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diminishing marginal utility of resources is the more of some resource I have, the less additional happiness each unit brings me. A thousand dollars can bring a lot of additional happiness to a very poor person but will bring very little additional happiness to a billionaire. . According to utilitariansm, the right distribution of any resource is the one that maximizes the sum total of utility, which is happiness. Utility maximaizing distribution is where everyone get the same, means equality of marginal utility, b.c you reach equilibrium when everybody is getting equal marginal utility for the product. 2. Constraint is any action including lying, stealing or killing is required as long as it brings about the best possible state of affairs. The trolley problem is where you choose to switch the button and kill either 5 people or 1 person. Almost everyone feels like killing one person in order to save five others is much less morally grave in the trolley case, it turns out to be quite diffcult, though, to say why the two cases are different. Accounting for the difference is called the trolley problem It presents a challenge because it requires physical touching of killing a person and both will result death of human.
3. Singer s animals deserve less 1. It will end up excluding some humans from equal consideration and 2. It will appeal to brute biological difference. Singer says that equality is based on equal consideration; equality does not require equal rights. Dogs are equal b/c they are less intelligent than us, doesn t lead one to find they are therefore not deserving of equal consideration 4. The violinist example is not supposed to establish the permissibility of abortion, instead, it serves two less ambitious goals. It shows that a right to life isn t a right not to be killed it shows that it is typically permissible for me to kill someone else by denying them the use of my body or property. So she thinks that abortion would not be an unjust killing even if pregnancy were only an hour long. The people seeds supposed to show that no one can avoid a pregnancy due to rape by having a hysterectomy, or anyway by never leaving home without a army. It s not unjust killing then under these cases 5. Marquis believe that fetuses have a right to life because death deprives them the future experiences, which is the deprivation theory. Contraception is nearly as bad as murder because contraception prevents the actualization of a possible future of value. The moral permissibility of abortion stands or falls on the moral status of the fetus. Fetus owns property the same as adult forms do, which makes abortion wrong. 6. Leibniz s law is if x is identical to y, then x and y must have all the same properties. I can rationally doubt this existence of my body, I cannot rationally doubt this existence of my mind, therefore, using Leibniz s law, if
the functionalism would says there is. . They would first point out the scenerios involing gradual replacement suppose someone denies that a computer could ever be minded. but it s not having an relativity theory or no guy operating the brain. Physicalism is that when they believe that everything exists no more extensive than it s physical properties. Such that one person says the book has eistein s brain. Now we imagine that we take a single neuron from someone s brain and replace it with a tiny bit of wire that behaves just like a newuron did. but they don t have the same physical sates as you. it views humans as a bit too special. A mind is just whatever has mental states. My body can be divided in half. for instance. Leibniz s law: if mind and body were identical.mind and body were identical. aliens can desire cookies or belive 1+1 is two. Denies that your mind and brain are identical. Functionalism is the view that mental states are individuated by their functional role . they would have all the same properties. they would have all the same properties. my mind cannot be divided in half. For example. the mental state a bielief that there were cookies in the cabinet is whatever motivates someone to open a cabinet when he wants cookies. everything is physical. Second is smacks of chauvinisms. Which means my mind is not identical to my body 7. The multiple realizability thesis states that thinkers with quite different physical compositions can have the same mental state. This objection from multiple realizablity suggests that mental states cannot be identical to brain states 8.