used around windows and doors so that the frame doesn’t bind—a common complaint with first-generation. Resources: • Advanced Air Sealing (book available for viewing online): http://oikos. Low-E coatings for windows are recommended for almost all regions of the United States. A tight building envelope with an intentional means of introducing outdoor air enhances energy efficiency. DOE’s fact sheet. high-expanding foam products. wood.S. Controlled ventilation that is carefully designed and installed provides a more consistent rate of air exchange compared with simply building a leaky structure. Generally. www..pdf C. In addition. Airtight Drywall Approach (contains diagrams).energy.eere. See the Indoor Environmental Quality section for additional information about mechanical ventilation. In cooling-dominated climates. which can add to the cooling load.html • U. www. use a variety of materials such as caulk. vinyl. look for windows with as low a U-value as is affordable—they offer the best insulating value (U-value is the inverse of R-value).html • Southface Energy Institute’s fact sheet. Use ENERGY STAR-rated windows appropriate for local climate. In conjunction with implementing an air sealing package. comfort. windows offer only about 15% to 25% of the R-value. consider a means of providing fresh air to the home. use windows selected for each orientation (e. Refer to the Resources for a more detailed understanding of how window technologies perform in various climates. visit the Efficient Windows Collaborative Web site to see which type of glazing is recommended for your climate.org • Improve Energy Efficiency with High Performance Windows. It has been proven that “chinking” with fiberglass insulation does not prevent airflow. Intent: To assure optimum building envelope performance. Information / How to Implement: Select windows featuring the ENERGY STAR label. Resources: • www. Airtight Drywall Approach (no diagrams). Compared with an opaque insulated wall. composite. Using high-efficiency windows can not only enhance thermal performance but also reduce the risk of condensation on windows. www. This may be operable windows if the homeowner will use them.southface. ENERGY STAR fact sheet. Always choose a frame that provides a thermal break. high SHGC on south face for direct solar gain).
A N D I N S TA L L AT I O N A. Design radiant or hydronic space heating systems using industry-approved guidelines.g.acca.pdf B.gov for list of stores that sell ENERGY STAR-labeled windows • The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) labels windows for U-value and solar heat gain coefficient and has searchable directory of windows meeting specific criteria on its web site at www.energystar.org. Radiant Panel Association (RPA). Request a copy of the Manual D printout. (Entire guidelines available to download for $15 at www. e.S. Residential Duct Systems (available for purchase at www. design.htm. Recommends U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) by climate region. taking into account the length of the duct run and the type of duct being used.toolbase. There are training and certification programs through the Radiant Panel Association for HVAC contractors Resources: • Quick Reference to RPA Guidelines for Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating. www. and install duct system using ANSI/ACCA Manual D® or equivalent. 3. Careful sizing and layout according to recognized industry standards is essential.pdf • A Builder’s Guide to Placement of Ducts and HVAC Equipment in Conditioned Spaces.. by the Hydronics Institute Division of GAMA or accredited design professionals and manufacturer’s recommendations.org/i4a/store/category. Size.ucf. examine it to verify that it is in accord with the design and that there are no sharp bends or poor connections. NAHB Research Center.efficientwindows. www.nfrc.org.radiantpanelassociation. Information / How to Implement: Ask your HVAC contractor to use ACCA Manual D to size and lay out supply and return ductwork to each area of the home. 2000.3. Hydronic and radiant systems require the same attention to detail as forced air systems.cfm?category_id=8) 100 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Intent: To ensure proper design of hydronic and radiant space heating systems by using industry expertise. Components such as piping and pumps must be properly sized and matched according to the equipment being used.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2570&CategoryID=110 • Design and Construction of Interior Duct System. Available for $5 from NAHB Research Center bookstore at http://nahbrc. Heat Loss Guide (H-22). Intent: Getting the proper amount of airflow to and from each room is as important to comfort and efficiency as the equipment itself.• Efficient Windows Collaborative. Resources: • ACCA Manual D®. DOE fact sheet) www. (2002) www.radiantpanelassociation.org/tertiaryR. Florida Solar Energy Center. • ENERGY STAR website www. Manual D recommends duct diameter to fit the load in each room.org/docs/MainNav/Energy/4074_doe_airdistributionsystemdesign. Guidelines for the Design and Installation of Radiant Panel Heating and Snow/Ice Melting Systems by the Radiant Panel Association.org/files/public/GdlnQuick. After the system has been installed. Information / How to Implement: Ask your HVAC contractor to use the Radiant Panel Association design guidelines when designing a hydronic system.org) • Air Distribution System Design (U. E Q U I P M E N T.2 H VAC D E S I G N .fsec.edu/bldg/baihp/pubs/Papers/interior_ducts.
acca. and commissioned as intended. Ask for a checklist of the recommended start-up procedure. BPI. even given the most conscientious approach. Verify performance of the heating/cooling system. Very efficient homes that require less energy for heating and cooling are much more sensitive to proper HVAC equipment sizing. Resources: • ACCA Manual S®. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 101 . you and your customer can have added assurance that the HVAC system in the home is designed and installed in accordance with the industry’s best recommended practices. Operates a certification program for HVAC technicians. use Manual S to help select and size equipment that will satisfy the latent and sensible heating and cooling loads. Intent: Verification of performance provides a final assurance that the system has been designed. or manufacturers’ training. Intent: Manual S is the second step in assuring proper design of a space heating and/or cooling system. • Manufacturer’s Web site or printed installation instructions E. you can better understand some of the issues involved and help guide customers’ decisions about their heating and cooling system. Right Size Heating and Cooling Equipment.org C. available for purchase at www.S.org/ or by calling 877-420-NATE. Items can easily be overlooked during a busy construction schedule. Intent: The programs citied above are the equivalent of a “technical degree” for an HVAC contractor. After using Manual J to calculate the building’s heating and cooling load. Information / How to Implement: Ask your HVAC contractor to use ACCA Manual S in selecting the heating or cooling equipment for the home. Equipment Selection. The HVAC contractor should perform the following: • Start-up procedure according to manufacturer’s instructions • Refrigerant charge verified by super-heat and/or sub-cooling method • Burner set to fire at nameplate input • Air handler setting/fan speed • Total airflow within 10% of design flow • Total external system static should not exceed equipment capability at rated airflow. Resources: • North American Technician Excellence. By reviewing this process. www. Information / How to Implement: Ask your HVAC contractor to carefully follow the start-up procedure outlined in the equipment literature. RPA.radiantpanelassociation.org/docs/MainNav/Energy/4073_doe_hvacsizing. With an HVAC trade contractor who has completed a certification. available at www. Use HVAC installer and/or service technician who are certified under a nationally or regionally recognized program such as NATE. Maintains a database of certified technicians at www. Use ANSI/ACCA Manual S® or equivalent to select heating and/or cooling equipment.natex.• List of RPA certified contractors.org • U.pdf D.toolbase. DOE fact sheet. installed.
• List of Radiant Panel Association members that are certified by RPA (for hydronic heating) www. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) lists the highest-efficiency equipment available (see Resources). because the flue gases are cooler.bpi.org F. available at www. or check manufacturer’s literature for efficiency information. Intent: As with cooling equipment.org • Manufacturers’ website for directory of contractors trained for proprietary equipment • The Air Conditioning Contractors of America Web site at www. Depending upon the fuel used.org or by calling 877-420-NATE.acca. consider using HVAC contractors in your area that have been certified. eliminating the need for a chimney. Information / How to Implement: Select equipment bearing the ENERGY STAR label. Certifies whole-house performance contractors and provides a searchable database of certified contractors at www. Higher-efficiency gas furnaces or boilers (greater than 90% AFUE) are usually direct vent. is the ratio of heat produced per unit of fuel consumed over the course of a heating season. annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE).org. Ask for certifications when seeking proposals. A searchable database of contractors certified by the National Association for Technician Excellence (NATE). • The Building Performance Institute. PVC pipe can often be used for venting. The sealed combustion chamber eliminates any possibility of backdrafting or spillage of combustion gases into the home. Through-the-wall venting may offset the higher cost of the equipment. Keep in mind that sealed combustion equipment not only offers an energy-efficiency benefit but may also be advantageous with respect to indoor environmental quality as well.Information / How to Implement: Encourage your contractor to investigate the local availability of HVAC training and certification programs. 102 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) is in the process of establishing a contractor accreditation program that will ensure contractors perform quality installations. ask your HVAC contractor about pricing higher-efficiency furnaces or boilers. 81%-83% of AFUE furnaces carry little cost increase over those meeting federal minimum efficiency standards (currently 78%).natex. Some agencies maintain a database of certified contractors.radiantpanelassociation. higher-efficiency equipment will satisfy space heating requirements using less fuel. Resources: • NATEX Business Locator. At the time of the printing of this document. Fuel-fired space heating equipment efficiency (AFUE): % Improvement above Federal minimum 3% 10% 6% 5% 5% 10% Gas Furnace Oil Furnace Gas or Oil Boiler ≥81% ≥88% (ENERGY STAR ≥94% ≥83% ≥85% > 90% Note: Add three points associated with increasing AFUE if Manuals S and D and start-up procedure are followed when one of the space heating units noted above is installed. sealed combustion units and. Typically. The measure of furnace efficiency.
gamanet. and commissioning procedures before simply installing equipment with a higher SEER rating. installation. For instance.org • Manufacturers’ Web sites. SEER 13-14—(23%-29% improvement above SEER 10 air conditioner) 3. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 103 . or check manufacturer’s literature for information on SEER. G. the federal minimum efficiency for air conditioning units is SEER 13.energystar. SEER 15-18—(33% -44% improvement above SEER 10 air conditioner) 4. NOTE: Additional three points given if Manuals S and D have been used and start-up procedures are followed when one of the A/C units noted above is installed. For climates with little cooling load. Resources: • American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy’s list of most energy efficient appliances www. insulating. Staged air conditioning equipment Split systems must be ARI-tested as a matched set.gov for a list of equipment meeting ENERGY STAR standards • Gas Appliance Manufacturer’s Consumers’ Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Heating and Water Heating Equipment. and sealing of ductwork can reduce the amount of energy loss and increase occupant comfort as well.htm • www. To encourage such practices. installation. design. and commissioning of the entire system. SEER 19+—(47%+ improvement above SEER 10 air conditioner) 5. Heat pump efficiency (cooling mode) 1. Before investing in more efficient cooling equipment. The ACEEE lists the highest-efficiency equipment available (see Resources). Intent: High-efficiency equipment uses less energy to accomplish the same task. For cooling-dominated climates. the guidelines award double points for increasing SEER if Manuals S and D and start-up procedures are followed.It is usually a good idea to invest in high-AFUE heating equipment in climates that have a significant heating load or high fuel costs.org/consumerguide/mostenef. Information / How to Implement: Select equipment that carries the ENERGY STAR label. Several issues to consider: As of January 2006. *SEER 13 is the federal minimum as of January 2006. It is often more beneficial to concentrate on improving design. SEER 11-12*—(9%-17% improvement above SEER 10 air conditioner) 2. The intent of this guideline is to reduce the electrical energy necessary to cool the home. proper sizing.aceee. invest in proper sizing. it often makes sense to invest energy-efficiency dollars in high-SEER equipment. investments in efficiency may be better spent elsewhere. Even the most efficient equipment cannot make up for deficiencies in a distribution system or inadequate sizing and commissioning. Energy-efficiency investment dollars may be better spent elsewhere in cooling-dominated climates. www.
htm • www.aceee.Resources: • List of most energy efficient appliances • www. Ground source heat pump installed by a Certified Geothermal Service Contractor. Information / How to Implement: Select ENERGY STAR-labeled equipment. Do not duplicate points if these additional points have been taken in Guidelines 3.3.energystar. Use a contractor that has been certified in design and installation of geothermal systems by the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (see Resources)—proper sizing of geothermal systems is crucial for efficiency and to reduce first cost. EER = 15-18 3.htm • www. (cooling mode) 1. Ground source heat pumps are often more efficient than air-to-air heat pumps because they take advantage of the constant and more moderate temperature of the ground which is an advantage for space heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. the standard measure of heat pump efficiency in the heating mode.gov for a list of equipment meeting ENERGY STAR standards H.h above. Heat pump efficiency (heating mode) 1. If heating is the predominant load. 7. or check manufacturer’s literature for HSPF data.8. Heat pumps are often the cost-effective solution for space conditioning equipment in climates where outdoor temperatures are moderate and there is a need for both heating and cooling.aceee.3. The ACEEE lists the highest-efficiency equipment available (see Resources).9 HSPF (6%-16% increase in efficiency) 2. 9. EER = 13-14 2. Ground source heat pumps are more expensive to install than air-to-air heat pumps due to the added 104 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .org/consumerguide/mostenef. Air-to-air heat pumps are not recommended if winter temperatures often drop below 35° F. Intent: To reduce consumption of non-renewable energy for space heating and cooling requirements and ensure that design and installation are conducted according to industry standards. The current federal minimum heating season performance factor (HSPF).5 HSPF (32%-54%% increase in efficiency) 4. 8. consider a heat pump with an HSPF of 8.9 HSPF (18%-31% increase in efficiency) 3. >10.energystar. Information / How to Implement: Select equipment that carries the ENERGY STAR label.org/consumerguide/mostenef.2. EER = > 25 Note: An additional three points are given if Manuals S and D and start-up procedures are followed when one of the ground source heat pumps noted above has been installed.0 or higher.5 HSPF (>54% increase in efficiency) Intent: To reduce the amount of nonrenewable energy used to meet the space heating requirements of a home.0-8. is 6.2.f and 3.2-7. EER = 19-24 4. Resources: • American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy’s list of most energy efficient appliances www. or check manufacturer’s literature for EER information.gov for a list of equipment meeting ENERGY STAR standards I.0-10.
a device that uses some of the waste energy from the heat pump to pre-heat water for domestic use. Because the selection of equipment.cost of drilling wells or trenching for the ground loop. Installation of all heating and cooling ducts and mechanical equipment within the conditioned building envelope. Information / How to Implement: Leaking Ducts can reduce the heating and cooling efficiency of a forced-air system by as much as 30%.edu/business_directory/home.igshpa.6 2.g.4-2.0 (See Section 3. Geothermal systems may also include a desuperheater. An achievable goal is to strive for less than 5% leakage (as a share of the air handler capacity) to unconditioned space. No ductwork installed in exterior walls.2. additional points will be given if these measures have also been completed. and commissioning are integral to efficient performance of the system. COP = 2.toolbase.aceee. No building cavities used as ductwork. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 105 .com/res/ducts/index.energystar. Resources: • American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy’s list of most energy efficient appliances www. database of accredited installers and designers of geothermal heat pump systems: www. It is also important to seal plenum connections at the equipment as well as holes in the fan cabinet.7-2.okstate.html • Overview of sealing ductwork: http://energyoutlet.html • J. Use UL 181 foil tapes and/or mastic. Gasketed cabinet doors allow for a tight seal without compromising ease of maintenance.html L.pdf • Source of supply for duct mastic: Oikos. e. Ground Source Heat Pump installed by a Certified Geothermal Service Contractor (heating mode) 1. they may be cost competitive when compared with very high efficiency furnaces and central air conditioning systems.org/docs/MainNav/Energy/4071_doe_airdistributionsysteminstallation.com has a list of manufacturers of Duct Mastic (category 15816) • Advanced Air Sealing (book available for viewing online): http://oikos. COP > 3. panning joist or stud cavities. plenums. Resources: • Air Distribution System Installation and Sealing.htm • www. Best industry practice is to seal all ductwork with a foil tape meeting UL 181 requirements or with mastic. (U.com/library/airsealing/index. When installing ductwork: 1. design of ductwork.I above for more information. DOE fact sheet). www. 3.S.. Intent: To assure optimum performance of the forced-air space conditioning system by reducing duct leakage. 2.gov for a list of equipment meeting ENERGY STAR standards • International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA). and equipment to reduce leakage.9 3. it may result in a less comfortable space due to insufficient air delivery. However. Seal ducts. COP = 2.org/consumerguide/mostenef. While duct leakage to the conditioned space does not compromise energy performance as does leakage into unconditioned spaces.) K.3. Intent: The possibility of duct leakage to unconditioned space is significantly reduced by avoiding placement of ducts in areas listed.
kitchens. thereby minimizing duct length and eliminating any need to run ductwork in outside walls..Information / How to Implement: Panned joists or stud cavities should be avoided because they can rarely be effectively sealed. Transfer grilles in interior walls are a cost-effective compromise to ensuring that all rooms have adequate supply and return airflow. Under many conditions.e. which can create uncomfortable conditions. However. Install ENERGY STAR ceiling fans. because these areas may be dusty and dirty. indoor environmental quality issues may result. With improved window technology and air sealing practices. insulating the attic at the roof. When cavities are used as supplies. having supply and return vents in each room increases the installation cost of a forced-air heating or cooling system. and. Pressure imbalances can lead to inadequate airflow to a room. Other areas of the home may become depressurized causing the opposite effect. that area becomes pressurized and air leakage to the outdoors increases.toolbase.Install return ducts or transfer grilles in every room having a door except baths. i. (Points per fan) Intent: To reduce energy use for space cooling while maintaining comfort. closets. ceiling fans. Common practice is to locate a single central return on each floor of the home. or installing ductwork beneath an insulated ceiling and enclosing it with bulkheads. heating or cooling registers can be located near the interior.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2570&CategoryID=110 M. outdoor air is drawn through cracks and crevices. Available for purchase at www. will be all that is 106 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . This not only reduces leaking to the exterior but also eliminates the need to reduce insulation in those wall cavities. the volume of delivered air may be inadequate. and laundry rooms. NAHB Research Center. Information / How to Implement: Supply and return registers located in every room and sized according to industry standards provide the best assurance that airflow to each room is balanced. Methods for keeping ductwork in the conditioned envelope include extending the thermal boundary by insulating the foundation walls. Information / How to Implement: A ceiling fan helps occupants feel cooler without lowering a thermostat because it provides convective cooling from the breeze created. pantries. Intent: To prevent pressure imbalances that may occur when there are central return(s) and interior doors are closed.org/tertiaryT. there is less need to supply warm air along exterior walls—a common practice in older homes that needed airflow near windows to prevent condensation on poorly insulating windows and to keep occupants warm near drafty windows. Resources: • ACCA Manual D® Residential Duct Systems N. Doors cannot be undercut sufficiently to provide an adequate path for airflow. Resources: • A Builder’s Guide to Placement of Ducts and HVAC Equipment in Conditioned Space. When return air flow is restricted from a particular room. In tightly sealed and well-insulated homes. When cavities are used as returns. air may be pulled from unintended locations in the home and create unwanted pressure imbalances that may compound energy loss. but return airflow is restricted when doors are closed. This method pulls return air from all areas of the home in most cases. 2000. which use less energy than most light bulbs.
required to keep occupants cool. Usually placed in the ceiling of the top floor of a home. www. This guideline also has an indoor environmental quality benefit in that local removal of moisture and humidity is achieved in a more effective and efficient manner. They are also quieter than most standard fans and therefore are more likely to be used.html • Whole-House Fan: How to install and use a whole-house fan.pdf • Spot Ventilation: Source control to improve indoor air quality (U. A whole-house fan can reduce the energy needed for cooling by taking advantage of the “free” cooling from outside air.pdf O. thereby reducing the need for compressor cooling.southface.org/web/resources&services/publications/technical_bulletins/WHF-Wholehousefan%2099-745.pdf NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 107 . Information / How to Implement: ENERGY STAR-labeled fans provide more ventilation capacity at a lower wattage than a standard bath fan. it may be a special order item. ENERGY STAR fans produce more airflow per watt than standard ceiling fans due to improved blade design and more efficient motors.gov/ia/products/prod_lists/vent_fans_prod_list.gov/ia/products/prod_lists/ceiling_fans_with_lighting_prod_list.gov/ia/products/prod_lists/ceiling_fans_only_prod_list.pdf • List of ENERGY STAR-labeled ceiling fan (light kits only) www. they are more durable and carry longer warranties than standard fans.dis.org/docs/MainNav/Energy/3947_spotventilation1.pdf • List of ENERGY STAR-labeled ceiling fans (fan and light) www.anl. whole-house fans use less energy than a compressor and air handler. Install ENERGY STAR-labeled mechanical exhaust from every bathroom ducted to the outside. One disadvantage of whole-house fans is that they can be difficult to seal off when not in use.gov/eehem/99/990511.pdf P. providing cooling at night and at other times when the outdoor air is cooler than indoors.energystar. Information / How to Implement: A whole-house fan can draw outdoor air inside quickly. Resources: • Home Energy Magazine article http://hem. www.gov/ia/products/prod_lists/ceiling_fans_lightkit_prod_list. DOE fact sheet).energystar.toolbase. Intent: To achieve spot exhaust ventilation using highly efficient ventilation equipment. Intent: To reduce energy use for space cooling while maintaining comfort.Install whole-house fan with insulated louvers. Resources: • List of ENERGY STAR-labeled ceiling fans (fan only) www.energystar.S. Care must be taken in selecting equipment that has an effective insulating enclosure and in designing and installing a custom insulating and weather stripping system for the enclosure. but in some areas.energystar. Most major manufacturers offer an ENERGY STAR model. Resources: • List of products meeting ENERGY STAR criteria: www. Because of their more efficient blade design and motors.
gamanet. (list from Consumer’s Guide to Home Energy Savings). propane or oil) that is used for heating water. 3 . To select high-efficiency water heating equipment. However.59 0.org/docs/SubsystemNav/Plumbing/3946_waterheating.56 Intent: To increase the efficiency of water heating by installing equipment that provides the same amount of hot water for less energy than standard water heating equipment.toolbase.95 0.94 0. A N D I N S TA L L AT I O N A. www. DOE fact sheet). E Q U I P M E N T. gas.org/consumerguide/mostenef. Alternately.60 0.S.92 0. www. electric tanks can be more expensive to operate than fuel-fired tanks. the ACEEE maintains a list of the highest-efficiency water heating equipment (see Resources). 3 WAT E R H E AT I N G D E S I G N .htm • Gas Appliance Manufacturer’s Consumers’ Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Heating and Water Heating Equipment.55 Energy Factor 0.3 . Electric tanks have a higher EF than fuel-fired heaters since they do not have flue losses.pdf 108 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.62 0.86 Energy Factor 0. Review manufacturer’s literature for energy factor information—the EF is not usually prominently displayed on the unit.58 0. GAS Size (gallons) 30 40 50 65 75 ELECTRIC Size (gallons) 30 40 50 65 80 100 OIL Size (gallons) 30 50 Energy Factor 0. Resources: • The Most Energy Efficient Appliances.org • Water Heating: Energy-Efficient Strategies for Supplying Hot Water in the Home (U. Water heater energy factor equal to or greater than those listed in the following table.aceee.64 0. it includes losses through the tank as well as flue losses. Information / How to Implement: The hot water heater energy rating that is used to compare different water heaters is the energy factor (EF). compare the yellow Energy Guide labels of similar equipment.90 0. EF represents the percentage of purchased fuel (electricity.88 0. www.
Install whole-house instantaneous (tankless) water heater. insulating the hot water lines is also likely to add convenience. there are similar flue losses to gas tanks. Information / How to Implement: Even though newer tank water heaters are better insulated than their predecessors.pdf D. and water savings. Evaluate these differences when comparing installed costs. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 109 . DOE fact sheet). your local utility may offer helpful advice regarding peak demand and selection of whole-house water heating appliances. propane. www. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.5 gallons per minute–which is plenty for a hot shower but it does not leave a lot of extra capacity for simultaneous hot water usage. Intent: To reduce energy losses from hot water piping. Install heat trap on cold and hot water lines to and from the water heater (if not integral to the water heater). Insulate all hot water lines with a minimum of one-inch insulation.org/consumerguide/mostenef.htm C. comfort.62 minimum) than most tank water heaters. In addition to offering some energy savings. and electric instantaneous water heaters are available. Resources: • The Most Energy Efficient Appliances.toolbase. Information / How to Implement: Insulating hot water piping can be beneficial in two ways: 1) losses are reduced as hot water moves through the lines to the point of use. heat lost from the tank can account for a large portion of hot water energy consumption. Gas. gas water heaters can heat a larger volume of water each minute than electric heaters and can provide a greater temperature rise for a given flow rate. (list from Consumer’s Guide to Home Energy Savings). All tankless water heaters use large amounts of energy at higher flow rates. Intent: To minimize energy loss associated with thermo siphoning action from a water heater. Foam pipe insulation is relatively inexpensive and easy to install.S. Electric tankless units can achieve about a 77°F temperature rise at 2. This can be an important consideration when coincident hot water uses are expected or when high flow rates at hot temperatures are desired. tankless water heaters eliminate these standby losses. especially in homes that use relatively little hot water. Although peak demand for space heating and water heating usually do not occur at similar times. Both electric and gas tankless water heaters have higher energy factors (EF = 0. Typically. By having no reservoir of hot water. (Water heater complies with DOE Standard 10CFR430) Intent: To reduce energy use associated with water heating by eliminating standby losses that occur with tank heaters. For gas tankless water heaters. and 2) losses are slowed and may be reduced when hot water sits in the lines between draws.B.aceee. Gas units will provide greater capacity to allow for simultaneous multiple uses. Resources: • Water Heating: Energy-Efficient Strategies for Supplying Hot Water in the Home (U.org/docs/SubsystemNav/Plumbing/3946_waterheating. These large draws often require a largerthan-normal service entrance for electric units or larger pipe diameter for gas units. www. Hot water will get to the tap more quickly—meaning there is less potential for water to run down the drain while the user waits for it to get hot.
an ENERGY STAR fixture may cost about $30 more than a comparable standard fixture. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. fittings are reduced. Intent: Reduce energy use associated with waiting for hot water at taps and with hot water left standing in pipes after a hot water draw. install them on the inlet and outlet to the water heater. once the water temperature in the tank has cooled below the thermostat set point. Often. This thermo siphoning action contributes to heat loss from the tank. Because PEX allows for gentle bends. hot water will rise and displace cooler water in the lines leading to and from the heater tank. Resources: • Water Heating: Energy-Efficient Strategies for Supplying Hot Water in the Home (U.S. Most manifold piping is cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe rather than copper or CPVC. Intent: To use high-quality. the fluorescent bulbs will last longer (about seven years) and cost less to operate over their lifetime than incandescent bulbs. even when there is no demand for hot water. three-eighths-inch diameter pipe can be used. 3. PEX also has better insulating value than copper piping.3. Information / How to Implement: ENERGY STAR fixtures use about two-thirds less electricity than standard fixtures to provide equal light. Use an ENERGY STAR Advanced Lighting Package (ALP). aesthetically pleasing electric light using less energy than conventional incandescent lighting. DOE fact sheet) E.4 L I G H T I N G A N D A P P L I A N C E S A. If heat traps are not integral to the water heater. ask your plumber or plumbing materials supplier or check manufacturers’ literature. the elements or burner will need to activate to bring the water back up to temperature. In order to maximize the benefits of a manifold system. Placing 20 110 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Many new water heaters have integral heat traps.Information / How to Implement: In the same way that warm air moves toward cooler air and warm air rises. which saves installation time and minimizes the possibility of leaks. Reduced pipe diameter means hot water is delivered faster to a faucet and there is less water left in a pipe after a hot water draw—and therefore less energy waste from hot water left to cool in pipes. Information / How to Implement: A manifold plumbing system in which dedicated “home run” hot and cold water piping services each fixture allows the most direct (and therefore shortest) pipe run and smaller diameter piping than a “tree” type piping configuration. Heat traps prevent thermo siphoning. Install manifold plumbing system with parallel piping configuration (aka “home run”) using smallest diameter piping allowed by code. Although on average. and. baths and kitchens should be located in close proximity to one another and to the water heater.
ALP_Builder B. or delayed start.a). Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Basement. Not all outdoor ENERGY STAR fixtures have built-in motion sensors. Install motion sensors on outdoor lighting (if not credited under 3. but the light quality is high and there is no flicker.g. e. Information / How to Implement: Although there are recessed light fixtures rated for insulation contact. Closet(s). hum. Minimum Required ENERGY STAR Qualified Fixtures per Room Category 50% of Total Number of Fixtures 25% of Total Number of Fixtures 50% of Total Number of Fixtures Including All Flood Lighting Room Category High-Use Rooms Med/Low-Use Rooms Outdoors Specific Rooms within Category Kitchen. after accounting for the increase in the mortgage due to higher initial cost. Den. Many fixtures come with motion sensors. and All Other Rooms Outdoor Lighting Affixed to Home or Free-Standing Pole(s) Except for Landscape and Solar Lighting Resources: • Tool to estimate lighting energy savings of advanced lighting package: www. but they can also be installed separately. do not install recessed lights in an insulated ceiling. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 111 . Office.pdf • ENERGY STAR program information for builders: www. Intent: To eliminate energy losses associated with inadequate insulation above. Halls/Stairway(s) Bedroom.. C.gov/ia/partners/manuf_res/Savings_Look-up_ChartsLR. Install all recessed lighting fixtures within the conditioned envelope of the building. Today’s fluorescent bulbs are dramatically improved over the old technology: Not only are a wide variety of styles available.3.energystar. rather than operating it continuously. and air infiltration through. Bathroom(s). Intent: To minimize outdoor lighting energy use by activating outdoor lighting when needed. To completely avoid this energy penalty.ENERGY STAR fixtures in a home in which electricity costs are 10. Dining Room.energystar. Living Room. ENERGY STAR fixtures also carry a two-year warranty. Be sure that there is a continuous air barrier at the top of the bulkhead or the original ceiling. fixture housing does not penetrate insulated ceiling. light fixtures in insulated ceilings. Information / How to Implement: Motion sensors activate outdoor lighting only when it is needed: to light an entry as one returns home after dark or to maintain security by illuminating outdoor areas when motion is detected. Garage. Laundry Room. Family Room. The preferred method is to install drywall (or other finish material) on the ceiling prior to constructing the bulkhead. they still carry an energy penalty because of reduced insulation thickness in the ceiling above the fixture and/or air leakage around the housing.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_raters.gov/index.5 cents per kWh will reap almost $100 in annual savings to the homeowner in energy and bulb replacement costs.4. Bulkheads or dropped soffits can permit the installation of recessed lights in insulated ceilings.
washing machine. Install ENERGY STAR labeled appliance: Refrigerator. 5 R E N E WA B L E E N E R G Y / S O L A R H E AT I N G A N D CO O L I N G 3. sizing of glazing. Use sun-tempered design: Building orientation.Install tubular skylights in rooms without windows. Information / How to Implement: On average. dishwasher. Resources: • Tubular Skylights (NAHB Research Center technology fact sheet) www. Intent: To reduce the need for artificial lighting by providing natural light when available. Information / How to Implement: Tubular skylights provide natural lighting to interior spaces while minimizing the inherent energy losses of standard skylights. ENERGY STAR-labeled appliances use at least 20% less energy than standard appliances to perform the same duties.gov for list of appliances meeting ENERGY STAR criteria and list of local stores that sell ENERGY STAR appliances.Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. A. If you are not directly responsible for the purchase and installation of appliances. 112 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . • Glazing area < 4% of FFA on east face (Low-E. D.toolbase. design of overhangs to provide shading are in accordance with guidelines below: • Long side of the home faces within 30° of south. Low SHGC).asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1282&DocumentID=2024 E. ENERGY STAR-labeled dishwashers and washing machines also use less water. DC 20005. Look for the ENERGY STAR label when selecting major appliances or use the yellow Energy Guide label to compare efficiency of similar appliances. www. • Glazing area < 7% of finished floor area (FFA) on south face (Low-E). which contributes to added resource efficiency. (Points per appliance) Intent: To reduce energy use in the home for appliances. Low SHGC). 3 . Phone: (202) 628-7400.3.energystar. The Web site also includes a calculator to show prospective homeowners how much they will save and how fast the upgraded appliance will pay for itself over time.1 Solar Space Heating and Cooling More detailed design guidance for climate-specific passive solar design is available from the Sustainable Building Industry Council . 1331 H Street NW. It is recommended that points be awarded only if ENERGY STAR appliances are actually installed in the home at the time a project is certified.org. 3 .sbicouncil.org/tertiaryT. Resources: • www. Washington. Suite 1000. you can help customers learn about ENERGY STAR options. • Glazing area < 2% of FFA on west face (Low-E.5. Tubular skylights have a smaller diameter roof penetration than most skylights and have an additional layer of insulating glazing at the ceiling level.
psic.pdf B.toolbase. and moderate heat delivery to the home. www.sbicouncil.3. or water) absorbs heat while the sun strikes it and releases that heat slowly once the sun has gone down. prevent overheating. Use passive solar design: Sun-tempered design as above plus additional south-facing glazing. • Skylights less than 2% of finished ceiling area. Information / How to Implement: The Sustainable Buildings Industry Council provides the most concise and clear-cut guidance on sun-tempered design. Intent: To reduce the amount of non-renewable energy required to heat and cool a home by taking advantage of the sun’s energy through passive design features that collect desirable solar heat gain and mitigate unwanted solar heat gain. (See User Guide for charts that indicate length of overhang. available at www.1a except additional glazing permitted on south wall PLUS • For any room with south-facing glazing > 7% of FFA. Resource-Efficient Homes. with shades and insulated wells.B. Properly sized thermal mass (typically in the form of masonry materials such as tile floors and brick walls. Information / How to Implement: Note: 3. thermal mass must be provided to store excess heat gain. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council • Sustainable Building Industry Council Passive Solar Design Guidelines. properly sized thermal mass.5. Obtain the passive solar design guidelines (see Resource) for your climate as well as the other references cited below. and hourly outdoor winter conditions. Chapter 2A: Renewable Energy: Solar and Other Renewables. It is also advisable to consult a design professional with background and experience in passive solar design. Resources: • Green Building Guidelines—Meeting the Demand for Low-Energy.• Glazing area < 4% of FFA on north face (Low-E).5. thermal storage capacity.1. and provision for airflow to adjoining rooms.3. or adjustable canopies or awnings. Designing a truly passive solar home requires careful calculation of solar gain. • SBIC Passive Solar Design Guidelines for your climate should be referenced to size thermal mass. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council • Passive Solar Design Strategies.) Intent: To reduce the amount of non-renewable energy required to heat and cool a home through design features that permit solar heat gains and minimize the potential for overheating. The design rules of thumb cited above will provide some solar benefit and prevent overheating in most climates. Sustainable Building Industries Council. Resources: • Green Building Guidelines—Meeting the Demand for Low-Energy. Chapter 2A: Renewable Energy: Solar and Other Renewables. • Overhangs designed to provide shading on south-facing glass (at a minimum).org/docs/MainNav/Energy/3944_passivesolardesign.3. amount and period of shading according to latitude. In most regions of the country having a winter heating load. Resource-Efficient Homes. appropriately designed thermal mass to prevent overheating.A must also be implemented to receive points for 3.1.5. As south-facing glass is increased to obtain greater solar benefit.org • Passive Solar Design (NAHB Research Center fact sheet) www.org NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 113 . • Sun-tempered design as outlined in Section 3. and • Provision for forced air flow to adjoining areas as needed. homes can be designed so a portion of this load is satisfied by solar gains. Guidelines for Home Building.
a covered porch may be a good solution on the west side of the home to mitigate unwanted solar heat gain.C. e. moveable awnings or louvers. • Exterior shading on east and west windows.4.1..a above) • Windows located to facilitate cross ventilation. Moveable awnings or louvers allow the flexibility to shade windows during certain times of the day or year. In cooling-dominated climates. covered porches • Overhangs designed to provide shading on south-facing glazing. 114 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . (Use supplied charts that indicate length of overhang and amount and period of shading according to latitude. Not to be double-counted if credited in 3. landscaping. Shading of east and west windows is difficult to achieve with a fixed overhang because the sun is low in the sky when shading is typically desired. Intent: To reduce non-renewable energy required for space cooling in the home by mitigating solar heat gain and using design features that promote natural ventilation. shade trees. • Solar reflective roof or radiant barrier in hot climate. The charts below provide guidance on the length of overhangs to achieve desired shading of south-facing glass for different latitudes in the country. Use passive cooling.g. and architectural features can help cool a home naturally and/or reduce unwanted solar gains that increase cooling load. Information / How to Implement: Natural features.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 115 .
116 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 117 .
118 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .
3. solar water heaters must be designed and installed properly to operate to their maximum potential for many years.energy.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2136&CategoryID=68 • Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy. and carefully install the system.com/technology/pas-3.psic.azsolarcenter.org NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 119 .5.gov/consumerinfo/pdfs/coolhome.3 2. Guidelines for Home Building.toolbase.S. www. However.Resources: • Passive Solar Heating and Cooling: Natural Cooling.html • Cooling Your Home Naturally.2 Solar Water Heating A. >0.org • Solar Water Heaters (NAHB Research Center technology fact sheet). Information / How to Implement: Solar collectors that preheat water for domestic use are often cost-effective. DOE fact sheet) www. www. Solar fraction: 1. Resources: • For a list of Solar Rating and Certification Corporation’s certified solar water heating systems. Install solar water heating system. Must use Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC)-rated system. Sustainable Building Industries Council.org 3. Solar water heater designs are generally climate specific. www.pdf • Passive Solar Design Strategies.org/tertiaryT. Use the references below for a basic understanding of the types of systems available and the estimated performance in your climate.5 Intent: To reduce non-renewable energy use for domestic water heating. see www. primarily with regard to freeze protection.dsireusa. (U.solar-rating. select equipment. Arizona Solar Center fact sheet. Consult a knowledgeable local installer to design the system. 0. Use the ratings published by the SRCC (see Resources) to determine the solar fraction provided by the system you select. www.eere.
) Intent: To supply a portion of a household’s electricity needs with renewable energy sources. 4. and New Jersey. it makes sense to build this flexibility into the home.3. because it is operated for a short time.000 to 3. Provide clear and unshaded roof area (+/-30° of south or flat) for future solar collector or photovoltaics. Information / How to Implement: As demand for electricity increases and costs to build additional generating capacity continue to escalate.) 120 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Provide homeowner with information and enrollment materials about options to purchase green power from the local electric utility. Supply electricity needs via onsite renewable energy source such as photovoltaic.3. Peak electricity demand can necessitate power companies to operate peak generation equipment.3 Additional Renewable Energy Options A. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Costs of smaller (2 kW to 8 kW) photovoltaic systems are about $8-$9 per watt. (Not to duplicate points for Homeowner Manual in IEQ section below. Installation shall be in accordance with local utility and electrical code requirements.org—provides information about areas offering incentives that promote renewable energy and information about net metering rules. Insulated piping Intent: To encourage and facilitate installation of renewable energy systems for space and water heating needs. renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics and wind power become more attractive and more cost effective to consumers and utilities.000 to 5. Net metering—in which excess electricity produced at a residence causes the electric meter to spin backwards—may also be available in your area. incentives are available that bring the cost even lower.000 + (Equipment should carry all applicable IEEE and UL certifications. California. 2. B. Net metering effectively credits the customer full retail value for electricity sent back to the utility and greatly improves the economics of residential solar electric power production.999 2. you can increase the likelihood that the homeowner will install a renewable energy system in the future. and in some states like New York. Local generation of electricity by the sun and wind is a viable option in most regions of the country. reducing peak electricity demand of the home. Conduit 2. Resources: • www. or hydro whereby the system is estimated to produce the following kWh per year: 1. Given the uncertainties of the cost of electricity as well as the possibility of eventual incentives. Minimum area of 200 sf.999 3. C. This measure contributes to the cost-effectiveness of the installation of a future renewable energy system.dsireusa. which. It is relatively simple and inexpensive to run electrical conduit or water piping to the attic or roof area while the home is under construction but can be disruptive and costly when retrofitted at a later date. wind. Information / How to Implement: By providing the infrastructure for the installation of a solar thermal collector or photovoltaic system.5. Provide a rough-in of piping from the roof to the utility area for: 1. 6. generally is less efficient.
U. or compression D. Building envelope air sealing details C.energy. Information / How to Implement: Many utilities across the country purchase or produce at least some power from renewable sources such as wind or hydro.htm • Photovoltaics. experienced.html 3 .org/members/states. or an energy program coordinator.gov/greenpower/markets/pricing.eere. a representative sample [15%] of homes may be inspected. Windows and doors flashed. an architect or engineer.Intent: To increase the possibility that the homeowner will select green power when available from the local utility.3. www. (When at least 100 homes of the same model are to be built by the same builder. outside party such as a green building program coordinator. Duct installation and sealing B. DOE fact sheet. Batt insulation cut accurately to fit cavity E.) Intent: The third-party verification of materials and features that enhance energy efficiency offers customers an added level of assurance that the home will perform as designed. Information / How to Implement: A third-party inspection can be performed by any objective. a code enforcement official. voids. an energy consultant or specialist. Resources: • www. and sealed properly.naseo. While this electricity is usually more expensive than the utility’s standard rates.6. 6 V E R I F I C AT I O N 3.eere.gov/RE/solar_photovoltaics. Some utilities offer this power to their customers through green pricing programs.dsireusa.S. caulked. www. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 121 .shtml?page=0 • Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy.org • State Energy Office—directory of state energy offices at www. in which a customer can choose to purchase a certain amount of electricity generated by renewable sources. Most builders that have used third-party inspections say it is worth the extra cost because it provides proof to potential clients that the home has higherquality energy features than competitors’ homes. 3 . a Home Energy Rating System professional (HERS rater). Photographs taken by the builder during construction have often been used to defray costs associated with onsite inspections. Proper installation of insulation including: no gaps.1 Conduct onsite third-party inspection to verify installation of energy related features such as: A.energy. green pricing programs enable customers to indicate their support for renewable energy sources.
• Local utility.gov. Install drain water heat recovery system.energystar. and possibly education. • Total airflow within 10% of design flow (When multiple homes of the same model are to be built by the same builder.35 ACHnat B. the builder is able not only to gain an idea of the relative tightness of the envelope or the ductwork but also to identify potential problem areas that need correction.energystar.gov. a representative sample of homes may be tested subject to the sampling protocol. • Manufacturers of testing equipment offer databases of contractors trained on proprietary equipment (e.” “energy efficiency. the test may identify comfort or installation issues rather than energy lost to the outdoors.org) certifies whole-house building performance contractors. A directory of HERS raters can be found on the ENERGY STAR website at www.g. e. testing provides confirmation. • Total leakage < 10% of rated blower capacity. A directory of home energy raters can be found on the ENERGY STAR website at www. Third-party testing is conducted by professionals who have specialized equipment for blower door and duct pressure testing.) Intent: Testing of the installed systems of a home such as envelope or duct tightness or airflows of HVAC systems provides an added level of assurance to the customer as well as to the builder that energy features were installed properly and will perform to expected levels. Duct blaster testing is less important when all ducts are located within conditioned space. Building envelope leakage: blower door test results < 0. if it offers a new-home energy-efficiency program.2 Conduct third-party testing to verify performance. Resources: • Third-party plan review by a certified Home Energy Rating System (HERS) rater.. Intent: To reduce energy required for heating domestic hot water.3.Resources: • Third-party plan review using a Certified HERS rater.g.3. • Building Performance Institute (www. Balanced HVAC airflows: Flow hood test results: • Measured flow at each supply and return register within 25% of design flow. 3.” or “weatherization” 3. See Resources for information on finding energy specialists who can conduct testing. duct leakage.6. The Energy Conservatory) • Local utility • Yellow pages for “energy. under these conditions. assurance. Central HVAC duct leakage: Duct leakage test results: • Leakage to unconditioned space < 5% of rated blower capacity. 122 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Information / How to Implement: Keep in mind that proper design and installation are the key ingredients.. and flow hood testing (points given per test). With respect to blower door and duct blaster testing. blower door.7 Innovative options A.bpi. A. C.
html • Drainwater Heat Recovery. NAHB Research Center technology fact sheet. increasing the cooling efficiency of the heat pump and providing “free” hot water. Install heat pump water heater. The preheated water is then supplied to both the hot water tank and the cold side of the main shower—which reduces the volume and flow of hot water needed.S.org/tertiaryT.S. HPWHs operate best in hot climates where the resultant cooling of the air around the heat pump can provide additional energy savings during most of the year.toolbase. Intent: Increase the efficiency of a ground source heat pump operating in cooling mode while providing “free” hot water for domestic use. not including any additional energy savings from space conditioning. therefore. hot water is produced by the GSHP and.gov/consumerinfo/energy_savers/virtualhome/508/shower. Install a desuperheater in conjunction with ground source heat pump. In a typical GFX configuration.energystar. is produced at a high efficiency. A similar configuration can be designed for the whole house but must be more carefully designed.Information / How to Implement: Drain water heat recovery (DHR) systems recover some of the energy from hot water going down the drain. www. In heating mode. DHR systems are available from several manufacturers. cold water running through the outer flexible copper tubing is preheated by hot water running down the drain from the main shower.energy. Desuperheaters should be installed by an experience installer or come pre-installed from the factory. HPWH technology has been under development for many years and is now reaching the marketplace with a number of manufacturers offering products. Information / How to Implement: Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) operate in a similar way to space conditioning heat pumps—they use the energy in the surrounding air to preheat water. Information / How to Implement: A desuperheater recovers heat that is rejected from a ground source heat pump (GSHP) operating in cooling mode. Resources: • Department of Energy—www.gov/ia/partners/bldrs_lenders_raters/downloads/BuilderGuide3E.pdf • Geothermal heat pump manufacturer websites C. Resources: • www. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 123 .pdf • Improve Energy Efficiency with Desuperheaters.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2134&CategoryID=947 B. DOE test standard and shall have an Energy Factor > 1. the GFX. HPWHs can as much as double the efficiency of electric water heating.gov/ia/partners/bldrs_lenders_raters/downloads/BuilderGuide3E. Intent: Reduce the energy needs for electric water heating.eere. consists of flexible copper piping coiled around a copper drainpipe that is fitted into the DWV line with rubber couplings. Careful design of the heat pump water heater system is necessary to ensure adequate performance in all seasons. www. EPA fact sheet. Also provide hot water while heat pump is in heating mode at high efficiency. One type of DHR system.7. U. Must be rated according to the current U.energystar. Desuperheaters can be an addition to any split system A/C unit but are most commonly found on ground-source heat pump units.
. it is not adequate to merely produce a heat loss and heat gain estimate. or the shading device may be completely open when the room is occupied. Manual J or equivalent load calculations affect every aspect of the system design procedure. system concepts. • The design concept must be suitable for the application: Contemporary architecture tends to produce dwellings that require a zoned system and/or variable capacity equipment. placement and selection of air distribution hardware.g. Heat loss and heat gain estimates are part of a design procedure that flows from system selection decisions and the actual load calculations to equipment selection procedures. In such cases.asp?DocumentID=2100&CategoryID=946 • Heat Pump Water Heaters. This airflow information is then used to select supply air outlets and to size the duct runs. Information / How to Implement: Purchase lighting controls from a supplier of energy-efficient products or your local lighting supply store.com U N D E R S TA N D I N G H VAC S YS T E M D E S I G N I S S U E S When designing a comfort system.aceee. the performance of the glass (U-value and solar heat gain coefficient) has a significant effect on comfort. www. • Load information also is used to estimate purchased energy requirements and to estimate annual operating cost. efficiency. Documents such as ACCA Manual RS provide valuable information about zoning. equipment size. • Heating and cooling loads determine the total air delivery requirement (blower CFM) and the airflow requirement for each room (room CFM). The calculations must be as accurate as possible.sheltersupply. In this regard.org/consumerguide/topwater. www. - • External overhangs or some type of internal shading device are desirable because they provide comfort for the occupants (overhangs provide shade without interfering with the view). radiation from the occupant’s skin to cold glass surfaces may cause discomfort.com. (Points per sensor) Intent: Reduce the electricity consumption associated with lighting in unoccupied rooms. Custom homes that feature a large amount of architectural glass that provides a panoramic view or architectural theme may not have internal shade. equipment capability. and design procedures. If there is a large amount of south glass. It is strongly recommended that system designers be familiar with the material in Manual RS.EFI. People may be uncomfortable when bathed by sunlight pouring through a window.toolbase.positive-energy. Install occupancy sensors for lighting control. the energy and operating cost estimates will only be as accurate as the load estimate.Resources: • www. • Equipment capacity that matches the size of the applied heating and cooling loads will deliver comfort. cooling may be required during cold weather. Resources: • Retail outlet of energy-efficient products. Federal Technology Alert. 124 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . and energy use. www.org.org/tertiaryT. e. duct routing and airway sizing. These dwellings must be carefully zoned and may require year-round cooling. and reliability over the entire range of operating conditions.htm D. List of heat pump water heater manufacturers at ACEEE’s Web site: www. During cold nights or cold overcast days.
Refer to blower table footnotes and manufacturer pressure drop data for devices that were not in place when blower performance was laboratory-tested by the equipment manufacturer. • Supply outlets shall not produce objectionable noise. Filter grilles have a lower face velocity than plain grilles. • Never blow supply air directly into the occupied zone. • Floor outlets that blow air straight up the exposed wall are best for cold-climate heating and. and drop is established by manufacturer performance data. Manual S also provides guidelines pertaining to the acceptable amount of excess capacity and manipulating heat pump balance points. Floor outlets shall throw the supply air to the ceiling. Manual S explains how to use Manual J output and manufacturer performance data to obtain this result. preferably for medium-speed operation. • The relation between supply CFM. face velocity. • Ceiling outlets are best for cooling but will not warm slab or exposed floors during the winter. Size depends on product performance. Door undercuts are not acceptable. • External static pressure is determined from the equipment manufacturer’s blower performance data. or a ducted return. For instance. • A low-resistance return path shall be provided for every room that receives supply air—a wall opening with no door. Manual D (or Equivalent) to Size the Duct Runs The resistance (inches water gauge of static pressure) of the longest circulation path (longest supply run plus longest return run) shall be compatible with the performance of the blower that is supplied with the heating-cooling equipment. Occupants will complain about drafts. the supply CFM value. These devices will not warm slab or exposed floors during the winter. and devices that appear to be generally similar can have substantially different performance characteristics. • The location of the return grille does not affect room air patterns. ceiling outlets shall throw the supply air to the wall. the effective capacity of heating and cooling equipment shall. which are controlled by the supply outlets and will not have a significant effect on pockets of stagnant air. supply air shall not drop into the occupied zone during cooling.Manual S (or Equivalent) and Manufacturer’s Data to Select Equipment In general. • The available static pressure equals the external static pressure minus the pressure drop through all the air-side devices in the circulation path. ACCA Manual T (or Equivalent) and Manufacturer’s Data to Select Supply Outlets and Return Grilles Supply outlets (grilles and registers) shall be the appropriate style and size for the application and shall be in an appropriate location for the application. • If high sidewall outlets are used for cooling. One fitting can add from 5 feet to more than 60 feet to the length of the path. Airway sizes that are compatible with the blower performance shall be increased if airflow velocity creates a potential noise problem. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 3 125 . as closely as possible. adequate for cooling. • Return grilles shall be the correct size for the grille flow rate. and the face velocity limitation. • Supply outlets shall provide the appropriate throw for the installed location. All systems shall have adequate provision for balancing airflow. if properly selected. Design guides and manufacturers’ information establish limits for face velocity. match the load when the equipment is subjected to design conditions. • The length of the circulation path includes the straight runs and the equivalent length of the fittings along the path. throw. Low returns do pull warm air down to the floor. Performance is very sensitive to size. a transfer grille. and high returns do not pull cool air up into the occupied zone. • The length of the longest circulation path and the available static pressure determine the friction rate used for airway sizing. etc.
• Accessory or after-market filters (or any device) that produce a substantial increase in system resistance shall not be installed if the blower cannot accommodate the increased resistance by speed change. • The room heat loss and heat gain estimate (Manual J or equivalent) and the heating and cooling factors (Manual D or equivalent) determine the design value for room airflow. • Branch (runout) ducts shall be equipped with a hand damper (for balancing). providing the relative humidity stays below 60 percent. But if the relative humidity stays above 30 percent. the infiltration rate. it must not produce a visible or concealed condensation problem. and causes unnecessary stress on the machinery. properly sized equipment will operate continuously or almost continuously. • Some climates are too dry to produce a latent load on the indoor coil. • Reduced latent capacity at part load will cause the indoor humidity to drift above the design value. problems with static electricity. • Airway size is determined by sectional flow rate and the design friction rate value. these factors will combine to produce an indoor relative humidity of less than 50 percent and could even be lower than 40 percent. and dry sinuses. providing a code or regulation does not specify a different set of conditions. and the amount of moisture generated by the occupants. creates pockets of stagnant air (unless the blower operates continuously) and degrades humidity control during the cooling season (more information on this subject is provided below). An arbitrary increase in system resistance may cause low airflow to rooms. which is acceptable. and the occupants will be comfortable. increases operating cost. the indoor air condition will be in the comfort zone. slightly undersized cooling equipment—by a margin of 10 percent or less—may actually provide more comfort at a lower cost. (See the unabridged version of Manual J for more information on this subject. dry air causes a sensation of coolness. Related Comfort Conditioning System Design Considerations Impact of Incorrectly Sized Heating and Cooling Equipment • The obvious problem with significantly undersized equipment is that it will not maintain the desired set-point temperature when a passing weather system imposes a design load on it. the design condition occurs for only a few dozen hours per season. • The friction chart or duct slide rule used for airway sizing shall be technically correct for the type of duct material. the indoor humidity depends on the moisture content of the outdoor air. Oversized equipment also requires larger duct runs. But. Humidity Control During the Cooling Season • Sensible and latent cooling loads are imposed on dwellings in climates that have a substantial amount of moisture in the outdoor air during the cooling season (wet-coil climates). Adding a humidifier to the heating system moderates these problems. a desire to increase the thermostat set point. both loads will be completely neutralized. but if a humidifier is installed. marginalizes part-load temperature control. a high temperature rise across a furnace heat exchanger. If the outdoor air is very dry. When the summer design condition occurs. or low suction pressure at the cooling coil. increases the installed load on the utility grid.) 126 SECTION 3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Humidity Control During the Heating Season During the heating season. increases installed cost. • Airway velocities shall not exceed specified design limits. • Oversized equipment causes short cycles. The possibility for experiencing comfort problems at part-load conditions is minimized by using the default indoor and outdoor design conditions recommended by the design manual. In this case. However.
4. the oversized equipment produces an unnecessary load on the electric and gas distribution systems.toolbase. Control-activated recirculation system. In addition. recirculating systems should be controlled by the user at the time of use rather than circulating hot water through the piping system continuously. 8. in this type of controlled system.1. less comfortable for a majority of the season..asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1318&DocumentID=3206 • Hot Water Recirculation Systems fact sheet: www.org/tertiaryT. pg. The solution to this problem is consumer education. Typically. (Points per unit installed) B.SECTION 4 WAT E R E F F I C I E N C Y Part-Load Days More Important than Design-Load Days As a group. Information / How to Implement: Install a water heater at the point of use. To save both energy and water.org/tertiaryT.awwa. 1997. a switch or a button located near a fixture activates a small pump that begins circulating hot water when there is demand for it. July. or a hot water recirculation device that is controlled by the user or an automatic device (e. homeowners are overly concerned with extreme weather conditions that occur for a few hours per season and uninformed about the significance of the part-load conditions that occur for thousands of hours per season.1 I N D O O R / O U T D O O R WAT E R U S E General Resources: All aspects of water conservation: www.g. less efficient. and less reliable. Resources: • Demand Hot Water Heater fact sheet: www.toolbase.gov/ 4.1 Hot water delivery to remote locations aided by installation of: A.usgs.org/waterwiser/ Water Resources of the United States: http://water. This lack of understanding pressures contractors to install oversized equipment and results in systems that are more expensive to install. timer or thermostat) to minimize or eliminate the waiting period for hot water at faucets. This article reviews one hot water recirculation product. On-demand water heater at point of use served by cold water only. Intent: Reduce water waste by using technologies that provide hot water at the tap with a minimal wait time. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 4 127 .asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1436&DocumentID=2130 • “An Energy-Saving Product That’s Actually Convenient?” Energy Design Update.
1. The first step in minimizing the distance between the water heater and bathrooms and kitchens is to locate those areas in close proximity to one another when designing a home.4. kitchens.energystar.toolbase. and the amount of hot water left standing in pipes after a draw (which helps save energy).toolbase.and water-efficient dishwashers. 128 SECTION 4 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .1. The effective implementation of this line item offers material and labor savings during construction as well as water and energy savings throughout the life of the home.pr_appliances • Vertical Axis (Top Loading) Energy-Saving Clothes Washers: www.gov/buildings/info/documents/pdfs/26465.eere.g.3 ENERGY STAR water-conserving appliances installed. This helps reduce the amount of conductive heat loss from the pipe.pdf 4. pg.2 Water heater located within 30 feet pipe run of all bathrooms and kitchen. The machine also removes more water during the spin cycle. DOE Technology Factsheet: www. dishwasher.. March. Intent: Minimizing the distance between the water heater and major hot water uses reduces the total amount of plumbing pipe installed. Resources: • DOE Technology Fact Sheet—Water Heating www. reducing drying time. An ENERGY STAR dishwasher uses about 40% less water than conventional models. and laundry rooms are “clustered” or “stacked.” the water heater can be placed to maximize efficient delivery. and the kitchen (helping to conserve water). Resources: • List of ENERGY STAR-rated appliances: www.org/Docs/MainNav/Energy/4070_doe_energyefficientappliances.pdf?TrackID=&CategoryID=1280&D ocumentID=4070 • “Dishing Out Dollars. the amount of time it takes for hot water to reach baths. An ENERGY STAR washing machine uses approximately 20 gallons of water per load compared with 40 gallons for standard models. The ENERGY STAR label takes much of the guesswork out of selecting energy efficient appliances and equipment. Intent: Reduce water consumption by selecting water-efficient major household appliances.cfm?c=appliances. making the selection process easier for builders and homeowners.org/tertiaryT.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1280&DocumentID=2004 • Energy Efficient Appliances. 37. 1998. A comprehensive review of energy. Information / How to Implement: The ENERGY STAR label identifies appliances that are at least 20% more energy efficient than other appliances of similar size and model and use less water than their standard counterparts.energy. It has an added benefit of resource efficiency from using less piping material. e. the laundry area. Once baths. washing machine.” Consumer Reports. ENERGY STAR washing machines are available in both topand front-loading models.gov/index. Information / How to Implement: This line item is closely related to the efficient design of the home discussed under the Resource Efficiency section.
epa. Intent: Reduce water use associated with toilet flushing.2 gallons/minute Intent: Save water by installing aerators that cut flow to levels below the federal minimum standards for faucet flow rate. Power-assist toilets with a small. Other new gravity-fed models use as little as 0.org/tertiaryT. Power-assist B.1.htm#3 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 4 129 .4 gallons per flush depending upon liquid or solid waste. Aerators can be simply screwed into most conventional faucets.edu/programs/water_cons/home/bathroom_toilet. Resources: • PATH Technology Inventory: Low Flow Plumbing Fixtures www. Low Flow Toilets: www. Information / How to Implement: Several manufacturers offer toilets that use even less water than the federally mandated 1.4 gallons per flush and maintain quiet operation. These models require a receptacle near the toilet and have a button on top that allows the user to select the desired flow. Dual flush.000 gallons per year.gov/owm/water-efficiency/toilets. (< 1.org/tertiaryT. Resources: • PATH Technology Inventory: Low Flow Plumbing Fixtures www.6 Ultra-low-flow.4.toolbase. but this setting can be adjusted.arizona.htm • Arizona Cooperative Extension: www.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1316&DocumentID=2135 • Plumbing materials and supplies: www. Resources: • EPA. Information / How to Implement: Low-flow showerheads conserve water by cutting water flow to levels below the federal minimum standards for showerhead flow rate.com 4. electrically powered pump use either 1.6 gpm/flush) toilets installed: A. Most of these models are set to a particular flow rate at installation.toolbase.1.1. Installing aerators in faucets conserves water by restricting the water flow at the faucet outlet.plumbingworld.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1316&DocumentID=2135 4. One manufacturer estimates water savings of about 2.sahra.8 to 1.6 gallons per flush while still performing reliably. Information / How to Implement: Aerators are a water saving device.4 Water-efficient showerhead using conventional aerator or venturi technology for flow rate < 2.5 Water-efficient sink faucets/aerators < 2.0 or 1.5 gpm Intent: Save water by installing low-flow showerheads.
. H2ouse. www. The systems operate at a particular time each day regardless of whether it has rained recently. computer-based weather record.1. Zoned systems can conserve water by providing irrigation on a selective basis since most plants require 25% to 50% less water than lawns. Often. the California Urban Water Conservation Council. making it more efficient than spray systems. drip irrigation.cfm?elementID=68BAD0B5-0C95-4AE88EC6EC8D76A4CBE1&actionID=BD9DA9D3-0CFA-4F05-B3CBFEC63E2EEE57&roomID=F80B1F87-C00D498C-9C1F1E5BE9D04637 4.org/PDF/IA_BMP_FEB_2004. but are also recommended in any region where lawns and bedding areas require supplemental watering during the growing season.org/tour/details/element_action_contents.8 Irrigation system zoned separately for turf and bedding areas. www. www. Irrigation Association. Water runoff and evaporation are minimized with drip irrigation systems.g. assessing the need for watering by visual observation or surface conditions can be difficult since watering needs are based on conditions at the roots.irrigation.h2ouse.g. Resources: • Turf and Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices. The recommended method for irri- 130 SECTION 4 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .. Resources: • Turf and Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices. stream-rotator spray heads. Intent: Control irrigation to individual areas. Intent: Conserve water by providing irrigation on an “as needed” basis. e.org. e.1. soaker hose.9 Weather-based irrigation controls. non-spray irrigation system installed.cfm?elementID=68BAD0B5-0C95-4AE88EC6EC8D76A4CBE1&actionID=BD9DA9D3-0CFA-4F05-B3CBFEC63E2EEE57&roomID=F80B1F87-C00D498C-9C1F1E5BE9D04637 4. bubblers. Irrigation Association. H2ouse.4.7 Low-volume. Intent: Minimize outdoor water use by installing irrigation systems that offer the most effective and efficient delivery method. moisture-sensor.pdf • Landscaping Irrigation Systems.org/tour/details/element_action_contents. Information / How to Implement: The portion of household water used outdoors varies by climate but can be up to 60% of all household water use.org/PDF/IA_BMP_FEB_2004. Zoned irrigation systems allow for distributed control of the flow of water to each individual turf or bedding area. www. most irrigation systems are controlled by automatic timers. Information / How to Implement: Drip irrigation systems provide water directly to root systems where it is most needed.org.1..irrigation. Currently. Drip systems are the preferred irrigation method in the desert regions of the United States. Information / How to Implement: Turf and bedding areas have different irrigation needs based on the various types of grasses and vegetation planted. the California Urban Water Conservation Council.h2ouse.pdf • Landscaping Irrigation Systems.. drip emitters.
irrigation.org/tertiaryT.S. http://drought.1.toolbase. www.ukans. if onsite processing is the only option for a builder on a lot. if in plentiful supply. Information / How to Implement: Rainwater collection systems store rainwater for future watering and irrigation needs. and lower impact on the environment. Rainwater Harvesting: www.edu/pubs/water/az1052/harvest.. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 4 131 . Collecting rainwater keeps rainwater onsite. However.edu/AASG/AASG.11 Innovative wastewater technology as permitted by local code. thus lowering the impact on storm water collection and conveyance systems and helping to replenish aquifers.edu/dm/monitor. which. These technologies treat wastewater to higher levels. www. sand filter.org/PDF/IA_BMP_FEB_2004.html 4.html • Garden supply houses 4. and aerobic system.g. Resources: • Turf and Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices.html • Soil type and classification. Computer-based controls use historical local weather data to project anticipated weather patterns and time outdoor watering accordingly. Irrigation Association.kgs. Intent: Communities often rely on municipal sewage treatment systems rather than onsite wastewater systems because of the generally higher level of supervision and control.arizona. constructed wetland. See Resources for information about how to construct a rainwater harvesting system and related code issues.10 Collect and use rainwater as permitted by local code. can be harmful to water bodies.1.pdf • University of Nebraska drought monitoring site by U.) Intent: Reduce water needs for irrigation by collecting and using rainwater. Resources: • PATH Technology Inventory. Association of American State Geologists. the builder will be rewarded for using advanced measures that more effectively process waste and reduce constituents such as nitrogen. improved system operation. Information / How to Implement: Innovative wastewater systems are a technological advancement over conventional septic systems. This not only saves water but also provides the optimum conditions for the turf grass or plants in question since over-watering can be as detrimental to healthy plant growth as insufficient water.unl.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1315&DocumentID=2129 • Harvesting Rainwater for Landscape Use: http://ag. state. (Additional credit for distribution systems that use a renewable energy source or gravity.gation control is to use sensors that activate irrigation based on soil moisture content. Many types of rainwater collection systems are also available commercially. resulting in cleaner effluent discharge. e.
asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2137&CategoryID=1002 • Greywater: www.epa.org/tertiaryT.2 Separate and reuse greywater as permitted by local code.e.eere.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/html/625R00008. shower.us/water/Water%20PDFs/graywater.extension.2.pdf 132 SECTION 4 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .toolbase.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1291&DocumentID=4063 4.deq.org/tertiaryT. www.edu/distribution/naturalresources/DD7734.2. Using Gray Water at Home: www.htm • University of Minnesota Extension Service: www. Resources: • U. Pedal-activated faucets allow individuals to use their feet to control the faucet.3. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. and sink water for non-potable uses.gov/femp/pdfs/29267-6. Information / How to Implement: Motion-sensor devices automatically control on/off operation of the faucet. and sinks.toolbase. Greywater is typically used to irrigate lawns. Intent: Reduce water waste by installing a faucet control that allows the user.az. Showers.html • Alternative Individual Wastewater Systems fact sheet: www.umn. via a (typically) hands-free method.. Reusing greywater can significantly reduce total household water consumption.pdf 4.S. Office of Water. i.com • Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. DOE. Intent: Reduce total household water consumption by reusing greywater. EPA/625/R-00/008.greywater. Both systems conserve water by reducing the duration of a water flow event.energy.co. showers. Resources: • PATH Technology Inventory: www. to turn water on and off without changing the temperature.2 4. Greening Federal Facilities.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1325&DocumentID=2258 • Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems fact sheet: www. and vegetation and can also be used to flush toilets.Resources: • United States Environmental Protection Agency. February 2002.pima.1 I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S Shut-off valve or pedal-activated faucet to enable intermittent on/off operation. Faucets and Drinking Fountains www. shrubs. water generated from the laundry. Office of Research and Development. trees. Information / How to Implement: Greywater reuse is the process of recycling laundry.org/tertiaryT.toolbase.
oikos. Resources • EPA. Composting Toilets: www.com/library/compostingtoilet/ • Composting Toilets: www.2.3 Composting or waterless toilet installed as permitted by local code.4. Technology Fact Sheet.com/sourcebook/CompostToilet. Information / How to Implement: Composting or waterless toilets do not use water.org/ NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 4 133 . Intent: Eliminate water use associated with toilet flushing by installing composting or waterless toilets. Composting Toilets: www.gov/owm/mtb/comp.epa.pdf • Sustainable Building Sourcebook.compostingtoilet.html • What is a composting toilet? www.greenbuilder.
vent-free) where byproducts are exhausted into the home. www.ca.hhinst. All space and water heating appliances must meet these criteria to receive points. www. induced draft. www.org/Docs/MainNav/Energy/3947_spotventilation1. etc.epa.doc • For spot ventilation. For vented space heating and water heating equipment: A.gov/Publications/GreenBuilding/43303015. Install direct vent equipment. www. kitchen. Install induced/mechanical draft combustion equipment. or ejector located in the vent.html (Sept 2004) • Mold in Residential Buildings.) can depressurize a tight home and cause the byproducts of combustion from appliances to be drawn into the home. minimize the back-drafting potential by choosing direct-vent (sealed combustion) or mechanical/induced-draft (powervented) equipment. 3) Mechanical draft equipment (aka. If installing combustion space and water heating appliances. Information / How to Implement: Combustion appliance manufacturers offer equipment with various means of exhausting by-products: 1) Unvented equipment (aka.com/concrete/finished_basements/a_word_about_vocs.SECTION 5 I N D O O R E N V I R O N M E N TA L Q UA L I T Y GENERAL RESOURCES • The Sustainable Building Sourcebook.org/tertiaryT. 2) Natural draft equipment (aka.1 M I N I M I Z E P OT E N T I A L S O U R C E S O F P O L LU TA N T S .toolbase. www. power vented) where by-products are exhausted through a vent due to pressure differences created by a fan.toolbase.htm • For Building Material Emissions Study. see the fact sheet Spot Ventilation—source control to improve indoor air quality www. Or B. A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. atmospherically vented) where environmental pressure and temperature differences cause byproducts to be drawn up a chimney which is directly connected to the equipment.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1554&DocumentID=2944 (Sept 2004) 5.1.1 5. www.greenbuilder.concretenetwork. For instance. Intent: There are concerns that exhaust vents (bathroom.pdf?TrackID=&CategoryID=1004&DocumentID=3 947 (Sept 2004) • EPA.com • The Healthy House Institute. Note: Points can be obtained for this guideline by mixing equipment types.ciwmb. ventless. blower. or 134 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .gov/iaq/pubs/insidest. direct-vent space heating equipment and an induced-draft water heater can be installed and receive credit.com • For Volatile Organic Compounds.
The Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of direct-vent equipment is typically above 85%. Atlantic City. J. An alternative to direct vent equipment includes isolating combustion equipment from the conditioned space. Builder’s Guide: Hot-Dry & Mixed-Dry Climates. Westford. Alternatives include installing direct-vent or mechanical/induced-draft equipment (see 5. New Jersey. Builder’s Guide: Hot-Humid Climates. Inc. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 • Lstiburek. J. ASHRAE Winter Meeting. Combustion Equipment Safety: Provide Safe Installation for Combustion Appliances. Inc.1. M. AC-02-3-2. American Gas Association. NFPA 542002. Information / How to Implement: A combustion closet is an area sealed off from the conditioned space. Mechanically vented or electric water heaters may be the most practical option for many builders wishing to comply with this guideline.gov/iaq/homes/ Search for “Preventing Problems with Combustion Equipment” and “What You Should Know About Combustion Appliances and Indoor Air Pollution” 5. Westford. 2002. such as constructing a combustion closet (see 5. Department of Energy. Section G2406 (303) Appliance Location • American Society of Heating. MA: Building Science Corporation. MA: Building Science Corporation. February 2002 • www. U.2). Combustion Closet Design chapter NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 5 135 . install a solid door with weather stripping and a sufficient threshold. Resources: • Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers.1-2002.epa.L.S. J. Westford.1.. Products of combustion are then vented directly outdoors. Depressurization-Induced Backdrafting and Spillage: Implications of Results from North American Field Studies. Direct-vent water heaters remain quite expensive. N.2 Install space heating and water heating equipment in an isolated mechanical room or closet with an outdoor source of combustion and ventilation air. Intent: Installing combustion appliances in an isolated space. September 2000 • Lstiburek. Atlanta. Some local codes may require an outdoor source of combustion air for mechanical draft equipment. 2002 Edition.. Nagda. January 12–16. January 2002 • Lstiburek. such as in a combustion closet. can minimize the concern that combustion byproducts could be drawn into the home. GA: American Society of Heating.D.. Builder’s Guide: Hot-Humid Climates.a-b) or installing electric equipment.4) Direct-vent equipment where all combustion takes place in a sealed chamber.1. Insulate and seal all walls and the ceiling.. and extend ducts outside the building envelope to provide combustion and ventilation air. MA: Building Science Corporation. Direct-vent space heating equipment also has an energy benefit as compared with natural draft or mechanical draft equipment. National Fuel Gas Code. Combustion air is drawn directly from the outdoors into the chamber. 2002 • National Fire Protection Association.. ANSI Z2223. Resources: • Koontz. Page 3.
Or No fireplace or woodstove installed. and Barbecue Association (HPBA). http://hpba.org • HPBA fact sheet on EPA-certified wood burning www. EPA Compliance Monitoring. • Hearth.org. Outdoor air is also supplied directly to the combustion chamber so that indoor air is not required for combustion. exhausts through vent or chimney). nficertified. Like vented gas fireplaces. Resources: • U. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. or • Vent-free gas (uses room air for combustion and exhausts to room). EPA-certified woodstoves and gas appliances minimize outdoor air pollution.epa. • U. make sure it is sealed with a gasketed door.hpba. NFI Certification identifies those individuals who have passed an exam based on the knowledge needed to properly plan and install hearth products and their venting systems.org/communications/FactSheets/WoodBurningFireplace. or sealed wood burning fireplaces.pdf • National Fireplace Institute. Intent: Direct-vent sealed combustion gas fireplaces.hpba. www.com/_content_/VentingOptions. • Directvent gas (aka.hpba.html. Recognize that a wood-burning fireplace is only about 10 to 30% efficient. Patio. They use outside air for combustion and exhaust directly to the outside. Find a certified installer.org/communications/FactSheets/Fact03-EPAWoodBurn3.S. Consumer Energy Information: EREC Reference Briefs.pdf • HPBA fact sheet. and sealed woodstoves minimize the risk of smoke and combustion byproducts back-drafting into the home.3 Install direct-vent sealed combustion gas fireplace. and exhausts up a chimney) • Vented gas (uses room air for combustion. Department of Energy.gov/consumerinfo/factsheets/ja3. Direct-vent fireplaces (aka. sealed wood fireplace.energy. or sealed woodstove. When installing a wood-burning stove or fireplace. which has efficiencies of around 69 to 78 percent.htm (Sept 2004) 136 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Air Pollution from Wood-Burning Appliances and Fireplaces www.” outdoor combustion air provided directly to sealed combustion chamber.fireplacenow. Information / How to Implement: Fireplaces typically come in: • Wood burning (uses room air for combustion.eere. exhausts through vent or chimney). Consider specifying an EPA-certified wood stove. they typically use a heat exchanger to circulate warm air through the room but keep combustion air separate from room air.1. sealed combustion) are more energy efficient than wood fireplaces and atmosphericallyvented gas fireplaces.gov/compliance/monitoring/programs/woodstoves • For fireplace venting options. Gas Fireplaces www.org/communications/FactSheets/GasFireplace.pdf • HPBA fact sheet Wood Burning Fireplaces www. “sealed combustion.5.S. Woodstoves: www.
Ensure a tightly-sealed door between the garage and living area and provide continuous air barrier between garage and living areas including air-sealing penetrations, walls, ceilings, and floors.
Intent: Walls and ceilings between a garage and the living space should be tightly sealed to prevent car exhaust and other fumes from entering the living space. Pressure differences can cause fumes to be drawn into the living space through common walls and ceilings. Providing a continuous, sealed air barrier along this wall and sealing all penetrations will greatly reduce the potential for contaminants to enter the home from the garage. Automated mechanical ventilation is sometimes used to exhaust air from the garage to the outdoors. Because this type of system creates negative pressure in the garage, pollutants are less likely to be drawn into the home. However, mechanical ventilation is not a substitute for air sealing because wind speed and direction affect its performance. An alternative to providing a continuous air barrier is to construct a detached garage. However, this option requires more construction materials and therefore has a somewhat negative impact on resource efficiency. Information / How to Implement: A continuous air barrier, which decouples garage air from living space air, can be accomplished in many ways. Before the framed wall is enclosed, seal or caulk all penetrations, gasket or seal sills, caulk inside edges of top and bottom plate, install cavity insulation, and install an air barrier such as rigid foam or a sheet barrier (not a vapor retarder) overlapped and taped at joints and corners and attached to the bottom plate, drywall walls and ceiling, tape and spackle all seams. Gasketed drywall or the airtight drywall approach may also be used. At a minimum, caulk the drywall to the bottom plate, tape and spackle all drywall seams, and seal all penetrations. Only sealing the plates is not enough; air can enter between the drywall and the bottom plate, move through the stud bays, and out of the corresponding gap on the inside wall. Resources: • Super Good Cents Builders Field Guide—Chapter 9, Air Tightening Specialist • Building Science Corporation: Figure 19. www.buildingscience.com/housesthatwork/hotdry/tucson.htm • http://oikos.com/library/airsealing/rim_joists.html • Wilber, M.W. and S.R. Klossner. 1997. A Study of Undiagnosed Carbon Monoxide Complaints. Healthy Buildings/IAQ ’97: Global Issues and Regional Solutions, Vol. 3, Bethesda, Maryland, Sept 27-Oct, 1997 • Bohac, D.L. and T. H. Brown. 1997. Results from IAQ Evaluations on Cold Climate Single Family Houses Undergoing Sound Insulation. Healthy Buildings/IAQ ’97: Global Issues and Regional Solutions, Vol. 3, Bethesda, Maryland, Sept 27-Oct, 1997 5.1.5 Ensure particleboard, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and hardwood plywood substrates are certified to low formaldehyde emission standards ANSI A208.1, ANSI A208.2, and ANSI/HPVA HP1, respectively. Composite wood/agrifiber panel products must either contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins or must be third-party certified for low formaldehyde emissions.
Intent: Products certified as having low formaldehyde emissions have less detrimental effect on indoor air quality than uncertified products. In June 2004, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared formaldehyde a known human carcinogen. The glue used to bind materials in wooden board products often contains formaldehyde. Over time, Formaldehyde can leach out of these materials and into the home.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
Information / How to Implement: When purchasing wood panel products, look for materials certified as having low formaldehyde emissions. The Composite Panel Association’s Environmentally Preferable Product Certification Program certifies that composite panels at least meet the appropriate ANSI product criteria. Particleboard should be in conformance with ANSI A208.11993. For particleboard flooring, look for ANSI grades “PBU,” “D2,” or “D3” stamped on the panel. MDF should be in conformance with ANSI A208.2-1994 and hardwood plywood with ANSI/HPVA HP-1-1994. Resources: • IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans— monographs.iarc.fr/htdocs/announcements/vol88.htm • www.buildinggreen.com—GreenSpec Directory • The Composite Panel Association (CPA) Environmentally Preferable Product (EPP) Certification Program, www.pbmdf.com/AboutCPA/EPP.asp • www.eppbuildingproducts.org/specifications/draftspecs/RevisedCP.attachment/30/EPPD_Composite_Panels_052405.pdf This work is currently underway and may not be completed as of the printing of these guidelines. • GreenGuard certifies products for low emissions. As of September 2004, only one engineered wood product was listed. www.Greenguard.org • For formaldehyde-free MDF, check www.advancedbuildings.org/main_t_finishes_formaldehyde.htm, Sept 2004. 5.1.6 Install carpet, carpet pad, and floor covering adhesives that hold the “Green Label” from Carpet and Rug Institute’s indoor air quality testing program or meet equivalent thresholds verified by a third party.
Intent: Reduce VOC emissions from carpets by installing carpets certified by a third-party testing agency as low emitting. Information / How to Implement: The Carpet and Rug Institute administers a testing program to identify low-emitting carpets, carpet pads, and floor covering adhesives. Look for the “Green Label” when purchasing carpets. Natural fiber carpets are also good alternative floor coverings. Resources: • www.carpet-rug.com/drill_down_2.cfm?page=8&sub=4&requesttimeout=350 • Wargocki, P., D.P. Wyon, Y.K. Balk, G. Clausen and P.O. Fanger. 1999. Perceived Air Quality, Sick Building Syndrome Symptoms and Productivity in an Office with Two Different Pollution Loads. Indoor Air 1999, vol. 9: 165-179. • Environmental Protection Agency. www.epa.gov/iaq/formalde.html. (Sept 2004) 5.1.7 Mask HVAC outlets during construction and vacuum ducts, boots, and grilles before turning on central heating/cooling system.
Intent: When possible, do not operate ducted HVAC equipment during construction. Remove dust and dirt from supply and return ducts before putting the equipment into operation to minimize airborne pollutants.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
Information / How to Implement: Tightly cover openings with materials such as cardboard and tape, especially during tasks that create significant dust such as drywall or floor sanding. It is not necessary to professionally clean ducts to comply with this guideline. Rather, use a shop vacuum to remove dust and debris close to the openings. Resources: • Information will be added in Version 2. 5.1.8 Use low-VOC-emitting wallpaper.
Intent: Use low-VOC-emitting wallpaper to reduce potentially harmful VOCs from being emitted into the indoor air. Information / How to Implement: Use materials certified by a third party as having low VOC emissions. The reason this line item is in the IEQ guiding principle and the low VOC paints line item is in the “Global Impacts” guiding principle is because once the homeowner moves into a new home, the vast majority of VOCs in paints have already been released to the atmosphere and are thus do not have a significant impact on indoor environmental quality. However, wallpaper releases VOCs more slowly. Thus, there is still a relatively good amount of VOCs remaining in wallpaper after a homeowner moves into a new home. Resources: • www.greenguard.org • Green from Wall to Wall by Environmental Design+Construction, www.edcmag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/coverstory/BNPCoverStoryItem/0,4118,128601,00.html (Sept 2004) • Paints and Wall Coverings by DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. www.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267-7.1.6.pdf (Sept 2004)
M A N AG E P OT E N T I A L P O L LU TA N T S G E N E R AT E D I N T H E H O M E .
Vent kitchen range exhaust to the outside.
Intent: Remove moisture, odors, and combustion byproducts. Information / How to Implement: Install a range hood that is vented to the outside. Because a vented hood requires another puncture in the building envelope, be sure to tightly seal around the penetration. Take caution not to over-ventilate. Large kitchen exhaust fans can increase the potential for back-drafting if there are other combustion appliances in the home. (See 5.1.1 above.) The Home Ventilating Institute recommends a range hood with a minimum rate of 40 CFM per lineal foot of range top for wall-mounted hoods and 50 CFM per lineal foot for island hoods. For cooking that generates heavier steam or smoke, HVI recommends 100 CFM per lineal foot for wall-mounted hoods and 150 CFM per lineal foot for island hoods. Duct length and routing can affect flow rates; be sure to verify the flow rate is as designed. Resources: • Home Ventilating Institute, www.hvi.org • American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 • 2003 IRC, Page 302, Section M1506.3 Ventilation Rate
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
outdoor air traveling through a wall cavity can create moisture problems. Heat recovery ventilator D. an energyrecovery ventilator may be preferred. However.5 cfm per bedroom +7. One option for balanced ventilation is to use bath fans for the exhaust and to install a small duct from outside to the return side of the air handler on a central heating or cooling system. Intent: Provide small amount of background ventilation to ensure that indoor air is exchanged at a consistent and adequate rate. www. Balanced exhaust and supply fans C. However. they transfer moisture from one air stream to another. one should consider a dehumidifying ventilator. In these climates. As air is exhausted from the home.2. Exhaust or supply fan(s) B. Cleaner cooking. Heat recovery ventilators exchange sensible heat while energy recovery ventilators transfer moisture to some extent as well. Thus. For supply-only ventilation.shtml (Sept 2004) • Miltner.com/quickfix/kitchen_vent.democratandchronicle. Controls and timers are then used to operate the fans and air handler simultaneously or as desired. In addition to supplying fresh air and exhausting stale air.• State of California. locate the ducts carefully since cold or hot outdoor air can create comfort issues. 140 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .shtml (Sept 2004) 5. Introducing outdoor air into the home in a controlled manner has both an energy and IEQ advantage. www. Balanced Exhaust and Supply Fan: Balanced ventilation does not contribute to pressure imbalances between indoors and out. Outdoor air can also be supplied directly to the home with a separate fan. Air infiltration not only contributes to energy loss but can also cause mold problems if warmer air condenses when it reaches a cooler surface as it moves through a wall cavity.com/homes/buyersguide/1010G221OKH_HOODS11_Homes. Exhaust or Supply Fan: Kitchen or bath exhaust fans can be part of a whole-house ventilation strategy in cold climates if fans are controlled with timers or humidistats. The ventilation equipment may be: A.gov/research/indoor/rediap. Keeping Kitchen Smells Fresh. fresh air is introduced by another. Reducing Indoor Air Pollution. a very tight building shell can create the need for an intentional means of introducing fresh air into the living space.htm (Sept 2004) • Doiron. Information / How to Implement: It is advantageous from an indoor environmental quality perspective and for energy-efficiency purposes and comfort to construct a tight building envelope. the negative pressure created pulls in outdoor air from nooks and crannies in the building envelope. For severely humid climates.canadianhomeworkshop.5 cfm and controlled automatically or continuous with manual override. www. Energy recovery ventilator.ca. in a humid climate. Energy recovery ventilators are not dehumidifiers. humid climates because humid.arb. Karen. but take care in locating the ducts so that comfort is not compromised. they precondition the incoming air to some degree. some moisture from the incoming air is transferred to the exhaust stream. Jacques. Heat or Energy Recovery Ventilators: These systems are also a form of balanced ventilation. Typically.2 Provide mechanical ventilation at a rate of 7. if dry indoor air is a potential issue in a heating-dominated climate. supply-only ventilation is preferable. The practice is not recommended in warm. heat recovery ventilators are recommended for cold climates and energy recovery ventilators for hot climates. As air is exhausted by one (or more) fans.
nose. mold will grow within 24 to 48 hours. which are not only uncomfortable but also an invitation for bacteria and viruses.2. At the other extreme. Resources: • ToolBase Website. or Radiological Attacks.cdc. Information / How to Implement: Indoor humidity should be between 30 and 60 percent. if a whole-house humidification system is installed. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers.cfm (Sept.2. it should have an adjustable humidistat control to avoid excessive humidification. www. Information / How to Implement: MERV 9 filters remove particles larger than 3 microns and are more effective than standard spun fiber filters.html (Sept.4 Install humidistat to control whole-house humidification system. Some studies have shown that 97% of airborne particles are 1 micron or less.toolbase.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2096&CategoryID=960 (Sept.1B under the Energy Efficiency section. indoor humidity above about 60% can contribute to the potential for mold growth. and throat.cmhc-schl. Given temperatures between 40 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit and a food source (wood. Biological.3 Install MERV 9 filters on central air or ventilation systems. Inc. Therefore.3. dirt. 2004) NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 5 141 . 2004) • CHMC “ What a Furnace Filter Can Do For You” www. 2004) 5. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 5. Filters with a greater efficiency are often not recommended for space heating and cooling equipment because they may restrict airflow too much. which can result in moisture damage. paint.gc.org/tertiaryT.gov/niosh/docs/2003-136/2003-136c.See also Section 3. Resources: • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical. Intent: Control excessive humidification. Resources: American Society of Heating. dust). Indoor humidity below 30 percent causes dry eyes. MERV 9 filters capture dust but not contaminants such as molds and bacteria that are in the 1-micron range.ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose/abhose_ce22. Intent: Reduce the amount of airborne particulates. Humidity-Sensing Control Device www. More efficient filters such as MERV 9 also have a resource efficiency benefit from the standpoint that more dust is captured by the filter and is not deposited on the air handler.
cr. Radon is a carcinogen that can enter through voids in a home’s foundation and become trapped inside. call EPA’s Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791. special consideration should be taken to treat well water. Text and graphic from www. Information / How to Implement: Radon is a naturally occurring gas spontaneously produced from the decay of radium. indoor air. the more stringent requirement of local building code and this provision shall apply. the sheeting is placed over the crawl space floor. http://energy.gov/radon/georadon/4.html 142 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Radon levels can vary in outdoor air. Vent Pipe A three. Intent: Prevent radon gas from entering the home.html • Radon map for Prince George’s and Montgomery counties from USGS http://energy. D.gov/radon/georadon/4. C.5 Install sub-slab depressurization system or infrastructure to facilitate future installation of radon mitigation system. Plastic Sheeting Plastic sheeting is placed on top of the gas-permeable layer and under the slab to help prevent the soil gas from entering the home.html A. B. Radon gas can easily be directed outside with a few basic construction designs. Note that in high radon areas. Simple water treatments are available.gov/safewater/radon.or four-inch gas-tight or PVC pipe (commonly used for plumbing) runs from the gas-permeable layer through the house to the roof to safely vent radon and other soil gases above the house.usgs. soil. E.2. or contact the state radon office. When applicable.gov/radon/construc. and ground water. Page 559 • HBA: Use radioactivity maps from USGS. Resources: • 2003 IRC.epa. Gas-Permeable Layer This layer is placed beneath the slab or flooring system to allow the soil gas to move freely underneath the house. Sealing and Caulking All openings in the concrete foundation floor are sealed to reduce soil gas entry into the home.usgs. In crawl spaces. the material used is a four-inch layer of clean gravel.epa. colleges/universities to better know the dangerous radon zones in your area. visit www.5. Junction Box An electrical junction box is installed in case an electric venting fan is needed later. In many cases.html. state geological surveys. For more information.cr.
which can lead to deterioration of building products and potential mold problems.• EPA’s map of radon zones by county www. Without adequate fan capacity. 1996 5. Information / How to Implement: See Resources section.ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose/abhose_ce17..html • HBA: EPA also recommends contacting your state radon representative.epa.com/products/products1. Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial Buildings. Resources: • Lstiburek J. and remove residual moisture from bathrooms after use. Information / How to Implement: If ductwork is not properly sized and installed. Fans should perform within 10% of their rated capacity.gov/iaq/whereyoulive.6 Verify all exhaust flows meet design specifications. Wiley.2.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1174 5. Moisture Control Handbook. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 5 143 . Page 564.3.3 M O I S T U R E M A N AG E M E N T ( VA P O R .toolbase.energyconservatory. EPA has a list of contacts on its website at www.html • 2000 IRC. Intent: Ensure all exhaust flows are operating as designed. After installation.html • www.gov/radon/zonemap. visually inspect the duct length.org/secondaryT. Intent: Ensure that fans are operated in a manner that removes moisture without relying on input from the homeowner.cmhc-schl. moisture may not be properly removed. P LU M B I N G . H VAC ) Intent: Reduce risk of moisture accumulation.htm 5. Radon-resistant construction details for four foundation types • For Radon remediation. Carmody.gc. and ensure that connections are secure.cfm • Flow hood equipment—www. check www. check for missing parts.epa. A more accurate method of checking fan airflow is to use a flow hood or pitot tube and manometer. For example. and J. Size ducts according to the manufacturer’s recommendation for diameter and maximum length. fan flow may be restricted and not exhaust air at its rated capacity. Ask the installer about methods of checking airflow. Resources: • ACCA Manual D www. a fan rated at 50 CFM may exhaust only 35 CFM if duct runs are extremely long or if ductwork is kinked during installation.epa. R A I N WAT E R . look for crimped or damaged ducts.gov/radon • Radon Resistant New Construction—www.1 Control bathroom exhaust fan with a timer or humidistat.epa.gov/radon/construc.
Installing controllers on fans. Intent: Reduce the risk of problems if water penetrates tile surfaces in kitchens and baths. Intent: Prevent moisture migration from the ground through wicking action (through slab) or by vapor movement (in crawl space). http://hem. Joints should be lapped 12 inches.3 Install vapor retarder directly under slab (6 mil) or on crawl-space floor (8 mil). They are wired in and mounted like a typical switch.dis.com 5. they can be adjusted to operate between 20% and 80% relative humidity. Cement backerboard is resistant to the deleterious effects of moisture.g.pdf (Sept 2004) 5. is an effective method for removing interior generated moisture at its source.cmhc-schl.3. 144 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . bath fans are used infrequently because of their noise. Homeowners should be instructed to run bathroom exhaust fans for 20 minutes after a bath or shower.Information / How to Implement: Often. In crawl spaces.gc.gov/eehem/98/980310. or simply because the homeowner is not in the habit of doing so. and be a substrate for mold growth when wet.org/docs/MainNav/Energy/3947_spotventilation1.tileusa. Humidistats will automatically cycle the fan on and off to maintain proper humidity levels. swell (potentially causing cracking in the grout).toolbase. Resources: Backerboard manufacturer Web sites for installation information (e. www. extend poly up wall and affix with glue and furring strips. if possible.cfm • Moisture Control in Bathrooms by Home Energy Magazine Online.anl. Timers can also prevent unnecessary fan energy use that occurs when a fan is inadvertently left on. Any penetrations or other areas where the vapor retarder has been compromised should be sealed with tape or caulk. Timers can typically be set to run from 10 to 60 minutes. www. See Section 3.ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose/abhose_ce17. 2003-2004 Handbook for the Installation of Ceramic Tile. Durock) Tile Council of America.3.2 for information about energy-efficient exhaust fans.html (Sept 2004) • Spot ventilation—source control to improve indoor air quality. Timers and humidistats cost about $25 and up. under tiled surfaces in wet areas. Timers and humidistats are basically upgraded switches. Resources: • http://energyoutlet. Information / How to Implement: A cement-based backerboard does not contain organic paper that can deteriorate. Bath fans are also available with integral humidistats and timers.. a lack of understanding of their importance by the homeowner.com/res/fan/ • www. WonderBoard.3.2 Install moisture resistant backerboard. Information / How to Implement: A vapor retarder should be continuous with joints lapped 12 inches and taped. or damp-proof wall below grade. not paper-faced sheathing. especially timers or humidistats that remove residual humidity after a person leaves the bathroom.
Tim. Interior architectural items such as flooring. This guideline is also a cost-effective measure—by protecting materials from the weather. Handling. Wood handbook—Wood as an engineering material. Design Factors Affecting Dimensional Change. 2000. deterioration. Tech. Lumber should not be stored in direct contact with the ground: It should be elevated to allow air circulation and to prevent absorption of ground moisture.southernpine. and swelling can be avoided.org/mall/builder_guides. APA—The Engineered Wood Association. and Safety Recommendations for APA Performance Rated I-Joists. such as by covering it with house-wrap (plastic sheeting can trap moisture).Resources: • Carter. USDOE.com/printer_279_Vapor_Retarders_Will_Stop_Odors_and_Moisture.pdf • Storage.org/pdfs/managed/Z735. Information / How to Implement: Lumber should be inspected upon delivery for moisture and mold. Vapor Retarders Will Stop Odors and Moisture.com/customer/efficiency/res/answers/pdf/crawlspaces.shtml • Proper Storage and Handling of Glulam Beams.shtml (Sept 2004) • Makela. www. PFS Research Foundation. Center for Housing Research.dom. WI. available from the Energy and Environmental Building Association’s Web site at www. and Hot-Humid Climates). Handling.holtonhomes.askthebuilder.pdf • Storage and Handling of APA Trademarked Panels. trim. www. Department of Housing and Urban Development NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 5 145 . Storage.com/lumberstorage. and cabinets should be stored indoors until they reach equilibrium with interior moisture levels. see Section 12.toolbase.4 Protect unused moisture-sensitive materials from water damage through just-in-time delivery. www.pdf • (Just-in-Time Delivery) Industrializing the Residential Construction Site. Delivery should be scheduled so that lumber is used soon after it is received at the site.pdf (Sept 2004) • Crawlspace Moisture Control.pdf (Sept 2004) • Proper Lumber Storage. Resources: • Panel Selection. www.S.org/pdfs/managed/R540. Eric.pdf%20 • EEBA Builders’ Guides (for Cold. shrinking.eeba. VPI. FPL-GTR113. Madison.S. 463 p. Rep. 1999. Gen. WI • Forest Products Laboratory. et al. March 2000.3. Madison. OSB Design and Construction Guide. Wetting of building materials can lead to dimensional instability. Lumber that is stored outside should be covered in an open area in a way that will protect the wood from rain and snow but will also allow water vapor to escape.apawood. Forest Products Laboratory. www.com/webcast_04_crawlspaces. Southern Pine Council.apawood.apawood. Department of Agriculture. Mixed-Humid. • ToolBase. and mold growth. Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry. www. Page 18. storing unused materials in a dry area. www. U. APA—The Engineered Wood Association.org/docs/ToolBaseTop/Research/3464_HelpingHomebuyeresUnderstandMold. Intent: Prevent wetting of building materials through proper storage techniques during construction. waste from warping. www. How to construct unventilated crawlspace to meet the provisions. Available from the U.org/pdfs/managed/U450. fact sheet by Dominion Power. or tenting materials and storing them on a raised platform. Forest Service.asp 5.
7 Insulate HVAC ducts.00. Information / How to Implement: Foam insulation for insulating pipes is readily available and easy to install.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2570&CategoryID=110 • Lewis. e. When piping must be located in exterior walls. Resources: • Builder’s Guide to Placement of Ducts and HVAC Equipment in Conditioned Space. insulation. to minimize the need for running supply lines on exterior walls.html (Sept 2004) 5. and interior finishes.com/diy/diy_kits/article/0..org/basic/frozen. Information / How to Implement: Try to cluster bathrooms and other hot water uses.g.5 Keep plumbing supply lines out of the exterior walls.com/cs/plumbing/a/frozen_pipes_b3. Available at www.3.3. Bill. Water supply lines can be run through duct chases (designed for keeping ducts in conditioned space). NAHB Research Center.2019. insulation should be placed between the exterior sheathing and the pipe but not between the pipe and the interior wall (to prevent freezing).org/tertiaryT.htm (Sept 2004) 5.6 Insulate cold water pipes in unconditioned spaces with insulation or other coating that comparably prevents condensation.toolbase. Also reduce the consequences of a potential plumbing leak. Intent: Prevent condensation on the outside of cold HVAC ducts located in unconditioned basements and crawl spaces that can lead to moisture problems in those areas. Resources: • Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes.5. Intent: Reduce the potential for condensation on cold water supply pipes located in unconditioned space by insulating the pipes. www. Preventing Frozen Water Pipes. This guideline has more relevance in hot.diynet. 2000.DIY_13787_2275412. and trunks in unconditioned basements and crawl spaces to avoid condensation. 146 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . which could lead to wetting of structural members. Intent: Reduce the potential for condensation by keeping supply pipes in conditioned space. humid climates where piping is more likely to be located in an unconditioned area.htm (Sept 2004) • Do It Yourself.prepare.about. where pipes are not exposed to large temperature and humidity differentials. http://homerepair. “stacked” bathrooms. plenums. Cold water piping installed in crawl spaces can pose a condensation problem in colder regions during the summer months.3. www.
htm (Sept 2004) • EPA Moisture Content Calculation. ToolBase Services fact sheet. testing a concrete slab requires use of a calcium chloride test. use spray foam or wrap a flexible insulation product (e. 1998.pdf • Computing Moisture Content of Wood. Installing Hardwood Flooring.toolbase.dis. • The Wood Flooring Manufacturer’s Association.org/docs/MainNav/MoistureandLeaks/876_protocol5A. Information / How to Implement: Use a moisture meter (preferably a probe-type meter. 7-8.org/tertiaryT. For hardwood flooring over a truss or joist system.html (Sept 2004) • Insulating Ducts for Efficiency. www.us/de/energybook/hbchap5.3.org.. available at www. as it can be an entry point into the home for vermin.Information / How to Implement: www. Reduce the risk of shrinkage and mold on lumber by ensuring the moisture content of dimensional lumber is below 19% before enclosure.htm • Electric Moisture Meters. which is more accurate than the scanning type) to measure the moisture content in the wood and wood subfloor. A sample of wood materials can be checked relatively quickly before installing finish materials.toolbase. fiberglass batts) around metal supply ducts.html (Sept 2004) 5. Hardwood Flooring Installation Guidelines.va. When installing flooring over a concrete slab. Available at www.org/installation1.html • Crawlspace Condensation by Home Energy Magazine Online http://hem.gov/athens/learn2model/part-two/onsite/mc.mme. wood flooring should not be installed over concrete with readings exceeding seven pounds calcium chloride. p.anl.8 Check moisture content of wood before enclosing on both sides. moisture content should be acceptable before the wood is enclosed in a wall or floor joist cavity.com/ArticleLibrary/Subject/HVAC/Insulation/InsulatingDucts.woodbin.state. Ensure moisture content of subfloor/substrate meets the appropriate industry standard for the finish flooring material to be installed. Moisture Testing Guide for Wood Frame Construction Clad with Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems. Intent: Because wood’s ability to dry is compromised when it is not subject to free airflow.energyoutlet.htm (Sept 2004) NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 5 147 .A. www. Resources: • National Wood Flooring Association.asp?TrackID=&DocumentID=2120&CategoryID=1013Golden. Per the National Wood Flooring Association’s guidelines. and perform a calcium chloride test to measure moisture in a concrete slab/subfloor. www.nwfa. Use a surface moisture meter.nofma. and trunks in basements and crawl spaces.epa. reflective insulation. www. available at www.gov/eehem/01/010304. (Source: Reflectix) Resources: • Energy Outlet information on duct sealing.g. the average moisture content of framing members and subflooring should be below 12% to 14% before delivery of the flooring. J. www.bobvila. plenums.html After sealing ductwork. Do not use flexible ductwork in crawl spaces.com/res/ducts/insulating.com/ref/wood/emc.. the test should show a moisture content of three pounds or less (if no moisture retarder is installed) and four to seven pounds (if a moisture retarder is installed).
5.4 I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S Information will be added in Version 2. 148 SECTION 5 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .
List of habits/actions to optimize water and energy use. Local transportation options. Energy-Saving tips: www.S. H. E.goodmart. county. A N D H O M E O W N E R E D U C AT I O N Ensure that homeowners are aware of the green features of their new home.org (click on “Green Building”). know how to operate and maintain the home to achieve the highest level of environmental performance. www. operation. by California Building Standards • Your local HBA’s Green Building Program office.cfm (Sept 2004) • National Environmental Services Center.com/light_bulb_energy_saving_calculator. city.SECTION 6 O P E R AT I O N . For a copy. Local Green Building Program’s certificate.edu/nsfc/NewReleases/nsfc_NR_11_14_03. Intent: Help homeowners to “live green” in their green-built home. or township recycling information • U.energy. Information / How to Implement: Gather information for homeowners from local and national resources (see Resources). By CMHC.toolbase. Information on how to enroll in a program for purchasing energy from a renewable energy provider.cmhc-schl. township. G. Include information about the green features of the home as well as tips for living in the home with less impact on the environment.aceee. Narrative detailing the importance of maintenance and operation to keep a green-built home green. C.gov/consumerinfo/energy_savers/ and www.org. I.htm • Metropolitan-area. Resources: • Fannie Mae. • NAHB’s Your New Home and How To Take Care of It • The National Home Maintenance Manual. DOE’s Green Power Network: www. F.nesc. call Fannie Mae’s Consumer Resource Center at 1-800-7FANNIE (1-800-732-6643). Home Performance Power: Fannie Mae’s Guide to Buying and Maintaining a Green Home. 6.htm (Sept 2004) NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 6 149 . Ask whether the local Green Building Program offers a sample Green Homeowner’s Manual.aspx • Water-saving tips at www. and have a resource for warranty issues. Clear labeling of safety valves and controls for major house systems. or private public transit information (usually listed in the front of the phone book) • Homeowner’s Manual—At last.gov/greenpower/ • Lighting energy savings calculator at www.h2ouse.eere. Household recycling opportunities.energy.eere. B. List of local Green Building Programs at www.gc. • Various manufacturers • City. and maintenance instructions for equipment and appliances. an owner’s manual for your new home.wvu.org/consumerguide/chklst. county.1 P R OV I D E M A N UA L TO O W N E R S / O CC U PA N T S O N T H E U S E A N D C A R E O F T H E H O M E T H AT I N C LU D E S A L L O F T H E I T E M S B E LO W A.ca/en/bureho/buho/buho_002. M A I N T E N A N C E. www. Explanation of the benefits of using compact fluorescent light bulbs in high usage areas. Warranty. D.
de-icers. and environmental cleaning products. Photos should be taken prior to installing insulation.on. Information should note that downspouts should divert water at least five feet away from foundation. List of the Green Building Guideline items that are included in the home.gov. Photo record of framing showing utilities installed. Resources: • Home*a*Syst. The Virgin Homeowner: The Essential Guide to Owning.pdf (Sept 2004) • For fire prevention: www. Maintaining.edu/distribution/naturalresources/DD6651. Penguin Books.edu/homeasyst 150 SECTION 6 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . User-friendly maintenance checklist.ofm.caionline. and Surviving Your Home. Janice. B. F. and http://scholar.pdf (Sept 2004) • For HVAC: www.2 O P T I O N A L I T E M S TO I N C LU D E I N T H E H O M E M A N UA L ( C H O O S E AT L E A S T F I V E ) A.ca/english/FirePrevention/FireSmart%20Communities/pdf/User%20guide. www.cfm (Sept 2004) • Massachusetts Housing Partnership.cahe.pdf (Sept 2004) • For soil-lead hazard: www.htm (Sept 2004) 6.gov/region01/leadsafe/pdf/chapter8.php (Sept 2004) • How-To Publications by Family Resource Management. G.umn. I. gutter and downspout system. College of Agriculture & Home Economics. available at www. Intent: Provide further information about maintenance and operation of a green home and the surrounding site.ca. Information on organic pest control.lib. caulks. E.seismic.com/Education/Healthy_Home_Information/Space_Heating_and_Cooling/sizing_heat_and_ac. fertilizers. ISBN: 0140274766 • For earthquake safety: www.html (Sept 2004) • For pest control and pesticide safety: http://pep. Information / How to Implement: Provide above information in the homeowner’s manual. Information about checking crawl space for termite tubes periodically. C.edu/ejournals/JPSE/v5/v5hipkinsra2.• Community Associations Institute. irrigation systems.vt. Maintenance instructions for native or low-water landscape. Information on how to keep a home’s relative humidity in the range of 30% to 60%.extension.pdf (Sept 2004) • For septic system by University of Minnesota Extension Service: www.net/homeownership/education. H.).mhp.gov/pub/CSSC_2002-04_HOG. Instructions for proper handling and disposal of hazardous materials. shower/tub surrounds.nmsu. www. J. Healthy Home Tool. etc.edu/psp/scripts/documents. www. List of local service providers that focus on regularly scheduled maintenance and proper operation of equipment and the structure (sealants.edu/pubs/_g/ (Sept 2004) • Papolos.healthgoods.asp?qryType=new.epa.uwex. and provided in homeowner’s manual.wsu. D. clearly marked. An Environmental Risk-Assessment Guide for the Home.org/about/homeowner_education. Instructions for keeping gutters clean.
demonstrate how to control all the mechanical systems in the home.gov/grtlakes/seahome/housewaste/src/open. Local recycling information may cover hazardous wastes. lighting controls. or in a pantry. for example.toolbase. Provide training to owners/occupants for all control systems in the house. • Local Cooperative Extension office should have printed information.com. Credit is also given in this line item for an in-counter compost bin. 60 pages Provide homeowners tips on maintenance to help keep their new home performing at its peak. 6. DC: BuilderBooks. and fan controls. • County or state Cooperative Extension publications • Cooperative Extension publications for information about termite tubes. Hardware is available for recycling bins to rest on slides.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/househld/hhw. and what they look like. Intent: Make it convenient to recycle. such as NaturaLawn. In the back there are pages on which to note maintenance dates and remarks. organic-based lawn services. www. The county or state may have Cooperative Extension fact sheets geared toward your municipality (see.htm.uky. where to look for them. Instruct homeowners/occupants about the building’s goals and strategies and occupant impacts on costs of operating the building. allowing plenty of room for other typical under-sink items. Resources: • National Association of Home Builders.epa. 6.4 S O L I D WA S T E A.org/tertiaryT. Most under-sink recycling systems can fit two bins under one side of the sink. Demonstrate how to use all controls such as thermostats. See. Also. Washington. for example.• Local Green Building Checklist or other documents • EPA document: www.3 P R OV I D E E D U C AT I O N TO O W N E R S / O CC U PA N T S I N T H E U S E A N D CARE OF THEIR DWELLINGS A. Information / How to Implement: Include a recycling center in or near the kitchen under the sink.epa.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1280&DocumentID=2001 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 6 151 . www. 800-223-2665 • Manuals from manufacturers for reference.builderbooks.edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/struct/ef604.htm • Check with the local or state environmental or solid-waste agency to see if there is a hazardous waste drop-off day. in an island near the sink. • www. Resources: • www.htm). Intent: During the walk-through. Encourage homeowners/occupants to recycle by providing built-in space in the home’s design for recycling containers. Your New Home and How to Take Care of It. 2001. usually have printed information.
152 SECTION 6 NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .5 I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S Information will be added in Version 2.6.
There are paints certified as low-VOC emitting that are certified through GREENGUARD—an independent air-quality certification organization. Note that low-VOC-content paints are not the same as low-VOC-emitting paints. EPA established low-VOCcontent standards based on a set of ozone-forming chemicals. For example. Although emissions of VOCs from paints can negatively affect indoor air. Interior latex coatings: Flat: 100 grams/liter B. homeowners can be informed about the use of low-VOC-emitting paints when repainting the home in the future. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 7 153 . by choosing them you contribute to a healthier environment. www. the half-life of VOCs in paints is usually shorter than the time between painting and homeowner occupancy. Interior oil-based paints: 380 grams/liter Intent: Reduce the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released to the outdoors and to reduce the formation of ground-level ozone.1. VOC concentrations (grams/liter) of interior paints should be equal to or less than those specified by the EPA’s Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program as follows: A. Check the label on the paint can for the VOC content.1.1 PRODUCTS Manufacturers’ operations and business practices include environmental management system concepts (the product line.mswg.1 7.S.pdf 7. EPA Position Statement on Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Resources: • U. paints cure and finish off-gassing in approximately four days. Intent: Use products that come from organizations that have taken the time and resources to create an environmental management system (EMS) that conforms to the ISO 14001 standard.2 Choose low.or no-VOC indoor paints. Non-flat: 150 grams/liter C. these standards do not take into account the many other potentially hazardous chemicals found in indoor paint. Low-VOC-content paints are widely available. Information / How to Implement: VOC content of paints is categorized under Global Impacts rather than Indoor Environmental Quality because. or company must be ISO 14001 certified). The U. a home buyer typically occupies a home two to four weeks after painting.S.org/USEPAPS/EMSposState. plant. Although the builder’s paint isn’t a big indoor pollutant.SECTION 7 G LO B A L I M PAC T 7. Information / How to Implement: See Resources section. once a homeowner moves into a new home. the vast majority of VOCs in paints have been released to the atmosphere and are thus not a significant impact on indoor environmental quality.
www.2 7.paintinfo. there was only one ISO 14001 certified builder in the United States: Skanska USA. Sealants and caulks: the greater of 4% by weight or 60 grams/liter C.ca. You may be familiar with the 9000 series of international standards regarding quality management systems (QMS).Resources: • Green Seal certifies low-content paints: www.gov/consprod/regs/Cpreg.arb.gov/consprod/consprod.htm • California Air Resources Board. Information / How to Implement: Note that.arb.1. Construction adhesives: the greater of 15% by weight or 200 grams/liter B.1 I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S Builder’s operations and business practices include environmental management system concepts (the builder must be ISO 14001 certified) Intent: Institutionalize and consistently apply the concept of incorporating environmental considerations into all phases of the company’s operations. Resources: • www. the ISO 14000 series of international standards have been developed for environmental management systems (EMS). 154 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .epa. VOC content does not directly equate to VOC emissions. Contact adhesives: the greater of 80% by weight or 650 grams/liter Intent: Use low-VOC sealants to reduce potentially harmful VOCs from being emitted into the environment. and other factors.doc (Sept 2004) 7. VOC concentrations for construction adhesives and sealants should meet the limits specified in the California Air Resources Board Regulation for Reducing Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Consumer Products as outlined below. low-VOC-content sealants are not the same as low-VOC-emissions. humidity. VOC emission rates and times are greatly affected by temperature. age.greenguard.greenseal.gov/oppt/epp/documents/pfs. The California Air and Resources Board created low-VOC-content standards based on a set of ozone-causing chemicals. like low-VOC-content paints.ca. www.2. www.com • National Paints and Coatings Association (NPCA).htm#paints • The GREENGUARD Environmental Institute (GEI) provides a guide to third-party-certified low-VOC-emitting interior products and building materials.htm (Sept 2004) 7.org • EPA’s Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Guide. In addition. As a continuation of this standardization process.org/certproducts.3 Use low-VOC sealants.paint. Information / How to Implement: At the time this document was created. www. www.org • Master Painters Institute. Also. A.
ISO14001 standards require a company to document and make this policy available to the public.skanska. determining environmental aspects and impacts of products/activities/services.com/ • The ISO 14001 Information Center provides information on the EMS at http://www. Resources: • Skanska USA’s EMS information can be found at its website under Management Systems.com. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) finalized the ISO 14001 standard for environmental management systems. internationally recognized standards as set forth in the ISO14001 specification. Similar to the QMS implemented for ISO 9001. and management review. The standard specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy. the ISO14001 requires implementation of an EMS in accordance with defined. www. the company must review the environmental aspects and impacts of products and then create and implement procedures to reduce them. checking and corrective action. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines SECTION 7 155 . The process of creating an EMS can help a company better understand how it affects the environment through all of its business processes. In addition.In September 1996.iso14000. planning environmental objectives and measurable targets. implementation and operation of programs to meet objectives and targets.
as well as facilitate coordination between the members to achieve best green practices.asca-consultants. coordination and communication with and among the various team members are essential to successful development. Intent: Communicate relevant. and why they should follow green practices. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. Once this baseline is established. landscape architects.org Establish a green development mission statement.com/home.esa. what it means to be a green lot. www. www.org/certifiedforester • The Ecological Society of America. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Those involved in the development phase must understand the mission of the site.0 I D E N T I F Y G OA L S W I T H YO U R T E A M Establish a knowledgeable team. www.cfm • International Society of Arboriculture.html • American Society of Landscape Architects. Once the green intent of the builder is communicated to the lot development team. all parties involved in lot development (the team) should understand that the lot will be developed as a green site. Resources: • American Society of Consulting Arborists. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2.org/members/pigroups. what it means to be a green development. Intent: Those involved in the development phase must understand the site’s goals and objectives. and why green practices should be followed. 156 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . www.asla. and arborists. Team members can include staff. Intent: One of the earliest challenges for a builder in developing a green lot is assembling an effective team to help implement best green practices throughout the process. Identify goals and objectives. streamlined green goals into the field to ensure that they are put into practice Information / How to Implement: Post the mission statement for all project personnel to see. the builder should work with the team throughout the development process to identify and delegate responsibilities of team members. Information / How to Implement: Before ground is broken. site superintendents.isa-arbor.org/why. ecologists. utilities. excavators. wildlife biologists.safnet. and communicate in writing.APPENDIX A S I T E P L A N N I N G A N D L A N D D E V E LO P M E N T 1.asp • Society of American Foresters. www.
Intent: The noblest intentions pursued in designing a site are practically achieved through onsite supervision during the lot development phase. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. Intent: A qualified member(s) of the builder’s team should be onsite as these activities progress to ensure that each objective is achieved according to targeted green lot specifications. excavators. Create a checklist to be completed onsite that contains only those targeted green development practices that will be implemented in the project. wildlife biologists. landscape architects. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. a NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines APPENDIX A 157 . Avoid environmentally sensitive areas as identified through site footprinting process or third party. Intent: Thoughtful site selection can be the first step in building a green home. By avoiding environmentally sensitive areas. Provide training to onsite supervisors and team members on the green development practices that will be instituted onsite. site superintendents. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2.Identify team member roles and how they relate to various phases of development. and arborists. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. utilities. all parties involved in lot development (the team) should understand that the lot will be developed as a green site. Information / How to Implement: Examples of possible team members include staff. ecologists. 2. Intent: Before ground is broken. A qualified member(s) of the builder’s team should be onsite as these activities progress to ensure that each objective is achieved according to targeted green lot specifications.0 SELECT THE SITE Select the site to minimize environmental impact. A checklist will facilitate the process of tracking progress.
isa-arbor.S. ecologists. redevelopment. or habitat sanctuary.com/home. or by the local jurisdiction. Intent: Redevelopment of a greyfield site can provide an efficient use of land and infrastructure. If a site is selected that at any time has been identified as an environmentally sensitive area. Resources: • American Society of Consulting Arborists. or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance. Resources: • U.org • Choose an EPA-recognized Brownfield. Choose an infill site.gov/Brownfields/bfwhere.asca-consultants. no credit will be given for this line item.S.org/why.builder can help preserve land that might function as a wildlife corridor. Intent: Remediation of a brownfield results in the environmental restoration of a polluted site. Information / How to Implement: “Sensitive areas” may be identified within a comprehensive plan.esa. EPA.” The development of a greyfield site can be daunting.gov/Brownfields/index.html • U. These experts can provide assistance in identifying a potential site’s natural resources and environmentally sensitive areas. The tools allow residents to locate brownfields and provide access to information about cleanup grants—www.” The EPA estimates that there are 450. the expansion.epa. Information / How to Implement: Within these guidelines.org/certifiedforester • The Ecological Society of America. EPA has introduced two Web-based tools to give the public additional access to information about brownfield properties and cleanup efforts. by a wetland institute.asla. pollutant. www.org/members/pigroups.html • American Society of Landscape Architects. www. loans.epa. and training are available through the EPA’s Brownfield Initiative to assist builders and developers in the remediation and development of Brownfield sites.S. a transformation that makes an abandoned site habitable. or contaminant. regardless of the site’s classification at the time of construction. www. landscape architects. brownfield development provides an efficient use of land and infrastructure while allowing for the preservation of open space and wildlife habitat in the midst of growth. www. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) characterizes brownfields as “real property. Greyfield redevelopment allows for the preservation of open space and wildlife habitat in the midst of growth.htm Choose a Greyfield site. but local or national incentives 158 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .safnet.asp • Society of American Foresters.cfm • International Society of Arboriculture. a greyfield is defined as “any site previously developed with at least 50% of the surface area covered with impervious material.000 brownfield sites around the country. Grants. www. Like greyfield and infill development. Information / How to Implement: The U. recreational open space. Brownfields Cleanup and Redevelopment: www. Other excellent sources of detailed environmental information about a site are professionals such as arborists. and wildlife biologists.
org • Urban Land Institute. protect. Infill Incentives. waterways. www. power lines. buildings. Incentives may include the elimination of development-related fees. sewer and water.icsc. www. 4.cnu.0 DESIGN THE SITE Minimize environmental impacts.. Equitable Development Toolkit. www. 1. flora.) 3. and tax breaks. infrastructure) and preserve open space that could be lost from “green field” development. Strategies for Successful Infill Development (2001).uli. (See Section 4 for guidance in forming the plan.org/cnu_reports/Greyfield_Feb_01.nemw.pdf • Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers. micro-habitats) and plan for the conservation of those resources during each stage of site development.cnu. Information / How to Implement: Infill areas are vacant or underutilized lots of land.g. trees. Resources: • Congress for the New Urbanism. For more information. www.org • International Council of Shopping Centers. and other infrastructure. and geological formations.. enhance. www. www. Greyfields into Goldfields: from falling shopping centers to great neighborhoods (February 2001). Participate in a natural resources conservation program. Create a protection and maintenance plan for priority natural resources/areas during construction.may exist to reward builders who go through the process.planning.pdf Choose an infill site.org • Congress for the New Urbanism and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Resources: • Policy Link. soil. 2. snags. contribution from the local government in the development of offsite improvements. and other built features to conserve high-priority vegetation. Intent: Onsite natural resources concern features such as solar energy availability. Complete a natural resources inventory that is used to drive/create the site plan.htm 3.org/EDTK/Infill • Northeast-Midwest Institute and Congress for the New Urbanism. Locate roads. fauna.g. A natural resources inventory should be completed to identify the site’s environmental attributes. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines APPENDIX A 159 .policylink. Intent: Building on an infill site can effectively conserve resources (e. Conserve natural resources. see Resources. Greyfield Regional Mall Study (January 2001).org • American Planning Association. www. and restore the natural features and environmental quality of the site. served by existing physical installations such as roads.cnu.org/infillbook. A builder can identify high-priority resources for conservation (e. www. water.org/cnu_reports/Executive_summary.
In addition to protecting priority areas from invasive species intrusion during development. and after development. Reduce long-term erosion effects through the design and implementation of terracing.org/certifiedforester Orient streets and configure lots to allow for the majority of homes to optimize solar potential (see the Energy Efficiency module for guidance on solar resource optimization). and high-priority vegetation in determining the optimum site for each home. a natural resources inventory may be performed by a qualified professional such as an arborist.com/home.asp • Society of American Foresters. and understand how natural features can be used in managing storm water onsite. One way to verify that the plan is implemented as planned is to create construction documents that explain how to implement the plan during construction. www. Resources: • American Society of Consulting Arborists. a maintenance plan should be created to ensure that priority vegetation survives development. retaining walls. Align roads with natural topography to minimize grade to reduce cut and fill. such as previously developed sites or farmland. understand how to site a house to take advantage of solar energy. and use this study to guide the design of all structures onsite. storm water management.asca-consultants. 2. Within the maintenance plan. laying of mulch to reduce soil compaction. By reducing non-renewable energy needs. during. 160 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . A protection and maintenance plan should be drafted to detail how resources identified through the inventory will be protected throughout development. and other means. Information / How to Implement: A builder should consider such issues such as slope. orienting a home to optimize the solar resource reduces the life-cycle pollution caused by a home.cfm • International Society of Arboriculture.html • American Society of Landscape Architects. 3. Simpler sites. or landscape architect. The final decision in siting a home will generally involve a compromise between these many factors. Resources: See Section 3. www. Section 4 of this module provides details on how to protect existing onsite vegetation and minimize soil disturbance and erosion through installation of fencing.safnet.4 of this User Guide for resources. Whoever ultimately conducts the inventory should be able to discern invasive from regionally appropriate vegetation.org/members/pigroups. 4. be able to identify areas important to wildlife habitat. Limit development footprint on steep slopes (slopes greater than or equal to 25%). include plans and information on fertilizing and watering trees as needed before. www. might be adequately inventoried by knowledgeable but less qualified individuals. identification of specified washout and material storage areas. 1. Complete a hydrological/soil stability study for steep slopes.org/why. local solar angles.asla. www.Information / How To Implement: On complex sites. and re-stabilization techniques.isa-arbor. wildlife biologist. Minimize slope disturbance. Intent: Thoughtful orientation of a home can maximize solar heating potential in the heating season and minimize solar gains in the cooling season.
and reduce damage caused to native vegetation. More permanent solutions include biomechanical devices such as swales and vegetated buffers. ftp://ftp. Note: Points should be awarded only if there are developable steep slopes in the area. Storm Water Permitting also contains technical information. Phase development in order to minimize exposed soils.com or 800-368-5242 x8163 • King County Department of Natural Resources. Minimizing soil disturbance and erosion can both reduce stressors on downstream water bodies and save valuable topsoil for the site.gov/owow/nps/lid/lidnatl. Department of Environmental Resources. Information / How to Implement: NAHB’s Storm Water Permitting: A Guide for Builders and Developers contains information about the federal Phase I and II storm water permitting program and the equivalent requirements for state storm water permits (see Resources section). Washington Surface Water Design Manual Appendix D: Erosion and Sediment Control Standards (Seattle: September 1998). sediment traps. including how to handle visits from inspectors. Methods for preventing erosion include silt fences.epa. Resources: • Prince George’s County. store. 1. Reducing cut and fill practices can prevent unnecessary stripping of vegetation and loss of soils and reduce the need for additional resources to be brought in from offsite. Another highly effective. Turf and plant material—which help to facilitate the reestablishment of a natural environment—are established more quickly when organic compost is used. environmentally responsible method to prevent erosion is to use compost filter berms. steep slopes are defined as being greater than or equal to 25%.pdf NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines APPENDIX A 161 . Use alternative means to install utilities. such as tunneling instead of trenching. www. Exposed soils should be minimized to reduce erosion.Intent: Leaving a slope undisturbed when siting a home reduces the chances of disturbing natural hydrological drainage and causing long. MD: June 1999). 2005. Low-Impact Development Design Strategies: An Integrated Design Approach (EPA 841-B-00-003) (Largo. and wood chips. and place utilities under streets instead of yards. Storm Water Permitting: A Guide for Builders and Developers. sample storm water pollution prevention plans. Intent: Sediment and pollutants contained in the sediment are recognized as a reason that water bodies do not meet their intended uses. The compost should be from organic sources like bioshields. Information / How to Implement: Within these guidelines. and tips on compliance. shared trenches or easements.and short-term erosion.pdf Minimize soil disturbance and erosion. Heavy equipment and excessive digging can result in compaction or loss of topsoil along with the introduction of invasive and problematic flora. promote water quality. Resources: • National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). on over 50 of the most commonly used best management practices. including recommendations for use and cost estimates. compost erosion socks.metrokc. and/or surface application of compost erosion control. and mulching. King County. Maryland. yard waste. Use smaller equipment.builderbooks. 2.gov/ddes/acrobat/esa/kcswdm-d. thereby reducing the potential to pollute water sources and damage local ecology. vegetated buffer areas.
pdf • Betty Rushton. www. Ellicott City. 3. Examples include sand/media filters and aerobic treatment units. Resources: • The Practice of Low Impact Development. U.wa. Trenching and Tunneling: A Pocket Guide for Qualified Utility Workers (Nebraska City.org/shopping/merchandise/merchdetail. Parking areas b. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).• Dr. and utilize permeable materials for a.gov/pubs/9912.S. 4. Fazio. 1.html • Tom Schueler. Southwest Florida Water Management District. MD.ecy. and distributing storm water flows.htm • Lisa Austin.cfm?id=62 Manage storm water properly. dry wells. www. Minimize impervious surfaces. Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection. Preserve and utilize natural water and drainage features. www.cwp. and rain gardens that promote water quality and infiltration. Nebraska: 1998). Minimize street widths and rights-of-way as per recommendations in either local code or in Residential Streets. Washington State Department of Ecology Water Quality Program. 162 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Walkways 5. builders can reduce harmful pollutants carried offsite while safely and effectively managing much of their storm water load onsite. By using natural water and drainage features.org/SPSP/TOC. National Arbor Day Foundation. September 2001. Low Impact Parking Lot Design Reduces Runoff and Pollutant Loads: Annual Report # 1. Center for Watershed Protection. Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington (Publication 99-12). Direct storm water to a locally approved regional storm water management and treatment facility that has been designed to address water quality. use an advanced wastewater system as an alternative to the conventional septic system and drain field.huduser. 1995. Intent: Refer to the Water Efficiency section of the User Guide for details on this topic. 3rd Edition: a.org/publications/destech/lowimpactdevl.. french drains. Parking on one side: 22 to 24 feet c. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2.arborday. wetlands. minimizing impervious surfaces. 1999 Where municipal sewage is not available. Information / How to Implement: Use open space and natural systems such as vegetative swales. James R. Florida. Brooksville. No on-street parking: 18 feet b. www. Parking on both sides: 24 to 26 feet Intent: Percolation through soil is one of the most effective means for filtering pollutants carried by storm water. 2. Develop and implement storm water management plans that minimize concentrated flows and seek to mimic natural hydrology.
heat. and selecting regionally appropriate plants is a key component to responsible building. Regionally appropriate plants will also not be overly prolific or invasive. Properly selected plants can be grouped to serve as a bioretention zone. Establish an integrated pest management plan to minimize chemical use in pesticides and fertilizers. Require onsite tree trimmings of regionally appropriate species to be used as protective mulch during construction or as a base for walking trails. and rain.3. 1. several factors should be taken into account such as the value of shading (trees shading asphalt will mitigate a site’s temperature more than trees shading landscaped areas). shading. 6. Some developers even fine builders for damage to areas designated for protection. consider the multiple services that natural areas can provide: natural habitat. Intent: Landscaping water use accounts for approximately 50% of a home’s total water needs. ultimate tree size.gov/reg3esd1/garden/what. Select turf grass and other vegetation that are native or regionally appropriate species. etc. provide habitat for native fauna. drought. and will be able to coexist with other native plants over time. When planning for the revegetation of a site. Within this plan. Thoughtful selection and placement of plants can also reduce heating/cooling loads of a home.1 specifying siting of trees to reduce the energy consumption of the home).epa. 3. storm water processing. windbreak. Group plants with similar watering needs (hydrozoning). Regionally appropriate plants are hardy plants that can withstand local water and temperature conditions such as freeze. Information / How to Implement: Select landscaping materials and vegetation to fit site conditions. See EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Region Green Landscaping http://www. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines APPENDIX A 163 . care should be taken to grind only regionally appropriate plants. When planting trees. Evergreens can provide an effective windbreak. Limit turf areas of landscaped area. Careful selection and integration of trees and vegetation can reduce a developer’s initial costs while providing value to a development/neighborhood later. Grinding of invasive species can increase their propagation and result in the ultimate destruction of native species. Developers may wish to consider enforcing guidelines for the protection of onsite vegetation. phase landscaping to ensure denuded areas are quickly vegetated.Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. 4. reducing turf area. 7. maintaining a safe distance from the house (especially in areas prone to natural disasters). etc. 2. fosters wildlife habitat.htm for more information. Trees that shade the streets can keep a neighborhood cool while also increasing the neighborhood’s attractiveness. selecting native and regionally appropriate trees and vegetation in a way that complements the natural setting. Deciduous trees allow the sun’s rays through in winter and provide shade in the summer. Conservation of this valuable resource through such techniques as hydrozoning. Other benefits of landscaping with native plants: minimizes maintenance (reduces emissions of equipment). Formulate a plan to restore or enhance natural vegetation that is cleared during construction or development. Specify planting of trees to increase site shading and moderate temperatures (see also Energy Efficiency Guideline 3. Devise landscape plans to limit water demand while preserving or enhancing the natural environment. and minimize the heat-island effect of developments. 5.5. If grinding and scattering cleared plants.
Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System. 3. 1995. home builders can work to create a habitat where both wildlife and humans can thrive—whether in an urban. • Become a certified participant in the National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program. Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System’s Treasuring Home Initiative. 1.newfs. see Nassauer.mobot. 2.wildflower2. overhangs. Birdhouses. Native Plant Information Network National Suppliers Directory. Resources: • Audubon International. Onsite Grinding of Residential Construction Debris: The Indiana Grinder Pilot. so good gains might be made more easily there. fenestration. and protective areas. Messy Ecosystems. www. Resources: • Center for Plant Conservation. www. the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System’s Treasuring Home Initiative. through selective plantings and site design. Submit evidence of wildlife habitat preservation and improvements to the green development guidelines’ administrator for review.audubonintl.One of the best ways to reduce energy consumption is through passive solar design of a home—using orientation. It is good practice to limit the ratio of turf area to total landscaped area due to maintenance requirements of turf versus native plants and regionally appropriate vegetation. February 1999 Maintain wildlife habitat.nwf. etc. including food sources.cfm 164 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines .htm • NAHB Research Center Inc.org/programs/acss. For research on turf and landscape of front yards with native species. Joan. Native Plant Societies of the United States and Canada. sharing the land with wildlife becomes an increasing challenge to builders. www. Preserve open space as wildlife corridors where possible.org/NPIN/Suppliers/suppliers. or rural setting. Leave snags (dead tree or portion that’s left for habitat). Fewer regulations are imposed on turf-to-landscaping ratio in the backyard. 14 (2). Landscape Journal.html • New England Wildflower Society. there may be restrictions on the percentage of turf that the front yard must contain. one way to account for water usage is through the development and implementation of a water budget. Research has shown that homeowners are comfortable with having as little as 50% of the front yard composed of turf. or the National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program Enhance quality of habitat.. Through individual initiative or participation in a wildlife conservation program.org/CPC • Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. 161-170. Orderly Frames. In some areas. Information / How to Implement: Examples of programs: USDA National Resources Conservation Service’s Backyard Conservation Plan. Intent: As the frontier of home building continues to expand.org/backyardwildlifehabitat/certify/page1. suburban. In areas with low annual rainfall. diversity of habitat. www. https://secure. Landscaping to reduce energy consumption is only part of the whole effort. Participate in a wildlife conservation program.org/nps.
grading. 1.5. and environmental management. Information / How to Implement: The information for this line item should link to the plans and any documents produced in line item 1. Provide basic training in tree and other natural resource protection to onsite supervisor. Planning for such operations and maintenance prior to implementing the features is important and can help the long-term viability of such features. and installation of utilities to ensure that targeted green development practices are implemented. 2. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Ask the manufacturers and/or distributors of the particular technology you’re planning on implementing for such a service plan. Intent: The noblest intentions when designing a green site are practically achieved through onsite supervision during the lot development phase. Information / How to Implement: Many manufacturers and distributors of green land use features and technologies also sell annual and/or long-term maintenance plans. Provide onsite supervision and coordination during clearing. trenching.Prepare operation and maintenance plan (manual) for transfer of common open spaces. A qualified member(s) of the builder’s team should be onsite as these activities progress to ensure that each objective is achieved according to targeted green lot specifications. 4. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2.0 D E V E LO P T H E S I T E Minimize environmental intrusion during onsite construction. wastewater). Intent: See the Resource Efficiency section for details on this topic. Minimize disturbance of and damage to trees and other vegetation designated for protection through installation of fencing and avoidance of trenching. Disassemble existing buildings.3. Conserve existing onsite vegetation. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. Intent: Green land use features often require ongoing maintenance so that they can continue to function as designed. and compaction of soil and critical root zones. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. paving. NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines APPENDIX A 165 . and reuse or recycle the building materials (deconstruction) instead of demolishing. significant changes in grade. utilities (storm water.
Site Disturbance and Tree Decline (OSU Extension Facts F-6429).arborday. 1. excavation. Each measure identifies a practical way to foster water quality and conserve onsite ecological habitat through reducing soil disturbance and erosion. grinding. Pratt and Michael W. practical steps must be taken during the development stage to achieve the intended conservation. Such steps include pre-development preparation of the vegetation and protection of the foliage. 4. 166 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . there are environmental advantages of using industrial by-products as ingredients in topsoil including foundry sand. 5. material storage. Install and maintain sediment and erosion controls. Create construction “no disturbance” zones using fencing or flagging to protect vegetation and sensitive areas from construction vehicles. or plywood sheets. 4. processed pallets. Building With Trees. Information / How to Implement: See Resources section. Stockpile and cover good soil for later use. Rejuvenation of the unimproved soil to its original form will take several years. Improve the soil with organic amendments and mulch. Stabilize disturbed areas within the 14-day period recommended by EPA. and other clean wood from construction waste. Reduce soil compaction from construction equipment by laying mulch. As indicated above. The use of organic mulch is an excellent way to conserve water in landscape beds and build soil quality. When additional soil must be brought in. Information / How to Implement: Soil stabilization may be temporary or permanent. Intent: After a builder has identified (during the planning stage) the existing vegetation that will be conserved onsite. and root system of designated vegetation. 3.cfm • Phillip A. September 2003. chipped wood.org/programs/Buildingwithtrees/index. Ideally. To offset this phenomenon. Demarcate limits of clearing and grading.3. processing techniques produce superior topsoil. In addition to keeping these materials out of community landfills. and other EPA-approved by-products. 6. root pruning. and screening destroy the ecological microsystem of the soil. fertilizing. stockpiling. and washout. 2. Resources: • National Arbor Foundation. Oklahoma State University. Intent: This guideline seeks to ensure the field implementation of conservation plans.com/pdfs/F-6429web. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. and watering. www.pdf Minimize onsite soil disturbance and erosion. Keep in mind that while the use of stockpiled onsite soil is a preferred method. http://osuextra. compost is recommended for this purpose. biosolids compost. the incorporation of compost and sand is an effective method for more rapidly rebuilding the structure and ecosystem of the topsoil and allowing turf and plants to establish more quickly. Schnelle. use mulch that results from onsite recycling efforts such as yard waste. soil. Prepare designated existing trees and vegetation for the impacts of construction through pruning.
Resources: • King County Department of Natural Resources, King County, Washington Surface Water Design Manual Appendix D: Erosion and Sediment Control Standards (Seattle: September 1998), ftp://ftp.metrokc.gov/ddes/acrobat/esa/kcswdm-d.pdf
I N N OVAT I V E O P T I O N S
Seek to obtain waivers or variances from local development regulations to enhance green building. Cluster development to preserve meaningful open space. Intent: Preserve meaningful open space, and reduce infrastructure and long-term maintenance costs. Information / How to Implement: During the past 50 years, a steady migration from urban to suburban areas and into the countryside has constituted a significant trend throughout much of the United States. In response to this phenomenon, planners, developers, and elected officials have created a number of tools designed to balance growth with the preservation of community environmental and financial assets. One tool that has received an increasing amount of attention lately is cluster development. This approach may be termed open-space development, conservation development, hamlet style, farm village, or other unique names coined by proponents and developers. Regardless of the title used to describe it, cluster development is an important tool community planners should consider as they look to the future. The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe cluster development, its history, potential, and limitations. Resources: • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Development, Community, and Environment Division, Our Built and Natural Environments (EPA 231-R-01-002) (Washington, DC: 2001), www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/built.pdf • Urban Land Institute, www.uli.org/DK/index.cfm?CFID=526893&CFTOKEN=67483350 Reduce street widths. Intent: Reduce the amount of impervious surface and storm water runoff in the development. Information / How to Implement: Street widths have the largest impact on runoff and on costs. Unfortunately, most communities have ordinances requiring excessively wide streets. Developers may be able to negotiate changes for a particular development but will likely have to seek changes to local land development standards to change street-width requirements more generally. The publication, Proposed Model Land Development Standards and Accompanying Model State Enabling Legislation (HUD and NAHB Research Center, 1993), includes recommendations for minimum street widths that recognize the cost and environmental benefits of narrower versus wider streets (see below) and other cost-effective development strategies. It also includes recommendations for turnarounds, another location where the pavement area can be reduced.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
Recommendations for Minimum Street Widths
Widths of Traveled Way Minimum Width of Traveled Way (ft.) Both On- and Off-Street Parking (1) 20 (3) 36 (4) 26–28 (4, 5) 18–22 (5)</SUP< p> One-Way Street (2) 10 26 26 18
Street Type Major Collector Collector Subcollector Access
Where no off-street parking is provided, the minimum width of traveled way for collector streets shall be 36 feet, and 34 feet for subcollector and access streets (two 9- or 10-foot travel lanes and two 8-foot parking lanes). Major collectors do not typically accommodate on-street parking. Access street width can be reduced to 26 feet if parking needs are met on one side of the street and restricted to that side only. Where on-street parking is not permitted, the one-way street width may be reduced to 10 feet. Parking is not allowed on major collector streets.Travel lanes may be added in accordance with traffic requirements. Width can be reduced to 20 feet if on-street parking is not permitted. Minimum street width shall be selected by taking into consideration the size of fire and emergency equipment that will serve the development. Resources: • Better Site Design Fact Sheet: Narrower Residential Streets, www.stormwatercenter.net/Assorted%20Fact%20Sheets/Tool4_Site_Design/narrow_streets.htm Install an advanced wastewater treatment system. Intent: See the Water Efficiency section of the User Guide for more details on this topic. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
Install an advanced storm water treatment system. Intent: Percolation through soil is one of the most effective means for filtering pollutants carried by storm water. By using natural water and drainage features, minimizing impervious surfaces, and distributing storm water flows, builders can reduce harmful pollutants carried offsite while safely and effectively managing much of their storm water load onsite. Information / How to Implement: This line item would be over and above what is done for line item 1.3.5. Use open space and natural systems such as vegetative swales, french drains, wetlands, dry wells, and rain gardens that promote water quality and infiltration. Resources: • The Practice of Low Impact Development, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD); www.huduser.org/publications/destech/lowimpactdevl.html • Tom Schueler, Center for Watershed Protection, Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection (Ellicott City, MD: 1995), www.cwp.org/SPSP/TOC.htm • Lisa Austin, Washington State Department of Ecology Water Quality Program, Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington (Publication 99-12) (September 2001), http://www.ecy.wa.gov/pubs/9912.pdf • Betty Rushton, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Low Impact Parking Lot Design Reduces Runoff and Pollutant Loads: Annual Report # 1. (Brooksville, Florida: 1999) Institute wildlife habitat measures. Intent: As the frontier of home building continues to expand, sharing the land with wildlife becomes an increasing challenge to builders. Through individual initiative or participation in a wildlife conservation program, home builders can work to create a habitat where both wildlife and humans can thrive—whether in an urban, suburban, or rural setting. Information / How to Implement: Examples of programs include the USDA National Resources Conservation Services Backyard Conservation Plan, the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System‚s Treasuring Home Initiative, and the National Wildlife Federations Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program. Enhance quality of habitat, including food sources, diversity of habitat, and protective areas, through selective plantings and site design. Leave snags (dead tree or portion thats left for habitat). Resources: • Audubon International, Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System, www.audubonintl.org/programs/acss. Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System‚s Treasuring Home Initiative. • Become a certified participant in the National Wildlife Federation‚s Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program. https://secure.nwf.org/backyardwildlifehabitat/certify/page1.cfm Minimize grading. Intent: Excessive grading can disturb a site's natural drainage, vegetation, and ecological habitat. If topsoil removed during grading is not replaced, the health of the site's future ecological system may be compromised as well.
NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines
Resources: Information will be added in Version 2.Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2. Resources: Information will be added in Version 2. Other (specify). 170 APPENDIX A NAHB Model GREEN Home Building Guidelines . Information will be added in Version 2. thereby decreasing storm water and pollution runoff. Share driveways or parking Intent: Sharing driveways or parking can reduce the amount of impervious material on a lot. Information / How to Implement: Information will be added in Version 2.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.