This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Following is a template that will help you outline and prepare your marketing plan. The descriptions explain the content that should be included. See the sample marketing plan for an example of what this content looks like. NEW! In addition, click here to download an MS Word Marketing Plan template with headings, explanations, and formating. Also, click here to download the instructions. Right click and select, “Save As” if it does not download immediately. I would also highly recommend marketing and business plan software like the application featured above. It walks you through the entire process.
I. Executive Summary
1. The executive summary should encapsulate the entire plan within a few pages.
II. Situational Analysis
A. Product Overview 1. Review the product and the category. B. Market Segmentation 1. Identify the various target market segments and how the product is currently situated. This section might include a price/performance chart. C. Product Offering 1. Explain each of the company's products and how they address the needs of their specific target audience. D. Market Size 1. You may elect to compile information from PC Data, IDC, and other analyst sources to determine the number of current and potential buyers in your respective target markets. E. Market Share
or recruiting your competitions customer base. Gaining Market Share 1. Positioning 1.1. III. i. new markets. A 10. This is your finale that contains your "why to buy" for each product. Organizational Strategies 1. H. Pruning (eliminate support for certain market segments) iii. Harvesting (gradual decrease in company support for a product) ii. The tactics further refine the overall strategies and show precisely how to meet the overall strategic objectives. analyst. From this type of information you can approximate the percentage of the market that you own. friends inside the company. You may check a competitor's collateral pieces. List the specific known competitors and their respective positions and current plans. I. you are ready to determine your position. Competitive Environment 1. Growth Potential 1. Check the links section for possible sources. tracking sources and clipping services to discover the plans of your competitors. You may wish to include visual pie charts showing the market percentage of each player. Web site. This section should also contain a chart showing your product's positioning in regards to the target market segments and the competition. distributors. A.000 foot preview of the proceeding tactical plan to increase market share--either by developing new products. PC Data and trade magazines often contain the sales figures from each of the competitive products. Adscope. Retrenchment (continue to offer the same product but retreat to the strongest line) . There are several organizations that produces well-documented reports on specific upcoming markets. Tactical Marketing Plan 1. G. F. Analyst information from primary research is often required to determine the market trends which indicate areas of potential growth. Consolidation Strategies . Once you have analyzed all of the previous information.each of the existing products should be evaluated for possible consolidation or growth according to the following approaches.
4. Mass Media (Display. Growth Strategies i.) 3. Price Matching ii. On-line Marketing (Web site) iii. educational. Promotions (every mechanism designed to stimulate demand) i. Placement i. Product Development (either changing the product or its perception) iii. packaging. sell-in and sell-through suggestions and support materials. Card Decks . Diversification (introducing new products) B. Price i. Includes development features. Resources should also be discussed. Advertising a. This discussion should cover both push and pull campaigns. and format 2. Market Development (finding growth in new markets) iv. etc. Divestment (sell off weak fit products) 2. Introductory Penetration Pricing iv. Market Penetration (better ingress of existing markets) ii.iv. Product i. Special Pricing (NFR. Pricing Perceptions vi. TV and Radio) b. Public Relations ii. Marketing Mix 1. positioning. Placement is selling and distribution portion of the Marketing Mix. Price Making iii. Upgrade Pricing v.
B.K Lester . It includes a tracking mechanism with trip wire contingencies that correspond to profitability. It outlines a well-designed method to influence the target market segments. Summary 1. Gantt Chart or Similar Process Plan 1. E-mail. the advertising plan. Sales Projections 1.c.) IV. training) iv. Based on the marketing mechanisms. with projected returns for each event. etc. joint advertising. C. a projected sales history is created. Event Marketing (trade shows. This plan forecast one of the most expensive portions of demand creation. A final summary of the strategies and tactics to achieve financial success while meeting the needs of the target market segment. Fax. Direct Response (Mail.) b. This is where the rubber meets the road. etc. trade show space. C. This should be as detailed as possible and should allow some flexibility for unseen positive opportunities. The main purpose is to forecast capability to execute with a remaining profit. Media Schedule 1. seminars. Bundle offers) d. Budget 1. bundles. cross-rep recommendation. Appendix A. The entire document is designed to accurately create this one document timeline that demonstrates how every strategy and tactic is implemented. Alliances via technology (integration of products. Marketing alliances (share leads. Selling Your Own Perfume: The Quest For Buyers By M. Business Development a. ole links. V.
000 annually and. Riviera Concepts. You won't find Chanel at WalMart (or at least Chanel hopes you won't find it there!) You won't find Viktor & Rolf. What you start to discover when reading a book like "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" — or any other book based on authentic experience of individuals marketing their own perfume — is that far from there being too few opportunities. Elizabeth Arden. But would you turn you back on a business that could gross $500. You must make sales. the opportunity that is likely to make you the most money. If you don't believe that even multi-million dollar corporations struggle to find profitable niches.000? So where and how. and a few designers. "strategy". The book "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" suggests seven different strategic categories none of which require more than a few hundred dollars in capital to get started — assuming that you have (or can make) the perfume you'll need to fill orders. can you sell your perfume profitably? The answer is you can sell it profitably in dozens of ways and in dozens of places. perfume? The answer is simple. which already markets the Britney Spears fragrance line. Here you may or may not find Hummer and Elizabeth Taylor but it's almost certain that you'll find lots of products from Coty. Paris Hilton or Celine Dion. the small Canadian perfume business that launched Hummer (under license from General Motors).To have a perfume business you must have buyers — retail. getting your fragrance into smaller. Even with very limited means you can create a commercially marketable perfume which can be sold for ten times or more what you paid to make it or have it made for you (which will probably be from about $1. make the rounds of a number of venues where big corporations make their perfume sales. Depending on what store it is. See if you learn a few lessons. relationships and alignments are in flux. Buy it and look at the inside packaging. you won't find Donald Trump (the fragrance) or Flower Bomb (by Viktor & Rolf). or Hummer. you might or might not find Chanel or Elizabeth Arden. the real task is in selecting the right opportunity — matching up your skills and resources with the perfume marketing opportunity that is the most right for you. no business. or Donald Trump. Elizabeth Taylor.50 to $3. you may ask. Profitable businesses come in all different shapes and varieties. wholesale. You only need one business "model". If you go to a department store at a shopping mall. We can do quite nicely selling perfume in niches far too small to appeal to multi-million dollar companies. Sales are the key to business success. you'll typically find brands such as Estee Lauder plus Ralph Lauren. Now try your local supermarket. The difference between the niches of the giants and the niches for you or me is that they need very big niches. promotional packaging by a third party. Different strategies work for different people. In some areas they too offer perfume (I'm thinking of one particular one in Texas as I write this. Here you are likely find Halston. Good.85 per bottle. Now go to a drug store that's part of a chain. — the same brands whose clothing is sold in the store. No sales. it doesn't matter. But it is likely that you won't find Elizabeth Taylor. Internet. no matter how odd that business may appear to others. the giants are struggling to find the best niches (huge niches!) for their brands. Britney Spears — and a host of brands you've never heard of unless you are a regularly buy your perfume at WalMart. Among the largest sellers of perfume there is a great deal of maneuvering and jockeying for position. perhaps. net $350. They really don't care very much what goes on with companies making less than $100 million in annual sales. Paris Hilton. or "idea" to sell your perfume successfully but it must be a strategy that is practical for you. developing perfume profitably for local or regional promotions (this can be more profitable than you might imagine!) and doing "private label" promotions for local businesses that have multiple outlets. Unless you're in a particular department store. At the top of the food chain the market is fluid. Among the categories highlighted are certain techniques of direct-to-the-consumer selling. Hugo Boss. profitable sales make a good. Read all of the text on the package. But you must have buyers. Even among the giants of perfume marketing great efforts are taken to find profitable niches. as an individual entrepreneur. Tommy Hilfiger. And why. walk-in. Now go to WalMart. Britney Spears. local or regional stores.) . probably under license from the brand owner. has now sold its brands to Elizabeth Arden.) If you do find perfume at your supermarket you may find a brand name fragrance that has been given new.
mail . The purpose of these books was to demonstrate to small companies such as my own — and even to individuals — that they too could "create" their own unique fragrance product that could be sold at a very substantial markup. just as I had." because these two books did not include any information on marketing a fragrance. But clearly selling was an important issue. The company was small. They just needed some information on how to acquire it. you want to be able to sell it and make some money from it. But the question I was asked repeatedly was. the markups were good. an independent perfumery. "Do these books tell me how to sell the perfume or cologne I make?" My answer was always "No. Sales were made through direct mail ("junk mail"). But the selling methods I used were not necessarily suitable for others. These books were written for people who had an idea how they might sell perfume. I knew I would have to go beyond my personal experience in marketing my own fragrances and delve into ways I might have sold perfume if I hadn't have had such an obvious and profitable way to do it.It's not a business for everyone but it is a business that offers a dynamic opportunity to those who are willing to take the trouble first to understand what perfume is all about and then to select out of many business strategies for selling perfume the one that makes a light go off in your head and you say "this opportunity was custom made for me!" "61 Ways To Sell Your Own Perfume!" Regardless whether you are a home perfumer. or a small corporation marketing your own perfume. Unless you are just making perfume or cologne for a hobby. Selling with a high markup Before becoming involved with fragrance I sold vitamin pills — lots of them — under brand names I developed. money was made. When I finally decided to write "THE BOOK" about selling your own perfume. the marketing strategies and selling tips found in this 55 page book could help you double your sales — and profits! In 2001 I published the first edition of my book "Creating Your Own Perfume With A 1700 Percent Markup!" which was a factual account of how a company which had never sold a fragrance before created and sold a men's cologne and earned back their $2.000 investment many times over. In 2004 I developed our i84 cologne on an even smaller budget and then wrote about it in "Developing A Profitable New Perfume On A Budget Of Less Than $200!".
Their eyes are always on the established goal. set benchmarks to evaluate the plan's success. These thoughts and strategies evolved into "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!". As it happened. if the fragrance is a success. for you in your individual circumstances. where tester bottles will give consumers a chance to try it. mail order business.order ads in magazines. a successful marketing company not only has its "Plan A" but it also has a string of alternate "Plan B"s. . It was a classic. The costs of doing all this will involve millions of dollars and. They want you to be aware of their new fragrance. pre-internet. Regardless of how small your perfume business may be. They will spend heavily on magazine and TV advertising. adjusting their plan only when carefully tracked results show an unexpected weakness on one area of an especially bright opportunity in another. and our own catalog. I was able to sell my first two fragrances quite easily to our existing customers through our catalog. they have the discipline to develop a strategic plan. This was the same strategy I followed when first turning to perfume. to discover its aroma. Tested marketing strategies yield profitable results What do the world's best sales organizations have in common? Without exception. Besides running the show. When they launch a new fragrance. season after season money — you need a plan and a goal. This is the standard marketing cycle for a large fragrance marketer. nationwide. my role was to develop our products and create advertising that would sell them. the company may recoup its investment in about a year. "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" was written to help you formulate a valid master plan and practical "fall back" plans that will work in a practical way. but I did have other plans waiting in the wings. They will also blitz the fashion magazines with scratch 'n sniff samples. "Developing" a new vitamin pill meant giving it a "look" and a "personality" while keeping manufacturing costs minimal relative to the anticipated retail price. they can count on it being stocked by a large number of stores. The questions I have received since offering my first two books have prompted me to take a look at a lot more "Plan B"s. and then follow the plan from benchmark to benchmark. and hopefully like it enough so that you will buy it. As anyone can tell you. The many approaches to selling perfume Major fragrance marketers are "major" because they have carved out major channels of distribution. if you want to make money with it — steady.
let me cite the example of a company which had somehow acquired a huge amount of capital and planned to use it to go head to head with Sears. You have to get out and establish your points of contact with buyers and you have to have a strategy that will make these contacts productive. "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" gives you a range of ways in which you can accomplish this. even when you only have your perfume but no money for marketing. instead. you don't have access to the fragrance counters at thousands of stores. "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" explores a wide range of possibilities. and all the money in the world will not allow you to do. what major marketers have spent years doing — building relationships and learning their trade. There are many ways to sell perfume. In "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" I deal with the marketing possibilities that are available to you. you think twice before you spend your money — and you use your money to only backup a strategy that is proving successful. You think twice before making frivolous purchases. I can't recall their name. need an affordable plan that will quickly generate profits (not losses!) for you because you can't afford to wait a year to get your money back. If you don't believe me. selling perfume requires personal selling. you are in the same situation I was in when I first started to sell a fragrance successfully. The fact is that for you to sell perfume successfully you need a plan that starts with your resources and capabilities. When you are watching every dollar. (You do have to have your perfume!) . It was back in the 1980's. They disappeared as quickly as they arrived on the scene. If you already have a business and are simply planning to add perfume to it. overnight. You have to understand that you cannot succeed by copying the techniques of the major perfume marketers but. "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" gives you some useful suggestions that can help make perfume a very profitable part of your business. personal or company situation For most individuals and new businesses. "How much money does it take realistically to launch my own perfume?" Not having money to work with is a handicap. Why? Because your name is not known.But the marketing methods used by major perfume marketers will not work for you. The starting point: your present. But it can also be the "obstacle" that guarantees your success.
Either way there is no reason why your perfume cannot be a high quality. or entering the perfume world for a lifetime career. "What are my chances of success?" There is no magic formula for launching a new perfume profitably or even adding a new perfume to your existing merchandise line. and that having produced your first perfume successfully. fine fragrance as good or better than some fragrances sold in national stores — if you do it right. when you make a profitable connection with buyers. you may also discover that you have a gift and truly enjoy the creativity — or money — or both. Or A Lifetime Career! Let's talk about perfume — a perfume you can make for yourself for fun or to sell." "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" gives you a way to get many good ideas for selling your own perfume and I am sure that you will profit tremendously from the strategies "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" offers. can go out and make money selling it. Money. If you have a marketing budget already. Many years ago I shared an office with a gentleman who spent hundreds of dollars each year on subscriptions to costly trade publications. — Phil Goutell Now You Can Make Your Own Perfume For Fun. But "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" also shows you how to step up to the next level of selling once you've made some money. you are well on your way to developing a profitable part-time business . with a half-decent fragrance.. . you'll have adequate funds available to market to them. I'll never forget the answer he gave me when I asked if he really needed them — "If I get one good idea from just one of these publications it will be worth more than the cost of all of them. But it is absolute madness to think of launching yourself in the perfume business without exploring as many perfume selling strategies as you can find..Is it easy to go out and sell when you don't have any money for expenses? Of course not! Can it be done successfully? Yes! "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" helps shows how you. if you do it right and create a pleasing fragrance. "61 Basic Strategies For Selling Your Own Perfume!" will help you allocate your money prudently so that. And.
Perfume today lies at the economic center of a highly creative. So what does it take to create a successful perfume. The methods are the same. a competitive perfume you can sell with pride or just give to friends. in under 100 pages of text which could easily be collected into a book. for the individual creative perfumer — even when his or her career rises or falls depending on the commercial success of his or her creations — judging the success of a fragrance has other dimensions and every great perfumer can point to a personal favorite that. whether your workbench is a kitchen table or a high tech perfumery lab at a major fragrance company. step by step. and just what constitutes a successful perfume? For a perfume company. with the help of "Developing A Profitable New Perfume On A Budget Of Less Than $200!" you will be doing exactly what major companies do to produce their . A "failure" is one that does not. even if making perfume is completely new to you? Step Into The Room Where Perfume Is Being Made And Learn How You Can Make Perfume Yourself! One of the most practical ways of learning a new skill is by working alongside someone who can guide you each step of the way and teach you the correct steps you must follow to achieve success. clearly and completely. A successful perfume is one that makes money. you can make your own perfume. while for one reason or another it failed in the market place. You can do it because. only the surroundings are different. But. Are You Ready To Make Your Own Perfume? With a copy of "Developing A Profitable New Perfume On A Budget Of Less Than $200!" in your hands. was an absolutely sublime fragrance. It is called "Developing A Profitable New Perfume On A Budget Of Less Than $200!" and it acts as your one-on-one professional helper to guide you through the process of making a genuine commercial perfume to sell. this book already exists. the measure of a perfume's success is obvious. multi-billion dollar world wide industry that constantly seeks qualified new talent. With perfume it is very difficult to get this one-on-one guidance from a professional. In fact. Yet the steps you would be taught are so simple that they can easily be explained in writing. So what would be a successful perfume for you? Would you like to make a perfume that you could use to make money? Would you like to create a fragrance that pleased you and was admired by your friends? Do you know that you can create a successful perfume. Would You Life To Create A Successful Perfume? Certain steps and methods are involved in the creation of ALL perfumes.
by following each carefully documented step. so simple that you might wonder why the book is even necessary. If you don't understand one single fact of life. enrich you. it's simple. Of course words can be just words and you are looking for proof of the results. which exists only in your head. your first perfume — you will be working with a budget of just $200. as we wrote out the steps for you to follow. If the results please you (they will!). with a larger budget. there are several seemingly small points that. better yet. if you are ignorant of them. It could be the start of some steady extra income for you. it directs you to professional sources that take orders online. Either way. Then it's a matter of filling and labeling your bottles. Incidentally. read it. It could be the start of a new career. "Developing A Profitable New Perfume On A Budget Of Less Than $200!" will inspire you. Enough said. the fragrance you imagine. which you will then prepare for bottling by adding the mysterious ingredients you see listed on the labels of commercial perfume bottles. I believe you will agree that the quality is on the level you would like to achieve with your own fragrance — and you will. What is it? The most certain proof you could ask for — a bottle of fragrance that was made by us. The Directions Are All Laid Out For You! The starting point is your aroma — the fragrance you like in someone else's perfume or. all the materials you purchased might be wasted and your project will become a big mess. step by step. But. your second perfume can be a more ambitious project. the "packaging" is up to you. if you have a good feeling about perfume. the book not only tells you what materials you will need to make your first (or any!) perfume. From this remembered or imagined fragrance. I can give you two very important reasons why you don't want to start making perfume without it. Yes. buy the book. you proceed to a real fragrance.perfumes — only for this. First. you will not be able to sell your perfume legally. If you want to make perfume to sell. The second reason only applies if you are planning to sell your perfume. That "proof" will be sent to you along with the book. examine the sample and then do it yourself. and possibly start you on a whole new career! . While you will receive this fragrance in a rather simple 1-ounce glass bottle. but you want to learn how to do it first. the "juice". you and every professional perfume maker can easily get around this problem without spending an extra penny. From there. It's simply a matter of understanding the rules of the game.
Aim for that.000 separate advertisements seeking our attention. the problem more closely resembles trying to reach the green through a thicket of trees.they are using jet plane thinking to tackle a moon rocket problem. No wonder companies like my client's are throwing their money away -. How do you achieve a good aim? By knowing exactly what . Most we don't even pay attention to. To aim at this illusive bullseye. Instead. but we didn't get anything out of it. and your other goals. you first must understand what you are up against. The competition to gain consumer attention has never been greater." The amazing part of the statement was their belief that they would get anything out of it. Recently a client said to me.Order The Book! PROBLEM: "I Don't Know How to Get Started on a Marketing Plan" HELPFUL IDEAS TO CONSIDER: Also look at "What Are Your REALLY Selling?" and "Meeting Customer Needs Is Not Enough" Home Solve My Problem Free Reports Products & Services About Us Index Rewards Free Newsletter Contact Us Other Resources Aim for the Bullseye Any successful marketing plan aims for the bullseye. Every day we are bombarded with over 3. advertising. Whether the activity is called sales. or public relations. or the newspaper ad we don't even glance at. The bullseye is the mind of your customer. the two most critical things to have are a good aim and the proper club. But all too often the designer thinks it is as simple to put a message inside the consumer's head as it is to pitch a golfball onto a green. "We thought it would be a good idea to run an image ad in a business journal. marketing. then finding an arrow which can reach it. In that situation. but the techniques often used are straight out of the 1950's. The trick is in locating it. like greater profits and more customers. will naturally follow. like the billboard we drive by. it seeks to achieve one primary goal -planting a positive idea about your product or service in the consumer's mind.
fears. security.its like the monster that might be behind the door. But there is always hope in the heart for this next. Most perfumes are pulled after a year because they failed to deliver on their advertising promises.age. wants. romance. Tylenol looked for a small back door that was unlocked -. but you can't be sure. while average golfers shoot for the green. They are motivated by the possibility of satisfying their needs. People are not motivated by being female or young or rich." But what you may know is their demographic description -. Good golfers shoot for the pin. Instead.and they found it. and so on. and desires of your target audience. location.Had Tylenol tried the old frontal attack method by designing advertising . Tylenol positioned themselves by first stimulating that fear -.love. but it is proven not to cause stomach irritation or hidden stomach bleeding!"	. Sound marketing strategy requires a sound understanding of the target audience. but hitting another.you are aiming at. fears. wants. not demographics. new fragrance. Others had tried to take the castle before. As changes in media costs and availability allows more niche marketing. perfume sales are driven by desires. etc. income. persuade.) After positioning aspirin in this way specifically for their niche of consumers. Tylenol was like a platoon of soldiers facing a mighty army inside a huge castle. and motivate them. When Tylenol was first introduced. by the way.you could be aiming for one niche. "I know my target. Women primarily buy a brand because its message (including its image) has persuaded them of its potential to answer their desires -. admiration. If you do not know the needs. Bayer aspirin controlled over 80% of the non-prescription pain relief market."Scientific research proves that aspirin can cause stomach irritation and hidden stomach bleeding" (what a wonderful phrase -. but the frontal attack had never worked. Their consumer psychological research showed that aspirin was vulnerable with a significant group of consumers who worried about stomach irritation. Tylenol also relieves pain like aspirin. and desires. You may say. sex. you don't know enough to create the best marketing plan for your product or service. Do women buy a particular brand of perfume because they fall in the uppermiddle income bracket? No. That doesn't tell you what you really need to know about your audience in order to educate. the requirements for knowing the specific psychological motivations of the people in that niche becomes paramount -. adventure. "Oh. Tylenol then said.
. it completely overlooks three other critical areas of marketing psychology analysis -.which also determine the attraction and satisfaction of prospective customers.. wants. Marketing Strategy for Madonna Brand Perfume This is an excerpt from the paper.4 billion of 1989 (Royce. Tylenol now owns over 35% of that market. as opposed to being concocted in essentially local establishments. and do it poorly.. which represented a 9. however. 815). To begin your marketing plan. rock video star Madonna Ciccone (Cocks. A single marketing strategy. "Madonna" brand perfume is one of a number of cosmetic fragrances developed and marketed for celebrities--in this instance. and even dangerous. From 1987 through 1990. 74-75).wants. fears. The history of the cosmetics industry can likely be traced to some of the very earliest days of civilization. p.4 billion. includes consideration of market segmentation and target marketing. MARKETING STRATEGY: "MADONNA" BRAND PERFUME This research presents a marketing strategy for "Madonna" brand perfume. 1991. marketing strategy is considered in the context of two separate national markets--Canada and Italy. "What do these folks need?" Then we think a little. Marketing strategy. "Madonna" brand perfume is produced in the United States. however. in the context of this research. Avon.Too often we do only part of this exercise. In 1880. Industry sales in 1990 were $11. It was in the last-half of the nineteenth century. We ask ourselves. strategies.by demographics. when toiletries and cosmetics began to be produced and marketed on a mass scale. product positioning. and desires -. product life cycle.what we think we would need in that situation! 	.1 . first analyze what motivations your customers have for buying. and decide that consumers really needs -. fears. Further. their bones would also have been bleaching in front of Bayer's castle walls.Not only does this "seat of the pants" research result in unreliable. is followed for North America --Canada and the United States. pp. Success often depends on correctly identifying the very strongest needs. Instead. and marketing mix. Always remember that your product or service is just a means to an end for them. industry sales grew by 34. was founded.6 percent increase over the $10. North America's largest cosmetic firm. Identify that "end" and shoot all your arrows toward that bullseye. 1990. or desires of your potential customers which your product can satisfy. ask a few of our colleagues their ideas.
The Canadian marketing mix is as follows: Product A product is defined as anything offered for exchange to another person including physical objects. price. growth. and decline. The stage of its life cycle in which a product is situated affects to a great extent the type of product strategy adopted. 815).. . features. Depending upon the type of product involved--physical. and promotion. and by 1993 should near $15 billion.. Brand name is the major product strategy employed in the marketing of "Madonna" brand perfume. place. service. of the four Ps of marketing-.product.introduction. Consumers typically recognize five distinctive product characteristics--quality level. not all of these characteristics will be applicable in each instance. a gain of 31. and packaging. and so forth. and ideas. Another factor involved in the development of product strategy is the product life cycle. "Madonna" brand perfume is in the int . Brand name is essential to the marketing of celebrity fragrances. Four stages of the product life cycle are recognized by most marketing analysts-. styling. Perfumes as a group are in the mature stage of the product life cycle.6 percent over 1990 levels (Royce. maturity. places. Celebrity fragrances as a group are in the growth stage of the product life cycle. organizations. .. brand name.. services. 1991.percent. p.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.