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1 G 011 ~ IlliN:lu.de r,our fill U nanlle, address, an d daytime ph one Inul1I1be'l'll

esonslbEe! M~edicine

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t" ~' ,uR 1'r'~' 'M' dici '-I [N"

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ber! page 1641; but you neglect '00

.P oint out th e role of the patient in the quality and. cost 0:£ health care, '"V'Ve live in a so c]ety that values new' ,and! expen stye things over old. and cheap things, So- in .. health care, 'when a shiny IU3W pill or device is daJlg1ed in front of us, WH tend. to automatically assume it is better, As an. endo crinologist, ill spend a lot of ·ti~:n.e' explaining the scientifically proven benefits of lifestyle change s, only to be told by' my patients th at they have no plans to eat better 0 r

start exercising and that I just need ·to give them more insulin 0'1' another pill :fOT their diabetes, .00 dnctors need to do a 'better job comparing treatments and anrulyzing: risks and. benef ts? Yes,!. but that 'V(iU not su bstantially improve health care un til people take personal responsibility for their lifestyle decisions,

Meg, Re:itmeye:r~ M·,.,D',,,

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I must be one of those' rare doctors who do. think. critically. ill think most ].aYp'e~op18' will come away from. this article' with the message that doctors are stupid, surgeons are danger-

Wrth i nered i ble versati I ity and strengtht Gori'la Glue is the

u ~i m ate solution for aU you r ad hesive need s. 60nds wood, stene, meta I t cera m ic, faa m, glass and much more!

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do oruy harm, and Big Pharma is driving all of ill I'll admit that there wets seeds of truth in your article, but there 'was no poJlntl COUnb3':fpcint, 110. di scussion of the drug ;approva]. 'prOC6'SJ3; and certainly no mention of all the good that modern physicians accomplish,

Rena Cunard D ,eAr ment, .M"D ..

Camp am, .FA.

'YOUI' article advocates meaningful statistical analysis and :reporting, yet it violatea its own advice in stating the num her of Americans who have adverse re actions to prescription

d1ll""1I11g· i[!i 111-,0 n um b .01" F]F]Q o ,0' ,n, 1"@m"-',iCI'!"!i,'TiI_,

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ingl.'8Ss. unles s the total numb er

of Americans taking prescription drugs is considered, In fact, more: than :1,50 millirm Americans take at least nne prescription drug annually-so 99~5' percent of them do not experience adverse: effects .. On the contrary tens of millions of lives

are vastly improved, if not saved." by presort ption dr uga each ye'a.r.~

Bonnie Taylor M~.8S0tll~l, MT

Ass mbly Required

Your recent piece on the "Cosmic Blueprin t of Lifer [page 3,8]: does,

not ]]i.v!e up to its btlling .. Organic molecules may be found in lS,paeej on interstellar dust grains, and in meteorites l' but they alia just a collection of parts, They are no more the blueprin t of life than a handful of gears., sprlngs, and SCF'BWS Is the blueprint of awatch, the cover asks if life b €san. in. sp ace, The article, offers. no hint that it did, 'beyond the fervid imagmation of Fired Hoyle,

,is cott MclKe:U:&jJfilr' Manchester, MO

Michael ,Abrams, a freelance 'miter in NYC; mote Birdmen; Batmen and Skyflyre.rB~

Daftfene Cavalier fnunded Sciencetlheerleader.com and cofounded ScienceForCiti ~ zens.net, connecting n3,gulru.~ people to real science,

Rebecca Coffey covers science, writes h UIDor ,and fietion, and is a commen tator on Vermont Public Radio.

Emily E~ert:J a Brooklyn-based freelance writer and former :n.lSCOVER, intern; ],8 currently working on delnystitying climate science with the, nonprofitClimate Central

Tlm Folger ],8, a contributiI1g editor at D,ISCOV'ER and s aries editor for th e Best American S cience and, N',atu.fi8 Writing.

Lydia ani is a Brooklynbased freelancer 'who. has written for ,P:8ycholagy' TodaYj SBED~ and other publications,

DDlIS: Fox writes for New Sci= enlist and Popular MechaniC8J~ his work. has, appeared in the Bast American Science and Nature Wrjting' antho:~ogy.

Mara Grunbaum" a ,DlS.COV,ER intern, also writes for OnEatth and Scientific American ,Mind and specializes 'in 'whale barnacles,

Mon!b~al Hessl is, a frselance writer in Brooklyn who

fre q uently covers g;enom,ics medicine, and the environment.

Willi H nt,' . . . t

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II U.,~ a ,DISCOVE,R. In .'Brn

Da n Nu rley's latest book is Dtabetes ,Rising (excerpted

b D~'SC'O'VE' R m M' ).

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y, . ,.c' c·. . ,. lln",. lt1LY ,~cno.,

Jeremy ,Jacquot is, a graduate' student ,~t 'the' UniversJi'ty of Southern ,C all fo rnia

and' (fJ, t:y.,O .... Ian ""',0 writer

" rU,!., 1.!ll~~ _ Llre..', ":, ,'. !L:-"i

David Kushner is a COD:-' tributing editor at Ro.lling Stone and Wired. I Iis books include Masters of Doom, and Leviuown.

Daniel Lameifii, a neurosei€'ntist at ,McGill University~ has also written for Slate and SCientific ,American.

Michiua'l Lem,onick is the senior science wri b3':F at the nonprofit communications organization Climate Central,

Brunol Maddox, a novelist and editor, divides his time between New York and Wa],e~.,

Mac Margolis; is a correspondent for Newsweek magazine based in Brazil,

Linda Marsa, at contributing

;C!; ~I~ tor at D1'Q ·e· '0' . ".ifll':rn '~~, writ -

!!.:;Ow .. ·. ,lL!a. lJj,C!.. .v .m::.n'I' ,!II.Gi 1",",.i..II.,

ing a book about the health €'ffe cts of a warming planet,

Kathleen McAu linie j;8 an, award-winning science jour .. nahst who writes for The New Thrk Tlmes .Magazin~, Atlaniic ,Monthl~ and Smahsanian.

Kat Mc:Gowan is a former senior editor at Psychology Today and a contributing editor at DISCOVER.,

RichaRi Morgan covers science for The Economist, 'Ihe New ,York Times; Scientific

and part -time underground An-zerican. and Wined.

pm] .n.,'~1JiU has writt en 'f~l" Bo n

'~"'i'['V'~ ~lI:.:il ,', u~ '~¥'J... __ '1;=1 ,tllrv... '. rILiU;!OIl

ing Stone and,Men.s Journal Jil~ N1eilm ark, who writes

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S~h N'ewman, a former DIS,-, COVEH, mtern, is a student at SUNY Binghamton.

K'ristii'n Ohlson is at New York Times 'best ~ selling au thor who. lives in, Cleveland,

S,te;phen Oines lives in Nashville and writes for CR lllagrlzlne.' and New Scientie:

Va lerie Ross ]8 a freelance [oumalist 'who also writes for Scientific tU-mriC£UtMtnd and Pop,ularMec.haJtics.

Aaro III Rowe is a. bioehemist on. the lookout for futuristic medical technologies and erne:rgency equipment,

Laurie Rich Sal\emo is an edt.. ..... r at Patch I~i"'tiim" 'a r« .... Dlm· '~I=

UJ I~. IJ). ·iI!LU. ~ ~I •• - vu . I I U.b

ntty-specific news platform,

Oizabeth Svobod a, a Popular Science con tributing editor, is 'based in San Josie~ 'California.

Niikhil Swaminalhan, who covered rotten eggs in this issue, ,is, the son of a foodborne disease s cien tist, I~€' writes for .scientific American, Wt~~.d~ and New8week.

Victoria TSJ1g, a current 'DI8- COVER. intern, studied cell biology and neurobiology

Kjm letter covers privacy and securi ty iS8U es and has written for Wir~d~ Sa/on, and PC World

Do Zhang is a former msCOVER intem, nnw based in

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ve,ryy:eaJ O:ISCOVIR'S, editors hunker down to assemble our annual list of the top ][00 stories in science, And. eve:ry' . year we rum, into the same marvelous conundrum: 1.0.0 is a ludicrously small number when you are trylli.ng to capture the whole' woikHs output of noteworthy scien tifie ideas, and discoveries,

A few 2.010 developmen ts were so obviously- monumental that we could. not ignore' them, The ,B.P disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, our #1 story; ftnst~,g.ated a worldwide research frenzy into levleryth'iIl,g from ocean-floor imaging to clean e'U:e:rg)" sources, The creation of a 8yn-' thetic 0 rganism (#:2)~ th e gr,eatest :m,ffup of th e universe (#7)~ and major advances in. diagn,osing Alzheimer's {#10) also were shoo-ins, 'Then our job got harder. 'We weeded through thousands of ideas" some of which provoked sharp deb ate before finding their place, Most painful were the straggle:rsi the handful. of stories that made it onto our list but fell out at the, nth hour. I'm particularly fond. of these because they

in ustrate core asp ects of how the S C,I en tific process works.

Italian physicists simulated. the behavior of a black. hole using lasers in ,oCJj, ~I ab.Am ,'Dj zin a but ,gj ni elah ora ti 0-' n ofw 0' rk P U'b111· I['Ih' ed 'h',I,:rn ·VPo:l'l"'IS' I $110'0- I{~CI·

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ence can be incremen taJl)~ Anthrop o:liogists at University College London modeled how societies evolve Wi\WOO political complexity but used! broad, characterizations on an isolated group of cultures (science can be tentative), 111.19' panic over "runaway' acceleration" in Toyota cars had, characteristics of ' Ill. ass hysteria, bu t it proved difficult to validate that interpretation (not ,eve'rything yi,e]d.s to science], Wll:8n you.11;arve to cut stories this wonderful, you, know that. it has been a good year for the upward reaching of the human mind,

TI1],S ye,,~u" we, are introducing new w~ys to :~,et OlU' readers share in some of our overfio,w. Often. we learn colorful details about where and bow the research was conducted, 'Want to see a. sinkhole or a particle collider for yourself? Turn. to page g6~ Bessarch kecaps moving after our ink hits the! pagel' and. W,g are expIoring ways to. let our readers share in that st,eady advance as well, N Ot!8 that little' red box above: DISCO,rE..R is teaming up with the' National Science Foundaticn and NBC News b) create three town hall, meetings in. 20.11 that vrun lay' out exactlY" what w,e know about climate change and what we' can do. about it These events will track, the latest twists in the climate debate (.14) and \ViTI ']11ak,8 sure the' real science gets heard, That conversation 'Wilt in turn, make its way' back to these pages.,

The world of scientific dfscovery just keeps getting big,g:er and faster, 'We:

1. .r:],'!I:TO to race s» on' stantl lV t 0' keep lI'~p' .A. nd w-, I!io would n't have it anv other W' va 'V' ,U~'Y'''''' 11..._ • q'~'U 'lul~ OdL10b.!IJ,J.,_' -i:_'P~, ... 'IUl,. 1"'UiI! ','ir;;.,',' 'vU!..ll:· . .II .,. (;l,;"'O _:.' i vt •. J .. 'P' ' .. ': '}'"

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e.2mi() R~lta ,S'jtll1ll Ud. AlIlI"ig~ mseMli:l .• Phene arul iPad f(J1IC1l a:r(l rt..entcr~~ Irnilcmarks (If Apll'1c loc. mu:f' limm::ii ti} R~:rn s.''M1!: Vmion ~ TnTltL<f:'J:M prndllets IIlnclla&;di !lir~tr frl[Jm Ro~b SIOOle, all~ cannot be !XIml!Jilu·d ~ilh :afl~ ~hiU aft-Gr. PfiGf'S ~[j'tJ.jed to C~3ill;g,e: wiitmMt flntroe. Cedai;[1 ptoom::! aimponents req!.li~ Ur.ilirte aecess aOO.3.rt ~lilfiId en a 54J!Jseri~{ll'.l D3ISi& 'kir a ~P.eCille~ 'Ieflnl Of'rer e-xpil'1l& iM;a~ 3,1. Ziril 1. "'"GlJa.r.3I1~ee is It mitad te ~'$il;ll'l 4 P~i)lhJcl iKlrC~aSes. m3,de diree1J'I)' fmm I&os~h Slo:ne in'll does lIat irn::lude' retum :silJPIMAg. G\taraM:ee dll'e!S net app1y. to o"iny llflline sub.scrl;ptooRS ~lD.rtItBse.d .seil2J3tel~ 'IrlHTI th-e GO·RDM ~mdud or 'sIJlltscriptioo lfenewa!s. "I~ m3lter.'f..ats Intlujjed Yrithl tire IPClXillci ~t tIm.€! llf IJIIJChe35e musr I!Ie re'turned ~(Ie-eth:el ar.d lJlld'.3mJli!ed '00 be: ellg,lble: 'fm .i3Jl!t ei'lcfmt~g,e m' ffflJn.d

A sharp abdominal pain indicates something far m o"r-e" dire th an a .. ·· routine st omach ac che

'_ -, ,'/: [I,,', . "1 ,., •• -, u, r : .1 •• : ,,,U,.·· >',.' ,'.

'1\n.d now it's better?"

"]\lmost,;! Vince satd, "He finish ed his anti biotics thre e days agom It has nothing to do 'with 'this, year-old pain, though. And the mass is higher up on the Tight than your typical appendicttls. 'This f:AT' scan I asked for Is still pending"

.I turned to the prisoner, ,'I TeU me

abou t this p ain" ill b ega'n. "Does It come every day?"

"It hits me more when I eat, do c-

to. 'I-r-'!~~ 111i:5' -r-,op- - :l!'~i ed 1

., 1·.'U ,w , .. lllll.~ '. I.

'''Fot a year'r~

"Ye ssir, Some nights ill can't sleep, mfs so bad, Diarrhea come s too" Then I '. dl t, ] d k !!,

, Ill. so tirec " can IhJla1.'"e Y !,f) :my 'w'or.: .' .

":Any vomiting?"

"Only when I drank. that CAT scan stuff" On exam, the right middle

oe.l'~ii:iO;Oj '0" if' l-.~, ~ ,'" bdom "o-n di d hurt when I

'a.\JL!!::.!Clb llLll!i:I! d.JU ,~, ,. '. . 11!.oL. '." IIW\, ,

pressed deeply; I sensed a fullness, but i,t wasn't hard and "",1l'D,n;r"ilMl~'~:r,=,o W' r: hat

llL .n c1.d!u .'. .• ,ci!,!I:. U (.Ii, . " L,;[.I[Jl Ji,,;,ci Ull\),:;"m· , . I . 'I -

Ton, IDaj:er' ls c,hairmalill 10rf

Ihel dlepartmeull of emerge'Dc" m,edilciiin,e alt Nil,.

YOfilk Dowlll1ilown Hlospita II in IMlanhaU:an~ The eases descri bed ihll Vliital S:ignr$, are felal" ,bIt naUl IS In,dl [ce'lilaiini dolaU:£; harvel Ib sellil c,hangldOl

" . did :~ 'II)... th

ever :it wag~, 1 t . ". '. en t 8eenl to uO - - er

l . h I ~ h

him too mucr ,., Pi us, you can t : 'ave

appendicitis for a rear.,

'''1 tht tnk ! II b OK;" ~. ld hi' "

, -. - 'l-' ... .. , .. ..~ ..

.,'.1 ..•. you.. . ,e .. ' ........' to I.. . m.

'Ii iL f: ''-']]''1 :~. ....l~, tI !!

~1ie , CJL1€ ~ 1 .. € CAT scan.,

"Th 1 d' !! 1 n" d' h

. i 1·"1-' ", I ::~ • I :,'., . . . . ":='(1: "":..:_" '_'. .~.

Jan (S~ ". 0 c,~ 1e Ie p €., 8,8 t ,€

guard.s looked on. \vlth di sinteI,est.

Orrl~ '. ,C_ ~ "-. " k' .. ,··U.·., 'ill ,-, ·· ..... 11'11 d I lUY a ,[lew W'e€' .'. S earuer" 1Il reC{':I.lLll'e. ill"

bad s'een a ,~8"-yrear'~old Iri8h A.merican,

W'Qi]TI,an who described four days of sharp abdommal pain, ~ill keep trying

+, ...... §1' b t 1'-" ~'+;l!j II - 1lFr1-- d ~~'I,ji . w ~,o, I • U " , can.t, SHe ~r-oalleJ.· ~ im

,. d'"

S .. O constipated,

On exam ~ 'her :right lower abdomen was mild]y tender, Rare as it w,s, for someone her age to have' a stool impaction, I did a rectal exam, just in, case, Empty; ~~I don't think ifs, appen-

dicitis or anything acute" ill told

']!,.. gr' ,~~ Ii. ·CA~· "'ifI i.f!o{'''SIi 'n W" '0· ~ .. L,l be ,iCIj lot 0 f' ,Lh ... ,. fl··· ",,ill. ~!"",~!I.,.l, :·:·.·'·W.'U,' .I~ g" llJv .:..!"

radiation for nothing. Let's gjV€' you a bowel eleanout, and 1'11 recheck

. j

you tomorrow

111 dav tl 'j

'IS next u,ay t 119 womans misery

continu ed. ffI drank everything. you prescribed. I'm empty, But I still have to go"jj she told me, ,A plain X-ray' showed a bowel €'mpty of stool. This was not IC onstipati on, 0 n exam abe was still tender in, the :rig:bt lower quadrant, Had I missed a smoldering app endicitis? I bit the bullet and did the CAT scan, butit came aut fine,

.~"lI'1.!! di iti N'I' .... '1 ~ i

meres no ,2lppen ICI_"IS~ : ormai,

I said, Her shoulders sagged,

"Ihen what is i't?"J she, pl]e aded, "I'm going crazy"

MY' favo-rite ,gastroenterologist :happened by; "1\ 28 -year-old:! M, told. ]lltm,,, f(No ]nedical.h.ft.s.tory:~ perslist,ent lawler.-right q u~drant p-ain and

DIICOWiEIR I j AGAZ:~NIE . .caMI·

Get m Dre, med'ic1~ drama fr-c m our Vitali S'igms Pod cast

when YOJIl.I waln~ 'it on demand, ol1ly at, dlisooveli,mallziine~oomlPodeasts,"1

ne,g.a-live ICAT SIC,af]]., C ould you take a look?" ,A, co]onoscopy~ which fiberoptically examines the lining of the intestine, could detect rnaladies= like cancer and mflammatory 'bowel disease-ethat a CAT scan can miss,

'!~TOlt:UJITO~ he replied with a 'WalV,E.,

For both, patients, if t11,9 problem wasn't appendicitis, it still seemed that SOIJ1'SUling must be Virong; in the g,astroin:testinaI tract, 25- feet of delicate ahsorptive tissue exposed to trillions of compounds and. microol',ganisms, each day;, Its mission: absorb the nutritious and 'bar the noxious in the things we eat,

Assaulted by B'verythin.,g' from 110t coffee, alcohol, and cigarettes at the start: stomach acid, bile, and myriad planetary foodstuffs 'midw'&y; and. industrial quan titles of anaerobic bacteriaat the end, the or tract OOItleS 'with its own immune system. Bristling 'Mth antibodies and aggr,ess~v,e killer" cells, it will clobber any ,para·' site' or pathogenic bacterium trying to. 'bUfJOW' ruts 'way into the body,

Each part ofthe et tract performs it - 0'" - tas k - 1b1 1- stc -.-- ch 11.::: .. - -

i S . '\N11, I. as S~ : e i3 nrnacn, uver;

and. pancreas launch a barrage of digestive juices, then 'the' small intestine' takes; in nutrients and. essential vitamins. The last segment of the: small intestine j' the terminal ileum, specific .... lly:c·· a ibso rbs vitamin 8:'112· an" ": d

o . '~L'· .. · .. :allJ,_.: :,_ . ·0,-, ,",' . ·Ql Y JL .:a. .. ,! ' .J. ._. I,.'

bile. The colon. mostly reclatms water. Th e stomach (Mth its ulcers) and. the colon (w~th its tumors) are the bestknown sources of medical troubles, The small intestine can make ],ijt 8 own brand. of mischief, however,

W.hen the prisoners GAT scan finaUy ~pear.ed~ I 'was, :fl.lrMLH~,ed., "'Hnly

co-w,=!!'] m·e. U'ltt:1 . ,cr'-,t::!;dl'l ~It 4-~,o ,e.n'ii~'Oii'l:·· -Th-- 0 : ... ! . ',~, .. .'" I, 'ru 1;;:;;.. ,Q,\, LJI;,1!JCP ';::Hi, .. .IL.1I;:; iU.IL ,. ,,'Il:;

radiolognsfg re,ad was de'nnttive: ~Smrul 'bO'wl~l ()bs'U'uctinn originat-

ing from thickened and enhancing terminal ileum. Associated with left g].uteal abscess and perianal fistula tract" I( A fistula is an. abnormal connection between one ·o:rgaTI; vessel, or '" t ti d tl )

mt es rne and anotner,

It looked like a year's worth of abdominal pain, I thought of the youn.g Irish Am eric an. woman. Her colonoscopy had confirm edt the same diagnosis: Crohns disea-se.

But each patient had exhibited an 'unusual ,and. misleading trait For the' pri soner; it 'was th e duration o-fhis pain=nothing goes a whole year w].thout declaring itself For the you.n,g. woman, it was bow localized and specific h er discomfort was: a feeling of constipation rather than U16 signature Crohns symptom, diarrhea,

IN' ][932 .. nocron BURB1LL CROHN'

and tV\(O ,coUe.agu.'B,g at Mount Sinai Hospital in N'ew York. lei ty described an inte still. a]. condition unlike the widespread intestinal tub ereulosi s of the day; ," Terminal ileitis" they named it, be caus B it often targeted. the ileum as ru,·t opens mto th e large intestine. But "Crohns disease' ' is the moniker that stuck"

Crohns exacts a huge ·toll; some half-million North Americans are afflicted, Its cause remains maddaningly elusive, Officially i.t :is an inflammatory bowel disease, but

it is neither whoUy infectious nnr exchJ.sive:Ry autoimmune, Current consensus pins the 'blame on an immune overreaction to normal gut

flo- ra B··O\'iI ctaria -frse ']]1- - 'li,;i"1,o fo '1' I" 11' stan '''''''.0

. . . if_t" . ,pt,'ILo. ~.Jl.JL. . • . JL rc;~ .. .I u .... 'U~ .n ". . i.,;i'. .. . .\...CUj<

don't gist Crohns, and the stools of Crohns patien ts are loaded with. the hn dy's own inflammatory proteins",

'Why 8om.le ,pe,op:irls immll.n.,e systerrlS bl.ast ,away at. 'benign ,gut flo:ra 'wle aU .share (and ne\ed); :no

o:ne kn.ows. Th.er.B' is Cl'BaJ~lY' ,8\ gen.etif: cOmpOnBll't:: A nunlbe:r of gene :~na'fk~ ers :fO.F 'Croh:n~s 'have 'been found; and :it. defintte]y:runs in. fa;mjli.'ss and. sonll'e ethnic ,group s; str.oong J BWS Inore often than. Afdcan Am.eri,CaI1S; :feu example'. But :four-fifths, .of all Cro.hrrs pati.lents l&ck ,affected .re].ativ'Bs.,

At its worst. the infl.anlUlalto:ry

. - .. :' ... f"C' ... fL!....I. , .'iI\". ... ' tho '.'. ,]"

process .0. . .... JOlIn 8 can. nurn ... .ro Ulg~l.

intestinal walls to tunnel fistulas into the b ',I· ..... dd ',I er '-1" I1I,tn .t\ th iOriJl" '10-: ,n,n,~ 0-' rf' . th ;p.

i!.:;" '. au", 'D iii.· .. 11 .. 'I;,J vU !!::!.!IL . Vt'".;.1l. I .. ~

intestine, indite ctly to the vagil]La; or, as in 'U~U3 case of 1n1y patients ~ out to

th 1.0 . skin . 'F~ (1i"'" 7']' '!':lilt" lea ,d,~ I t oi""iI, ab .'~,i'i,O~ p.o~

", ~ ~ III, Jl.~lW~~ ~~,_, ._V I~ _.~U~~O~01

shows ch'I'On'ic hdlalmR1otion thro~lhouti

which can require surgery.,

Wi.,elding its hrandmg irn n anywhere a]0.I1,8 't11J.e gastroin tesnnal tract" Crohns can cause everything from. aphthous, ulcers (canker sores) In the mouth to ,abs·[)E';SS,B'8 around the an us, More eccentrically it. can spark. iri tis, a painful eye mflam-

m - ation skin ulcers and c,W!.- ' -b·I'OFII·<'i.rn···

.. "_iI.. . ..' ]I oKJI. .. IIkL .. IV.<II. OJ C!I. I.. 1.1. ' ... ' i!!~ '.

arthritis. Peak onset is between 'the, ag'9s of 15 and 3,5J but septuagenartans can 'be stricken too" It earn lurk for y,etttB as, nonspecific fatigue, diarrhea, ab dominal cr,~,lnl.ps'l' and fever. One study found an average delay o:f s,ev.€n ye'ars from onset of sympto:nl~ to. diagnosis. A. child or teenager with dJlarrh'6'8! aJ.ld. weigl1.t :~.o,ss sh.ould. 'be inv€stigate,d fo:r. CE()h.n!s,.,

Probl,sm ~.s'., a complete' diagnosi.s U..BuaJ.1y req llires a full colonos,copy with ,(l push :into the ileum . .Even th.at ...... an ~i a I" m'- piii'lQ ..... /' DlO 'S'iI"iomc]';C, i!:iI~ 0- - it'i t'hat

16- .. 'I 1Uc.: ·.II!~~lo~:,<'0·.iv· .IL~o}ino, . "_

look ]ike C:rohrls (or u].eerativ'B' coU:ti~~ fhe ot'her nla.j,o:r inH.ammato.ry ·bowel. dj,slsase) on colona S(:oPY' a~roe caused. by infections. U']l{ie salmoneUa and campyiobac1t,erj ,or by :nl€tdication" The diagnos:is is uJltiu1:ately

clinical=a synthesis of symptoms, ileo- colonoscopy 'findings, sto 0:1 cultu 'j,,;o (!i an d re (liP' onse to treat m en t

..... .i.1V D'!. 1 .11.. '!.:;;r..:;; .. ..:....:JiU '.. ... 1J..Jl1!i:OC:. .. '!G.. .• ,

Standard treatment for Crohns is three parts anti - Inflammatcries and. one p,[U1:: antfbiottcs, The workhorse anti-Inflammatory drugs, Me' aminosalicylates, chemical cousins of aspirin, backed. by potent steroids ~n senous cases, Steroid use is fraught with side effects, however, so the hunt for alternatives has been relen tles 8.,

The most promising new agents are synthetic antfbodtes that Incapacitate a rna] or Inflammatory protein, .. Alone or combined wi th older chemotherapy treatments} these antibodies can seal up fistulas and achieve Impressive remissions .. A]a8~ these potent Immune mod ulators

can' ' .... 1.00 ..... nleash 1'1",C8 ·f ........ 'O,;Q,t· enin "g' . . (1j.:lL. lUll!\:.llw~· ., 1,~~ IJ.JJIIl.-~[~ :/~~, ',.' .....

tnfeetions, As a last treatment

t' .~; f d d i Boo·

~P' ron, pOfu.ons· 0 '. iseaseu mtes-

tine can. be suraicallv removed, but

!O"" rJ

that creates the risk of malabsorp-

tion, fu ture .0 bstructions from 'OCOI'-r' nz and adh esions and recur 0·· .. (;" .:·1'.·D ·dJ,JId·- •.... 'WO, '.'.1 OJ iIl"IU rLL" .'~.

f€:nces elsewhere ..

WITH SO MANY' RISKS IN PLAY! DOCtors, tend to stick wlth the tried ~ andtrue aminosalicylates for. non-dire cases. of Crohns, I was sure my prisoner, given his horrendous

~AII'fI' ifii;l'll an 'fi'~' n ..JI111···ng'" 'E.~"7.Q,S· h eaded fo r

'!L.. 'o~ CH ..... ·G!. .' •.. lllIL iIl.l'iJiji '!f'li' OJ.. '. . ~.!Ql, ... ~ ' . .Jl~, "'.

an extensive in testinal resection, Neverthele SSj the 8urg~on~ and ga1j=. troen terologist decided first to try an ti biotlcs and. an amlnosalleylate called. Pentasa, To everyones happy surprise, the old 8 tandbys worked wonders, maybe because the patient bad smoldered unaided for so long, Wi·thin 48 hours he was. eating .• and.

_ , .

walking, In six days a r.epeat study o:f

his small bowel appeared. fl€'ar=normatL

W· t' .~!.... t· '~' ... 'Th

e 'were on a UCi\.y S· .re·a~~. ,'e

illrish Ame.rican woman" w:hose 'Crohn!s, hJ~d pr-es,e:nted 'with t,errible urg,ency~ als'D (~ool-ed! off .rapidly on amino gallcy:li81tes. She wag Slent home in les,s. than a w·eek. Neither one required t'h!e sur~:e[y that ill 'had feared. ..

For my young man." ,though" the' rnj:~,aclle '~!\Tent only so far~ O'n 'the serv'= ont·'h'· d'- 0'il! -ha 'f"\Oi,f!frad- '-b'JI''''']''''l'n''' 'piii"iionn'" -r-.

~ . ,_ . : ". .a._j' " I~ Ju'~cil~)v .. · -,~ _. ra.:~~ _. ! .JLW ~iU !Ii 11

11

1 h h f£

'" . '. - ' - ' . '-

...... .. .. .' .' .. I .' '.' .. .. . , ,". '.' ." . . ,., - . . ". .. - - ,- .. ' .

N euroscience sieut .... s are on, tne c:ase 0, race

-1 - 11 k

. " ,.' Cl·· c'" '.. . --',. :.:. ''''_'. ,'. , .: "'-_'" ,." '.- .. " ", . :-, '. ',"", . '.C',· ' .. :,,' ,':' : ' : r ' th :' '.' --::' '.C "'.' ' ...• '. ',.':.:. ". ~J." ' . .'. : C',' . ' .. "

b indness, a strange malady t. __ at mai es some

people unable to distinguish friend from foe.

BY' C,ARL ZIM,MER

MAGINE "fI-iIA"r A.N EC'CEN1'RlliC PSYCHOLOGIST AC'COSTS YO'U'~ lN' FIlS HA.N D ]8-

, .. -,'!'.,. -:-'f' -, .. ' .. -,. .ith ,"'" " .. - .... -.' ,'. -.', .' ·-'f '.- .' .. '. o· , ,. - .... eftl: .' .. Iii -I' . ", -- 'hl, .. ' .,- "

'. a piece o paper WIt" 20 pictures or roses, me or tne pictures sr ows a

rose in the flow'er bed youjust 'passed, 'he says" and 'he asks you to' :pick its picture out fic;;o'm his lineup, The chal],e,nge would seem absurd=but if'you.

we. '].'''ie to 'ChRl1_~- •• e the roses to fac~" nearly e,veryo"fi.e ,coul._ d meet it,

M fl ' I f 1 'b'"'l'"' ,Ii £' d

. ost o us . ave a powerru am Ity tOI :re,co:gntz,e laces, ane y:et we

hardly ever take note of' it, We can commit a face, t,o memory with a sin,gl(! viewing, and 'even if we glee that face: only once its memory can stay fresl1 for years, The f~c:es, we remember so ,e,asilly m~y' diiffel" only

l::!:~::~~ts a~\y~~O~~~l;:~rl~~a!~~t~~::~~a!n~i~~een different

A. sma 1 fraction of; people, 'howev,er, cannot re,cogl'liz,e faces,~eve.n the faces of their parents, spouses, and children, Prosopagnosia, as this condi ...

'lion is knQiWUJ can ,affe ct p e(~'p']e' from 'birth or be triggered. later in life' by injuries. to the brain, It strikes an esti mated 2 percent of Americans, and is often accompanied by other typ B'S, of recognition impairmen ts, ilnclu,dH1l1g difficulty recognizin g places and objects, such as cars,

Despite the' millions of people 'who suffer from pro$opagn.o si 8,; it, remains an obscure disorder, preb-

bl d 4-1.., kill "'~l hi l C.

a _ 'Iy.:.. ue to iu~ e S,llil JL 'vVIIU'l. w: : icn race-

blind. people q uietly com p ensate for their condition In his me'w book, The Minds ,Eye:. neurologi st and. writer

,0 liver Sacks makes the surprising disclosure that he' has prrosopagnosia, ~I have had difficul ty remembering faces for as long. as I can remember" he Write's. Sacks, who turns 78 this y,ew:; :has been publishing books for four decades, Despite his many years in the public eye:! this is the first time most of his fans have l,sarned. of his condition,.

,Doctor,s ca;]'{l d.o .lnuch :[O,f people' ''With prosopagn.osia. in p aLrt becausJB neuro scientists still haeve; only ;at roUgll. ~.dea of ,how nor,mlal f:ace' :recogrDtio:n 'works., R,€(:e.o. tl:y~ oogrrltive Il.,eurnsJci- 1911tist :Mad.,sne Behrmann at Carnegie, M,sIllon 'U'm:verslty and hler (~o]]eague8 gathered senne imp(mtant CllH~~S to t~his puzzle' hy ,comparing t'ile brains

DISCO'VEla - MA,QUiINIE __

.. com

C.,c'h all 'the latest fnJIN Carl~ Zi'mmer om his' b!~o,g'l

The ILoom, ,at discover nllllliMe.lc"om lttu!lloomlli

12

of individual s who are face-hlmd to 'those who are face - s:n,ghted., 'Iheir results runt at howwe recogniee faces: 11()t in a f~aLSJ1. of il1sigll t, as it may seem, but 'by building 'up recognition on a neurological ass embly line,

Behrmann has be en testing a model for ,£['C'6 recognition that

was first proposed 25 years ago bY' Tim 'Valentine and 'Vicki Bruce, two psychologists at the University of Nottingham in England, 'Valentine and Bruce' argued that our brains 0..0 not store a, photographtc image of every face we see, Instead, th,ey carry out a mathematical transformation of each face, en.coding It as, a point in. a m ill tidimensional "face space"

On a map of face space, you might imagine' the north-south axis being replace with a small-mouthto-wide- mouth axis" But instead

of tnl1318 different dimensiens, like the space we~n3 familiar with [ace

it'iP' .0,",,""0 '''"'[[1' .r:i'Y· '~a'lite' 'm' -: all-Y .-lI11":~m'·-·:01'l\it'i'I·O- 'n- Q 0.' ..... Ia.'-L'C;l .JL .. c£'. ll·_,y ._ ....... , .. _. ,_,"; IILU .. ,.iG.l,lJ!O "~')" Ct.,~,

each representing s,om.le impo:rtant :feature of tl~:e hu:mla;n face:. Just ,a.s

the ancient cosmos was (:entered on :Eartl1.] Valentine' and. 'B:ru.ce argJU.ed that tllJ:e' facial univer.se is cen b3rsd on tIl,e' ,perfectly aV@Tag!e facEt 'The farth.e:r a,:face'is from t'his aver.ag:e oenterj, the 'm.ore; lexttem.e It beco:m"es.,

(]rver the' past quarter cent~, the

face space me de'! has gained. the support of a number cfneuroscientists, For one tbd.ng, it cffers an elegant explanatkm for how we can. 800 re so many images of faces in OlU' heads, By red ucing a face to a .p oint- creating a compact code: for representing an infinite numb er of face $- our brains need to store only the distance and direction of that point from the' center of face space, 'Face: space' also sheds light on the fact that 'W'f~,' are more ,likel~,. to correctly iden tilf~,. distinctive faces, than typical! ones, In the center of face' space; there are lots of :fairly' averag:e faces. Di stinctive faces dwell far ,away from the crowd, in much lonelier neighborhoods.

Face space also explains why the favorite trick of edi tonal carte onisis 'works, so w!slt By e~x,a~ggler.atinlg features on ;(1 politicians faee=Bushs eyeb,ows" Obamas ears-ecartoonists

P' ush it farther ,oC,!'W' ay" fro m the center

.. ". : .ilI . ", .: 1, . : ..I1~,1 I~·.:. . >.' , .. :. L.1l· .; ,,[5 UG.l.!JJ. JC;~ ,

of" .til'll ,n~ ~p' - ,rj;.n;Q to P' laces 'W' 't. ,1'!I;1,'e it h oetJ, ifji ,.1JbIA,..!Ci· ~ ,_ ~t,(..~;"'v .. ,.A...ro~·:,H~ .!:.. '.,.)0Ih)

less competition from other faces

we have stored in our memory, As,

;(1 result, 'we recognize people frOID hand-drawn caricatures as quickly as from ph o to gr.aphs- and sometimes even more qUickly;

In addition to explaining the

" c' '·'1~: ' th

experiences we am rarmnar m n,

fa-ce space also 8JqJ lain s a particularly bizarre illusicn called the' facial aftereff,Bcl It's similar to what happens, when you stare' for a long time at a picture of sa~ an American flag.If you then, look at a blank wall, yout.U se,e a ghost]y aftertmagB of the' flag

in. :teversed. cO](lrs, :for ,a few s'8co:ndJEt Much. ""the sam.i9 tIl~ng :happ,ens :if you starn at a face .fOr a :long, t.im.e. '\Nhe:n you look ,at aJlother fao8~ it wiU 'look.

,:& little like: tbe oppnsit'9 velt~sion of th.le fa-ce you j us! stared at.

Beru,lliLatm .and bet coUeagues documented[ tll.,e facial aftereff€Jct with

an experiment involving two faces they' nicknamed Dan and jim, For each face, t'hey created an "anti -face" Dan and Anti -Dan

differed fro In an, average face :itn opposite' directiens, refl.ecting opposite ends on the face space: axis, Dan, had an, un llsuany ITong face, for instance, so Anti-Dan. hard an, unusually' short one, Dan. andAnti-Dan were' at b¥o ends of one of the line'S that pass stm~ght through the center of face space,

Once the seieutists had crafted Anti-Dan and Anti-jim, they 'began, showing them on a. computer moni tor to volunteers withou t prosopagno si at. They 'would show the volunteers

one of 'the' anti -faces for five seconds, Next, they 'would. flash a. se cond face on "the SCT,8en for lust a fifth of a second .. 111,8 se fleeting faces were either "Danlike'~ or "jim -like" 'Ihat is, they 'we:re computer-generated faces that were somewhere between the: av,eragB face and either Dan or jim, The volunteers had to

gu .. 8SS, whether "the faces looked more like' 0':",13 or the other.

Behrmann and her colleagues found that star.rn~ng at anti -faces sk'B'wedl how' the volunteers ple~rceirved. the faces that £01- lowed, If the volunteers looked at Anti-Dan first, they did. a bett[ef ji10b of ;guesslllg the ru.de:ntity of Dan -,]jlb5' fa.ces. 10:n. th.'8 other hand, Anti-D,an Inade them do a 'worse' job .of l"'B{:ognizing JiIn -,]ike fac,e~~L 1118 fe'VlerSJs happen,ad. if ,tbsy' s,aw Anti -lin], first:' Th'ey did 'bette'f ,at ,reoognizingJ hll-1ik€!~ faces aJld wors,e at f€lcogni zing D,an -like one's~

'I

,NEUROSCIENTISTS ,J\BEN ~r SURE

exactly hlWl struin,g: at f~u~es 'm,ggers, this aftereffect but ·they ,generally agree U h,as sOlnethiIlg to' do vvith a change :m :face sp'oce~ Starm,g at ,An.ti.- Dian ·makes us :more SEl'nsitive' to tll.'e fares, wong 'the line :fro:u], ,Afi:t[.- Dian to Dian,.,

L~:],~· '" - - 'b - - - fI'. Jlk9MS€; wei 'rSCOlll,B 'worse ,at

recognizing faces that do not fruru, along that line.

If face space ]8 Indeed so crucial for recognizing' faces, Behrmann and her colleagues speculated that it migh t pI~y a role in face bltndness, Perhaps prosopagnosia is, the res ul t

of warped face space., The sclentt sts carried out at, battery of face sp',a~)e tests on, normal individuals and on seven people with prosopagnosia. Six 'had 'been, face-blind since childhood. [They could. name famous faces correctly omy about half the' time.] The seventh, a man the researchers referred to as SM I had lost his abill ty' to recogni ze faces after a head inltllLy suffered when he was. 1[8.,

In one experiment, tI1.€< sci = entists taught S.M, to name Dan and, Jinl from their faces, He could, learn to do the task, but

people who had been . faceblin d from birth, 'they got a completely different-c-and unexpected=result: 'Ihe members of that group actually di d

..... bout iI':fI,ii:' "jj';i;;:FJ!:Ii~rn· 't:IIO Dnrm ..... ;'ll r-p ° I01;p' Ie ill} yl. ." . 1~i3 ~ v' ~J~ Wi;) 'IU,~. I, ',i i,i1J. :. I~IU 1.1 I't-

at ,g-Il,€ ssing whether faces were more like D" ans or 11·m· '", W· =hil':fl,t:'l'i :, . ., .'~ llIJIJL\. • ,@.l.' .!j •.. 1, '__ '. "i:)~ . '., :Gr' !;:)

more, they fell pn3y to the' facial aftereffect, ,M U,= face's changed, their performance in the same w,a.y they changed. the .P erformance of normal people,

Addttional tests yielded the game kinds of results, SM failed to show any sign of perceiving face sp£u~[e~ while the six people born face-blind showed normal face ~p\~0e effects". People with normal face recognition wlll

say that caricatures are more

,.J~, t· t ........ , ,'I flo· • t ~~

rns nne tnan ann- C anca ure s,

which are' closer to an av,erag.e face, So win people who were 'born face-blind, Th es€ p eople

blind, [on the other- hand, typ1.caJly have a normal facial A ~''''J~·f~I;;;m--: ~~ l"',\tlg. i1itl; even ]]j_,. ghc l-'~Cil, ·U· ·'Ip: lu.;alJLlt'kJ! '" . Ud.~G.1 ill. _ ~'rr'~ ,., ""~ _ . _.

. . i

• 'II!... i, h ~l.. '11 k

In ura.ID scans W" en 'U,M~J,.,JLOO,

at face s, On the basis of the's e result St Behrmann. argus,s that the facial fusiform area is where 'we put faces into face; space., But her anti -faee experiments show that face' space Is not enough to list us recognize faces. Something is, also going on elsewhere in the brain.

In another study on people 'born face-blind, Behrmann

dis covers d a'p oten tial clue

to the rest of the story. She

and. her colleagues, found that p eople b om face-bltnd have a smaller-than-normal bundle of 11erV'8 flberslinking the facial fusiform area to other regions toward the front 0:£ the brain, It i,8 possible that once Wl8 encode faces in face' spac€'j' our

Our brains d '0':'" c·"o .. , .. ·,t sto ... ·"r··'e _:_·'·· 'a"·' phot 0"'·: gr'''''''' ··'a'· phi ··C ·" image of 'eve .. " ... ·ry:·,·'··,

. :1 ,,:.'" laJL ~:._'i··1 I .... ).' _,,/ ":_~' ,." .... ', ,,' :..', :. 1.·:·.·.. !} .... : ,I", ,,' ...... 1.:.,.. _. ",.I ',' :: l : ....... J > . ~ ...... ,.,", .:.,_ ..... <~.".,' "" .:'/

fs ... -. -, ,',.,' ... ' ,-c" ..... ·.,· .. ,·. '1-'· st '.', d th ···.··.--"',i .. --_.,,-,'- 1 t'- ,",' rnathemat ical -

ace we see, ' nsteac " . " e~ .. .',i carry O[Ul: a matr emanca

, .... . .. .' ., .... '~'.. '. I ..... ." ...., .. ." ,~ . _ ~', • ,_ "( I. '. . .... . .'. ,,'I

transformation of each ace, encoding It In face space.

the memory didn't last long. If Behrmann and her colleagues then showed SM Dan-like

and, Jim-like faces and asked which '0 ne th,e'ylo o:ked like!,

hj,s, .answers W'tme u[ev'er bette:r t'han, ch,a,n,ce,. Th,e scientj,sts then, tried. to tr.il,gge:r a facial afte:reffect 'by first ,having him look at .AnU,-:Oan .and An:ti:-J].nl.,. Th,e ,exlperienoe :had no effect on, SM~s an,s;wers., Looklin,g at ,Antli-

D.g ""- Cn'll'" GX,;j; 'm" . pc 'liD 'h· g ·w·· <J,1t" n·· 0'

IQ!. ." l.v1,JL ¥: .. ~~ ,_ ' .. : . .' 'y~ .. I, I~ "_'-._ I~~I , •• _1

:more likely to gu.e'ss ,eo:r,l""'ecUy that DWjJ,-.like :fa,'ces looked like :D[~tn.

A'~]I . ~'[ h ..

ru . nl. .a~. " t .. ' e' experlm,ents

re've-aJled that SM~" $ exp,erienc6' vri th :fa~)e sp ERt'e' 'was dr,as,ti,caBy

d1ft'o1l"\Q'17't" f"r'~\f1I;m";i' 'l:Il-l"1;gct o;f'· ·'Ii'}01"m' . oj:'1

',_ ..u:.rn.l,~,lL. ~l ,.llt. ,VI 1[...1,] ~ _ '. ,' .. :IJ.. VJ... ,)~w.

] Bt h ·BI

'. ":._ I" ".' ",1 :.' "1' ,:., ... _:. ' .. ['..;' ", .. - - .. '.

peo'p" e, .. U ,w, en.." e,l.rm,ann

.- .. - d ·'h' -,- 't· -, -.- t· ·i' -d' 'th' - .,

'.' (" . I ' .', ': " .. ' :··,·1·' " .' ", "

an., ,er gan1 e81,11,8·., e SIX

also found the caricatures to be mnre realistic than. the anticaricaturea=just Uke people with normal 'brains..,

'1b'8se re suIts suggest 'that it ],8 possible tOo be face-b1D.11.d and, yet still :retain .fates sp,aoe,. TIley al.s,o provide clues to 'when~ in the b:raiI], face :H:~cogniUon unFolds .. A, num ber .of SC1[,enHsts study facia] :reoognition by' putting p eopls' :[n brain, scalnners IDlld, ion:lti.ng :fo:r :re,g]ons t'hat are asp eCia1lli.y active w:hen the su'bj ,scts, MQ ok .at face'~;t 0:]].'8 :region, -that consistently ll~~g·hts, IIp :in thes,e .studies is, a s,mal], .p fIDtc'h of]1 aurons on "thl'e U]]der8k~k~ Ofth,iS brain knO'V'lll as tl'nJ3 f~cial :fusifo.r.m 8l'll'iea~ That is p:rec~se],y th.'9 part of SM,!s, brain. ,that. 'W,ELS drunaged. in, :m,s ,acciden.t

P'ieop[[9 'w:ho are born .face-

brains ]l8lV,9 to. forward that information to other regionsof the' bram for more processing If the' connections along this face\-'fEH::ogniztng :net:'w'ork are'

to 0 'Wt3'ak. (the .result~ p'srhapsj of a g,enetlic. d.isord[er)~ ti:H3n p eopIT,e 'wHl be born face-bUn.d,;

It 'will take' rno:n~ rese,8ltch to. fiully d@'cliphe'f :how' 'we re,cog-' fiize 'faces; but tlleng ,ar[s SOln,8 'pra,ctical Ie as,Ol[S~ be-yotJ.d. .shEte'f fasclln,2ruofl, to k,eep up the s€'arc:h. By unloekin~g the sa c.:~ets, of how' our brains snco d.e fa os Sj scientists. may be· able to .lnak,e com'puters bBtt,sr .able to recognize us,; And. once' sci'Bntists undeI",stand how ,mosl of us f8'C'.ognm.z1e :ftu::esj -they lnay find

a way to :help tl],e' minion.s, uf p,eop],e who can~t. ])1

13

01102.201111

SiC····

..

14

D~SCOVER

TH:E .MASSIVE, Gusn: OF OIL T.HAT S1'All.TEn ON .~LORlI:o 2.0 and tan for 86- days 'was a disaster, obviously" but 'It W" <jJ, C' ..... 1 ""0" .ijj ·(1·r']" In' "Jy. ~'In fo .. rln" a~ tive ,9xp' .' erim ent In

o _ ,J!. _ _,':"~~I i;1J.~. i U ~.. '" . '! ..•• ,lLlIl . .lJU I " .," ' _' ~ v' '_ ~ ~,~, . ,,~".l~ "Ilk!! ._

its wake we are learning all kinds of'les sons about deep-d rillina tech n~I·,n'[,t"i;g·.'\r about t·h .. ' II!;) environm ent

~ 'I;;;; r;;;;; •. .:,c •• ~. J. . ',E:! ~.'I;' '!;,;.r. . .V .. V, J ~ ,~_ 'Y' _. '. _ '. ~_ ... 'rlLJt V ... u~ . _

and e,cology' ofthe Gulf of Mexico, and about the future direction of 'Our e'nergy supply"

It may be hard to appreciate now, but ,20]0 started as. a banner year for oil, The worlds energy giants were' 0.11 the move, dlispatching their sharpest p etroleum engineers, sophisticated seru smic probes, and h uge rigs to some of'the most forbidding places on the planet, from the Gulf'ofMexieo to Greenland, Corporate boardrooms gushed. with confidence. '~~BP operates at the frontiers of the energy industry:' the

com P 3J]'Y' ann oun co, ed in it ~ ~"nio'9~' annual r eport ~ll.~~ ............ ·c_ ..... '~~o.l ,1.v~!I!. _''i;i. __ ., ,~._;;;!! ,Lr/VV '1P!.[I,J. .. II_.itU. IQ .•........ _" 'lfV!~

~,'~ iiJ;Vj""1 ep tll ona 'll'~ly"wg'lll~11 p-I''CIi eed I to susta in ihll ir ;['I'n '1{'71 if",cU::'!'il:" ,rd~lI;i: ,~A.t)~ :_!,0, ." W.f· ,~u _ lI;4i!;".o~. __ , •. _' ;,J. __ i;)1 Q.... I. I~~:. i;Iok",",;~~'~~

in th e deepwater Gulf of M,e ric 0 over the long term"

The economic message IrOIlI all of this exploration still holds true: Th e worl d is not running

out of oil-it is running out of [e,~~y on. By using

the new technology; remote stashes of oil long dismissed as too difficult or expensive to plumb (:in. the 30.- to, 6,5-:n]iUio.n-'Y'sar-old Lowe:'[ Tertiary crust below the Gulf or in tRH:~ even more ancient Cretaceous sedimentary rocks off the coasts of Ghana and Brazil) are '\Nithin reach, Innovative' prospecting techniques like three-dim ensional sonar, which

TEXT BY IM,At MA,RGIOllS

15

Remote stashes of oillong dismissed as too difficlllt O'F expensive to' plumb are within reach, Threedimensional sonar can pinpoint oill1idden four miles beneath the 'Gulf of' Mexico, ~"

emits sound 'waves from multiple ,an,gIT,es.;. help discovery crews see through. opaq lU3 8illd shifting layers of geolo,g]:c,al salt "[.0 ,P] np 0'].1] t oil hidden four Innes or more beneath the Gulfof'Mexieo and off th e Atlantic coasts of South

America and Africa, Ultra-strong flexi ble pip es, remote flow-control valves, and vibration -resi stan t. drill :rigs can protect the ,pl' 0 sp ecting equipment ag.ainst corrosio n, thermal shock, and cru shing water pressure at. the ocean floor.

The environmental message offhe 'worst offshore oil spill, on record (4.4 million barrels) is less clear and still unfolding. On 'N;OVeI11ber 2 the 'U.S" Fish and WiJ,dl]fe- Service reported that more than 6~ooo birds, 6'00 sea turtles, and 100 mammals had died mthin the Spill area=probably a substantial undercount. That same d.ay; a research vessel seven Hulas from the' spill site' discovered dozens of'communities of dead and dying coral, aWe, cant begin 'to fathom wha t the long-term effects on the marine food chain will be" 111],8 remains a giant; uncontrolled science experiment, with birds and aU the cnmmunitiee that depend on the' Gulf as the unwitting subjects: stated. 111.01nas Bancroft, chief scientist for th e' National Audubon S·o{:i:ety., 'Ihat includes the 'human communities: :By mate' last ye'at, BP 'was facing some 37'Oj!OOO damage claims by busineases and i'ndfu,vi d uals in, 'the Gulf region,

A substantial 'but, unknown portion of the 0 i1 from the Deepwater Horizon 'weU never made it to the surface' but remained trapped in the oceans midwaters, Here the news is more mur:ky~ though perhaps mora encouraging, Lawrence B erksley National Lab oratory ecologist Terry Hazen.Isd a s tudy; published :in Science in October, that uncovered n,8'W spe cies of oil-guzzling b acteria with genes, that allowed them to flourish in the: cold, high -pressurs conditions 0'( an oil plume 3.,,600 fee't b eneath the surface, Such microbes act as a natural cleanup crew, "The Gulfis a great place for these 'bacteria. because it 'bias, more natural oil seeps than any other place in the' world,' Hazen says,. ~VV.hel1 the' spill 'began~, they didn't U:EN3d an acclimation period"

Politicians were, quick to declare their O~, lessons from the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Never 8L~n~; they vowed, would the planet

be forced to sit b~, powerlss s, while oil. execs confassed-eafter the faet=that sto ppin sa Ie ..,,'~~ a t s U ,if" h d ep th ~ ~Q ll'i'k'--e- p~c erfo 1I""m~ '~in'- a 'op en-he a: 'I-t

,Jl~-" U,k.tl~ .:iI.-w" -,~,:_ .!L_,~, --, , ..... , :',,- ], '.;:I' ,b~ ,JL:Ii. --~ _>1iJ - Ai -.11." .!Ii.' , iCJi -_-, Ie; I" -,' _ - "

surgery at 5~OOO feet in the dart7 as, BP Americas chairman and, president, Lamar MC](8l~ told ,AJ3C News about H18 eaily' auttem,pt to plug the' 'well 'bY'

Clockwi'S81 flliom 'top~~ 'The burnin"g Imil G(IiI A'prU: :21'; Sicis':ntists flsll:ease ele,Ilne dl IblirthSl;, ,d!ead 'I~sh i'lm I..crlJli:shJna,; aerial 'view of 's"n~ Siltil' on May 6" Prev'iDiU~S pap: lIhe ,d1ay' :aflelll' t\he explosion" Diil s,prea,d"s, on tjhe 'GlllIlf: SllIlrfaice, as, the! [1f'i,1 blillins~

Currently, 6 percent

of- ,all-I" oil=abou t 5'~ 2.',·>:

, ._'.. .., .... ..: 'i .

'million barrels a day=comesfrom deepwater wells,

triggering the failed blowout preventer,

"Now we know that the

nredictic .. ,·- ha '-, teh nzed ~'S·- i-'"'~'fl;..,...- . _ '~!1h' ,,,I, beer ~ slowdown

pre c on" as .110_. c". angec ;,_lmUl saYSI., ieres _,'sen a is- ownown

" ., lvinuf it . .f,.l-. G" .,~l!t' d t"'lI"tl teni f m companies ,app ym.g 1.01" per,nIll is 111. tne uua anc . a " ]w1enmg 0 .

industry regulations in generaL but the rest of the world ~s moving

"",,10 g. ~ t d - ~ - - t - ~1"D -.f.'!;, - - t - i]' - - d et '" - sh .r." ~ ~l..:li - Q" - 'lL.. - -~~

i::l,lL_ n,' m 0 ,_ .BE!p1N,a 6-r;,iBdpw.t]! _ er (1 . pro, uc UJn D' 'l,i0iWY. reaen n,e(U"llY

:IO million barrels per day by ~(.n5.,

The problem is simple; Renewables might 'be the future, but oil and ,gas are st[U the e'n,error sources that keep the 'world. running,

11]' ,a, Intern 0::.. ti 0' :']1- "":'] E-'ilfli1or-ay"- A n;lon' 'C1.1 ('li'g'A_ )1 P rojeeted '1·1]- 'N' ov emb er

. '!.:< ,. . 'Ci; . .P;;;J!.- JI..... ,itiI.JL "IIi,,l c; "0 _ ,J::a.ou '.' ,J '! ,[ ", J. ,IL ue;. ..~ u., .. .. u .!i:;o" .. , . 1Cl.

tl ""] d d "'II ,.:JI""I'~ he nex h'"

. .iat (OJ[ .~ emano 'M gl'Ow' steadi y tor t .~ e next 25 y,e.ars, reae ;IJl'llg

t, illi b ] d b °"111]1'" b ~

about 99 mnnon rarrsis pe'l" ,.·a1' _'y 203-5j up 1,5 mu ]0:0 _·fUTeJL.6

daily' from 20.09", -j\ll of the net growth comes from non -OEeD'

- - - - if!- _. . - '~' - - - t ')- .... ,·~'f- f - - 'C'jL-. ~ - ,.. 1 - lUI' . . - ',. ~ . 'W' ,. - -'ld E - - ---

countries, ,allLU1.OS. 1,~, rrom Lruna a.tone~ says, lEA.S ' ,or ' .. , ,-.:nBr,gy

Outlook report China edged out the 'United States as the number

i"'i;'n g en ,o'-r--{]iiJ' """0':-:']]- i!1J'iTI"'m--- er in .... '0,09:' and 'C" . hi I]: a- ~s'- d"..-.,:·ly'- d em and fo r '0" 'il' -I· co !L!',!II.J:I~ 'IU '!Y, :DJ "'-', .. '. _.a. LIL. _i,.!U" 1 L;.,....I.; ,CIIJl..IL,···. " ',.'., ," : " f'IUl, __ : '. 'CO .... jf_1L.J.,i. ,Ill '.' ,.W!

projected to triple to 13 million barrels a day by ,203S.~

is'''', - 0'5/.- C- 1. '11 ,.f,.lk~, U' . s··· ~IQ- 'It:'J.t ~ , , .~, of 'E-" ',- of!; '-m; l,c. ~ ... ill' ~ -.--.. ., ,;j'j;'iJf..r-. l-

- _ 1i,..eV"c;;n_ JL1.U, l[.J.lS ._ ~_. uoClc.. ;;uy v· .: n!;ir~; aas no . USIOns ~lJvUI!r

what it vvill. take to dislodge oil. as the worlds transp ortation fuel of choice (see page

'\ "'r I', ],

42/' t.wontnappen over-

:mght; it wont happen even

., d . ..:11 '~~ I ~'] ~

:m a .:. i leCat;~ej' l'e says., - Its

going '110 be several decades, so 'W~ have to start thinking about this now., YOiU. could

this i wak all~! ]I

, ',', ,-; - , -I' - -, ,,- - r- - - ,I, ' -

say. ms IS a .·.·.·.·.e-up ca .. , .

. .• reepwarer 0,-]1

sho .. , .. ,ld re achne 'a' r y'

'ow. -,"; I I ,- -_

10' ',' '~']l~; b ]

I", : I' , ' I ' . - , "-I', " - ~ ,'" ;' ~.-, -"'" ", -'

.... mi ~OIl . .-,arre s per

da b '2,"': 0'---'" ,- 5- "

ay .ry _,--,',':'.:, "."'i!I!

t-case scenaric i t worst-case scenano is not

just something you dream up,' says Leta Smith, an. oil expert at rr HS Cera, an energy think tank, "It's a.

possibility that 'we have to. prepare for" On S eptemb er ,30:;. the: 'U. S~ Department of 'the- Interior issued new' rules meant to upgrade saiety equipment and tighten, well control. as, well as, force oil companies to show regula-

tors detaHed plans of how' they will manage risks and prevent blowouts at offshore oil and gas sites, Deepwater operators will 'be required to boost workplace safety and keep submarine robots and operating crews at the readly in case of emergencies,

Ye~t the' forces that propelled the scramble fo r extreme oil remain remarkably unchanged, ¥es~, U:,S~ Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued a temporary moratorium on :new deepwater drlilling., 'Yes\! 'illtaly recently issued a ban on dEH;~pw.acter d.rllllin,g' within five miles ofi ts coast. But these could be just SPEH3d bum PSI on ·tbe path 'to even 111O'te deep drilling. "Some countries, P articularly the OECD [,O:rganization for E .. conomic Cooperation and .. Developm ent] n ations ...... 1l-'".O reviewin (J [safety] regulatio m ;,ry while D' '0- -1-, taking

.JLl· G1 ,.. .. a ll!Jt I __ . ~~ tC_'-JL. \;~ ~ ·Y·,J] .. _:l '~~.1 ,I ,:D. . .;;Jlt£ .~ _"., I ~ ~ _. ' .. _' __ .' I, G .. _",: .!G·."_ 1,11r. I~!~ .:': llJILI ~~I.

extreme actions" Smith says .. "!We have yet to revise downward our outlook for de1epw,at'9r production outside the U nited States"

CI1D''Il,J'iI'V'IIn' and B' P o1I,'~":Q g,p:~rriTilIU 'u.p ,t""" drill' ,-.' 'lin the deep waters l''!jrfC,~'l\-.£!i'

IG·~.II!. Vi (.~.JL . 1';,. -; !ILIa,I.e.. C)!U~-~ .L.L,~ ,_' ._'_ 1UAJ! .' . ," . .1"_ .fJD ",: .. 0YI"_: I '" . rfi~ ,IU ~ ull 1~11~

Shetland Islands, Brazil's P'etrobraS.'-':$7IO billion richer affilt-e'£' staging the largest~ever .pu:bmic share .offering in September- is, ramping up for commercial production, from a vast cache of "pre-salt" oil lying farther (:1180 miles) from shore- and buried deeper (.~.s miles 'below 'the Atlantic) than. ,BP'~s· Gulfholdings, And

Righll: an dl'bello·w: Tti,ti~1 a mo dell of ,allil offslu3re' d:~"~nii'nl:

P-I"!liI:t--f'~!l"m· ---- ,~~ -P,i!!ii!tr'~\~'II'·~s, 'It: m.11Oi IQ ,¥~ ~Il; !!ii;, 1U~llg, .1111""

B:fiJI;dllia III oil. I,i a nit;!,

on October ,2]; just days after VVash-

.']" ttI-' -- ~I~.~ ""d .;Jf;''(k,;5, d - - - .' ~ "t - -...l,.....:lllt.""'" a

.. na~on ,iIWlllK .. il!.n~ -- -- e€~pwa. e:r l,Jill LIl.lllIJlc;

nl0raloriunlj 'Ch,e'\rfon announced. a. $Vi.5 billion proj'eoct t.o d,evelop bvo oil fields) Jack. and St ~o~ lying 7~OOO feet be]ow the vvaves 280 'mil,as, south of New' O.r],sans.,

Cu:rr,el1tly~ 6 petcent of all ,oil -about ,5.,2 mUli.on barreJls a day

-com'sa from, deepwater wells

(2,,000. feet or :m.ore beneath the ~nn~face)., A. year ago" IRS C,ara predi.cted. thiat the world. would draw one in ievery ten barrels of oil. ::fron1. deep-wate,I' ,reSB'fves by 20.20. ;~~Oll!:r

18

D~SCOVER

,r-:

,... ri

'r.D "...

IE ETiCS ,

T[XT BV KATHI'LEE,NI ,Mc:AUL,~FFE

:NO O,NE COULD ,A.(~CUSE H,'UMAN Ig,enom!e pioneer J~ ICrajg'Venter

-'f"] - -'1-:i' -. - -h' t' ,- -'1- ] M'''' -",

o ,a~c.KJj.ng c. i:, U, _ zpa 1.,. . n : '-: ay

.20100 h e made good on, another of 'hi s audacious go als, creating an, artificial living eel]. by synthesizing the entire' genom,e of oj, 'ilL of:i cteri 'lJ~I'm-1 a, md tran ~p- l' anti i in f1 ~ IUIt;ILi""" , ~ . ".,~., "~ " - a. ,!,l!.JI. (;Ilc I"W. • 0'

:]t toto an. oth er.,

At a news conference, 'VeJatet hailed the new organism as "the first self-replicating sp ecies., .on the planet 'whose parent is: a computer'

'The breakthrough, which took. ]s yeaTs and consumed $40 million, involved building the' g19'nom'6 of.Mycoplasma ,mycoides (a bacterium that infects goats) from chemi-

cals in the' laboratory and

then, tagging: it with a gene

that turns the o.rgani sm blue. Ven.ter~s team transplanted

the fabricated gErn(Hl1 e into a close~Y' related bacteri urn that had been stripp ed of its own D',N,A~ and after :m,aJ.l.y attem pts 'to jump-start the combination, managed to. create an organism that mo rphed, over the course of a sing:!e weekend, in to a

blue 'bacterium that displayed an the eharacteri sties of the implanted ,DNA",

A. f!B'w envirnnmen tal watch-

,A~gae strains for blofuels are under 'study wmthiml phetebleraactcrs at Vente:r's IC1omlpa·ny,! SYlIlthe,tic G'enomics,.

dog groups voiced concern that artifici a], UIe might somehow escape the lab oratory and become an invasive species or P ose dangers as yet unforeseen, and. President Ob rona asked the Presidential Commi S sion for the Study of Bioethical Issues to. explore the :rn mplica tions of Ven ter's wor.k.

Scientists have already synthesized the genomes of

churn out biofuel" he' s,ars,.

Vent,er himselfhas declared these applicattons b) be hi s ptim~ry commercial goals .. , In Octoh er he started. 13\ new '~)On1:-' pan.y that will work with. the' pharmaceutical giant Novartis to create next-generation flu vaccines, And. Synthetic Genomlcs, the cOlnp,~ny he founded in 2005'j) aim s lito create fuel- pr.a-' ducmg microbes, including algae biofuels in a $3;00 million agreement wlth ,Exxon.MobH. IJ

the poliovirus and th e :il'~u8, mfluenza strain, and molecular btologist Anthony Forster of Vanderbilt 'University acknowledges that safetyis always a concern, Bu.IIt, 'with. proper safe'guard,s in place, 'he bel~:ev,es that syn tt:h etic life' can provide enormous benefits,

,~~ This SIU:::f:e86, brings us closer to altering,genon).8,s.in a much more designed. manner=for example, creating micro be s that can help produce' drugs or

0102.,2CU1

I

E

E,

w

.

v

N

.

II

I

Biologist E O. W·lo is overturning the

f .. '- ":.' ",: ·t'l h .: ' .. ,'., ,t' h ,',-' .. ·t' : , .: "11 ·t"~·· .. ,-.... .' ':''- . t .. '" "'111·,· .

amous 'I leary 1,- 81 '9ViO unon natura y

f ii~ f '

. . '1 -, - I

encourages creatures to put: amny nrst.

lin 1'9'75 Hlarv:all'ic bio,log'iist E,", O, 'W'ilh;on publlis,hedl SociDb\;o,IOI1Y, perhaps the most IP'Q'werful ref~ne'mle'nt o,f evollutilolnla~y 't:heolry sl nee On the O:rigin' of ,S:piecies. D,Eillfwiin's tlheolfY' of n atur,a'il se·~ecti on po:s't:u~at'ed a brutal wOir~d 'iin whilch iiilnd:hiiidualls, vied; 'for do'millll8 nee, W",~s'o,.n IJl,rD!mlo't:ed a new pers p,ectii've:: SfH;:,ial belh:a'vio,lis we,re oft/elii'll g:enl!st:i,calilly IP,rogr;aJlm med i n1!Q :Sif)'e eles to hiel p t hern 'survive" In e' s,i9li d w it:h altr'lliis,mi~·ell'f de' ~tru,..tiv· 'e' I!... eh ev"l A 11" pell'i'n rm ed '''\nor the Iii... 'slne' ·.I."I'f,., n.-"" others I!...Ii"O d '"II nto ''''h' e'l'lf I!... nne' s

~~\·iio .. :<ii:I;~ "'"",11.1.: LL:-I;_:!'lu'li '~'II-I'ul HI.'.'llu ··;-::U:.:I-II.:lri,1! 1IiJ!llly" "~I::;;1Ii-IUII~';' 1I •. IIl,-.···. Uu,'I~<c~.,1i

ln ttl e' context of Dar'w iilnila n se,l!ectiioll1'" sueh sellfI1es,s.ness, hard~y made sense, Ilf: YIC)IIlJ[ saerlflead y'ouli' ~Ii'fe' for ,sll1.ot:hsil" ,and! e,xtinglllis.hed 'YOUlf ;genes", woulld n't the ,e n,gine of ,e'V101Iul'ioll1 's~mpll'y pass y'O'IU1 by? Wi lson Ir:esollved the parad ox ,by dr8w~ng on t he, 'theory of kiln seillscl iio",,, ,AICICOllidli n,g to this 'w,ay O1f' 'thi nkiltng" ~~a II,ruistiic,'J ii ndii:v:i:dua Is, coutd emlerge 'vilc11orious, because tine ;gene,sl tltuart they share

W~I'" I),., 11 ... "I'11n 'U1ilO" u lid be n 0 ~i!!!'e' ·· ..... 1 n If"i S' '; n"",;j5 the wi .... nile ""16111' '1'1 jl!Io. ~111'ellu de dl 'I'ln' th '19" ,DlOln a'''~II_''' ",i~I·I .... ·n I!"\J' Af'- - ,il'!i f' ~,~~, ",I),..,a,

liLli-II t.\J II-II '11'11 ,--- ~ 1.F-"&lI~iI,;;:: 'U IU'II II., ••. '. I ~~! . ~ ': rll'y' ':., ~ g .. ~ 111-- .', ~ ~i:- .' ~ -~: b"~ . ,~l. ",",:'¥ ~,WU'II i IU' - :g] . '!!i:i;;!M'¥"Il,n~

phenomenon of b!snefiicb;JII a 11,lt:nJlh;ml C:8,m,e to be' known ;815 "'ilfllcIIUls'iive fltness," By 'the '19gI05, it had become a eere concept: of bioll,Ogy~1 sloc:ilology, even pop p,sychoIIDg~1I

So the' '51c:iientifilc worlld 'qlua!ked' last Aug,us,t wheln 'WU:so,n IrelfllcnUlnced ~he 't'heory 't:hm' he had made

f'.Ol m' o' us Ha Gin ell "'Ii.iIiU"lii IU 0 N' \i!:!i ... ,..!,II iif"'i;AIII,a,i!!iI'O'IU e~' M' Glr""11fi Hi ~U'a II ... , and C' . orlna 'II srn ii''O It"a,n n d\li!!iid ~1111 A JI~ "''U',f''a that ql - -I ': ..... '.\~ I ~ a-I ,1-, II;,"!I'Y flIgl -clilU ~u ~b)' I,:iiit,. alii II .'. IY'¥¥,gift. g .', I.U I a gill 111l,g~ l~r'u'I!li.~~'-1 IV,g',I;,,, ,~,. ~ -g

the m;a,them,atica,11 construct lOin wh'i eh ilne~us:i;ve! fitness, wa:s, based e U1mblles ulnd',er <:::IIo;e:I:" 'scrUlt~ny. The ne,w 'worik, iind:i:ca!t,es, tl~'USilt :se~t';"Sia,erii'fllc!e tOI protect a rellat:i:o'I1"iI's pnes, does, not dlrive evel ut"i:olfll. ~n hum:an terlm!;" fal111ny is, nD,t se :iim:portant ,8lfis(f allll,; ;i';IllltnJis!m eims\fFs to protect 'social ;grouiPs, whe,t:her the,y' are! Ikin or not, When people, cQ!mpeitei a,galnst each other th.y' are, seilf~sh, [but whenl gifOUlp :~elec .. tlen becomes Ii mpo,rt81Ilt, then 'tlhe ·Slltllulis'm chEn~alete(ris,tic· of' human soeletles k;ii'lc:k$ ilm, 'wnson ~say,s. We Imay be ,the lo~rd~ S,Pec~es, itr1tell~i,gent Qinough to sllrilke ,8 bala nee beftwee·n i ndh/iduall and ,group-level !s;ellectiO'n, but we a Fe mil' from perfec,I' at it.. The eonfllict between the differ em tlevells, Imay pfiloducei'the :O'l!'iiI!!iiiO't dramas of a'uIII'" ~lnal"i'''le'iI!''li the iOllll'I·lonAO~' ,tlL..e· 1!I!"'iL-'oi·Jle' OU~"I'Ii'~ and "'I .... e· wtlOi.,.,~

tJ)I'I!i;;;-g, , , 1:-' I - II ' ~' .. If ",' II ;~,,,,;,,ci~~! :~. . :1111 u~ ,d l~~~" '1I'l; ~1I!Jo'll'" c .... iii";" II OiiiII" gl " iUII, '.' .~ ... i ;i:;.

When you publislhed S:ociabi ... o;/ogy ~n 19,7,5", you tSiceO' enc~r .. mous resistance:, e:sjpeciaillty'

tOI the iimlplliieartio1n that human nature' was ~nelncallllY' b8rsed. Nlow' 'YOU Ii' eoll!ea,gues 811ii'e idefending one o1r k:ey t,enets, iln your book-kJinl se'l~ectialnr-'whU:e you 'I:ry ,to d:iisma nile' It.. What do 'you ,malke! of the' sh~ftill'iig' atHitJutdes 'iin ~u v' 'tielldl? Inb~~;n~stiIl,g~, isn:'t it? But ill~:m not SoO sure I pivoted that lnuc'h, on

Ion selection in So ct'obtolagy., If you look at the opening page s~ I had a diagram, showing how a future science of s.(u:io'bio],ogy would, be 'built Kin. seI:eetiol1, 'w,as a nice :]Utl e p'~ut of it in ][975; but Sociobiology we'u.t

way beyond t.hat. It goes :into demogtaphy:~ how' grOllp.s an~ :for:m,ed~ how' 'tlley con1.ple·te~ how communication ,evolves;, Tog,et'h:sr '\tV1ltl1J, e{~oll,o,gy and pop-' luation ge'netics~ it all fo-rmed ,a

,20

fram ewnrk to help ,e~q)illajn the origin of social behavior,

'¥ei 81 ,genersltion eff 90c::ijo'b'ii- 10,llolists, cuill't, theiir felSiealrcihr around 't'he ijd~ea o,f kij'n setec,iiii' tlon, IHiOiW' did that haIP'pen? 111ey WB:fe enchanted by kin

s election b ecauss it appeared to have a basis in mathematics, It seemed solid ,and! it looked good i, It was gIT:alll(D!tOuSm

'~Alulr n· 'iI!![!W p' "'8' pe' ",11"' ~·t· iOi,fi,'e' .. ,~: ""I ..... 'a" ni;;i!! '! ~., ',' '.,11 ,iiiiII' ull ,Oi,it 1Illliil, I'I.

the Imlsti1h elmat:'iicallunderpin'" ni n,g of kiln selsetlen, calilled tlhe Hs!m'iiltlon inequallity, does not work:., Wn~ no1"?

When analyzed to the bottom of its. assumptions-when we ask under what conditions it could hold-cit applies only to- a 'VBry narrow set of parameters that don't actually exist on Earth i, Inclusive fitness turns out to be a phantom measure that c ,0:.,]]7 'not ilI-..o ob ta ~ 'n ed

!ii._~.. ,,:-a ,.~,.l';: .. : lUG .. l, )(]JLlIl . .lI!U ... ,il

If I rllclusive fli,tln!ess is, wlrong~ how dlo yOUi S(XplEiiin If'Sulsocia 1- "I"UD wh'e"n Ii ndliiV"'ldl 1IIIa·II·~ li'.e·dllfl """'e 111;'3 - .' - " 'I U(II I ',' . "1.,1,- :i:t 11'.,': ~~ .

thai r edl:inty ffio hs've ,offs pd ng Off their' own tOI mii"S!s the' Ion ... , :sprilr1g: of otnleJS?

It turnls out that there's onl)r

one concution that :has to be :reach~d fun the course of ,evolution .fOt eus(H~:iall.1Ity 'to enl,erg''€:: A, ul0ther or father :must raise tbrur.'

young within reach of adequate resources at a defensible nest Getting' from t1.'M3 ~olitary'llife8tyle to one that includes a defensible

''''Ii.Q,~ ..... 0::1," 'IIhQ. d one in IIl'"'IoI]I;jQ; c.,v:: '0" ·I]Jl.Jj"I~~It. ~~J. ;IJ)!~. :.. V_. ~, .. U ,~J~' _. "_" "/ __

tionary step-one gen,e' change. This turns the: c-oncept ofinclu.sive fitness on its head, because the ,gene' c'ha:ng,~ and the social behavior came first. Kinship is a consequence of-that. not a cause,

biro. with hel piers at the nest. Supporters of incl usive fitness point to a correlation 'between the amount of help that the young birds give when they stay at horne and how ,closeJly tbey are related to tile paren ts and each other, But the young: birds are :].!oolting after their extended family only until they have families of their OM1 .. By anru.ogy, you :nJJj,ght stay home and babysit for younger s;~b[j_ngs, after 00]lege, but Jlfs not 'Out of a sense

of kinship toward them, It's

because it makes financial S BI1Se until y()U find a job and move out W.hat these researchers unwitting~y do not mention

in their studies, is that cases

of inclusive fitness are quite unusual in an important lNay.

E ach of-tile' bird specie B lives

in an area where nest sites and terntories are very scarce, very hard for youn,g birds to get

How dia tlh,ese' ildeals pls(Y iout' iin the ns,turSII worI1dl?'

Lets take the' example o:rr a

Cain Y_,lOU a'ilve' ,Elln e(Xslmp.·lle' of

I [~

!t!:IIIIC'··:·[ .... I"""""e· "'I!",' "4I"e" - rp ·li'\t!!iirtli!!it-;o", In? .~u ·,111 U¥'" II 1111,'" " 1i1l;;;i;.,!I;i·IL· I '11

I recently hadthe opportunity

118-· IY ,

'to 'visit an endangered species called the Ted -cockaded 'woodpeeker in. Florida. TIllis is the (rnly species in the world that drills nests in UV,B tn:H3S. Why do these' birds drill in live tree s? B ec ause when they enter the tre'e' it exudes large' amounta

of sticky sap, ,aJI around the

- "- t - - "- h ~I - 11- 10:0 'd - - - fl' entrance ,i me, .1.18' nr S can .y

in. and au t, 'but their princi-

pal predator; the rat snake, is prevented from, entering bythis sticky mess, .Now~ :finding the. r.ight kind of tree and. drilling the hole takes a long tim .. e, as, much as a y'BaT, for at youn.g male

d 1_ .... ;~ d d k 'It "

re -C:O,C~Llte .• ~ I. woo" pee. er, " is

to his advantage to stay with his parents and help them out while hems doing; that. M,ayibe' there is some kill selection gomg there", but that's not what's causing the behavior of sta:ymg at horne and helping, ·~Vhen. the young male completes his hole, he courts a female thev mo 0 in and the

.lib': I. ." . '.! :! . 'c,) . . . .v,~ 1 , ~ an,..'. ": '!iii.y

start a nest there of their OM1 .. That is the Incentive that keeps him there,

H!DIW wou~d you ilnterpret'this, b ·eli...,~v·inr 'W'·,~II&.. ;1" .yinu- 11" "Irt:!iiW

" .... ~ IIGI II!!!;;;!!' . .. II!. I II ~ I II .... '\JIo. ". ~ II 1'I!;i ,

flr-alm!ewolrk?'

The al ternative hypothesis is that it is to the advantage 0.1' kids to stay at home 'until they can f nd a place to gCL Thi S

~ alTI d' he" ~ 0 , r" 181 C'_ iec t :.e, anttctpation 0..

21

0.102.20.111

inherftance ~ , If Morn or Dad dies; you've got their nest and their territory; If they don't, you, stay, and, it's to your. advantage' 'to help, and tt's to their advan'tage: to have your help until you can get a territory of your own, Basic natural s el ection explains it; no kin selection required .'

Seen 'that: w,ary;, ~t i1s, d'ilfficu ~t to Ull'ild'erstanld why anyone

,." '"'b t d th~' kl d f b h :at,If',11 " U '8.·' II'S· me o· oa ·[8V'"

ior to kiln selectlon In the

fri rst place ..

That's what I point out in our Natare critique .. Researchers have: g,o:ne at :~t backward, Instead Q1f stl]dyi.'D"g' what's going on. and seeking this b sst explanation, they start by look'" t: t t t d t t "t! :],'D,Q' .lor at' 13'15· ' "0- " emons rat e 11 is,

l~

reallykm selection,

What abo.ut the classic Idn!s;ellectiO'n ,exalmIP[le~ wOl'keJr bees 'sacr~fieiinf~: themi$!ellves for their ,q·lue" ,"9"'," In' ? IH;t'VoI~J' a:f,lI:!, ·\'9'" IC',' ,a[nl '\:I.riIU

.. II '.' .' I L.. U'll'MI' ~!iiiIi, "g JU'

,explain thert?'

The' 'best w[ay to thinkof'what has b een called al truism in

il:li ......... ~: Q] I" Il '" £iI ets I" ,jfiJ t" 0 return to ,"l; 'n'OIl;)L,U;., "O'Ii;;.o'L o;:i< rO.~· ,!L:;i ~ _ llU, , !W! "1." .,

individual Ievel [of selection: that is, qu,e'en to qU.EHen~ Think. of the 'WOf'k[Bf'S as robots and near- replicants of the q ueen herself From the begrunning these subordinate repli cant s are just extensions, of the queen, It really is qu.e en against queen~ since they are the oruy ones that prodnce o,ffsp:tin"g'.,

B-ut 'W· '~'1' ether n r "0- ..... t bees are

. . . .. .1[ I'G .• ,,'\:iI, y, ,,[ILJ, ·_·.G~I~ !Q1. ~

al trui stic, at truism, certainly exists in humans, Humans are different because 'we' seem to '~-" t 'II ~ multile ,'1 "-,-l,-,, tic C1 nave rue muitueve ,3[BlBC ion,

OIl one level, individual sel e c'U,on go es on i.nsj,d.e ,g;r'Qu pS!' 'mth. p,eople -competing aga1inst each oth.B'J .and produ,c:ing

'w'h.a t W'9 think. of ,8(s, s,slfi sb

b,iG;h- Q't 71"0-' fC 1'0···'If'}- a-'n' otl'ilIOI; ~i;O'~T.t:;);1

_ 1"0 ... ~··ii "_:, iii "' .• ~ •• < ;0,' [,_ "lIJ.U . .lli!UI,~ ~ t.

I t'· b bAr

".~ •.•. 1., • '-11' -: .... "-'1 - .. -,",' .. :'~"I ,'.,' - I:;.) ,"-.

se ,Be,lon goes once.een

[groups. Group s,ele~ction tends

22

to reinforce altruistic behavior in individuals b ecause without al truistic individual s, the

group is at [a, disadvantage in COIn petition and combat 'with other groups., 'But that is not kin seTh.,e,ctioli.~

From an evohJiti~ona~' perspeetiive',1 then" does ldnrship matter ;at [al~~ in humans?

'You, ,C an have kin selection incidentally You can certainly

't -111 I ,;r"iI 'fe' ," , as.e!i, "y-o[~[ lr""'O'IOn·· a('i b '-y. oiVl:' ~ 'nl [0'

,.1 , L " "'. c_ -." . ~ ,_ : '. a- lIlA 0":;''' \:;'0.' .'. _.' 10'''' .' , I·,~I

up yOUl' job and y<crur marriage and taking care of your st sters kids, If you did tt very' weU~ that could result ]]1, [an, increase 'in your gen.e's" :Bu t my point is that it do e sn't lead anywhere

in terms [of evolu tion, Inclusive fitness theory said that social behavior advances because

kin find one another and. bond together to spread their glenes.~, and then a society emer,g~'s.

Hut Irn afraid It's the other 'way around, \N'h.e-n people bond, together, kin or not, they can become competitive as a group,.

II't seems 8[S, ~f IIdn selsctlon could ,aCiu,alllu dame,ale 'the,

!I- ~I

gmuIP[~ FOlr ;ns1:anee, f118iP,o,t:iJSIMI

II .. , d"!!If '~f?

'wee t\.ens :al ,group", I. ~.' eesn .,: h ·[ii

010 the lave] of the gtloup . nepotism is counter-evolutionary

A group of altruists will 'beat.

a society of selfish individuals

t G I 0.'

every ime, ... ·.fOU.p S,B ,ec ':' on,

favors biological 'traits like commumcation and CO()P eratton

h ded f h

t . at. are nee, E31- , io:r t - e ~oup to

remain cohesive and p owerful, In. humans, there's a constant

S'''''~· -1- ua'~1 c b' ,a,? ;;':;;0;9,9·' crl~\O'i ii'p[ P 0lloc... !l!..rillJ.~iIl~ . ~ !I!.'II'V.. . n ,0.' ... UI" .... o,~ ~ ....

tiOll, and individual se]ection ,that is uniqu.e', :H'urnans ttl"lll.-' ag[sd frIO find. it w,ay to s:ttllike a b,aJ.:a(n{~(~,.lt took. a lot or! Thnte~-, ligen(>e~ but tllat :is a 8to.:ry for ~'no' 't'lh· ,O'r" d~v

a.._, ',: ... :1 tJt; ~ I i .. : . Cl:J m

Dasp~le, aU this" 'your' co'I~ ... ~ea,gues ,alf'S d.ilggiin,g 'in ,alndi !de1Iendin.g kijln se!l:ediia,n wnh p8issionj IHow diLl yOU' lfes[pond'?' It's, gonna be [~ b~tt]e royal~·and. :not pretty. Y:ou might ,blOW

of r-esponse to 8L new ide'a., The thr-ee are one, ridicule, and I've

1I!..a OT"i[ 41" hro ush that ,r-;, 1 ?io ....... l"" sa 'iIi\" ';""'r; lIUII~i!V": lit ILJ,l 'o I b· .. G €1 .. WICoi1U:Y" ,W_ W Ul~,

outrage, And. three, the declaretion that it Is. obvious.

'V:C)'IJI 'seem to be, passilns: thf1Q,u,gn s,tap' two, 'liii',~ht, naw~ One letter to Nature Is sign ed by1ll44 people, 'TIH~~Thr a.rgu,~ ment has. 'been around for four decades, but nothing in the: letter addresses th e challenges we raised; that the mathematical ground. of incl usive fitness, theory Is unsound and that, when you compare competing hypotheses, outcomes

are' much more directly and convincingly explain ed by matnstream natural selection,

But for now' iit SQ,amIS like the bull k of sc:ilelnlfi1Ih: o p:iinii,o'nl is, ,a,ga'ilnst y'OiUii'

Sci-ence ]8 not done by polling,

H' 1, d f~"

ave you. ever Ileal' .0. 100

S cien tists Against Elnstein?"

It W[8\S, a. p amphlet signed by

1.00 physicists to overthrow hi 8 'theory of n~lativ1ty~ After they published it, Einstein remarked, ~\\Thy 100 [aLU thors? lf I were 'w.rQng~, then nne would have

'b h),"

• leen en,oug , '.

Your new talke on e¥o!lutionary ,theo:r)' see!ms t[OI echo an 'ol!der

"v"c"I·;;iiMiklii 0:-·1. hum an 'n'- ~~i li~i m'-'nr;g .. 1I!iiiJ'!I!1!!I' .,~ .' I,~ u ... !U~'I!.I!!~I~:!ii . V:I;~:

eOimpass'i)on~ DOi you :alres?[

f you look: art the humanities and. much of the' creative arts.especially the dramatic stories, of war, alliance, and lov€many lli'terary themes describe the conflict between group and individual selection, When V\7€' look at human evolution :in this new"way~ it's gomg'to be ,muc:h

mfii"oEfI, pr·\f'i;.d- Ui"IJiI!-'; 'i:f\.t:I, W· .. ~ 1i'"iiOfl'.tll' h eil'it1',d .YL't- .'::.' . ~w ':_' . L IIJ..J.·V 't.r~J ' .... !t.- .~,tI '"! 'yr- . }(;.I.l.·rv.·I~

solid grounding fnr explaining our s.ocia'], beh,avi.or8 in terms of the mlllfple' I ev,els of s,elect~o:n that actually OCCUI~ ]I

Global 'iempe~alu m lm'ap shows, Ihow te',mlpo,mJ,' "ariiatioDS; obsclII,re crJilnplel: c;~i .. , [male 'treRdls'i Delcern1ber' 2:,009 'was, un[usua'~ly' c!hill,; t,o:ld'er .. ,tlilal,'" ;ave:ragl~ re,gion:s iura shown bllll:e~

could vanish by' 2. 03,,5 but in J an uary retracted the s tatement 'ff.!; Ci '~~p' - GO'f' l!y S'Ii1II'~I_"st" an ti ated ~~, A:' storm of.'

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scolding news (:ov:erage followed, ,According to a 20010 GaUupl poll! 48 percent ofAmericans believe reports of global w:fil'f,nnng are exagg:erated" up from. 41 percent in 2009.

Climate p oUcy;, too, s'taUed in ,201(L Over the summer Presid .. ant Obama sketehed a concept for a cap-and-trade 'bill. that would legislate signi.ficant cuts in th e 'United State's carbon emissions, but widespread s.kepti,cism-alli.ong: with a 'weak ,econcnny-:[o,rced Senate majority leader Harry Reid to coneede last Jruy that such a bill would not pass, Last yeae China, surpassed the' United States as the wotllid's leading investor in renewable power, according to the Pew Environment Group, a development 'M,th. an, obvious double-edged message,

Meanwhile, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels continue to climb, up abotrt 20 percent over the past half century; John Houghten, th e former h ead of the scien ce 'WO.f king grou,p' of th e' ][P CC~ says to limit th. E WOfS,t B ffeets of climate ch ange in the decade s ahead, Jlreetn.h.ousI9-'gas emissions win have to ple,ak before 2020;, Unless major strideshappen qUickly; there seems ITjttll,e chance of 'that h appening, "The ,global warming story is unequivocal, reallyj~ he says, ~lt 'will b 8' a ma] or problem for the next ge:neration:~

the :integrity ofMichael Mann, a, prominent climate researcher at Pennsylvania State University All five groups concluded that none of the scientists

had violated. academic standards ~~cWe find, that their rigor

and hon .. esty as scientists are' :not m doubt, declared a report headed by Sir Muir Ru ssell, chair o.f one of the Briti sh investigations,

Usa Graumlich, a University of Washington paleoecolcgist who served. on another 'British gr(Hjp~ led, by Lord Bonald Oxburgh, looked into a broader eharge: whether there was something "fundamentally broken" about the integrity of the Climate Research Unit, Such. charges, she determined, were baseless, On the contrary, as the !OXblIrgb planers 'finial report put. it, the: attacks leveled against the scien tists «. sh .. owed a rather selective and uncharitable approach to information made available by the CR,U~" Mic h. a e.], Mann was more blunt. ]11 an e-mail to me, he asserted that '[}H~ people who attacked

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hIS WOf, "uon~ _ ' . ave c ie SC1lsnC1e on .r eir SLe!, ana tney SUI''e y 1010W

"this .. So smears and disinformation are an they have le'ft~

Despite the: vindications, climate researchers spent much of zmo defending their science, The year begall with memh ers of the. Inter,go¥ernmentrn Panel on Climate 'Change (illPCC) d.is.avovvillg part of its 2<00,7 report, 'The' pane] had, 'mitten that tl1.1S gtari.l9TS of the Himalayas

,24

D~SCOVER

A DE(~ADE AGO~ SEQUENC1N'G· the .DNA in ap ersons entire genom'6 cost up to $1 billion.a price so prohibitive that only a few' gen.etics pioneers. had the honor of having it done, In 201.0 the' costper genom,s tumbled to less than $.lO~O 00; making it possible to study DNA variations within a single family Almost immediately such farnilial gen.o me sequencing proved its value, uncovering mutations responsible {or diseases. caused by defects in a S:liltg].e genle~

,~~ There are' lit,erally' h undreds, ifnot tho 11] sands 0-' fdi ~iG!I<;!i cas '. .::.v _ '.: ... !. ,~~,~ :.IL.:J i;;i!'~, " .: 1., .!l . .;i!''O,QI,;;;i';':'' ~

falling in to this category, This approach ~ll all ow' us to very quickly find the gen.e'ti,c culprit" ~la;yg Leroy Ho I) d, a ge:n.etiei st at the Institute for SJSlh~ll1S Biology.in Seattle,

Earlier efforts to hunt

down. disease - causing gen.e'sS(j-C aU.ed g'en.om·e'w].de association studies-« frequently carne u.p empty-handed because medical researehers had to take:

CJQ st -saving shortcuts, Instead. of troITlru.ng all. individual's entire genom1e; they limited. th eir search to D'.N.A regions where

. at . ;"j; t' ft·,· -

vana Ions. are most 0 . en seen

aero ss larg,e .p opulations, ult 'was, assumed that common

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variants might 'be rsspcnsi ble for common diseasea, but many dis/eases turn out to have many different rare variants at their root' s.ay.s JaW111.,BS, Lupski j a medical ge,ne·ticist at B,aylor College

of Medicine in Houston, "That's W]lY the power orwhoh~:-genolne' sequencing blows, us away. illfs the onlY'way we can get at these

• f.",_;U

rare vanants,

Lupski himself suffers from

Charcot-M arie- TO' ..,4-:11,.. 1'1I"DUlro- "p-'-"~_

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thy" a rare hereditary disorder that reduces, sensation. in the "1]- mh "@l ".;iL. lth on .g.- h n £!I·~··th- '1':101'" of 'l'ill]'i ip'

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parents had. the condition, three of his iH3ve~n sfhlinss ate also

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affected by.it. "For 20 yieaI~s. w'e've

been lookmg for the gene and

ill utation behind :my:farn.il.y'fs neuropathy, but we' never found

the 'l:Hlirii "l'ill"ff-·:JiJ he t"otll'y.tji Th ten lmfio

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2.0]10:; collaborating with his colleague Bichard Gibbs and. other Baylor gen.eti-cists; Lupski sequenced his own genome ,-and "Booml We found it" 'he

..' . . .... . .. . '-" - . '.' . '. . _." . .

says,. (Each of his. parents, tt turns out, carried a dlft"efien'1t recessive mutation of the s ame .gen·a,. Consequently amy their children who inherited one from each p:a.tr'-' ent developed the dlsorder.)

Other groups are finding similar success with wholegenon1.e' sequencing. A 2010 study led by Hood in collaboration with the University 0. f Washington and the University ofUtah sequenced the entire

v KATHLEEN McAUl~FFE

genom'9S of'four family members, the mother and . father 'W'Bre healthy, but their son and dau .. ghter both suffered from a rare hereditary eli sorder called Millet syndrome, which causes

• C .. I d ,f'-" 1]]

crantotactal detormation. -.1 . ,9

whole-genome sequencing

will work as well at id.ientifying the' culprits for. cancer, heart disease, and other disorders beheved to mvolve multiple genes· rather than. a single mutation .. Progress lnay be slower

An indiw~,d:ual with

Min er fr,n dlrome 'pali nls:

IlIi's, OW'I D:NAii

ge:ne responsi ble was unknown until I ~OO(rS team identified a recesslve wan.s inheeited from both parents, If you could dlagnose tJH~ diseas e in utero, yfHJ might be able to provide pre,ventive drugs before symptoms appeared, Hood 8 alYS"

Still. unclear is whether

on. that front, DUke University geneticist David Goldstein says" But even 'when. the genetic mechanism Is more complex, he adds, the new approach might yield insights into underlying disease p~r'OCegSe8 that could p,atrve the Wtl1.y for more .fineJly

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0,1 02.20111

PIRie REIlI ,

:B,ED'BUGS ,AJtR, .NOT S'TAYING .iN B'ED'~ OVE·R THE PAST. YEAA!I THR PARASIT.ES HAVE :F.NFI.STED MOV1E TKE.AT.E'RS; D'El~ilIARTMEWT S'fO::rmS!1 .MOl'RLS.~ even Victorias Secret.In NewYork Ci.ty; complaints about 'bed'bugs; more than doubled between .2006 and. 2009,; In September the Centers for Disease Control and. Prevention and the: Environmental Protection Ag.ency issued a j(lhl.t paper informing the public how' to combat

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pesticides", 111.6 ban on DDT probably 8;]$0 plaY'ed a. role, D'DT sticks around for a long time in the environment, this made it particularly effective against bedbugs, which can. live' a ye:ar without fe'eding. W11.atever the reason for the invasion, we weren't readyfor it '~~No one since

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t te JIl'9508- nas ,,a,~_ oeunugs on .. his rmnc .. ~; says OlUS 0,o.rJ' .n, an entomo ogist at the Am e nc an. ······tUN3um, ot ',' atural '~'llstOl'~ -- ,.' U~I~l(~ education

was, lacking,; doctors didn't know the symptoms of'bites, and exterminators 'were treating them like cockroach infestations," This was a new' ."', ett - ,. " .. .-JI - , ta - d':» R. Th - '1,.. db" -~'- . c',,· - - C'.-,. . t -, hidi '. -'1 ,-, a kev il'-h, its , , liferati - - '~'h' - thi - t - d -, . itl .";If-,;r1} , . . msecrto uncers a]1~I.',.,·~ ne oeo .. ugs prererence lor remo e . 1 hllDg p .aces, a .~,ey IW l S pro, 1 re ra Ion" m,ay iave some Hlng 0_0 'VVl_ 1. ns sex.

life, Bedbugs procreate through "traumatic insemination": The males painfully stab 'the females through the abdomen, depositing semen in their bndy' ca "Iirity· ''C';g;.["Y1i"'''' l,g,!t'. tend to d .'1·Sp' erse .C,g, rth 91' '{'r'''O-'''I(TI' a' bed I tha 1"'" m al ;Q buss d 0- ., ·tll,.. 9 t" 11' Gn'ry' '1" jl:'11 that th ay are fleein 'g th ,gI"I' ,[1'111~'ifL"-"'I~'S R. Ev 811-1

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'\I\Ii.t]lout DDT,. agood exterminator can rid ahorne of bedbugs, but the price is steep: ahout ,$,1[;00.0 to clear out a two-bedrcom apartment,

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l~nl Jul,"lhe EilfOpeaUI Spa;ce ,A,ge'le,' feJI!ea!sed' a new Imap 's!how;illiig:'~he IUniVIif.Se ii'lm its: i'II'lriC', 13\,:7 bin~DJI :rears, ale-jus;t: 3,00~OIOO years after tlhe1lig' B,anllil In th!~s, 'full"siQ i'mapl,~ cr'eated with dala froMI 'the new Planck :space 'ielescope\, red ,and orangJ! ;ne8S represent primirdiaililu mps that ,gave riFle to :tJi'aolt Iclusts,l'S of 1;alaiXie)s~ T'he blue' and! whi~le 1'0:1iI15, compdse ve:r; d'iflerel1ilt' signalhi" Iml)S:~:~," eim:ilssionIS; "rom re'~alli'vle~, ne,arliltli!, ,c:louds of I;8S; 8rull,d!lui,ti in our' g,alax_,,, Pll!anck sclenlists plan '10' slri,p, 'Iltl: thote lioea) feature,s; to let ,ani ,eveOI 'clleorelr pi'ellll~ of the earl, eNullulimn of: the! OOSIIII& ,A f'IlIU Ilre/luse, of datal is coming: in twD 'year;sii I

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achieved this goal!, set forth a decade ago 'by the Department of Health and. Human Servic e s in. its report . 'Healthy Pe ople 2.0 :nLO:~' In August the' Centers for Disease C.OI1.'t:rO] and Prevention (CDC) announced negative progress:: TIH3 number of states reporting a 3;0 percent ",'besity rate has jumped from zero to nine,

"Obesity rates in some states are s,tiU screaming up the curve" says J; Michael Gaziano, ·81 cardiologis t at Bri gham . and Wo mens Hospital in Boston, who dubbed. OUT era, the ~ge: of Obesity and Inactivity" in. a J anuary :2 010 editorial in. the journal of (h.e A.merican MedicalAssociation. Mississi ppi now has the hjIghest rate of ob e si ty in the OOUFl tr~ wi th ,34.4 percent of adults affected ,. accordin.g to the CD c .. Other state's top-

ping .30 P e rc ent in clu d e Miss ouri, Ke ntucky; West Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, Okl aho rna,

'L tin] '1· C' l~ an -tI, g ''lnl'' ,AI A1~" 'a" barna 'C- . 0-, ~ O· -

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rado had the lowe st obesity rata in. the nation, at .lli8.6 percent of adults-still above the' target.

Pi gh tin g back a g:ain. s t. th i s grim trend, public-health officials have begun to. embrace the sor t of to u.gh In e asures previously 'wielded against cigarette smoking, 1h.8 roo st notable suecess last year came with the' pass ag!8 of ·31. measure in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 requiring nearly all chain. restaurants 'to include' calorie' counts on 'their menus,

OlD the research front, m eanwhile, investigators aria making some progress in. gras,pin.g

b . .~ .' .

0- . !8's]'.ty s causes, A. provo cati v·e

30':"

. {'.'

D~SCOVER

study published in Science in April scio suggests that a change in the bacterial population of the gut contrtbutes to the rtsk of metabolic syndro me, which is characterized. by elevated ·w'e~ .. ght, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood fat, Researchers led by Emory University pathologist An drew Gewirtz found that 111 Th.C' 6:

J~·enetlli.cally deficien tin an immune system receptor have altere d. gut bacteria, eat more than 11LO rm a]. mice do; and develop features of metabolic syndrome, However, Gewirtz says it is "unlikely that there ·W~~.n be a single causative bacterium for obesity as, there

"c ] 7'

is lor uicers,

In. fact, despite 'the s.utgl(8 in obesitj, no progress was seen this ye ar on ,a pproved '1111'8 dical tre atme nts a vailabl e to co nsumers strtl,gglin.g to lose' weig·ht., The Food and Drug Administration

refused to approve two investigational app etite suppte ssants, Qnexa and 10 rcaserin, primarily out of safety concerns .. Another weigh,t-lo.ss drug a.pp rove d back In 1.997~ Meridia, was pulled from t11.'9 market under pressure :fr!O]11. the .FD'.A. after studies showed it rais e s cardiovas c ular ri sk, AJ1.d cl early; 'most current approaches to di e tiling are not effe clive:: Up 'to 95; p,en::,en t of people' 'W ho lose weight eventually regainit,

"'We hallie to find medications that. h 8'].p us keep the weigh t off after we've lost it: 'Says research pediatriclan Michael Rosenbaum ·0' f Colt no I bi <!I, U- n ~.~ rer srtv ·-w·· -h 0' Is

. ... . ..' lIlA . ... C!l,.. .!L. 'Ii!'. LJi.JI. J:Ii ". ..' 01

studying the' use of the fat-signaling 'h:o rmone leptin for just that purpose. Whoevl~u finds the' drug tha t can cure th e ob e is i ty ·8 pidemic win surely €nd u.p rich as wellas thin ..

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:Ho']l~od: Mysteri,OUs, hackers create a malicious computer code designed 'to seize control of critical. equipment wo:dd~d.e, It tW1]S out :lit really' happened, ill. June a computer security fum in, B elarus :KCHLUld a sophisticated, aggre'ssive, self- replicating p':rOg]:am,j; or worm, on a client's computers in Iran" The 'progr~un, was designed to 8lltta.ck and sabotage control systems used in manufacturing facihties, power ,grids" pip elines, and nuclear p:~ an ts,

No one kn 7 nw, '. ';:;""'W,",',]\-.of'19 the worm :

~ ~ Ul.~ ,~v. r: g . ,l.l~, ~ . _ . Ii;! ',". .

was. created or what it was target-, :in~ Researchers know only that :it was capable of causing physic ail damage; for instance, it could

'1lTI .... '11".-"" "CII m otor If'D't:J!" too quickly g nd ,],' I~ i~ :,W::"'v_' ,lL'.:;;;''i,r.'v· .,._ ,,:_ v :Qu_,W. __ ,

even blowup, "Using something in the eyberworld to control something in the physicru world is something welv'B never seen before" says Liam 0 Mnrchu of the computer security oomplOOly' SymantE!-e. ~~Weve never seen any

industrial control system being: attacked before, and w,e~ve never seen such an, advanced threat "that, needed so many different skills to come togeth,er:'i

Since first :rep orted injune, the Stuxnet worm=which some call

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"u19 wor ;" 8.1H~,,,, CjlUellN'BapOn -

has spread to illOO;OOO machines in InQ,H3 than 155 countries, though most are in Iran, Only

a :few machines in the United States have been. infseted, The worm spreads via. infected USB flash drives, and ether means, O',11.oe loaded onto a computer; Stuxnet searches for industria], control software made by Siemens; called Simatic WmCC/ Step 7;, If Simatic SOfbAI3i113' is, not on the maehlne, the worm looks for vulnerable computers on the network to which it could spread .. But if the software is present and configured a certain, 'W8(y~ the worm begins its dirty task, intercepting :].lsgitim,ate' commands that control devices, such ,3LS 'valves and pressure ~uges and substituting potentially destruct[V'8 ones. in their place,

Computer and control SY8tem, security p:rofessi.ona!s like: Ralph L angner, who is based in Germa.ny~ believe the Stuxnet worn), 'was 'target~ng Iran's, Bushehr nuclear power plant, its uranium enrichment facility at Natanz, or both" Iran has, acknowledged that personal computers belonging

to employees at Bushehr were Infected by" .w-'l..,c worm b ut has llU'bL.·w ._ UJl.w .. ,·"l.:il, I .. U.O!

'~ -,'fi~;~:n-.cd" that "",.n, "'PI: -*,oriiAf'i -, ':' ,- ,-, 11l~D'I!.-'I;:;i ...' ,:WI., . CuIJLJ. ,. UII!.~J1lQ; ru~n

.' tl I f ill ,. lf

-'''---:-'-'1: '1--···-1···· ..... ,.-.-., ... - ,.",-- "-:J'

nmg . ]:9 nne ear ac . ty ,ntse

remained unharmed, Those

r-Iupo' I~t!i c ann ot '1J",.,c, verified how-

Ie;.. lL l,o ' .. C_iU,iILII.· IV.' ,IL}!!U .,_, 'w "JIJIll'Vc ,~, ,"U ,

I M Z E T T E R

8UOC8IrSS,fu][y hits its; target, Its victim would, most lliiktdy never admit as mueh .. The attackers who created and launched the malicious software also remain unknown, Langner and others

;til iti!. r- oII-l.I... ,0 m .... r· . rares - Ci Ji"'j; . - hi ,('j't! ..... arion oaf tne ... rarware: QIUP, ,. s .. tea . ], ; .... ,

points to one or more wellfinanced nation-states such as Israel or the United States, two countries ·Viill.1lth motive and the ability to conduct the attack (Nei.-' ther coun tr-_·y:- h <'lI1;t;! off _: cially com

,!IU~. .", , .. il,.· ." - -:-.: ' . CJtO . ','", . . .... ;cu ":.' U" .,~.l.w.-

mented on the Stuxnet attack)

]hi . -. . - "",1 . - - - hi - ,t t th

mose unknowns ' im a: te

magni tude of the dangers that

ftC '''USI' j

:may follow in, Stuxnets wake, Langner sayg~ Nowthat Stuxnet bas shown it is possible for a, targeted pie ce ,of software to

t .... 'll .. ~ c"""-m- 'n' -7 and of an' , I ~,~ ,d' ustri ..... lI , ~ .. :,' ", \..iIi " , " J.u,u .. , !, . _ ",,11 iI1Q Tltl!ll,

control systenl~, and now that the malware has, b sen released on the Internet for other hackers 'to study, the bar has 'been, lower-ed for destructive attacks 0In. other control systems=whether at eri tical infrastructure at an industrial factory "The clo ck ],S tl1cldng,~ Langner says" ~We are going to see 00 pycats by the

b eamni fn "U of 'fI'O: n :I'! D

, . tGO-;II.!.ILI I • ~J U . ,~._. .!i .

31

0,102.20.111

:PAR'I OF WHATMAlCES ALZHEcIM,ers 'W sease SO pernicious is its. stealth, Traditionally; it could

'be identified with certainty only by an, autopsy. That changed last ye'af, when researchers used 'UNO tools b) diagnos,e the disease with nearly 100 percen t accuracy in living subj ects, a feat that might ultimately allow patients to seek drug treatment 'before their condition becomes too advanced.

In the: first method, doctors iUJ'8Ct a. radioactive dylB that binds to' amyloid plaque; a dam,aging protein, that accumulates in patients' brains and Is the h .. allmark of this d.fus~e,aS'e; then, th.ey detect the dye' '\ri'th

at. P'E! scan of the brain, Last summer res earchers at Avid Hadiopharmaceu ticals in P hiladelphia used '[he technique to :lidentH)r 34, of 35 Alzheimer's patients, as lli,ate:r confirm ad by autopsy Given that ,:10 percen 1. of people currently diagnosed with Alzheimer's turn out to be' Buffeting from something 08188-' notably depression, B lli2 defici,ency~ Parkin sons demen tia, OI

o:..,e. .... ul di n; _. ch - .. - C* - " ed 'v ~Of~ , I all ".:. IlS'~las.je ~ ,!.a[,a.·~· ·:I1-,erlZt·····'

by miniature strolkes-tJlis. is a '~ as - d ··o:..n,;(';I'e

nuge ,i8,L V (;~Jl0:_,.

In the second technique, physicians ins ert a sydU,g!9 in to. the: spinal eolumn, 'withdraw' cerebrospinal fluid, and. analyze

'"' t: h f··· loid

:],'1[ ror t :- e presence 0 anDY oic

and. another disease- related protein known as tau, 'Ihe method was confirmed in August, when University of Pennsylvania scientists found the markers in. go percent of cogni tively impaired patients wi th the disease,

Neurolo,gist David Heltzman of Washington Universi ty School ofMedicine in St . Louis believe s the tools will initiate a much needed revamping of Alzheimer's

drug trials, which currently foeus on sub] ects already exhibiting signs of '[he disease, "Plaque formation tends to begin. 10 to 15~ years, prior to ,acny

iti ,"' If' !, 'f!" ilL

cogmnve S,][,gn~t • were ~olng ILO

make a :n1,a;] err impact, 'we have to treat the' patient early; Once 'H1,e symptoms show; the damage is probably irreversible"

,F oltzman says.,

"Treatm ents already in place - .- '. tht rk lf - - d ~ . -- -- - . - -

'mIg' 1 wor 1 UIDlQ' tor pra"l fn n

, ':., _., 'v,·" ,Qu", ,'u', . v.!tICo'U.'-'

tion 'in stead, of the later stage s of disease" I olteman contm-

~ UN' th h .... T111 -" :If ..... ,

Ute's. rsowt I. e c :, ',ClliLJle:nge IS 'II!.U

design experimental studies using biomarkers in cogninvely normal people to determine 'who c an really benefit from

the drugs"

]:0 aid the afflicted, nsw drugs are also in the works, One of the most proml stng ideas comes from Nobel laureate Paul Greengard of'Bockefeller Un iver-

'ti'C1"'hl In 'N· lOW'· .,.' Vn!-r-'~".- ·C]l"''hr. who ,..::I'~('i,_

~ !al lL , " J~ '. ,lILu K '.' 1IJ.:1~1 '_, . lUia

covered an enzym,18 that Sputs. neurons to make the destructive amyloid plaque, Drugs that disru pt. the enzyme, his animal

stu dies s- - f!ftG,o.,a,t ... O· ''ill d p,:r,O/ e· - t "I :1" ies •. :.'UW~O'·li "--,'W,,, orevent

Alzheimer's with less fisk of unwanted side effects,- an approach that he expects 'to begin testing in human trials 'within three years,. If all goes,

- d811]1 ( .. a b ~'a if ~ T'ii .A]' -- ~;1· ,0, ~ m'o r's '\''!{~:JI, a ..1'01, Jill, fi..ILZ\[ ei ;, !!WI'''

research), a therapy targeting tl1H3 ernzyrn'9 could 'be avat labl e to

p atten ts in les s than 8! decade"

," Successf ,,'1 dn 'Il(!!' ·d' ,0"!l,t .... '11 ("r;p- -, '_

. IJLL'IL-~"~ "ILU, .... ! lUlJo' ,~~ ~u ,"

ment, lmaging, and 'biomarkers go hand in hand,' says neurology researcher Michael Wolfe of Brigham and WCUnel'1ts Hospital and. Harvard Medical School, "These diagnostic tools are a major step forward, :Fin.aJQly P'i:NJple are 'being identified earlier and the' right people are' being' selected for clinical.trials to €/,ffecU,ve.ny test the se drugs" ]I!

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,JuII ,p~ug I in and healr' Wll.t 'you':ve been mh;slng,. Widl, the Bose WaJte® music system, ther-e' are no stacks of components, No tangle of wires, No dials to adj ust, Advanced Bose technologies. inside this small svstem wor.{c together to fill the room with the acclaimed performance that has, made Bose the most respected name :in. sound" Audio writer W aJyne Thompson of the IOregan:icLn calls it "one-of-ak n'nd~~ and '~'my choice for product of the year.' You enjoy cleat; realistic sound mat you may have on.[y tll0'ught possible from a much larger,

m ore com nm icated '1:'1j",G'I,IWr; '1,["'" 4C- 'to F,I'"'It¥'l ~,!:! '[i'V'1' '_ , ,~';;: ." . -Ji:'" h, GI! I!....:.~u .,;.;l'Il,.Jj.,..., ",J!o,."",. '_ ,,~iM~ ]i ~ v~, ut:.J C ~ ~.

of Bose quality sound moments afte[r' you. open, the. box" Rich War.ren, of the News ... Gazette

hi . - ~" "111 f1

sa;,ys 't IS, easy ... to .. use system - wu ,at our

seduce you,"

Ein.i'0Y the 8ltcllailme-d p1erfa rlnanC1e iii :SOI m!lny 'waVIIJ Listen to the 'Wave®' music system In your l iving room, kitchen, bedtoom, wherever you. want better sound. Everything you need. is

b 't CD/M'-P3- CD '1 FM-,' Al AI'

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A- r' '0· ,p: ti on '""il ~ M· .' .u 'I!~; ... CD', -. ·C: •. -IIL an ore'r; mal ~cQC' 1"1!' , !II..II., ,Il, ILGiiL. " .II:!WII. .. , . .. ,iDlA_ ,eI" ,G!lK.~!L

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easy to ~,rusten 'to your favol!'ire. music for hours,

A- 0 'I N= k tl G 'I G ~qf

s David ,'.ova) '-l'e · .. a;.cg;,et-u.y~, says,'.Jlt

can easily replace 'whatever component system you. currently have,"

,A raiD mdll~ II' 'j(1em'i UIII so U lid ~ ' ... IIOlt w:i res", You buy a sound system to ~ isten to music. Not to s-pend hou rs setting up eq uiprnent and connecting wires, Wid, the 'W'9!V~:~

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SI11~wn ill liraph,ite Grsy r~ith' I.lilm'al MIlM·CD ~han.gel;

I.

'WII_eS.

I

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'Our galaxy may be home to billions

f II iii ~ I

10 planets ,5 rru ar tOI our own,

Astronomer ' is leadina

!c

the hunt to' find them.

'The uni've!fse ls look:iing a lot less loneJly 'these da,y:s,-, ,andi Geof1r:

Me rey can take, a 1101: 'Olf ,credit for 'that .. ,AJIf1I astre nerner at 'Ule IU,t"ili ..

'.'- f C'" " II~f-' OJ B ~ ........ ~ he l ~ d" th h I:

veF5,llly' 0:' ,_,8 I '011'1"118" :~·errtt::..ey~, -'18 IS, ~ea-Iln,g ,t '9 selalre .-, rer e,xo .. ,

pl1alnets:, 'wolrllds, tha1! orbit other stars, Hi:s research has uncovered mat"i[Y oddiit~es" 'such as hot ,JuIP:i~e:rs, (ps, bSIIII:s ,thaI, balke in thou .. , ~sanrd-dle;glf,ee heat) aln,dllb\~u:::kw,ard-olrb[iit'iing~ robje!cts" but he aliso 'found ,the Ilrst m,llJIlrlip~anet :system that: ls Imu,gt'dy ,anlsicFus;, 1QI the, !solar s:y,stem,", las,t 'fall he estim;ated 'thatJI judg,iing fromhls obs,elrvar'" tlons, our g'rallalxy m aiy '0011'1811111 ,tens' tjlf ,billions o:f 'plllall1.ets; Ii,'cnu\ghly the, s1~.e and ImJaiSS, of: Earth. ,And now, as cOliinlvestigatof on NASA's, 1.I'e· .. ple .. 'r· space t'alle4:0,rii\i"iII1p"':e' ke ;,11:'" if"iJ'llOil!'a te 'f,lln' d'"I:n-o some 'o"f th,am- -' lin"

ft! .. I .~ ·1· '_.1 ,,_. '_:. (;I~- "! I. w', f.. ", ;!i!!i~~1 :~ .. ..._)' rlf._', I,~ I~ '", oi!lI!'lWl . ul .. _. t31 iii·" Jw' .. ~ . I ill

F'e,bruary~ IKe,p~En' wi~11 redlea:se' irts 'first m:sj!D Ii' Sled: of lo,bservat'iions,,; lealrlly wordl iis tlhat the di,arta 'wli III incllude tentsrtiy,e i1de:H"I11i11ication ,of' ~seve\rall, hundredl plaHe'ls, th art 2li1r1e ,just: slliighrtllyliallf~1l" thallf1l eu Ii' own "'

Wh d I t

"'e"II!'\a, .' , .riI;e· ",~, a,,·~p' .a n e" I, -'

, ... '11!!i;;;_ u_:~ !!wo'A,y·~ ;g I 1,._.

selenee stand II1:OW'?

Ifs, been an explosion, :M[n.'l~: than 450 exoplanets have been recoznized "1: ;!LTG if'"o::Jj''Ii'ii',j. 'lIT,D.t:!;,p' tl"a' . ck

.. :._: .. _ YiE:i:.l:"~ ~. __ !! \f1l~ 1~~JALl, u.. ,~~!I;: ...... I __ ._ ,_. ;"_,

of them" 'Fifteen years ago there 'was, doubt whether WI8 would find a si]]gh~j planet around a sunlike star; and here we are overwhelmed, Just vetting them and cataloging their masses and c n 'bits has beca-me a challenge"

Whi,ch ad vanees from] [18'sl: yealr 'welre most iim:po,rta1nt? Studies, of planetary orbits. have

brought incredibly exciting results, You would 'expect planets to orbit in the same direction as 'the star spins: If the star rotates. counterclockwise the planets should orbit it counterclockwise in ,a plane aligned. with

I ~ 1

t 1.13' star :8 equator, In our S,'O,1l8X

syS:l'801,atnd in th.€' first dozen sxoplanets that we' measured,

,] ,~ 11Th

t nat s what lapp,eI1g~, - en we

started finding some that w€:re misaligned -planets, "lNi.th tilted orbits or planets going around their star in the opposite direction from its spin, run 'w'hat 'we call a retrograde orbit.

What: is, so ii moertent about

~ ,

iba,c:kwa Ildi pllane!tS':?

Backin 1995, when 'we found hot jupiters, .orbiting, close to their stars ,fi'!;,lliQlnJ,b-:od.J:y itlQ1'dil t· k i.:!i.y" co'. "nn-" -.

___ ~O':I! ~,",'G&.J' 'c·', UI('_~.,. H.~" U .. ,·,.

fat away from the' star and then lose energy and migrate, cleser, But that would never explain why they end up in these reaogr,ade and ,ulisaillgned orbits" S omeh ow' their orbits get j erked out ofthat plane, illfs likiely that violent gravitational interactions between planets slingshot one of them

close to the star; and then the orbit slowly circularizedin 60]1118 cockamamy orientation. ibis is, mind-blowing; It shows OlU: old idea 'that these planets 'migrated closer to their star over time wag'\ivton,g. Wflve WI taught OUf' students, about migration, and it S, at best only partially :right

IH1ow' can 'YOUl estim:2Irt,e the, 1n'll..IImlbeif of IEarih .. size planets ii n the' g'rais,:)(,y?'

The goal of'thls 'work that I

d1id with Berkeley astronomer Andrew' Howard 'was to measure the fraction of stars that 'have 'f]lm' .... ]TI pla 'r1' ets in ... los a orbit "" W' .' '£j;

o " .. ~. Ul,Jj,'L:- .. ~, .IL., L \j!1(Ji1-=.. y, . '~riI . - G

surveyed 166 stars for four years., When :It was. all s aid and. done, the rate was about 12 percent . You can look up into the niglrt 1!I,t,it an '·d' I ab out ,- <"iI, nercent of

OJi.'l<.lr, Ql, . .!. ,,)(, '!Uti,.: 1.& It"' ~Jl V. ., ,IJ,.. "

those stars harv€: a snper-Earth-> a planet m.th ,3 to. 10 times the mass of Earth=orbtting 'Mthin the distance separating Metcury and. the sun. As 'the size' of the planets Wig looked for decreased, the number 'that we found Increased: Wei found more planets m.th 3 time's the mass of the

Earth than planets 'with 10 times text b,' M IIC:HA,Ellll[EMIO Nil CK Iphotograph Iby TIHOMIAS I,RO EIN liN G Earth's, mass, 1110ng planets 10

,34

times as massive' than ][00 times, and. so on. This was a lifelong dream of mine, to have the' distribution of planets down to three Ea rth moo' q C',I[Il~,(!I the sm ...:'on 8st _ Ii;o~, ' -!QL,L !ILl "_ ~J;,1!i9!!;~;" ,1I;i;;;iJ" _ ijj.IL.II.,v _

'we could detect. Extrap elation of that trend SU,gg'8StS about one in four stars hosts au Earth-size planet, 'which we define as one with a mass be twe en one-half and, 'OtvO times, the mass 'Of Earth, We~rre ,edging closer, but so far no one: has announced thee discoverr of a truly E arth-si ze (1 bjj,ect..

~ not'i:ce you ea lile'uilly' s:alid

'{il!',~ ,,L.'II:' ,U au 1~II'lIIl

That's right. [Laughs.] Results from Kepler vvil], be coming out in, February; inc],uding the' data from, the 400 stars that have 'been held back until now You can just 'bet 'what's in there, The implications of those planets are so:prof6und thatweve got to work harder be(tme we make

tl 'L'll~' ~ ",",1

_ jem PU,E)Uc. I Cal], t T€11f'& too

- - h t b t' t th -" d - -

••• ".1 _"_. . "1' ., "1 . ," " .. ", _.

111U.C ,,', ye ,~ , .: U'I you ge' '. ' B' 1', ea.

There have, been some ,~rllJm"',

ID

bllinlg,S aboul' ~he wirthhcldinl of "Jh'·_" ·d· ~O; Wi,· ·Ih_"'_ vnUIi" !iI!'a' Il""e·!:")

11;1 I ii.lII. . .' a '1;/11;1," .. I Ii:!! '1i;::::ii.,3-..... 'II 'Ll _ 11:'\ " ~,

Aristotle wondered whether Earll] was unique, and his qU€'S-' tion is still vvllth us, We were just

''IIi skin a for oi'li 'no' th . ClI" six m 'one t" ''l.. ,1[1: !OL-O~ll&...l "[b ,lllv' I IIDL! "_ I I •• .IG . ~dJj .,',. .1. :_. 1110

to answer it IC are fiilly., O,ruy after gJ'lsat deliberation at ,N:ASA dj,d .. 'we' decide that it was in the 'best interest of science to. look really hard at those 400 stars that have interesting candidate planets. Por I'ny colleagues 'who 'iflil'n I· 1'1lf'li'P-' '9 ti en -iT I ~p. athize But

t.!I.d,J'D' ,,1llJ. _. 'u,. ,_I ,IU . I~ , , I~ J' ,~ ..... ~, . __ .I~ • ,",. ~-i lID _ .. :

Aristotles been wai Ung 2;4fJO yeal's,-I b et hes 'wiInng to "WRit another six months.

Winet does ~:ha1!' extlfa tilmeJ all~ow ylou '1:0 accomlpnsh? Kepler looks fot recurring

d u tar' b . ht

ecreases m a. star s ongrr ,-

ness, indJi(:ating that a planet is repeatedly p,alSsing: in front. of the, star and, blocking SOIne: of its ,]jgh,t The littlest planets ate v,ery difficult to confirm .. , Welte working our butts off. There are about 3.0 people at NASA Antes world'llg 18,..bour. days to get the photometry [star brightness measurements] right To 'find

an Earth, youo better have photometry that's unassailable at the one- hundredth of JIl pe,hlCe~[i t level No one has 'ever measured the brightness of stars to. that precision minute after minute for a year. And ones Kepler Identlfies candidate small planetsW'€ have to figure out a 'way to rule out bogus ones, That's hard,

,A:sid';e from Keple!r'!s, bl,g re,veall" 'what else do we hs:ve 10 look 'rorw,filrd tOI this yea r?'

One really exciting thing on the' horizon is a new camera caned.

the Gemini Planet, Imager, which will b bit,' h' d t, th G --- ,~- ~,

, ,- _" '., JI','" I ,'. '" "',' I, ,,' II ",,--

oe a acne 10, ie ermm

South telescope in iChil,e . Its supposed 'to be finished in mid-

Th ~ buildi

2011., ey',re ' •. uilding a super

adaptive optics camerawlth a

'" ' - - -., '. - --, oh that b 'I,· '11""."" st 1--'" oo,ponagrap '" Ill. all. .. , ,OC~ ,a SaltS,

li· zht ~ - '--dl -- t ' ~' ,,~,t -] -- t, ' g~ill m oroer to :nn~g\91'S pJLan,S' :

::rUght now' there are three stars that Im aware of for. which there

· d IT tg- [M' st

are' Image, p anets.ir, 0: - am'

studied mrnr'BCtly" which limits what 'we' canleam about them.] But .u-U1"ii';I!fj 'thin' - , g aC'i de ;t!J" 011 JOdi

, >. 'L. lL.Jl-u.D 'I. _ ',1',. '.:1 'W: :,_'-6 ~1t,16_~ ~ .: .

specifically to find planets, and

h ·t~ d f..k ~ ., t

w ' 'en 1.,~ 81 one, 'U,J,ley re gOJn,g '.JO

'fit'___: - dl thei -- ! - - dr -, 11 E--'- - -,

i '1'; 'I . . -', 'I ._ ... _ ;' - 'I .. _

,. 1. .1,. 113m, In " ·ov~~t ,1,e uro

peans are building a competitive instrument for the Very Large Telescope. They're bod) in the Southern, E Iemisphere, so they'll be seeing the' same go ddamn stars, If's a race, The first camera to be campi .Ieted and 0'0 on the

- II 0

telescope is going to find all the'

low-hanging fruit. lJ

35

BiiiolQgj sts have take n anothe r whack at the h urna n ego J showi ~g t ~lat (~ur bra'~lrl~S cere bra II cortex-the seat ,[)if hi,glhe r thought -li:s e.sJr.iill'y si m i ~alr' to a clump of lrH3UlrO ~IS inside the head

of t hie llowly marine Iral,gvvonm. The regworms br2iiln, whlilch ievo~ved some 6'00 m iill~ ion :yeelfs ago" is so .si m~i lair to the, cortex that human s and worms must share a CQ,m rnon an cestor,

Scis ntii sts knew that fm it f~ ies, cockroaches, and oth e r' si m pie

o rganisms halVe, sensory processors

t hait ressmbl e a cortex, burt these 'were "a I'ways interpreted as a stri ki ng example of' convergent ,evoiliution O'f un related: structu res," s.alys rno lie au 18 r ~ ·10' '1Io>g~'s'ili' lID ~J·lUl TO': me r W" h' '0' led t- I).,., e

UI " ',--: II-~'~IL f'r;,~l '1_, Ii!, 'c , '~'" _ J", ,~ ill "

study art the Euro p 9;2Ull Mo lecu la r 8ii,olo-gy L~ boratory ir~1 Giermalny.

To test that idea in the ragworrn, T DIm's r used a tisch n iq ue he h a dl dsvsloped to exarnliilne, the complex. brains of small creatures w,iith ulnpr'eoed anted clarity:: H 8! created a high-resolution map of the worm's brain ce~llls accord iin g to the, ge:nes they' express, not just the'ilJr' shape

,8 nd location, Whren Tome r com-

P''=I'[lJ"iOi~ ·tlL6.1 a, 'w, vorrn '0 ,,,....a~llle 'w:' ith th- ose

iUll~ !CO!JJI ,II 111'C.i .,!U', I .::1' 'Lo 'I;J III . .::) , . ~~! II , . 'U'.:::;, .. '

~ n a verteb rate ce reb ra I eo rtex, he found they we,re too si m~ liar to be of indep sndent origi n,

That ue~mJIII:t" publl ished in an artie Ie ~n the Septs!mlber issue of CeJ~,

ch~111 lengss the standard notion that the a bi I i~y' to th i nk evolllv,ed fro ml

com plex vertebrate be haviors Ii ke predation i' Tomer says. Thought rTIlOW a ppea rs to spri ng from someth i ng "air m are basic, ~Ie argues, Iii ke th e'

a biilll ~-ty "to di.s1H ngl~ ~ s h b atwsen food and n ontood "'~,a 'feat the ragworm accomplishes with aplomb,

MIC I-IAIEL A8lRAMS

~$i:z,e i8liiid q,u8ntiity: ..

Last June researc hers i iii South Korea, Japan, and' Singapore ,an1loulnc:ed a major :step i'n that di rec,tio:n~ 'They cRated s!fJeets of ,gra piha liIe 3,0'

'i nches 8t:toSS, (compared with pi:eces of just a few inches, previousJy) and used ~he'm. 'to build

;1 wO'lrking touch serean, for the first tii'me.,

Mat9ria~1 s scie'l!Iti:st Jong," Nyun Ah n an,d chemist Byul1lg Hae Hong: 0,' Sungkru nk,w,an:

U nivers", In SOlliith Korea report that their g,aphene :sheet-whith they grew' on copper fOil-is both a better ,t ranspamnt condudor

Bind lEi 1110 re '1IIex.i till e "tate miallhan indiu m 'Un oxide", cu fre,mly the leading eboice in applicafions, such as liquid crystal dis,pllay,s. To create the ·func.tiona~ tDuch st"lf'een, they' stacked '~he cI'fbon sheets ,and attached' them t,o a

Ih in plastic 'Ii I mi.,

HO'A,g says that larp .. scale m"l!'Iufacturin,g facilities slllolll~d help drive dowln the cost of production!, and touch screens based cUillraphene may be com .. melitiall, Iv,aila'b lie ~n as I title as two years" Other' pD"lentia~ appl i .. cations ii nr:lude belter 'f~\at .. pa'nell displays, and so~lar cells.

SiFEPHEN ORNES

4 Supermateriel Get~s Supersized

G rnphene-=ill super,stro,ng', 'tranlspar,ent, cOIll.1Ii u:c,tlve material1n8 d e up of a s i'ngJe lalyer of til Fllo'liI atoms;".,n abbed the 20'10' Nab el Prize 'for 'th e phy,s'j elsts 'wh 0 isolated it., A,nd ne 'wonde,r:

Th 9 material h as the potanli'al 'to n!voil!ltionize e I ec,tronii:cs if it ea iii be prloduced in s,ullicii ent

Keep yOlJr 'nn~e:r en the prullise of sc'ience as mt ha'pp ens, wli1th a:IJBealts" t h e~ I D,ISCOVEIR: news amm,ptJor ,2't IbI!DgsAliisoovermagaz'ilne~com/80beats~

DIICOV1ER MAGlAZillNE .COMI

pervacc·ne"Could Elilminate Flu

EV91ry flu season, vacci ne, makers must bet an wh ich stra i n ,()f ilnwi uenza A. wiiill,11 pose the greatest t ~:reart to the pu blii:c, and mi,111 ions ()f Almer'jeans must. decide

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gist Gary' Nabel at the N,ationallilinstitutes of lHIe!alllt h (NIIIH) anaou need progress toward 811LJniversaili flu vacei ~Ie;; two shots cri' it COtJI~ d prov ~de yea rs of pn:)te(rria:~1 from ,every known ilnfluenza' A, Viiirus.,

""'We u se ,8 pr i rn e-b 00 st st ra1tle,gy~ m e,~'r~,~ ng th art we, i mllm u n i,Z)9 w'ith two veh ioles th at. del iva r Ul e vacci ne i n ,dl~ffe-rent, w,ay.s, ~ Na bel says, I n t'~H:~i r experiImenta~ trealtlmSflit, he a nd hils eoUeagues iii~jected mice, ierrets;, and mar~keys wij'tJ~ vitr,t::J11 DNAJ G8 u sing ther rnuscls oel ls bJI produce: helmagg)llJtinij'n~, all prro,t,ei,n fJound on ~~M9 sunace of alii fllu viruses, The aniimsls' ilmlmune s:ys.temis then beig;a ~I rna kiiing antt~ bodiesth at Illatch onto the protein and d isabls the vrus, The reseerehers folIllowed the IDNA ilfIljlection with a tradii;tionall seasonel 'flu shot, whiich ,contai ns dead vi ruses, Th iis one-two punch protected the test s ubj sets aga,iinst ii nflaen za A, viruses that had emerged in 11B34 and 20107~1 and other experiments showed t hat the ;8 rrti bod ies iit gila neratsd su ecessfu I ~y neutra I izsd a wids v.alfi,ety cf f,~u strei ns, N,8bel~ colleagues at the N~H are ,al,ready testi ~g si mi la r app roaches " ~

Illn -I iU rna ns, AAROrN ROW E

IH!ema,glllllillilillii IpJl'olein "rolll 'flu-a IP'erf;ec:t 'tar,get for w-acltineiS ..

No fewer than ,~7 other companies=-financial institutions

and defense contractors among them=were also attacked but most remained mum, Google 'went public in part 'to counter the silence of its fellow victims, Goog],e' cofounder Sergey Brin said in Fe bruary that

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--'rno 'more companies were to CQI11.'e

forward with respect to. these sorts, of security incidents and. issue S'!

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Googles admission made other companies reali ze the S ophi stication o.f the attacks they might face, says Alan Paller, director of research at the' sms Institute, 'which trains computer se curity professionals,

Although de'it,srmining the' precise source ofa hack is ofte'o. impossible, fin,gel's pointed. at China as the '1ik,ely' ori~nj sparltin,g a volleiy of'polrtieal posturing from Beijing, Silicon 'Vallley~ and 'V\lashington~, D~C. In, its b]"o-g post f!9porHng the cyberattack, GOOgllS announced

.it would. stop censoring search results in China and. thre ate 11. 6 d. to pun out of the country anttrel.y., In the end; the I~)o:rnp any Ol'iilly added a link to its Chinese search pagle; ancH~v.in.g users, to view' uncensored results through its Hong Kongbased search engine~., KIM ZETTER

- N'LDGY J

1VlI,EN A ,MU,L'f]BILt.ION- DOLLAR corporation gets quietly and spectacularly hacked, the last thing you expect it 'h) do. is announce' the breach to the world" Ye''t that's exactly what IGoog[_.e did last january after dffi.sc'overing hackers had breezed past its security measures to burrow deep into its network,

111.8 well-coordinated attack, dubbed. Operation Aurora, b egarJJJ.

ith .

VVI_'.:, an instant message to. a Googls'

employee inChina that included a link to a malicious Web site, Wh.len the employee clicked on the link,

the nefarious code domliIoaded to a computer, enabling the attackers to control it and hop; to other machines in the company's 'U~.s. network

The intruders. accessed a sofuvare repository used 'by Google developers, siphoned intellectual pfoperty;, and. Vl'BWed, 'basile Gmail account information for at least bN'o human ,rights, activists 'who. focus on. China.

3~7

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Over the past decade, forest loss worldwide has siow'edrf accordng to a United N.atlions report re leased !1tJ1i October, F rorn, 20010 to ,201 O~ the earth lost ani ,a;v'9Irage ,of 13 mi i~ i()11 acres arnlui:'ilmy', down markedlly from 201~5 ,mi~lli'(HII acres a yaar i~n the preceding decade, De:I6restation rates have dSicelerat.ed primerily because governments have made 'forests a highe:r priority, the UUN. researchers say, lin

pa rti cu la r; 8 r.a"zii,1 a nd ~ nd onesi 61;'1 which lost the most forested land in the 1 g,BO.s,~, have new pol ioies iin. plaos to. sillow the dec ~ii'ne,. And a HiU mbe r ().·f cou ntriiies,-, such as Ch i na, ha vie esteoli shed Illarge-.sca:~e! tree pi a nt.~n8 IP rogrerns (Ch in a is a ctu ally g~li n~ ng forest), Bu1 'we:' re not out of the woods yet, No current reforestation pl an s look pa st 20,20, and some of th ern 'wi I ~ end earl ie r li'f ta rgets 81r:e reached

scone r. Forest ~ ass cou ld then esca late, th e IU miN. r'19polrt Vjllr,~ rns, VAL ER IE IR,Q-SS

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Cancer cells become de&j dly when they pro Iii felrate uncontrofa bl:y' and overwhelm their he'althy neighbors, Last .Iuly, biologists at UnIiVEH'sit,Y' Co!llllleJ5~e London and Florida State:

Unii versity coll:atborated to teasel out. a crucia I deta I of how' the process, unfolds. The researchers identif ed a ineW gene" dubbed ~'Mahjong~!' t!~~t: determines whether the cancerous ce~ Is :ga ~n the u ppa r hand,

The resea rehers began by nvestigati n,g a ge-n e csl ~ ed Lgi" w h ~dh normalll_y suppresses tumor growth. Mutant forms of 19I' all~ow cancer-ous i"".olll~ eo t- o 11"'0 If'iI rod uce un of'; ha eke ....!I'I To

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U 1l"I....!I erstand 'th"""I'II' process the IFlroli";....!I \"1ii .IJ :1 U1G ',~ Ie I~ [I, .: . ~ IL _:.,' . u,~ri~:~·" - . ~. ~uu IIU b

Stata grc;.up ,engi nsered a fruim, fly to prod UC:9 a mix of oell[l:sJ some Wlilth, normal LgI and some 'with the aUen3d' ver:s:i:an. B~~, 1 ~,'8 mutants actua Illy lost OtJIt to the normal c8:III's every time,

Evijdentlly~ mutant Lgi is dangerous ~ hen ii ". II .. • d f" on~y 'Wr i,en It re09!I:'V'8S some tJ\1 nc 0'

boost; a nd the British tea m iso!1 ated that boost; the Ma:hjong gene., This, genie rna kss a prots ~n it hart ilnitsraets w lit ~I .Lgl iP rotei n i n a way that is not yet understood, according to Yoi ~ chro Tamori, a postdcc et Florida Stat,s,. 'When the Florida researchers rali sed the co ncent ration of tlhe M alh jong p rote i n - the mutant CiS 1IIIIs began w,iinnling.

The scientists in London got the sa me result, iiln a siilmill!ar ex psniiment: usng rna mma!llian kidney 081[1:5, show~ ng that hea lthy a nd rn uta nt cs 1IIIIs compete directly ,against. 8:8Ch other ii'nl mammals. '~Esp,ectallilly in early stages, norm a I ()elill S CfUll k~i! I canoe U' eEl,111 S~:JJ Sa1ys Ib~DJlOgisit: YBlsuyulki F uj ita who lied the, Briit'ish team, Und 8'lrstanding the ~e~thai ,811[1 ienoe between Lgl and M,aihjof]g' genes cou:lld open the door to new' earlly -stage cancer the ra piss, ElM I L Y ELERT

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Marx' s team did SIV tests on monkeys from Bioko Island" which was cut off from the African continent 1,0,000 years ago. The Bioko SIV strains ,al.li shared ancestry 'With, strains from the. African mainland; indicating the virus lis, at ]S'31St that old and pro bab~]_y much older, "Even ts in the zoth century launched the 'virus from a benign monkey 'virus into a hum an, epid ernie" M- - o'Jl'iI1'""v'" says 111'1-:-;0, zrowins 111S·;.::'iI

I~ : ',Jl.! ~ 'li;i.ll_J.:lL· ~I . I. -,I ~~,A ~,IPlt_·.·: Ii • ~~,.. I . "'!f'r ,U J.:~ _ . ~

of blood. transfu sions and the rise of crowded cities may have helped pas s ,8W around and let it evolve intn HJV,.

Ifwe do not figure out. what tr]~ggered the UN l~p]_dEnn~,c", it will 'be' hard to prepare £01" what might come next,

""'~'[;!(:r~ , ..... ould be makina n 'ew-,' strain fI!':i. ''Il,-",'ri'I-'~_

'!If "tt;. ILiV, , , . c; .w, L,lI!f,~~ '_." '0' JL!C~ ,,0 'if'" .d,j,l

0- ut kn 0- win a how to- Qif,. ..... p' nlii" control

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them" Ma-rx says, MONICA H,R'G-E,R,

IDeeal·· Doze Teems W·th Life

HlV':lS, ,A ,N,E;WCOME,R, ,AMON'G HUMAJIJ' pathogens, having caused, the first known case's of AmDS within the past few dec ades, So scientists suspected that SlV; the primate virus that spawned Hr~ was just a :few hundred, ye,ars older, Tulane Universityvirologjst Preston Marx published research in, September that su_gge'Sts otherwise srv seem s to be at I east 3l\!OOO years old, meaning it coexisted 'with people neady- all that time before H IV em,€'lged,.

THE OCEAN' nOTTOM IS ON,E,.oF T,RE worlds most important yet ,enfugm,atic ecosystems, covered in a thick sludge rich wi th bacteria that consume and :recycl!e dead ,aillgae and animal feces, Somehow' those bacteria get the

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even though very little o:f it should 'be able 'to penetrate the muck,

Last February, Danish biologist Lars, Peter Nielsen stum bled on a possible explanation after his team at the: University of Aarhus noticed activi tyin beakers of sludge set up for an experiment that had, ended weeks earlier, 'Ihe researchers measured fall:ing oxygen levels at the surface of the sediment. coupled with a disappearante of hydr,ogen. sulfide {a, food. source to 'bacteria) a few' centimeters below; "The oxygen and, :hydrogen sulfide were apparently interacting 'very closely and :r,api(Uy:1' Nielsen says-« even though micrc bial chemical interaetiona should not 'be able to traverse such a distance,

N~elsen believes 'the, secretis a baeterial pulley system, of sorts: Q,X)rg'enpro eessing bacteria at the top connect to dig,es'tive microbes below vi,a long

protein threads that transport eleotrons, '~~ bacterium may not ns,]y oru.y

on its micro environment and nefugh·,

bori 'll 'f' hi IOC- .

onng ce"Si ,,- e s,[tysi. - - It may enga:ge

in a network with other' bacteria living far ,8lway to. share resources" ]3 a. ZHANG

'S ~V'" nle "elllOiw ,circ~!es; ~seeA in

tJhiis bon'e .ilill'rDW 1c::uJ~lllIlnJ, hi 'Ih I Ipr'I!CJ1!Irsor to H IIV,.,

healthy volun teers, 7 to go years. old, 'using functional :MB,Ij, a technique that iden tifies active neural circuits based, on blood fio,w and blood, cL~yg'en.lev-' els, 'Ihe scientists, then used powerful compu tera to crunch the iIl1agin~g data, s6:e'kiling out common patterns of neural activity !at different ages~

The 'Washi.lllgto:n Universi ty tearn 'was able to home llo 'On. 2.00 patterns of neural activity th . at chang:e' as a brain matures, "Iust as pediatricians chart height and 'weight to track developmental milestones, 'we can, use patterns of neural ,activity to see' where individuals fall within the typieal, r~ge of variahility :fo'f' 'their ,age:" Schlaggar says,. Beatriz Luna, a d,evelop:m,enuu neuroscientist at the University of Pittsburgh, was staggered by the news. '~1\s, recently 'as a yeiar ago,-, peop:~:e thought this would be impossible" she' says. 'We assumed there woullid be too much individual

. tl to t .....;~II_, b ,;, ill ti ,! varia .:,'Ion ,-I. trace -ran1 rna .. rra "- on.

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brain could improve our understandiug of autism, sehizopbrenia, and other disturbances ass ociated 'wllith abnermal brain development .: "lhis promisas, to make functional MR.I much more relevant as a diagnostic tool" Schlaggar says. KAT',H,LEEN MeAU,tIFF,E,

IN JUST. SIX, MIN UTl&S~ ,jlN MFn 9,CANner can reveal whether a clnld's brain, is. developing normally That. newfound capabilitywas announced, in September by a team at WashIDgton, 'Uni~le:rsi:gr in St Louis, Led 'by neurologist Brad:liey Schla,ggar, the ,groupi studied 23,8

40

22 aiir ··NA Documents Forgotten Migr'a.:·o

Encas:sd i n ~ ce for ,4,000 yealr:s" 81 ell urnp O'T: preh istoric hu man hai r gavle U Pi its :S;9C rets to the Un iv'eW"s~ty of Copenh agen 's Es.k.'e Wii'lliliersl ev i' the' f rst ressa rcher to sequence an ;ancien[, human genome. The haiir" dug up ii n 1986 'lin Qeqe'rt8!SLJlSSlJlk - G reenland revealed that its I()wner 'was. 91 m al!s wiith brown e~l'es., th iok brow n hali r; dry 9:a rwax, a ndl shovel-shaped ~n cisors, 'He W'CJS ,81~H'J' P ro ne to ea rly be Id ness, accordi ng to, al~ a na~'ysi s p ubl,iishedl ~n ,Nature ll!a~st Februa ry.

"H a i r is th ,9 best rna teri a I for genom ics, D W ~lll~ e rsll Ef\t. says, ~ t conta lns lass DNA than other sou rcss, b ~It iirt Ii s not porous or easi ~y contsminated His sequer~cin,g yuelded about 80, percent of the genome. IMost significa ~Itly, ana,l~.sis of the: ha~,r !r,evealed tl~ at. its Q',wner 'W8IS dosely related to mhe Chukchi people, 'who lii~ve at. the eastern tip of S:~beria today, :s;uggest,-, ~ng his ancestors trave:IJedi to the New World ~ndependent of the, ml~,~ratiklns that gave r~Sle to N1a.tive ,Americ~n and Inuit peoples. ~~TI~ is was a pre:vuously II II n"k'lf'I n,w Il'lI m '1'1 Olr;::.i! 'Il"",,n '~I 'W' 'l'II'-lbrs·Ia.'!Iji C"~'US' liJI'IIIIU'.11111 I b~ C-i[!J.,IUlllj .' I y -- IQ-V ~!::iI,J'-'

"lt shows the ffi,rue lpnw' IEiIi" F'lif ~ nom ~if'!;C

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to decode h~s1ory. fj' Hiiis ~:ea,ml iiis now look il~g at the ha ir' of anc~ ant mu rnmies ,~n the! ,A me rica s, J 1 u N E'I M.A:RK

Space Ship Sails on a Brleelze of

SUln ight

2

INa m ed for t:he myth ilealll y,oulh

w 1110 die d :after flyiing too (;:Ilose to the sUln JI the Japanese spacec I",aft I karos is pOis'ed to Ibr,eathe n,ew'

II iff,s into space, explora,th)in .. Ilkaros ls 'th e first ~successfllli solar sai~" using thel IP hysical pressure, 01 su.nllighl, to ,propel a h IlIge, 'th'jin

fill m the way that w~ IiId pushes ,8 conive'll1tion al sa il all: sea

The' c'liah 'w,as lalllili1ched !iin M'a~1' an dI ~spreald i~:self fju~~, op en the lollowin,g month. "The sol!a'F s8'iil

was, shin ing :iin the' darlk 0'" space, ~ says proje,ct: h,ade Ii IOsamu M 0 rii 0'" JAXAJI ,J apan's 'spacl' 8,ge:lilc,', "~!t: was, v·ery bea'utifut"

.solar saiUng ls a decades-old ideal that" llIintil now, nab ody hadl been a'bls, 10 hamess, Ja pan's success ts rreinvigoralti'ng' the field!] T lIIe p~ anll,tary S Dc,ilety', w'lldc,h IhJst II sail in a 2:005laulnch accli'de:nt, is build iil1lg a n.ew on.e 5ch eduled 'f,or' launc III ilA 201'11" Sc ientisi;s all: NA,SA sind the ,EllIJropean Space Agen,cy

8'If,e re,vis.iting their desii:glils as well"

The idea Is entlc:ing !because $,olar aai Ils canl l1Iavig,at'e th rough space with out any' fuel, Ina king ,them idea II f'olr l,engU.,' InJun d. .. trip miSS:ions, says Billl Ny'e, d i rector

of the' Plan eta rr ,Society. Someday II Ihuge spa ce~based IllSEUi could elVen pus III a ~sail to anotlhe'F star s,ys,tem" ~y o:u cou.ld driv,e a,11 o've'li 'th e un iiv8'rse with the mClm:snlulml of p liIot'D;ns," Ny'e s ays~

AN DRE.W 'MOSEMIAN

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'Thie IOee'pw',ate:r Horl zon; 1m ount,2!iii-ntop,-lie mova II co8111 m iin'ii,ng'; gllob\8111 'wtali'ming ,alndi glla,ci a~ me Ilt~ng 'from the bu rn i ng 1011;' fossl I fue~s. Yeu mli\ghi1! eXlp:ect the ,main, Ii n Ic:h:a~g~ of' U n~ted St;Slte,s, ener ... 'D'V sec "lur~tU' '""A Il...e alum ,ab'OIlIII" "I)...'e 'f-utIl1Ir'e' but dle'~ln'I'lte hls ';n·t· ens e' '.

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eeneerns rega:lidhlB C,2illMb on e'm:i'ssi,cn's" Steve!n Chu 'i~s opl'imlis;tic that selenee Imaly' yet bail us out T'lle, frilist physIcist 'tOI 'talke' the IPo5t, a nd 'the, first Nobeilia urealte (folf wor:k, using lasers to c!ooll and trap 8,tomsl, 'Clhu has, $3'9' bIllion in ReiCltlv!ery' .A1ct dollalis, 'to, d:o~e lout Sind! ain u t"ilpfleced,ented oppo(rt:Ulniity' 10 fost:er bilg idealS. ~In ",I),.,e Il!'!iIealf term he ·s.a-y·~' ~';Im' 'pll'e me,aSllli\lO;~' 11~llk' 'e' - en'erov ·e'-#.'I',.."'le· nt 1II;-111l.,11-1, 11,;:u·.l, n~F:--a~:~-, '..:tll;- -1'.-' - -- c,.; I ~~ ,-:-' !.-;~i;"-'-~II~: -_ :

I)... om as 81n d W' h "11"e p,a,"1 Fi te,..]1 reefs eou Id' rna ke am" aii'A. de- nt ~I n ni'-"',II~! .... '::I{!II .-1 'Il.,'''_:gl ,II-II-IU YUr,r;~ ~u:1 - .. ~ se 'g 11- ':'I~UII ...., -Ill., I-II

our carbon budget, For the futlllfle" 1:001<, to IfacUeail1 solutions Iliiik,e' glucose-based f'uell,s" smart storage or t'iiny mass-produced nu c Ilealir IPolw'leIi' Ifill II a nts, His sunol est Ipredietiolnl:: ,0 ulr ,eiconomiY !cou~d be largelrY'lcalliboni',litButral by 2060,,,

The 'Gulli' CID8St ,oii ~ splilll was,

l)...'o"lrr;"I·:' -~. !r'l nO' UIA,W' - 'C'-' l~U lid an ,;i!!!ii;t'iljlli"!" ~I-

~ 1]- .. ,1 Illl,- IJ 11'0. .Flu.. . ." .·U.· ".' I ;11 !!I;IILit.v.

dent of 'this, :mag~'itJl:l,die, oc,cur?' Oil reserves open to :n.ou:-OPEC countries and! companies are' in incre'81siugliy remote places, offsho re or in Alaska, When something goes vvTong; there is very little instrumen tation to tell you about the things we used to see OJ touch; :]ike 'which valves are closed or open or what the pressure is in different sections of the platfo,rm" 'You dOI1:~ t und,ers;tand, tbe C ond:ition of the

app aratus or the, well and 'yOlLl can' t send people dOWIl there Weve had to go to exotic things

li"~'...... ",. fl-

.~ gannn,a-ray:]m~gmgto 'I, gure'

,-' 't'TI,: .. t· ateofthevah -. ou u18 So at e 0. tne varves

Wh-'o,Ii"'\9"" should ~IIU'iI!!!ii, foeu s n,-·IU.lf

~'II·.··' o;;t., .... ~ . '¥!I''IiiiiO' ,-'.1. U'.

long-term e,ner;gy' ~nivest'ment? Oil is a finite resource and youve r1 - t t - t if.!! , .",," ;IL 1-" - ki· cr' of' ~,- to CJO 00 S. art '1U]~],n .' Db- W,dyS .. i

off-load the need. It 'won't happen overnight, First, w'e!U make

h ffici ,

mucl: more: Binergy'-,81,. cient

vehicles, and thats gotng to save a lot of mo,ney and will make us more competitive by' e]km~in.ating about $ ibillion a d,ay in. imports. Second, we are :m.oving toward electrifieatinn of personal vehicles for traveling 3000. miles or ,h~S8., Third- we w,ant alternatives

_ _ _ _ _ ~l _ _ _ _ -_ _ _ _ _-_ _ _ __

for liq uid transportation fuel s: glucose, agricultural 'waste products, lumber waste' products,

Ar,e w1e elso retu rll11iing: to! IrUJIC~e,ar pow,elr'?'

I think there will 'be a renaissanee in nuclear powe'f; although whether its going to occur in t11[1e

U - "*, - dl S-_I·'iT'ii·t -,['i l"ii'~('i . ill- t' - ~- c d£!it - - m,u~ •. ,'~ "80' ,JLC~' yelL. I 0 11lJ~'·. d_ B'f-

'~"'li 1·ll-,od' _A,~o".;:o<;.'i 'ili'l,g W' o i!"1 d' _ar-nl!'~n,;J ,lLl,_ ",P' IIl~~,lL.I_O~1 ,~ ,.Vdi ,_,~,VUIJ LI ..

111' ~,i!:" been b roken for 'rr./1iiill 'gl.,.lU ·s·,n ClJrOi .. ~~" .', '4! .... ~ .. lLJ~ .. !Il. ,~,U'IlA.~ r: lIll'J .,U

or more nuclear :power plants,

Chi -I = l~, - b . .n,'11 .. ,-, .. ' crr"' '1- ·d c. . ' .... ;r.::

_ runa .n.~I!.S, irozen e;,,,,o'UD._, ror ~~

of'th ,Qm" - '1 A 1£!j, Q"ilV3, buildinz 0- 'i'~llr- fi irst

. " ,!Co" ~ '1ft:: aJ. 'C. . ,lLlLllUliHb . _1I,.l!! . • ,,D.

two new' nuclear reactors since

tl: - I - t th ·Vi·", gtl El

" ,", :1 .i ··.'.· .,:.' ,····· . .'Ii .... I. '. " . t . ·.·.··1····' I "j • 'j_

1.19 ear y .1IL97 OS a_ 1 ., e i O~ e ee

tric Generaf .. ng Plant [in eastern

G - -- -"] - d th - t' - t - t E'orgna ~ ,an.·.· , I' . ac:s a,3 Jlr .'

0:0 smalill nLII:c:~ealr reactors Ihalve a blrigjhtelfl future' lhelre;? We think this is a b],,g oPPOI1unity In the' pastit was felt 'that you. get. an, economy of scale

by building a v€':ry big nuclear r€'actor because of p ermitting and other issues, But big reactors ha ve some eli 8 advantages i Number one Is the sheer cost; ;$'7 billton to $8 billion. A lot of companies arent willing to, make the whole investment, Second, depending on. where ,th.€! large

P - wer p'] ants are ~. ted th e di I· stri

0',' "',, 'I " ",. ~I . '. " . n

, .• ' " '" I I'" J . ",', ,_ '. ~ iIi..- __ ,_'_ j!' , . '" :--.:, I .-

bution infrastructure and cooling capacity rna'1 not. accommodate them. SIO inste ad of achieving econnm.y of scale 'by making' 'big nuclear reactors, you achieve ~t by quasi-mass-pro ducing smaller ones., The' com offhe :reacto:r !can be manufactured :in, ,a\ factory-like'

sitnati()ilt ,a'nd then "ueanspotted.

P 01 'W E, L IL intact by raj] o.r ship to different

11),.·.,·,

IJ 'y

CORlE'y

S i,

42

parts of the country orwcrld, You are substituting economy of scal.e by size ¥lith economy of scale by number,

turning 011. v,ery efficient [new] coal plants=but these plants use st andard pulverized coal. ·W.h~t Futureflen asks is; "Can you take an ,ID.dst]ng coal plant and. retrofit it t.o capture not only carb on.

di - ·(1' b ,t, -4-1 - - P -D' ta - t ?,~J·lA:r., OD B'),U otner 0' utarr 6, vve

think 4!-·rt.,..:i '-, - ".' b ,-, - 1- - - ", ,,-- - :'i ' , -

KLl!.t U us ,may , 8' a BSS expens:~¥8

f' t rfi~'· '" ti" 11"", ,""",.f-0'1J

'w:ay '" re _ ro umg exis ng p.Jliu ~.w:,.,

,of' 'Ul,e sun than we'v,e man,a,g,ad so 'farll'

The' sun has b sen storing fossil fuels for hundreds of millions, of yeaTs· and w,e'r'8 using them up

in hundreds ofyeaJs,., so that's a p.ro blem, Think back to the :l11EdJi8oos; when the 'United States was the leader in the whaling industry. '/ihaJ,e oil was, a very clean oil, and 'when. burned, it gav,e at. vs·:ry 'bright" white light, It 'was high1y- treasured, 80 what did. they do? 'Ihey depleted

the local whale sand. had to go farther and farther out so pr-etty soon ourwhahng ships were going all. eround th e globe, And occasionally you got some an!gry whales, Moby-Dick was actually fashioned. after a true story of

a s.pel'm whale attacking boats and sinking them. But r.lea][y~ you. had an unsustainable industry gomg 'into deeper waters, going into more danger, untf tIl,€;

l5'U tire thing 'was depleted,

TI .... ~111i!!' W' AU lid be .0 ,L,'e""te'r' IU'S' e'

I'll ..;; , ,', u" " • '1Iii;;o;' g IU ,1i,1 : , •• ,' ;- I: ~, ,

M"es l'iilwh'iiie'., au ec.onomy is, stiillil bassdon fossii~ fuels,,, W iIIll cerben 'seques,tralt'i:o(n ,b eeome mlClre' imlp. 'o(rlalnt?

1- -

It's athis-century issue. May1be

by the ne-xt eenturywe will have mastered tile ability to capture more' of the ene'.rgy· hi tti:ng the earth and :nO]]g-·tenn. massive distribution and storage" Over the next couple of decades, some see coal use dou'bling in the' developing world, with the United States exporting ~t to India and China. We have to' develop the teehnologies that vrilB clean up this coat

Piutitii n,g ,all11lhiis togeither J could 'w'e be imos~lly' eerbon-free lin 't.he IUlfllit,sd :S1!'ates, by' 20!5!O'?! illfs, ambitious but it's possible the cleanest form of nuclear pow,et' is the sun. 111.'e amount of ene'rgy hitting Earth is morethan IO'~'OOO times what we need, If-we achieve even i percent 'Bffi.cisney at low co st and. we can store the ene~rgy~ w,e)U have enough for nine and a halfbillion peo:p],e without polluting the wo:rld.

The laws of phys,]cs. say it's possible, 'We' don't have to invent: something 'better than the sun, illf S, the sun that give's us solar, hydro- the wind, and the waves,

Thls iI:";nlllnd'l~ 1~11"'a FutulreG" "'en'

I I ~'.~V,I '.;'~ IIM.~ -, .. -,1,1 "

,t;he pu'b!lb:-jp:rivanbe effort to ere .. at:e the 'w:arld's, filfSi' cC9Iiii'fue~ed zer,o-e!m'jis'sions: IPower' p~ant. ,As China tUTUS off its very inefficient old coal plants, it's

The anal~ogy to our' current problem's 'is, p:re!tt:y' clear" Except the st akes ate a heck

of a lot bigger nO\1V~, You can listen to the string quartet on the Titanic and enjoy th e last glass off champagne, or you can. fix this problem, 'Ih .. eres an old expression from V\fill.n-

ston Churchill that "America Invariably do e s the right thing

.... ~ C' ,C..,.r.l... 'a sti -: (1' ,all oth ,0' "-O,['i aner 'toc1i.J:"L UOI In,~_, otner p"O!-

sib lliti i:tI,Cj~' l~~o do n' ,'t' h if.i!"ii,rA tim = ,0,

Ol.~. I, .. ..- .V..:J.'il ~·V'b·", I . " I, . " i~ ~!U; . ,tiL . ]~

for that .r.iI,.Y'it'ytn n 0, -~\O_ 1-'i:fl..if.rjtl'. ,i'll ~o

.1'u r ,,,U.lu.. aU"lIi. , . r !U .\1' 'Il ,].lu iiJblIl 'IG

you going to say 'if) your kids

d dkid ? ~~I~'

an gran' Jld.us., Tm so:r.rY'~ you.

1Ni1l be POQ rer and have less opportnni ty than I did. You will :live in a world that i 8 far more polluted. than the 'world I W1QS born into" Cornie on, There's

no zero-sum ,game here, It's just like the green revolution

or the Industrial Revolution: In developed countries, these ,ga,ve ev,eryone better hves, 'Iheres

no law of physics that says! the whole society can't benefit. D

43

011 02.2(H 1

,

.

O'W'

r I

_. -- . _'

M II,. __ al I-,e

D'" f .' d ,eeale···.

......... nltimat :er

ThH B~g Bang theory has a Big Problem", The Illelsd] ng models of cosmolog~l iimp ~y t ham: ti~ e u n~'ve~rse shou ~d have! b a,gun with equa~ qU81ntitii es oIf: m atter ,6 no ,antilmatte!f., Bu,]: wihe~ the two meet, they ,annih ilate 9a,c.h o~lher~1 so ,ran equal balance would have y iiel de,d[ an ,9 m pty cosmos. ~ n M ay~ physici sts at the Tsvatron part i1CI'9 a ()()8 1'6 F81to r iii n II ~ iii no i s si~ ngll ad QI~ t. a st ra ngsl pa rticl e th at cou ld he I p explain the conundrum.

g .. ">+ I ~dY·lln,.o FfI i!:I;"=! ('11\1 S· ·Iak.,j, 'U:C!iar!f"'~ 'W" on" Ik.

"!1,I~ ·····'!I lib, III :loeM I, "" ~fn J. ea s , ·c,~ il

of high-spes d s marsh ups between protons ,and aJnt'iiprotOtns~ Gue,nnad~ B ori ssov of l.a nCB ster lln i1\{e rsity in the U..IK. i3llndl ot her mernbers of the Tevatron tea rn focuse d on the

B m e· son ':!I C'I~ If'; II"t' 1"IIU\a,..,i,I' F\~ 1I".,j!.'~,p;lllo that I Ie'::;, ~ b ~I~~'U'III,- 'YQU t"'''''''''~ '~,~~'''::;;;' .. g,

eme rges from t he ,00 UishJns., Dur'i1ng its brief Ilife~ this particle: rapii.dll~ osc'l~ates b ebNe en, mstter and antiimlEltiter: 'One moment its a B meson, the next it's an anti-B meson, This constant: wavleril~g shaull d create just as mlany ,~ultii-8 mesons as IB meso ~S, but the phlysicists d IisQQve~red a clear bias for the matter variei~y~50.5 percent m etter to 49.5, percent ant~matter.,

Fa llow-up sxp erirnents pllianrne:d for tbis yea r et both the 'TevalJron and the Large IHadronl DeU der willi test ~he' teerns f nd i ngs, Ilf they ,8 re velrliif~edl" theorists w'~11 have an importa.nt c~ue about where, the s,ymmletry laws pre,dllilcte~d1 by th e· s ta nd ard m odsl of physics break. down. They will a lso have t hie basis 'for ;8 new theory expil ai ~,ir~g the p ro-matts r bias ~n the n~ll,es that jt~ mp-startedi our universe 13",7 bi II ion ye:a rs ago., "Tbis w'ill ~ .glive a very strong push toward f ndi ng a n answer to 0 rille ot th e most fu ndamsntal questions in physics,"

ANDRE.W GRAIN1'

44

PIIL.eIWIN ,

27gg

Recall Rattles Food Supply

,MOllE THAN' 500 MILLION' ,eggs were- pulled off store shelves last summer due to possible contamination with salmonella. It was the largest food recall of the past decade, according to th e Food and Drug Administration,

State authori tie s in Minnesota started report:]ng human outbreaks of sal mon ella disease to the

C en ters for Disease Con trol and Prevention {CDC) in May; By October more than 1~8oo people 'we're reported :]11 'with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea in 29 outbreaks across n states, The

CD C B stimates that. in total; the bacterium poi soned

at Ieast 54,000 people; the 'worst outbreak of salmonella since the agency began surveillance on the bug. in the late 19708. 'No deaths 'WErre reported.

Salmonella E! n teritidis, one ofthe major strains to cause :food poisoning, is u sua] ly associ ated with eggs. Accordingly; the

'e D"A" b D sa n 1· n ve sti 'gat]" n g1

r r ;, ubi ., G ~. <. ,I " ,

the' nations ,egg supply in August, Eventually a.g:encyinspectors found contaminated feed at Wright County Egg, a prod ucer in Iowa, At Iowa's Hillandale Farms, which u sed th e same feed supply, samples of the water u sed to wash who le eggs also contained the bug. FDA, inspectors discovered eightfoot-tall piles of manure and evidence of rodents and Hies at WI'ight County and, standing p ool s of water at Hillandale, The two PI'OdUCBrs

ini Hated vo I un tary recall s as 800n as, PDA investigations of their farms, began".

New egg production regulation s to minimize salmonella risk-through better cle anliness, refrig-

e ration, and testing -\vent in to effect on J uly 9. FDA commi saio ner Margaret

I Iamburg says. that if the new rules had commenced sooner, they probably

'would have 'prevented the outbreak, In September the agency began at IS-nn)oth program to inspect all farms. sub] ect to th e new rules, But D'3;Vid, Acheson, former FDA associate commissio ner for foods, worries that the new rules :may merely redi strih ute risk" D'IU~ to Iimi ted. re sourc .. , es, he says.~ the agency-Is new focus maY' actually leave other parts of the fo ad. s u pply more vulnerable, "Whatis not going to be inspected as

il'lI)I"'k k

a cons,eq uence ~. ne as . 8.

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learn How to

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16 M1eteor Showers, Cornets

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www~ I . I ,I. I, , I ' , .. _.· .•...... ~I,'··.·.!!!lcIDlm_.· ,I.··_IS!C

Th,le olld In),), Im'DODI, s:tJe ,ai n~': wihat she, used to be[j, Ima,ges '~I\I(ml the! III nar fr.itKO:AnaiS$lnce, Orb:i~,er (LROl' spamcrslfI', IN~_ed inl O,ctlober~, tllow a panem O'f cli'" st.ilrps ;In aCIF"OSS the Il'unlar 'surfa,te (as, sihoWlIii !Ilnl the map ,abo~e, wjith wihite dots indica~ing 11I18wl, di:scov8'l\ed sea rprS andllblac k dots D1arkhl1g~ pre .. v~ousll,y kn,Dwnl O(l1lIS)~ Lunar ,1,eo'l;01,lst5 ,reckon that '11lIe sell'" win createdl as Ih,e .D£lnl's core! fl'lsl hest :lld cO(ntr,l,ct!d.II~, I'houldl be noted: thal th,e .Ion has fUli shrunk: lilt' very muell, j'ust: a few hlllndl\ed feet ilillmdilllis over the last: billtOllI1 ,.us., BILR Ihat,'s; nm, n~~rfllllin,&1 eilher" wh,en ,OU consider that:"vltiIIUowinl: tor

2','

,

e

.

;amiil'y

VVHEN ,PALEO BIOLO GIST' 'I,W V\fHl1IrE, OF the 'University of CaB ftn,nia~, Berke-

le~ and colleagues described a new human ancestor named Artlipithecus

- - - 'd. -. _. ~~A _.,;iII!~lj .f.-'] eha n - - - -.41

rt1J11.,t._ us-o.r i"llW -;~le'yc ,J4UJL,e;ngeLJ,

many evolutionary assumptions, This 4.4 - million-year-old fossil. female

was, bipedal but lived in woodlands, debunking tll€; '\N'i,dely accepted hypothesis that we e:voThved upright wallting on the: psy savanna. Other

46

the d~stmti)on il~ lpe~peclirve-the! moon W,IS, IIIIer lre,d~" tlUli!. b.g 'to be,i'n with.!

Ihlilil a..aillil, the I.oonl iis, not ,iil.st ,oilld and wl:i'nlkll d~""it is ,all:50 ,sJhockjiidgjl, ~iilthlll lRO"s Ipat"tne r spa,cecriiaH'JI ILCROSS, 'f,o/und ,about: 51 percent 'waler-ice in th"',lllr' - _ii~ "'h-'I' r'. - ." . II" -.- it..,_.~ ,~. _.!' , 'r Ili~ ,iii. 1.:1. dli .,:, '. iil\ "1 _ . I_

~ _ e, ,lnaL ,SOh ~ _ _ e, SU_ ;~ ace a_so D_u Dun'~iS ~ n m~ Ie _ a I!S~ ~nt U,Jlg .811 ~,e Ii" me f\-

C· I'ilm' ,~,md· ~[u'--m- - ca '11If'i'1'!U- ""m- ~ '!l!Ii-n~ ,.4 m - a-Dnfte~IlI-1iIii' &-11'0-''-111-'' 'W- i;iah 11 ,.n I oidii I iIl:ii, 'D'!i!Ii~in~' 11-]'III",ft m- -m~lI,o.a- -n- ni, II

_ ~ ,I;" ~1I;,iII _ _ " I!!;P: iii;;{ ,,!!i"I JI;iI, ,_. e'" ,,~i~11 _ 11111,,' . - _' I ,15 _ ~II"'\I!I 1IiI1~1I ~ bf~~~~ II\~ II ~I~JU ~ ~ "

fornfdde/_Jde~ ,and Ih,dlrl)g~nl 'suilfidlell Thart said~, it: would 'Ia~e a taiir1, 1I1III\dl healil mot: to feel ,at Ilea51: iii ,twihlge! ofl :sad'nsss" I~nged wi~jh Inease:~ at: 'the! thlDllIlht: that tbel moonl,] eol~a,psili1l,I' in, 1001 itsen:, will n:eivelli be qlJlile' I,ull again!IIIU~,UN;OI IMA,DD tn::

features hinted that the last common ancestor of'humans and chimpanzees 'was a quadruped and not ,8\ knuckle'w,Wking ape; as, was :1ong' thought,

Then carne the backlash, In 1.:010 UDof'rIl'..-.ll,..,i9m' .' I' st 1lIT1l1- ure C' .91'"1.']" n g-' oifl-" the OI¥V~IJ,.ly ,.~, ill],,~. ~ .'~ v" , '': . ",", . ] .. lli;i

University of Utah and seven other gBologJ.swl and anthmpologists looked at the same evidence and, concluded that J\rdfs predominant hahitat 'had, 'been, the savanna after all, (In rebuttal, White emphasized that Ardi actually lived. in woodland." even if savanna was neaibJL) Terry' Harrison, a paleo-

th I "'~ t N ''\1: k U'·'" 'int

antnropo 0W~IU.,a.' ..... ew ror .... , ruversitj;

questioned fun Nature whether Ardi was even a member of '1118 human lin€N~lge or just an ap,e "among

the tangled branches" of a much larger bush, And University of Toronto palsoanthropolegist Dawd 'lBegun also had doubts" '~~m, may be an ear:!y side branch of hominids that is not directly related to humans'' he says.,

Scientists, are just starting to get a first look at the numerous CAT scans and casts of Ardi. and come up with their own ideas rega.ntitag what she tells us about our human identity. '~~1his

fossil will be' debated fOT a. very long tim . .e; VVhite says" "Ihats how good

,A!,tllpilhecus ,ramilltJs skull lIlestl:li'ationl~

',- .. _, ' .. _ " ". ' .. - , ... .' _'11.~\ ... '~,

science wor~,

JlLL NEIMARK.

EARIN elll!ilCE ,

Ocean Plant L ·fe Feels Ihe Heat

Ballmy ocean 'w,artems are pu~tiiing the sques'ze on P~I:ytoplank~ ton, tiny plants. that colectiva Ily fix as much C~ rbon d~o,xide as ~ U~ terrsstria I graena.nJ.' ..... om '[6. ~11i9i ed Th e" ~III'" decli FI a cou Id til.-. reat

011111 ,-[0 II "'6,- - [C:.!! ,-. [c;".,' 6'.i 'Lou IUUIIIIICO.·. ,. .' III- ··.'IGII II illY vU" '. -11111' c;'tJ _-'

en ocean ecosystems and cont d!OLJlte to global w,alrmiiingi•

IDarnii'e~, JBolyce of Da1lhausie University in Hal ~fax~ Nova 800- iii,a, and h is coi~'ealgues estimate that the g~oba II ph:ytop~alnkt.on stock has p~u mrnetsd 40 percent since '1'9S0 .. II~ey reported itth s fiinding ~ n Jull~' after ,an.~II,yzing SO~pJlus y,ealrs of da~a on light penetration of the ocea n su rface and: plan k.tD~1 ebunda n ce ~n 'water ssmplss. The die-off' !ils due to a ()ombinat~o:n -of rising sea :surtao8 tempelrat~ res and decreased OOBfHlIl ciroullatio!1 between i:he higher and iow,slr [ilayers, Boyce s8iyS.. IMost. phytop~arnkton dw'eil wi~,hi rr1 :25, meters of the su rface, The 'warmlsr this ~[~Y'e r is, the more diffi'{Jull t it. ls 'for nutrierrts from the, cdlld de pth s to m ix iin., ,As. nutrients dw in dll,e~ so' do the [phiyt,a p ~anlkt;(lrt

A, continued d:ecli ne WIO'HI~d reverberate up the food cha in a nd reduce atmospheric 'C02 absorption, p otentia ~II y aocelerat "I'lli"iIg FOil "I m at e cha Ifit 0'18 ," II th ",'In ~.~ that the r: iT-'!; n 811"Ca ntslobel ili;Of bill ~'Ii-, c ::I01_-:_ iglll'll,~:_", ~ It.' !I' '1\ .r or~, .r ".~'. ,'"'IfIll.,) 1i'"""6111~6~ ~ - bllVo,-

decrease that t ~Ie'y' report is provocati vs but not Y9't ful Iy de rno nstratsd," says IM~'chaie II Be h renfa lid " an oceanographer at 10 regon Starts Un live rsity who studies IP ~!:yt.op! anlkton., ,A na lys is of satsll ite! data a ndl histor ~G~ I records, cou ld 'Ie ri1f_y

the! numbers.

JlER ElMlf JlA:CQ UOf

IIlmes ,

PI Dp~le with autism a lie regula Il'm, lumped! toge~the'r an dI t realt:,ed as a sl ngle group~ But: the 'wor~ d 's ~!argest ge netic sdudy 01 the' condition "sh OWl 'thai 8Uit'iisrn i:s many ,different. diseases," ,sars Stan Ie,' Nel .. son, ,I :professar' of genertics, and psyc:hlatry at: IUCLA

w Ilia colla'boJi'aled on tjliie

i nv!estii,g,ationl .. "That insight sheuld ".an:r IsnligJdEl'n how 'we, think about 811l1ti'sm

andl atts,m'pt to tlli1eat: 'iit,"

The :stlJldy, eandactad by a global con,soll1iun1 O'f 120 scientists, compared the I~nes of mOIi, t!han 1,000 :autistic ,children 'wi~h those of 1,3100 "ioungsters una'f'ec,ted ~, the ,d iisoll'der,!. As,

tlhe resean::hers; r_ported last Ju1,Y:,1 the mutatIons ,as'Sociaiedi with autism 'fall all over the map. "If~ 100 dif-Iereililt kids 'wifih ,autism walked j'lnto a clinic;,,!" Netson says, "chances, a Fe they'd have~ 1'00 diHs'renl genetic, abel!'lliatiions~"

IMost of those aberra .. t~OI1S occur in g~ nes thai affect, thl' dev'el.opl1l1ent: and 'functioning of' '~he' brain~

So far ,I about: 10 P elicen1

of ·aultisml casas Iharv'S been associated! with genetic mutation, ,3 'ig;ure Nelson predicts wii II rise as Iclen .. t~st$ study more, genome'S in gl1eartelr de,lait

The latest fInd i'n_gs '''move lUIS closer to ide'nt'irfyin,g un .. derlring biochemicall parth .. ways ii nvolved ihl 8lJ1ti!sRl and ,set us u,p to develop bl,tter treatments," says Bryan KhlBt di~ector of the Autism Cenmr all Seal,tle' IClilii IdnltO'S Hospitat !i'We ,already' have

d"d - d -h-

,some lean ~"_ate '_rUlgs '_-_at

m~gjht potentially cOlrect plrioblems iin 1hes1! path-,

ways !,:" MATHILIEE N M:CAUUFF1[

al]]UWS the: cells to absorb other chemicals=such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin I-thjat most likely put those cells into a sleep state'.

This finding implies that sleep "is 'not a whole brain phenom-

~ , _1

enon, . lKfu,e'g,er s ~ys~ It 0 ccurs O'luy

in neural circuits that have been most active during the day and so have released the most AT,P., TransIation: Soma parts of the brain can remain re,llJat]v,ely alert even after 'we frum asleep, '~1bd,SI is an 19rtren1,B'ill.y important findin,g: says Mark Mahowald, a sleep expert at the University of Minnesota who

• ]1 di .lI!-l.... '1!..

'was. not IUVO, vee , m the researcn.

1~~1h' t'· tl t ,..,..'1 t fth

_, I :-,8 :no __ liO'D ' 121 o.(uy par 0.,' _ )18'

brain sleeps fi ts v,ery well w].th, our understanding of sle1epw,allking, when individuals have thei reyes op'e,n_ and e,asi~y navigate around

,0 bji ects yet h.8\VI9 no conseieus awareness of doing this" A clearer picture of AT',P ~s role in the pro Bess could point the 'waY' to new drugs for tr-e,31ting insomnia ,and, otller sleep d:~,sotdet·s.

i:AT'.HLEEN McAULIFP,E

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in o'::JL sm ·I,,:".'n biolo all,n.:"",·1 m uracle-ethe " "_' ~ .,;ill, , ~.I!.l '0"" ",,(lJ., '"' ,~"", ~ IW, , .,

transition from wakefulness to sleep, Last September res earchers at Washington. State, University made a notable advance in understanding the chemical trigger that allows that shift to happen

The key to sleep turns 'Out

'00 be one ofthe body's most important molecules: ATP~ the comp ound that stores ene:rgy for use in metabolism, Neurobiologist James Krueger and his colleagues discove-red that Ilep eated :firing of neurons in. the brain while 'we are aw,ake causes them to release .ATP mto ' the 's,·p-t:i,j'I;Oi[l1 ·b0-li-:r:,."'QODI th - Ci. r» ,~11C'

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bonds to :neigh.boring D,eurons 8l11,d ,glial t( 8U PP ort)1 ceH.s,:: this

47

011 02.2(H 1

ever before attempted, For this, a gi.ant Schramm 1111.11.1(3 tig' made in Pennsylvania drove an innovative pneumatic hammer-driven drill bit (mads by Pennsylvania dr.illing technology finn Center 'R' ock Inc.] which chipped away at the rock like

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mers

THE. CBLEBRA'fElID RESCUE iN OC'fOB·ER OF 33 miners 'trapped a half mile 'below the Chilean desert was not just a compelling human drama but a historic feat of applied medicine, psychology, and engineering.

Sim.p:hy digging davin to find. where the men were trapped was a Ij'-da,y cha1~.'eng,e; anymiscalculation oouJd have sent the' drill drastillcally' off

'-'O-l'1'iIt'C'~ ·(I·t·1t;\r-::IIC' I~~~~·~,. ....... t· ruin a to- , .... ho tot a fl v from 7- no 1l,;;_"~~IIi;'. •.. , I .~.~.~~ .~ __ j' .....! . ..."e. __ . ::)!I.l_ 1- ',_.1 J' llv ". 'q .... ,

meters awftjl;' Chilean topographer Macarena V~des told. the' eBC.) That hole, along with DNl) others b iOcaIMI~' li fsli n ~,c th r-nU'lg' h W··':,.,.·I· ch W' at er Cn od

"'" . ~.,.. _ """: . L.d!l;;.. It;;.. ~ I;.i! . 'II;;.! . ' .. ' .• .. ].1_ .. 'QI.\ ~,.!. lLl,,J'V' j;

medicine, and clothing·-:]_nc~.u.wng socks lined with bacb;nia-fi_ght]u.g copper oxide fiber=-were sent, plus :3\ fiber-optic cable [()if communication,

B:rirIDging. up "toe 33:tj from the depths ofths copper and gold mine required breadth and depth of drilling more ambitious than in anyrnining rescue

a giant jackhammer, M.8'anwhiill!8 ,2; team Of.N:ASA. doctors, ps,ychologLs:ts, and engineers consulte d vvitth the Chileans, applying: lessons, learned from. preparing and InOOla~g astronauts, in space

for ru.ong durations, Finally; a rescue capsule= designed by the Chilean navy 'with advice from NASA. eng]n.EHE~Is,- brought the miners out.

Targeted medications and. activities helped keep the men fit, but th.ey also ex·ceI[led..in. their OVi11 psychology experiment, "In circumstance s lite this, BOIne, people withdraw while others blossom," says Michael Duncan, deputy chief medical officer from. johnson Space' Center, who assisted at the mine site, The' miners established a leader, a group structure, and. a daily routine,

!~·O· - £!i - _. ~ - lr,U"Q,e; d - jf!I". gn- 011 +- ...... ..J a . - - - d· C ...... ]I ..... ffi .... C£!I .

I·n!.:;' miner was I, e,~I.. . ',dIe~LR . me L 'cU o II. " er;

another was the spll'ri.tual.leade·t:, while another was in charge of sanitation. These men had. a

weat will to. s;urvivet .MAC MAR.'G·OL is

·rr·· I ~'O' f.""1,\ 'E!~' Ul ~I .• v~it.~.n

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Get your FREE officia book today

A~ask~;~J =. lt's hot. lfnspolled, unobstructed, unlike anythingl you've ever experienced before" A place where ynlJ'~I~I~ 'fi nd more 'willd~~;'fe than people, mom mountcdns than buildings and more g laci~er:s th,an st:opilliiig hts, Fi n d 0 ut how easY' it Is to p~lan a visit, For a FRE E Offic~ial ,Sta.te Va!ca1:ion Plann~r~ s~imlP[lly mai~111 the r,ep·ly card or vi~sit us online at Trav'eIIAII!a.sk.'a~comldlis

3

CllENeE ,

THE 1.0 MAGNITU.D,E ,Et\R,T,HIQU.AK:E that flattened Hai tts capital, city' last january may sign;w a new era of seismic aetivity in the Caribbean. According to geolog],sts~ the quake activated a fault system that bad lain. virtually dormant for at least I.50 years,.

A.lo~g 'with reliaf workers; geologists from the United State sand Haiti raced to the quakes epicenter, using (iPS devices to determine exactly' how the land. had moved, Their field surveys reveal that Hispaniola, jamaica, and other islands in, the Caribbean sit atop a network of interloeking faults far more complex than ge~o10,gists, had. earlier understood, according to a serie s of papers publi 311 ed last October, Until then, scientists had assumed the Haiti earthquake mvolved a simple

shift along the Enriquillo- Plantain Garden fault zone, a well-defined, 30o-mITe boundary between tlJJ.'2 North American and Caribbean plates,

TI),E! SU.rV'8-y8 SU.gg'8St instead that the Haiti quak .. i.!i' m gy,,: have I--'U- I-IP--'I-

" v . ,lUI. . - , ",' !UlJ!DIl..'. ,IC;~ ,,' q,_",. ,,', Q'~ ~ ,. _. J"

tared primarily along a previously unmapped fault Either 'way~ the

(lata show that the January tremor did not release all the stres s that has accumulated in the fault system over hundreds, of ye'a;rs" "That's the most troubling: part-ethe region is primed for another q uaLke';' says Pam Mann, a geologist at the University of'Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysic s,

Haiti's quake has also demonstrated that strike-eli p faults, which create

mo ~t',]y:.' 1,' ,0"' rizontal motion P,- CQDj set

, L.lL. O. _ '. . . -e ,l J.,lIJ.11l.-w. .. !IL.l, ,'4) '" _. .:J ~J (;1, . ~ Ii;- ..

off landslides and. giant ts unamis (usually as sociated with faults

that move in a vertical, thrusting mntion )., The lesson is that citie s like Los Angeles that lie on strike-slip faults could face 'big waves aJte':r even a moderate earthquake,

~~Anyvvhere you have a lot of people Hving .at sea level and. a fault (:ap able of tr,]"gg:etring, a landslide under the ocean, you. have all the ccmponents for a disaster,' Mann says,

LlNDA MABSA,

Dlgital eJ1lBvathl(1i1 ,mlode\~ shows IQOn10lrs of,thei p'li;ilmlar, f~luJlt ~s",stems; neat PII·Ii'., ;at1,-Prince, Hai'lt

,GfiSefrl alii II braWll!1 ,w'p resent: high er :andi ~'owlr eJna~ tionis, res.peeiti,elr~ ,He,dl nnes 'tralce lure,.. ,d:liminanl: 'laull,_

50'"

! f.: .. 1

3 CIA Doctors Diid Forbidden Reseach

DOC-T-ORS EMPLOYED Bi'f THE CIA-

......... ,"' 'I . . 'T' "I' ,. I I'"

_ .'.. ,I "','. I, 1:-: . .... =: ._" ,I. . _ ... I,". • -:-_ II fl, . ';-,',

participated run. research and experimentation 011 prisoners at d'etwn,-, ment centers such as Guantanarno B,aYj, Abu Ghraib, and B,agram air base that included wattmboard-

ing, stress posltioning, and sleep deprivation, according to. a JlU"bS report from Physicians for Human Rig%1ts\. The group· says doctors vioIated ethical and l,eg~. protections" :inc]uding "the :Nw',eJn:berg Code

and the Common Rule f,egulating federal research on human subjects.

ScottAllen, lead medical author and a physician, at Brown Universi~ studied redactedpapers docu-

mentin . - -. 'g' 'U" 'S·~· int ...... lli a~"InC:-' \Q,""O- t'i; 1~ ection

... . 1 ..... .11 • .11 _ . _"_ ......• ' •• . I~_. .!E:i~~ .L_ '!;:i_ II;;.!'J..II.~)!J;,.ll!.lv .'

p1rograms :involving prisoners after the gIll attacks .. In one waterboarding excerpt, doctors were told to record "how long each application lasted, how much. water was applied ' .. ' .ifthe naSQ - or oropharynx was filled, and how' the subject looked between each treatment" Beyond ·v.11oJlating the doctor is. oath

'~~...lI! I ,,~ th tl d

to. -u'o no aarmr t ie me 1,0' .was

tlawed~ says bio ethicist Paul Root WoXpe: of En lory Unive,rsity. .. You

can't look at a person and tell how'

l '" tho '1 • ". h

:mUC[1. pam t :~ .ey re m, r e says,-

In 'October the 'United States, ap,o'logjze-d for its, reckless medica], experimentation= nat for the recent e.[A activities but for infect:ing: Guatemalans with syphjUs in the 19408, to test. the effectiveness ofpenieillin in a precursor 'to. the

in fam ous Tus .!;11'!" ..... rne~' exnerim ents

. !C1~.~ 'v. _- 0 . ~~,tJ~l~ ~ !L:i.'~r~!Ii. I. ~ _~m

'~!illfs frustrating that evidence docu-

:m,snting human experimentation 'to da\'y is, bu ttonholed, while something: from the past is condemned"

Allen says, J\lfY BAllTH

IUTHI SCIENCE

38 St_khole Eats GI atemela City

A HUN--URED .FEET DEEP .Jll\W :N.E1\RLY 7'0 FEET' ·\t\rild,e! "the giant sinkhole pictured above' devoured a clothing factory in Guatemala City suddenly on Mar 3.0., Sinkholes ·tjlpllically ·wann. when ground.-

'water washes away soluble bedrock like limestone, However, D aniel Doctor of the U.S., 'Geological Survey says this gap':hlg pit probably formed due to fault)r underground. infrastructure, such as l'eaky' sewer lines that eroded surrounding sediment over the course ofmanyyears, A. fbot of rain dumped by tropical storm. Agatha was prob,ably the' final straw; While- Doctor says. sinkholes this. deep are extremely uncommon, "human activities cause miner ones to form almost any:.. where theres a Iarge 'ciqt AND'REW .MOSElvlAN'

'GY , 9 Microbes Are Key to a Happy Gut

Inside your' ga,t is a complEuc: leer system: flEta.rial that are crucial 'to 'the digestive! processj) along

"'-h 1:.. ....... "" ...I" ".

WII:t . ~ _liUl--1lnrvaliJ I ng Vii ruses

wihos.e role is largely unlklnDwn~

A genetic: analysis conducted by mi~crobi'olo,~-st Js"'~, Gordon at IU.... h'" .mfft U - -ifoLr .•. St- III....... '11i:II$ ~ 1n&,IIIi..:..n . I!Ilverslll;" In .•. '. wUI5

offers ons' ,of the fi rst compre~

hensive ,desoriptions. of this in ner world, More '~han 80 percent

of the viral IJne sequ~nlces, he' foundl_re new to' ~stienc·e.

G;o,n;lon's :IIl"OUIP took. fecal

sa m p'I'es, 'fm'm, four sets of idenl'iical twins ,and a liIal.yzed their' m'i'c1ro:bes. The mIx. of viral gen,es he 'ifol!l!nd was, unique to each Individual .. Each onel; ;g'llIt Vii ro:me was also, velr.y sta hie: SamlP:les taken a year apal'li1 sh ared '951 percent of the same virral .genlS, IGOrdO'1 reported iin Natule .last ,JiUly~ Tbe stabil irty' of 'the ,glllt po'pl!Ill ali on: ;and !,lIe s.peciifi e v'iral gene .. s th at I,urlliied u p t~ere ~5Ugge'St 'that tihe relationsh iip

between 'fhe bacteria and 'tbe viruses is, l1utualistic. 'Ihe salm-' pies included many viral ,genes that, wheio i'lIIcorpora·tea hllio a bac.terium., calli 8'id metabo1'ism.

'The gut microbial commul1ij·ty

~ ff ~i" II" ~th'

IS e ,eelLlllve (f alii organ W~ ~ In

ail 0 r.gal~~" Gordon says. The mix of microbes i'ns i'de you aff'ec.ts, how YOI!I metabolize food and pr,obabJy has substanth:al I m1pa et on your 1iteaIdI~ In the future, doctor.s may' pay more attention to tending lhe microbes 'within USII "Consider .. ins 'oorseives as it corn:posite of sped's will be ani iinpo\rtant ste.p"1

for' better heaHh taN, Gordon

says KAliIHLE1EN MCGOWAN

51

0102.20"11

4~ S,eans nlock Hidde Life i Vegetaive I· rains

A- '''if j;, "" n 't:'iL'iii'E'1,:riFciD !!1i'i 0' ''DE '1""1' A- VEGliii.ILF.U.'\;I .DC, .w. ''it e.' :ill..t:_ ll' . ,l:~ 'co' -=_-'_

etative state managed to answer doctors' questicns=using only his thoughts, The startling experiment, described. in February in the New England Journal ofMedlci1~ej. suggests a new way to measure conscious-

ne ss in brain-injured patients,

FoUolA:rilng a traffic accident, th e patient had not spoken or made any other intelligible responses .~O[' :ftIve years before being included a study conducted 'by Adrian, Owen and his team at the l1tNedicoo, Research Council

. . INIRGY ,

42 X Priz~ ~hows the Easy ---,-"t' h 1110".-' a 1'_-'- OIO,'·'M- p-"-·G-'·.-',·" C"- •• -ar

._ . I, '_' '. _ . ,", _,' I ',_', _.'''

Bt~lild ing a car that gets more than 1: 001 miles per gallhJn does not n~qu~ re 'wi ld !t119W technoiogy;, judglir~g from the Ir,ssuilits ,c,f the Pro,gress'lIve lnsurancs At~rto:motive, .x IP r II ZIEl " The .$5 mli nion top prizs-awa rdsd iiln Sep1te rnber to the hiig)h'est..!mi~eage fo ~rpassenger cer that could 'tap 1010 mps while passing a series of s,a~ety ,8 nd other tests-went. to the d esclr'iipth/ely na me d 'Vs-ry Light Car, an au tomo billS powered by a convention a~ !Intenliail combu stion e ngi tJ1iEt

'Thai: is not 'what tea rn Ileader Ol~v,er Kuttrter expected when he formed Edison2 to buiiild the winning vehiele. As the corn-

1F'I,e11 n'ld~C" 11I'II'"1i m" e· suszests Ii.' ~ ~t- t- nar av If'iIa ...... te ....!I' +....,. [r~ly r.n eleotr ic 'I*Y

~~ II ill}' ~ II IlL.:! . •. .....:} ~:Ii;O.;;) :.;" nul - ~ 'r;;;.A ~O'!.;.l. .. Ll! !LG _ ~ ..•...... "",. U ~AI i,!l;; IL.

(sn.d ii:ndeedl" two ,e~'ectric two-seaters, t he Wave ~II from l.i-iol~ Motors a nd th e E~Ttr~oelr' 7'009, made Ib~l X~TraDeir, took .$2.5 m i~ Ih)r11 leach in the' other two .X Prize ca~egor~les). But KLHttne-r~s team crunched some nlljlmbers and decided that they 'were

,54

ICogn:ition and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge, Eng]. and , The' team

t ck d tl ti it b '" ~.; 'n]'

ra -'i:'~e~_ . .' ne pa ient S aram ac.bvl~:j

us.:rn-ng functional magnetic resonance i"m}8l,ging: 1( (MltI) whiUe pOsin,g' sim ple questions, such as whether he had

a brother, Tie was asked to imagine 'walking around. his house to indi cat e yes~ and to think about p].a~ng tenDE.S. to signal no .. In ahealthy brain; these resp onses are s,as), to ten apart on a scan: Tennis activates motorrelated brain areas, while HLavig,at~ng activate's, spatial re'g1on,s,. Using this simple code, the patient answered five 'Of six questions cor.n~et]~,

Martin Monti, a neuroscien fist and lead author of the study; was "blown ,away~! by the data, ,~~ We' now'

know this patient has much more cognitive function. than w,t! everimagined, ' he says., Monti looks

'ton - rd th - dai wh - - t1'fL.iT''D'iII' C - -

. \,.iV\;rm',' . ,I. e !lUI!. y wn en It:¥.u:.lI.:"\.~. •. an

imprnve diagnosis in disorders of cons ciousness and. search fot signs that p alien ts are actually cogni.z,an t and. alert, In some cases, imaging migh t also 'be used tc communic ate,

b t 1l.1Ii1 ti th · ..... 1.. thi ],...

'U lV.!ll'on.J trunks ms m,ay ne rare,

IOnJ,y 5, of 54 patients whom he' has studied. have belen able to do the visualization task at all,

.KAT. MC'OOWA'N'

27

better off avoid iing heavy batteries and buHdi ng the Illightest" most GELro ... dvnam 'l'llf" F'~III'" t-Jl...er'd F;O----U~~, So thev ,....;I·ld- end 1"'111j"'i1W·,,_·W'- ·I<ii1011.1..

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Wave! III I:,! by l,i-i:,on 'MDtors;, won

I'be S2..i!5 Im'iillion ",alrrtern,ativ,I' :sii:d:e.'''bJ.-.;s:ilde;~

:X Pri,ze aWI.rd.

the Envi rOnlmental Protection Agency beiiin~: pressed to set an a Ulitomobi11le fuel-economy sta ndard of 60 mpg by 201,2:5- Kuttner ~ ntends to create a consumer version.

Iff.W·o have oiioo'- plli"Q' 'lie 'It- ,~. e- ..... ,1,e, OIY'ii IrEloal~ roads n he C'''~;::''~J.<'' "and

.. 'W . a~1c;; .~._' .: ~' i.'Y -.~ .~!d h;:;: ·.Y ~ Icog'll . ell . .i;>, G .bl-d,,, .;j., Clil. III, ..

boild ~1 at 81 oOO.8t 'Deople can a;ctuailly ,aHDrd.-" IHe has no doubt: that both can be done:: nWe/re! going: to! buld the Voll:kswagen B eeft:le for the ,21 st csntu ry:.l~1 M M'JHIAE L LE.MON I CK

There is sometbi ng new under the SUItJ1- or rather inside t h,e sun. Usualilly o u r star fol lows, a prediic.talblle pattern beC~Jmiing more and less active (als measu f6:d1 by fla r'8S, su nspots, and magnetic sto r m's) on an 1'~'-ye18lr' cyc~e., But "the most recent ~ulll dragged on 'for 1213; years., "rou have to go back: 919 y,sa rs to find anoth er m i nii rnu m as. long liJ says 1M ausurn i D'i k-, pati, a phy~i,ci.st at the N,at~onal Oenter for Atmos pheric Rese,a rch in Sou ld e r; 'Co!l!orado., Last August she annou need an explanafion

Dikpati used computer simu ~Ed~ons to mod e ~ the g,alrgJantiu:aln rivers '(')iT plasma that flow across the, sun's surface, l.i~e Eallwth's. OC8!an cu If re nts, so la r p lasrn aJ

nr.lt"[m·· . eilllll,\/ rises at 'to h" e s· . qu ato 11"' ~ nd ,eoi n"II, .... C"

VI Q .J; '~"'~ u· . I .•.. _. ' .. _, _.. (iI]!J.,. .. _ 11 I~ .... 'ou t\~

eI~' h'·I~lg".h81i'" 103,*'I""'ud" ,lJie IDllllli[II"'"lli"fIg the recent

'1;11 ~, I . ~ 1r;:;:;;,11 I;oIIl. IL", ';;;;,,,;;1<,,, '.' 'W, II II II"C" ~. I'i:;ii II ' ...... ,. II II,.·

solar Imiiin~'miUlm~ [hrJwever~ IP!I!asml@1 f1[owed al~ the, 'W,~Y' to the, poles; IDikpat~~s s'iimlL~llati oris show that t hess un uSI~lallly long currents affect the magnetic 'fir8:~d1s near

4

I. I

lin I uman

EvolullEOn

the surface, whichl ind irectly d eterrni rlJS the nllJimber of sunspots and the strength of soil er fla res. These f~[~ dli ngs may hel p ast ronorners p~Hdict, solar storms, W1~ ich ca n disrupt rad io end s atell its com rnun ic at ion s on IEelrth" a nd understand the undsrlying rnechanism behind the sun~! 1111'~y.~a r heartbeat. T~M IFOlGE,R

A 27~OOO .. mli e .. wi'die patch of· SUIIii shows a filill'I1St of: p~lasmll jilts; ao,d' 1II00IPSii

,A ,FRAGMENT. o:r ,A, PiFNlK]]F.

ft', n"g' 'i"JI'iI1'" .Q,"\i'"{'"1'~"Iiil'G1]'''=~1 fr O"~'Y1I1 g deep • ,,11.'_ :!i;i,lIJ, ~,A.V~¥ QI~U. '_ .1_ .. ,~,.l,J!, ~~ '._" _J~~ • .",

cavernin southern Siberia

may point to a, new' species of ancient human, The 40,~OOO-' year-old bone: yi.e~.ded DNA marke1dly ,diffe~rent from that of modern humans or Neanderthals, challlle~:ngilln,g the current 'v]'6W of how our ancestors migrated out ofAfrica ..

Johannes. Krause and Svante P,aabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology' in Leipzrng, Germany; zeroed in, on. mitochondrial DNA (w:1Ii,(:']] is passed! down intact from a woman, to bel" children) preserved in the ancient bone. In january they identified it

as be]onging to an unknown female hominid whom they

PI.![oNTIIIGGI'

, h·l" •

re -'I,storle

MobY"'ick

Foot-long f,oss,ili!ed teeth t'ound

in 'the Chillea n desert .... oncs: an ocean-have 110 ng 'tantalized palleontol,ogists" w,ho wondered what ki nd of beast, ha dlle'I" 'them beh!i nd ~ lin July, 01 lvier La mbe rt of 'tll'l! N ation:11 M liSEn. m of Natlllira I Hii'!;to r, in Parr ls an noun ced thai his team m;a:, have so!llved 'the puzzle., Workilng in Perlll" tlhey Ulne3 rt:,hed s'iR1ilar I,eet:h illol1g with t~he gii:ant sikulll Bind jaw of

a f'earsome, 12'-'mlilno,Ii1-,year;-old sper'ml whale"

'Named ,livya,tan ,melville; in

he nor' of ,MQ'by-Dic/ts autha'lf, t1he wbale W,(lS rougld,' t liIe 'sii'ZI of ,I mode'rn adult ma'le sperm 'whale. But ~ iving sp erm wlla les have sma~ II tee'lh lind trpic~ally d" Inot Ulse them 'to cap1l:ulre prey" P,aleon, .. t1ologists, SUiS p ect '~hat L me/rillei' fed l10re Ii ~9 a,111 erea, savagely' rilP ping an,d tea ring its 'vic,ti ms.

,Ancient bale en 'wh ales fOlu nd iln th e same a lieil "would ha,ve b 98111 perfecl prey f'Or soc III aiD an ima'll, '" says La m,llert" who has retu !fned ,to PerU! in search 'o,f' th 9 1'19st: of li~atan's s,k'e~eton. JENNIFElR II!AROUE

"..-..1~ ..-. . ...:1111 '~!X"l~:r '~H

mcsnamea .. , ¥v'Om.an." er

mitochondrial DNA, differed from present -day human D.NA, at nearly· 400 positions, 'bvji(:e'the: dlifferenoe measured between human and. Neanderthal DNA;, The glanetic patterns indicate that X 'Womanj Neanderthals, and modern humans shared

a common genetic ance-stor

oi!I 1Ll--n·! rt <3 ~,.."...:;:n~ nIl' ,yo 't':i.~ "1"..:11 ~Iao

aJU!L;.!! 1;.iI., . (.I). U1ll.Lll1!L~' ". ~'DLJ.,,;;;i! ''''b I,.

Paabo suggests that X Woman :m,ay belong to a grou.p of , archaic humans who rnigtatedl out of Africa at a dliffe:rent time from Neanderthals or modern humans, If so, her group survived an astoundingly long time ,aillongside the others-cperhaps for hundreds of thousands of

ye ars, It is, also po ssible that

she was descended from the hybrid spawn of , an ancient tryst between her ancestors and Neanderthals,

Krause and Paabo are' now' sequencingthe nuclear [I,on' 0- m e" from i t· 11' .0, Sib erian

o~ -"." JL U, ,', II ,!co .' .. 'Q.:JI.,!IJ,' "

finger fragment. If the nuclear DN It confirms their initial findrungs; it vriJlli mark the first time that a\J1 entirely 'new group of ance stral humans was identifled by sequencing :nNA ,frOID a mere bone fragmen t, exponentially' 'Wids'ning the poten tial to understand our human ancestors, '~'~N][o1:'le and more, we will 8618 a lot of gen,<f3t~'c information coming from fossil remains ]:0 which very little' morphological information exists" Paabo

says,

J~t,L MEl M.AltK

55

0102.20'11

ualDUIGY ,

47

Th e history of life on eairt,1lJ may need ,8 signlifit811t' r,ewrite'" In J'lJI ~y an internationa II team re,Po rted fonil11evidenoe of multi',cellu lar'

III rg~nilisms datilhg back 2,,1 billl ion yea rs, PlieviourSll',', seie'lfIlists had be liieved tha,t th e first of 'these complex, c:re,atlJl res, d:i:d IiIOt appear u'ntil almost a bUllion years later, and th at's i ngJe- ee lied Im,icr'ob es

were the, only Ufe .. farlm Ibefore then,

,A'Her rec::overin,g miD Ire than

250 'fossi Es, f'rcun cla,y depos ilts in w,es'mrn ,A,frica, Stefan IBengtson o~ the Swedish Museum o,f: Natural H iis.tory a nd his collaboratolr.s eX31mined some· of nie relics with a powerfu'll t'hree- dimen'Siolna,1 seenne:li~ 'This foss,j lized creatures, so,ma o:f the'm as Ie I'Ile a's five Ii nc hes;

across, .'ppeered to 'have an orp .. nii:zed i nte'lfnal sl'ruc,tuf,e compos'ed of a nel,wa rk of cells:w, su,ggesting ICD m pIOiXit.y' far b~JOnd 'the s'imple bacte'lria!1 structures Benliso;h 'expected 'to find ..

"Th ls is the' filrst 'fossilll we can hold ii n OUir hands ,and say" 'Ma,yb e com,plex life started Ihere,' " he Inoles.

AMiY' ,B.AR.TfI

Early Dawn for Eal th's Comp.lex Li,,'e

'. . . r-' _. -

56'

! 1.:.1

The

I.

ICIlenCe 01- -

,C··ivalry

I[N S.o.ME DlSA;STl&RS IT,:jS EVERY' ,M.J.\N' for himself In others it's women

and. children first \N11at determine s whether panic or order prevails? Time, says Benne Torg)er~ an economist at Queensland 'University of Technology ill, Australia, who studied century-old nautical disasters for clues,

The Titanic sank in 1'912,~ the Lusitania three years later, The passengers were remarkably similar in age, g,end.er~ and. percentage of survivors, Torgler ~J~ys,. But when he analyzed. W:RI0 survive d, the differences jumped offthe page, 'Wom'en on the Titanic were 50 percent more! likely to escape th e disaster than, men, and children had a 15 percent better chance than adults, On the Lusitania, ,though,; .p eople be~e,en 116 and 3S had the best odds, "Survival of the fittest was much stron ge':r on. the Lusitani~'~! says Torgler, who

published his findings in March.

The crucial difference 'was time, The Lusitania sank in ][8 min utes, but

• ,. 11 .... tl T'" ') d

It to Q-,K i. },e'l: ttanic 'UVO . lours an 40

min utes to succumb to, the sea" leaving time for social norms to triumph over self shns SS~

:N(PiJv' Tor:gler is on the hunt for modern. catastrophes he can} compare in. "the same 'way to further unlock the science of chivalrj; "How ~,ong do as

it take for thi S po,ro -,S 0 cia} behavior 'to

'?'~! h k "Th t'~ ti

emerge '. C e as ". s, : ~',a l s a que's. .ion

'!C'n - - - - - - - - . - - - J!];l!\i ,it ~·'ii'Dn'!JG!W MO;[l"iE'1M ;iI. ~" •

.II.!iU'f neuroscaenc~:. .i.u~ .' '~ r .. ··;61::. AJ.\l'

.... mll::tIE ,

D,.,le., who ceutions it could have been much worse, Earlly signs of H1N'1

i ndlic8t,edi s.iimi laritiies to the 1'91,S, 'fillu that kililed 6'0 milllii'o,rJ1 people worldw~de". [But H'1 N'1 ch 1:1 n,ged as. it spread a ndl

by the ti m)9 it. reached J apa n ~t was

mi ld, k~ III ing mlosmlll~l the ,iimlmu nocernpromi sed elderly, says H i rosh~i N ishit~.r~!(, an ep,idelm~o~ogjst at th,s Japan Science and 'I echndlogyAgen;c;y.

A recent study o1i' data ~n the'

U n 'I't' a..,,!ll St at' e' c' me" e eou red "I! he' ·1 rn pact , . 'j,.;;;.;u ':<,'0 <,~ 1,'ioJ.:;:.~, ~",: , '-:i4~I~

of' H1 r0,J1 on '~lealrs. of ~ii fie lost, By that measure, H'1,N1 seems more! similar to the 1'9'6'B pa ndernic, wh ic h k.illilled 11 m:iilll~i on people glob1ally, than to the outbreak in 1'9'1.8. S imonsen notes" however, that th e H'1~ N1 battl e, mlay not be over ~ poi ntiing out t hat "the

I a!st fiva pands mli C:S in hi story h ave: ,~II

Wh'ySw·_e Flu .; izzled

Last .la nua ry J as new IH1 N 1 f~ u ii nfe ctions 'were, tr~~i~~'ng off in the Northern Hemisphere, ,a ccusafions began to fl:y that the WOJ ld H'eall th Orga n~ zafon's deda ration of a pandem ie, i'n the s,p-rliing of ,2'OIO~9 he dI served rna i ~II Y' to ~ i ne~ the pockets .a~ pharrn aeeutica I corn pan iies m'alk.in,g vaccines andl the drug Tamil-

fl u By Ju ne, a re port iilr~ the British .,"IA.a.."J;ro~1 J' riil 'r" 'FII/~/' conch "Ide': d that ~L\..,'e··'

nf~il;;;;UiIl;,.<Gl. ,'\l,.-!'IU',,~ '~~" ..!i.;! v IJ;,.lI .... :_'. .' '1;;.11 'll I[ ~ .~

W'HIO had! exaggerated the threat,

"T'~ 'j '2"0/20" h'" d "'~k.' ." ij:'

nat s a :",-,.:~ ··illn 8!I',5)11 ~t pOint 011

'I;/IIS' W' , t' hat's ~ IIne".,..r;8··p··"eil1b'··lle· ,~~ C'-eii\'flC' Lone

'II!' [_ .r 01 ,~ 'UI . C!/iJ,j. ' )fgl_, ~ ':)OJ~- ':_'

Simonsen, ;13 'fllu expert at George W',~;sh~ ngton U nivers.iity' i n W',~-shiingt,on~

,I. h

15-::' .....

. '.... [

..

- . --

IN lI&VO.LU'r,FON~, S,OM,E 'ID,EA.S ABE SO coon 'THAT 'TH.EY come up again and again, Last ye'at paleontologists in Britain and the United States, learned that during the Cretaceous era hug,e fish drifted through the 0 ceans 'with mouths ag,ape~, ingesting plankton through specialized filters, thus filling the EH::JQll.ogru,(~,al niche that h umpbacks and other 'baleen whale s I(U)CUPY today

Previously, scien tists had found only a few fa ssils of filter-feeding fish jl which lived about 145 million ye ars ,a,go and. th en see']n:ling],y'went extinct. Large plankton eaters did not appear again until about 60 million years .ago~ when susp ension- feeding sharks emerged.

That h,ug,t ~p stumped researchers until last years, discovery by University of Oxford paleontologist Matt Friedman, 'who identified. a ]5'-':[00t -long fossil fish I' ,previouslyexcavated from a slab of J10& in Kansas, as a filter feeder, Bonneriduhys, as he' called it dated to around 7'S million years ago, ru.ong after such animals 'were th ougbt to have vanished. Friedman subsequently reexamined dusty museum archives and found neglected fossils showing th at similar gape-'mouth,ed~ pla nkton -eating fish, had thrived all OVl3:f the 'world for mora than. ]00 million year&. That abundance indicates the ct'BatW1J'S "were far more than, just a blip on tile' evuillu,tlonary radar" Friedman says.

~iOLnle'Y 'were' a hidden dynasty" WELL HU,NT

57

011 02.2(H 1

Decip ~fering a n unknown language is a challll,enge ,even for veteran ~i ~\guiii5tS. But in Ju Iy ~ MI~ T computer scientist Regjiln8 Barz:il~ay proved that a computer can do Ul9 job we 1111 and wirth ,a st.oni:shing speed, She an d her cOllllllelagues devslo pied a program that deciphered II!alrge' chunks of Ugaritic, ,a n enci ant M ~ddll,e, Ea ste rn ~an.guag.e~ iin just a 'fe:w hours,

8arz,iillay used a statistical approach that corrpared Uga r itic w,~th Heb rew, a ~lrlown rlell ated 18 nguage. By assessing structursl sirn ·1'lla·lr"lt·18C" bet'we"'e' n ifiolk.e-·· two

:~ .. . ._. ':[,IU 'u :;j I ' '.' I,. 'Q4i .' ,,!, _I, .' '. '" II!. ~II. .' -', ,':;.

her softwa re call clubated the IPlrobab~il it.y

_- CIMEOLDBY ,I

S8

:THE' 'LO' ING- 'W-;A'ifT'- F"O'-R-:' TI HiE:' W- oatns B'IGGiE1'S' l' '~'HY'S~'C"S

" -- , . , "_ ... '~. . r.l..t1.. -. I., •. _ ,I,' lII:.! . '." .IF.'?t '. ~I .: .' .~~'" I llC''' . .. ·llL!· ,:'

exp €'Iiment ended Iast March, After ,25 years of plan-

. d '1-..";'1'1· . ion. th L

nmg and $1:0 m)ll IOn. sp en t In construction, tile . arge

Hadron Collider started smashing protons togetil,e.r at more than 99 percent of the speed of light in a 17'm - ,;il 1.0,-] 0-" IP1i g'c circula r tun n ~~: beneatl ." . the Swiss-Fren ch

_ .l. ..... ,.,.' llJ" . ",". .._ ,_" ., _ ~.!I!, .. ~ ,:'i;.i,~1 ~ .i U '!i:;, 10. ·i!l'r.h;;l'1!J' .!I(:"., Ii;'.' I. ': 1,11.,

border, Eachcollisicn creates a subatomic fireball that mimics the first trillionth of a second of the

III ~ •

urnverses existence,

The first yeal'~s colli sions have produced an unexpectsd wealth of particles. "The num ber is 25 percent higher than what was pre dieted by the models" says

S' ~:iIi".m1 ii"'i; B" ~",.,..,fi.,ii"'i; 1·UC- ,...,,;i d ' '.']" rector '0' "f" res D arch at C-EI' =RN·· 'who '1" ...,:fI!...

1~.Ji a'Y .. . ~.:Il. ~vJ. .' _. ~ ~mlJ.l1! .'~: r ~~ _ .' IJL "'. . ~'~I~a.:1l. ~ Ql_" .... I "'01.; .' . ~[..I,

built and, op erates the colli der, It, 'wiU take at least several months. before physicists know exactly what ls happening in those c ollisions, fits t theywill have to sift through the 1.2,5 gigabyte's of data that pour from th e LHC detectors every' se cond,

Among the new particles emerging from the colliders mini - fireballs, physicists hope to find the Higgs boson; which according to theory is responsible for endowing all other particles with. mass" ~ill personally think that w,e wiH find the Higgs in the next ye'8l'f or ye,alf and a half" Bartolucci says, Other quarry include so-called supersymmetric particles, a possible constituent of 'the dark matter that holds

aalaxie !t", toseth er 0'~~,~1l...i!u':_ ~ ~ ~i'D~' _ ," JI.!!I

II,..,. 'III U ","" dl

t (II Zllt a pa r11,CtJI a r uga nt 110 W(H', . was ;a

cog n ate-a flL~1 notion a I e qui va IIJ:~ n t -.of a selected Hebrew word. (The, French

pat'"n' 'a' nd S'· 'p"an"lls'~ p··itJn are" 'a-Irl exampls

.' .' , , ". l- I 'J'I" I. . .. ' " I '. I'" "1""

.' ' :,c:' ' .. _ ' .. , I'" ,. , c· :,,!_ ·c···" " _., ',,_.. . ,c. _: "".,,:, ~ I c·_, " ..

0"" 01 cognate pai r both rn ea n "bread ,",) .. !II i~ ~-!~o It: ,01' ;,0 ,I ~ . -,01 :::.-6 • :1

Beca use IUlg;a r it~ chad alii read y bee n decoded by scholars. the MilT team was able: to cenfrm the program's success,

8,~ rzi 1,8 y llh inks, the software cou ld taokl e ~a nguages that no burnan has, been able to crack, even if lilt is. not obviOLIS which known tongue it most s1n)ng~y' r'esemJb!I~es. "Ths ted~ nique allliO'wS you to quickl~' test sevisrall candidate ~anguages, to 'see: 'whiich is, closest ~~ she S81j1S . .she plans to set lt loose ,on one! oi'the dozen or so undecip hered ancient languag:es~ perha ps begiirlnii!n,g wjirth Etruscan, once spoken liin what. is n ow' northern I~a~y ~

EUZAIBE,lIH SVOBODA

A E'II"'! H A mO'LOG' 'IST·!fi "VC- A ·V· .i'i. 'TI~'G

.;i.":U,,,,'~ - a.:n:. . . . " '.' '. . ' 1 . 0 £.A n- ,ft _ .![~'.'

an ancient 'Greek sb~pw~!eck near 'Tuscany two decades ag(l unearthed a unique find; a medicine chest whose: contents included a tin of 2;ooo-yeaJ'-old medical tablets. 'Last year DNA ,anjalys.is of the, pills finally shed lrngllt on their makeup, Geneticist Robert

'1Ip1!91· ~ 'i"]r,;Q'1If" g nl'd~' l"1ji'li "'t' 0; , 1~1· "JI"]Ri ~ ], "::1,'1' n

~ ~ ~~ .lli~ill ~~. .,~~~. ., J~L~ .~~ ...

'The LHC is scheduled for 3, l,5-:m.ontlt shutdown in 200[2 to. make sure it can handle tlTh,e even higher energies :it was designed for. 'But that. date :lis flexible, "Ifin zou we have hints of new .p:h:ysj[cs:~ we 'wiU not stop; we 'will keep go:ing-;~ Bertolueci says~ "There's an old saying, The 'best is the enemy of the good"

TI.M F.o.L'G JRR

Touwaide of the Smithsonian Tosti tution identified the remedies by comparlng DNA sequences against.a reference gel1.e't.ics database, The green tablets, each about an inch wide and one-fifth inch thick, contained a g,a;rd1en~s worth of ]'ngr,em:en ts, including carrot, parsley; celery, cab bags, alfalfa; ,an.d VIlild .onion\"

The' pills match prescriptions desic.rrubed by early physicians -8,. dream come true for historians. '1t is th e first proof thet -tk'liCi an- cient texts can

. 'irl;ll IIl.U!!.:!.. i '_ ,JLG I, . ~ .. '11..:;11 ',,",a, , ,

he' trusted" Touwaide says. Drug' companies maywant

to take note' too, "There J:nay be' herbal combinations, in. these pills that no one's. tested,' Fleischer says, WELL HU.NT

W"R'ii'LE vOU iL.'imI''jQ PA- S_"~'S"I'N" G T--H~BO' no H

," ," ,n!, lIL .' . ,~ -', : .1 ... :' ,-.' ~I. .", . .' -

a cloud with your seat back upright and your tray table in. the' locked. position, your airplane could be trigge:1ring a freak snow shower. last JUl1:6 microphysicist Andrew' H,eyms6.eld from the National Center fbr Atmospheric Be search in Boulder; Colorado, showed. that planes can. punch holes in cloud s; like the one' at :right .. and change the weather b'elow;,

Ice crystals do not form easily,

51 0 water droplets can persist in the atmosphere even at temperatures far

b 9~IO-"W':' fr··· eezing ~. ~ rolanes en terin 'g' su 'c'Ii1'1

~t,_ ._ ,_, ~'I;pI~" ... r' f.Ul J:' U_~,J.~~~, _-~~"J. 1.""': ~ _L"'·_.' "w,

supercooled clouds just after takeoff OJ before' Ianding can Gause disruptions

that in stantaneously freeze those droplets" Heymsfield says, Vlli:8ll turboprop aircraft force air b ehind the propeller blades, or when jets C~UJse" moist air

to' fl low 0- ,v' :~l~ ,;Ii,.I I l' ]j,g ''!l:l<nYliI··a,C'' to provid ,1,.0 lift ,

.- ..._ -' .... . ~ 11[.1. ......"' ... .l.l.!I;~D",;I' _.IV' .' 'It .l .. .- _ ~. , .~

the air expands, and cools. Either one of'those aircraft ,effects Crull drop' the alit temperature 'by more than 35 degrees Fahrenheit, flash - freezing the 'water

vapor; That frozen vapor -qui,ckly forms ice crystals that drop out o-f the cloud as snow, Hsymsfield thinks this might explain some of those winter travel delays, ~~TI1.e' main effect ''Win 'be locally induced precipitation" he says, !l\round ,a'] rports, especially during wintertime, more Sl10W is

d'!

a -,~ -. - t - . 'li. TJilCT"O' 'DI' A TA-' N- 'G

tj,enoC,l a e· ,. v .tILe . n. A .- .'.'

It hOI~e,,,plil,nc~ Icloud sa,en or,e~' MID1b:~le .AJ~aballIa ~

- - - - -- - - -"~ - - - --_._- -- -- - -- -

55 First Peek at the S,olar

Syst:em's Outer Edge

F If' bayon d Pluto, beyond ev,en Ih e come,ls, lies t:he solar s,ystem's

trUlS ed,g,e the heliosh ea,th, where' cha Irged pa rtl ties, blowii'lrlg: outward from the sun crash into, those fh"w'ing 'from other stars 'i,D, C li,ea,le it vast: pr·otec.tive magnetic bubble.

In S epte'mlber' scient i;s,ts pr·od Heed th e most. compreh ansiiv8' ~stlll.d,Y ',I't of this distant Itl ounda'IrY" 'fin;ding it

S1RIIIIDIIII , :improbab~l, d,nlamii'c;~ The ,obse nil .. ,

tii ens come fro 0111 NAS A 's I nters,tellar Boun diary' IE~x plOJBlf (,IIBEX), wthie h

d ele,c:ts neutra I ,atoms that are

:sen·t streaming 'toward Ea 1f111ll lifter Ibreakj'ng; fre.e from t.he helliDsheat:h"

In 2009 IBEX dalla re'veale dl,l lon,g

ribbon of those at'Dms, with a kn 0,1 in

it:, crossing 'fhe s ky'~ Just ~six' m,onth s '1Iater, Ih e knot had ulfI'wound.

Mi"ssiol1l II'ea,der' IDav'e McCo:mas 0,1' the ,S'Duthwest: R.es9arch Inst;i~ute' lil1l San ,Anlo nio s:ays ·there, ;iis ne good the 0:11' for why the heUosheath w"ould be so jli:ttery '~ens o,f' bill ~ions

of mil es from the, sun d1espite· its ·Ir·e.mendou s size, or 'fo Ii w'hy' the Ir'iibbon eV'en exists.

Iniiitli'al'lty 'scheduled to end nex.t

nUl nthl IBEX"'s, mliss i on W',iJS ·ex:t,ended so 'that McCo.a'S can, ~mlQnitor the lrieliosheatlill ove:1r a longer ·Iime .. scele, "We h8lVe to ana ~,ze 'ih i;s, as,

a dynam ie stJructure~breath ing~ c.hangin&i ,and e!vcd·vin.g," he .says" NAS,A as,tronl8uts would be lik,eiy

to agree': When the' Ihelios heath is; 'w,eak.er, it provjd,es Ie 55 protection ~rom i nte rste Iialf palrtic'lles that COLI Id c aus e cane er iln illny,ono' el11barkii nc Ion a II en.gt:hy ii nterplan ela'ry ·mlis,sion.

AN DRIEW M.O·S;EMIAN

.·.6 Snthletic

1-':'

A t··b d'· c· '-.

_ _-1--0-- les,/:ure

In-'- ··f,·j-e-c .. ·.········ .• t' ed •. · •. ··.

, . ..... ...

. . _.

~~IBICIIllI ,

IC' 'e'"

I .' .'. .

.......... : .'

Our ~ rnmune system can not alway'S, make anti bodies -proteins that surround and deactivate pathogensq uiilc-,~llly ,8 nough to neutrel ize 'a',gg4u\8ssiv!9 vi ruses" Vaccines prime the syste m to b~ Ud ant~bodies before infect!i Oin, but they ca n be expensive to de,'ve!!op, slow to produce .. ,. or ,s'llu si v,e. In

Ml h h" tsd ". n· L\,.,'

,aluC '. c 'em lists ereatec a pnJ'mll smg a ~ternla-tlv,e: a sym~l;etic

antibody that can d~sable lEI pathogen in a liiiv.flng a nilma!ll.

Ken Shea and colleagues at ~he Univelrsi~.y of C-alifounia, Ilrviine, used melittin, the to-x:in in bee venom as the' anm~'gen (the substal~,oe triggeri~\g an irmmune re8c1i1on). Me'liitt~n particles hold a pos:irtiV,9 charge, so Sihea cnaartedl a negartiv,sly charged po~y-' mer, tHe added mel ittin so the polymer psrticles for med with a molecuer iijmpr~nt of ~Ihe taxi ~ts she pe. l[~,e plasfic naneperticle attracted the! toxin and fit ~t II ilk,s ,13 cast - ns utra 1~:zi'rr1g it

Shea, gav'8 mk}s a Iletha!11 d ose of mle~ itti n, ths,n i njelct,sd he ~f t he an i rna ~s wiirth h is. pla stic a nti bad ies, A~ I the unprctected lmli:oe died, but amost 60 percent of the tr-eated: ones sUlrvii;v:ed., The experiment: shows how antiibodii:ss. might be- buill~ Iquiicklly' l~n tlhe ~'~b" "a decided a dv,anta,ge if' some unknown horrible, disease mght appear," Shea says" DAN,IEt LAMETn

59"

. I

011 02.2(H 1

I

R

w

N

~,

E

Bioethicist H· 1- . G.·__ e·.I· speak .. ·s,:, 10· .. ·· ;'ut'

'., .'_: .. ' .. ". I .' ...... I" . . . . ... L. ..•.... ..•.•. ..: ' ... ' .•.... .

-_. _.. .__._ - . ._ r-' ._. _., ,,_. ._. '-" .,

on the vast benefits and troubling risks of sequencing personal genomes for pennies on the gene ..

'The helieal molecules of OILU' DNA ars becoming incf\sas'iill'ii,gly' len'tlslln,gh!d in eu r everyd fly II ives,,, U nivers iiti as :plr1o pose gelii,eti,e tes,tilng fOIIi' iIMN:::c:mi nl,g 'fr'es!hrmen,1 II ndian tribes sue 'tOI retrije~ve' thei r genetilc samples, crimes are solved through new forms of fore n .. , slc a nally,si~s, and 'iindiv"i duals fOut'iin,ell'y' lea rn is bout thei f1' gr,en etic:

dl~ ","'"...JI~ R I ,,'" h"1 II"

pre! _ tsposmen to rUIII'sea se, ·,.8Ig,UI aiL 1,0nS'J mlE!!\alnw - II Ie"~ a lie, ,agglllf;lg

'f"ar beL'"'ln'd tlL...a Inao.i,~J' ~"";en','!I'f' "IC' eess '1'lb"III"I""'la~ B"I'AS' tL.."I"jI!!!i"ISt- IU ii!!!i n k , G'· . '·r.aall'"

. i~gl ·.-U "1-. ne r ~'Ii'MI ~~II-li, Ii r- ~:..;;..:oi;J ~ ;-11 ';:~," I" 'uf. J I ~>; IFiI ~I - I' I'~~ .1,

What 'was the most i,mlPolrmnil' turn !ol'levents thii:s yaelI:' iin

the ,are:na of ,~netic: Ihaw' 8lnld eth~es?

In M,ay 'Walgreens announced that it planned to sen gen.eti(: tests U1I.. Tts stores. 'The :F,D,J\ issued a warning letter [0 the test manufacturer in respo 11 se, saying that such a p:ro duct would require FDI,A approval, and then 'Wa]"greens pulled out. Congress also held hearings

on genetilc testing, and the U~s.. Government Aceountability Office issued a report that was pretty damning to- the directto-consumer industry; They sent the same n:NA. to' a bunch of different companies and. got some very inconsisten t re sults,

To m e, federal involvement was the big: story; Consumer gen.e'tile testing Is ptO bahny going to get more re'gu]atedj. and 'we saw that starting around the middle of 'the yi8,~. I think that's a good thing,

Wh·· C'", o'Oii"i8i un. IIIl" "'0' " tn!;i!"'ite .. · ·rn·· ~ ;OI~ out .. ;g!li;, 'UI'" ~'_'UII "-'-.' Ill!!i.!! .. , .;;;" ~IUu .. 1-

consumer ,gene,tile 'tes1s?'

I don't think consumer g,en0I11- ics should be' allowed for medical p:urp oses, For gene,a1ogy~ for ,P aternity testing - fine, 0 ne 0,:[ mynightmares is that a woman

learns th "li.iJ!.I· sh i'lI. d oesn 't have

·ua.4 ,I. . ••• i~11J, ',~ I _. _:,¥ 13, ", : ~.1iG.~.· c.

the high-risk form of th e g.ene for breast cancer susceptibili ty~, so sh e' decides she, no long,err needs to get mammograms, That could be a fatal mistake, If p190pl!8 can order genetic mformation through the Web and get results without an.y health professional being involved, they might act on that information :in harmful 'ways-,either because they think they're safer than they actually are, or ,they think: they're ,a'!11: greater risk. than they actually are, The compa-

D~SCOVER

flies that offer these tests ,give. inconsistent results because the science is, re,aillly new; and it's not ,f.l3,ady for medical US€t And last, the' companies keep

all thi IS information on you,; They've got p-rM.vacy policies, but willthey honor them in the long term? \N1],at happens if they go bankrupt. and. get bought? What if a. lawyer or a distrtct attorney COiID.es in with a subpoena? 'We Just don't know .

W,hs,t are :yollr thou,gnrts abcurt the optionall :genert~c testil~g 'foifi" new"students ,at the Un,'iivershy of Ce:difoflrnia,1 IBerkefey?' Berkeley decided to offer incoming studentsa chance

tOri g': et zenotvned ~I.ti aw '\~1l' of

... _,\:;;1 bG. U ""J pc, ,Q!.Q'- '. tCl,J U

getting them tnt ere sted :in the potential of 1I11NAm 'Ihat was a goodimpulse, buttheywere asking: students to make a decision about whether tlO get genetically tested without much information about the

- - ---($- -~m Th 0y- 1-' adn't had I p'.rot;}r,~'" .' ~ , .:6 .. , 1.(£ . ',Il.. '_.I .

a genetics, claus ~j and there was no face -tAJ-':£a[)9 informed consent. TI1e test would halve looked. at three gene's,: 0:]1,9

for lactose in tolerance, one

Do new' k'iinds lof iOrrrens'~c 'wolr1k. r,i3lise ,81":Y' ethii:,C'811 ii,ssues';? The Los Angeles pollee added an inters sting twist to. DrNA analysts this

yeat.' that allowed them to catch a killer b ased on.

his son' 1 Th'" .

ts son s DrlSJ:A recorns.: "1],8 IS

family forensic DNA analysis

U I ' t id ti

n e8S, you ve go, an 11 err -,- -

cal twin, we ire all genetically different, But your parent s, sibl ~I' TTlI O"Ci an d child I"~\O,n il':ih' I.e.r rs

, ",', ,IILI!. . .l,iI:,,~Q'l' _ ",,' .!I!.1L, ,~JUl, D ,,01, !!.:;:

h a lf ofyour n-:-r.,T~, '8':,:'rO' 'if" "'y"-'o' "u~t'J;;!,D

,'. ijlJl . ", :' . . '.'IL ,.L/ J1.:~fl,il . ,'''. ,"., ,,~

got some crime scene DNA and you comp,are ~t with s,equen(:es from convicts {rand from some people who have simply been arrested), you might find some tndtviduals 'who are not a perfect match but stlU match more closely than you would

involved ].11, processing alcohol, and one involved in folate

-t b 1· Yr"", d I·

. .' ( :,"_," I ., r ," I" ""I .' . ,.".. ' f I 1.1

meta 0 isrn. , oure c ,eaang

'with 17- year.-old s, Irnyth:in,g you tell them could be misinterpreted, If th ey hear "You' ve got the normal gener for alcohol processing" they might decide that they should grab another six-pack [[ Ber:~GE~le'Y' ultimately decided not to 'provide: personal resul ts to' studen ts.]

ogy can be used 'Hen. or pOrody. Done w'eIt I think genetic testing holds the premise for substantial improvements in human life, 111 e classic success story is neonatal screening

for phenylketon uria [a, gen.etic dis order characterized by the inability to utilize the amino acid phenylalanine], which has saved thousands, of children's brains, Done poorly, glenetic tasting can screw people' up,.

Bu't, you've 311so been raj propenent of :genel'h:: tests, Wlhy?

ill 'm rational, ,EvBfy'terehn,ol-

,allh:)w' us to realp 'the,

bene '&.ll''''~ of",' ,'f p" ,," .. 'n' 'S",'tl"'r'O'

.. 1 .··,IJIIL~ . ,. '\.;!I'

• •••• 1

k!nDlw'lledg¢?

'N(lre now' down to under $10,0010 to

.0,0 a whole human sequence, In maybe' two years from

it · it b now; 1. ' S gro]~ng '~O ~,. 19'

under $1;00 (L That will change t'h.ings,. Currently, you can cheaply search 'For nne particular ge'n,rB or disease in great detail or you can search ytrur whole genom'8 in poor detail. 1lihol!sg'snol1119 sequencing :],8 the combination: everything in detail, Then, hopefully your doctor can tell you, about everyknown

t'" . k :Ii

g,en,e ic rIS: yo uve

got and can help you understand how' to make S€'l1,S,9 of that information [see pagre 25].

expect (tom randomness, 111Jis give s you a lead, 'You ask those convicts who 'WIBl~e a. partlal match: "D o yOru have allly'

bro th ers? An"," --·Y~: .t'inr'TTli!'.i'?~~ Th at's IV.", .~ 0'., ',,', 'c',: ~U'J.,IL:Ci ,. . "iQ.\1 ""

what happened m L;A,,~ with 'tile so-called gr,ka) sleeper, a serial rapist and killer, His DNA hadn't matched anyone 'in the database, but his son' S DrN:A was, in there, an. dl ,they we':[ie, able to

,Clip ··d'i 11" ,", "k}"']]" - bs d ',,", th t

H.n . .!, liBr, r: er ,I.·ase. on .. Ha

le ad. I think tt's constitu tional, but it is disturbing, You become a suspect because you've

got relatives 'who have been arrested, 'Ihe crimes of the SOIl are vist ted on the, father,

'WhEtlt albout the! Hlavasupai

I I11ldians" who el a "Ime d th,Q DrN A ;liJlhlr~' pro i,\,j:"I;·d,- -I~d· r- ":nrr' d il~I~,,,",,IiIo~r'

, ' ..... ~ '! .. r',,,,I, .. ~ .. ' Ijlv~- ~UlUC!I!.~'!iii!I'

research Writl!; used for other 'stu dies w~thout ,t'hei r consent? People ate, beginning to realize that, when you give up your DNA, fOJ[ research, maybe yours giving it up for a lot more than

yO'~1 'I In - tend rE!i d Rr ;I!t;,;f'l 0 arch ers ,rlu, .. "'JLIL· ~',. '. ··.rv o'~a 'rl. "~,. 0

might use :1'1 for other things that they didn't tell you. about. The Havasupal story sh ows that people might not: be comfortable w.~th that, I'm a strong advocate of rese arch 'but oruy ff the people who contribute :Dl\lA. agree to a c omplete explana = tilton of how it 1NiU be used, leg

a ve.ry Interesting time, Wrlre really in the middle of several overlapping scientific revolutions where OlU ability 'to learn things is skyrocketing and

our understanding of how we should use that knowledge Is developing more' slowly ..

Do yOUl thjnlk 'scie:nfca, shoiuld rslow down a bit to revalu ... ,ate,the implliical'ilDins of new' knQwlledg~?

I'm not surer I wouldsay we have to slow science down, but we haver to speed u,p our abil = ity to. th ink through the Uk.ely consequences, It

0,1 02.20111

T ··-··e •. ·····, ····3··.·.··

- .. -'."

Faces of Lymle

LNE [)ISEASE~ THE MOST :[OUV1\LENT tiekborne infection in the United States, can vary greatly from one p erson to the next. 1111e hallmark is said. to be a bulls-eye rash; yet the rash can take other shapes or not appear at all Some patients suffer nerve danmge; others heart block or s.w,oUen joints, Almost 20 percent report a flulike condition marked by myalgia;.. arthralgia, and fatigue. Intensity veers wildly to 0: In one patient symptoms :may be bare'~y discernible; in another s 0 ineapaci tating that life is derailed,

Nowthe reason for thi s inconsistency is becoming clear; 1n 'October

a team of scientists published the sequences of the geno:m.es. of 13 strains of Borrelia burgd'crtjeriJ! thebacterium that causes Lyme disease, "Different strains have diffsrent capadty to cause dThsease: explail1s infectious-diseases physician Benjamin tuft of the State University of New York at Stony Brook "~We now 'have a 'mona complete

picture of the pathogen and the gen,e's

'''"1 'I' '1k- 9+ '1l'l"I'1. '!!j'-;:'\1' ·Il.kl·~ ,;;:;, related to th r.l~I: tt'i,Og ;tjii!:i,~ IIl.JI .. icJ)1l. m <ILiOI.\] lUlU J.1IC'J.a. U', . V 11!J .. ['Ii:;; Wa,uIU.GI'!i;,.

For patients the payo.ff could be' great, Scientists have had to deve]op diagnostic te sts and vaccines with-

nut I'!' nfo I-~ne]- ~ .iIl-~ ,tl'>'ne from -, d . ..,. . .o, U'D'no" me .. ,.0. ~ u I.. .. w.lli. . 'OLIIW. u. 1.11 ". . J., :u ],~iQ.~.iII.J.·. 10 ~,.

But now' "the approach can be' reset using the bacterial and human ;genolni(: data" :s,ars immunologist Steven S ch utzer of the U niversi ty of.Medicine and. Dentistry ofN'e'w JerseYm "For instance, diagnostic

tests could b e tailored to different strains or stage s of the disease" and vaccines could be de signed to skirt interaction 'With the human body

'Ihese results, along with imaging technologies that capture pathogens in the living host, form a "scaffold"

for future research into Lyme disease, says Joseph Breen, b acte.r~o].ogy program officer at the National Institute of

}j llersv an i~ 1Ij ..... fectious Diseases which .r.lliu a-J' 'u;.. Ll U-llt;;.lUlIl.Jv ·00 . iI;;Ii!i:;;;C.f,.Q "",,l,lIjt _ ,_ .':

funded tile work, P~LA \N'ElNTRAUB

- ~_IH ,

Figh'iing Clrime Wi,h

M" athem ·a·t··· ks ".

" .. __ "__ 1'.- .. ":'~' . ."

Ons maj,a r problem iiin clrllmle-fight~'ng ii s that a poH:oe crackdown i n one ne'iig.hbor,hoodmay s~'mlP;~.Y' push crl m ~nal be ~!avior .~ nto ,ra nearby area" lin M,tj rch two mat hiemartici a ns, worki [1lg 'with an ,anthropologist and a criminologist, announced a waly to qualn'tt:ify tbi s react iion.

"[CrimI8'S tel~ dI to cluster together 'i ~I ep!':lr"C!I and tim e" fo rming hot C'F"Io .. t" e J'jl

:~_ 'tiI'","",c; (;;J ': .' " .. ~, ..... I [I .-: . 'u'." ~!i'""['. -~~,

says UCLA .. mathemalth:il:an11 Mart,iln Short, the stud Y'~s lead a utho r, Dra'wiiln.g 0 ~[ re'·E]IIII-,wari d data j' his tea rn d evelop edl a model showing that. hot spots come inl two varieti 8S .. One typ e fo r ms wh:e n a n area ex,per;iiem~oes a la rgs-scele cri mr9

increase such ~,e' tiI,;i\1k. e" n' ~ park ~',f' iI""i.'idElorrll.l n ~ ~,I '!i;iiil;llglU~ ~ 'c"III!1 11;110 1.1'''''11111,··· 'Q, [;JII r. ~ . .;t v~'c; !U

by dnJg dselers, Another develops. w hen a smel ~ n,umbe r' {If or i m.linalls-sall', ,al pa iir of b~rgjllalrs-go on a II!ooai~,zed crime sp:rS,9.,

The mode,l suggests that ·9 focused poll ii C:8 1F'8SpO rise ca n relative I y easlii,lly exti ngu ish la rge:lr hot. spots b S'Ga u S9 the cri rnina Is the rs scatter rand om:lly ~ m::3lk.ing it un I'iikEdy that they wii II res ~Ime coord Ii nated LJlnlh3lWftJI~ acti vi~y nearby, But fa r smaller cri me: wavss, crooks ju st m igrate toget ~ Sf into an adiacs rTIlt neigh borhood where' they an:! I ike,ly to sta rt a nother spree, By analy,zing pol iDe· reports as. they corns iin, .s hart hopes to determ iinl9' which ~ype, of h at spot is. f,ormli ng so [po!ll~ce cen hand lie it more effecfilv8:iy i [lA N IEL LAIMIEl'TI

Europ e, India, and China all :]ive. in areas at risk for water shortages affecting drinking supplies sanitation. systems, or a_gticultural use .. Study coauthor Peter McIntyre" an, 'ecologist at the U niversity ofW~.sco:nsin" note's, that wealthier

natio 'I""'S """'0::.']-1' manaze th ii:Ji prob lern with ,lIL. ":._. ,"_ ,li···1 ~~_.,lt . .!.IL .. J~JJ~~...: 10 .~. '. __ a-, .~~IL,l "¥-~.II.U"

complex sanitation facilitie S· and other engineering schemes while the under1lying issues=water scarcity and

'1] tin ti iIi-..... ,m t . iFtr '~~O··

po ,_U IIO:l1-Con_- nne to n1'_-·e'[),S·ll.~J., "-.:.,'Ul'"

technology gjtV'8S, us' a false sense of security When 'we go ho:nl€ at night, 'we [can, tW11 on the faucet and have clean running 'water:~ he says" But in the naturalsystems that lJJthnab3,~y supply-that

wa·' J*Il:i,rr ~:w· .<t:J;~l!"i"JJ ..... 1.. ....... ad y:' 'a' "t gl crisi ~ poin tn-

. _JIL.~" .. i!.:".JL'C' ,c:tlJ.JI.t!_, __ _" 'Qi. .. e.L . .lQ UJ. !U .. , ",

M:cln1l1yre hop es the study 'MIl highligJ.1Jt the need for a shift in. the ·\t\7Sy water

resources ,r'1il""D man aged m ovins (J;...I om-

1IL !!o' ~.c uJl!.' O;;:li "-I!ol.'~ .. " .' . ll;iL\ ";I....,.ILJ. ;., ..... ' .. " ~ 1.[[ i !. .'

engineering sol U Dons to protecting the naturalwatersheds that Ikeep p'eo~p:le and. ecosystems healthy M,ON.lf!A HE'GER

···1 R'· .... - .. - '-'. [ ·_Iyler:s a _I

···.1.1 kW Id ·

···III.S, ••.. /, 0['- ..... : WI ... ···

Map .s,lhows r·ebllive threats to .liIll!lnlanl 'wa:ter :sl!Ipp:llifl!:s; red denotes al~eas; I.OS~ :&1 risk"

TIlE W'ORLD~S RIV.ERS ARE IN' PjBJL~

n ~I'] f b ru t'" d t

.["0.[ U non, U1" . amzanon, anc construe-

tion of dams and reservoirs are j eopardizin._g. the 'water supply fo,:r nearly 80

.P ercent of the global population, an

i nternational team of environmental scientists concluded. in a comprehensive study published in. September,

Combining data on. preci pi tation, topogr:ap'hy~ habitat change's; dam construction, and pollution, the researchers created detailed maps of the threats to. rivers around the world, Those maps sho W'" that I~l)gr:'a- dation offreshwater

~lll.. . IW .. iLg, U~.._ "u(.\. ,Ii.;!' ,Ii.;!'" 1.:11. ~0.1! .. .Ii, """ g.,.'I;;.; .

systems affects both developed and. developmg countries, the majority of the populations. oft lIe United States,

2 Glia. he Other rain Cells

Neurons seem ,to be the brain's 'womkhorse· cells, ea nylh,l out alii the crucial ~ec.lrical com m uni:cMi·oni$. The res,! 101 the brainl~'s cell ts, called glilh W'81ie Ilong cO\nsiidered UttJe more 'than scaff,o~ding~ But: one k~ nd of .glial cell" the star-shaped astrocyte, actu ally' ·appea·rs to lid~·e an acti.ve roI9~,

~ II a report' IPUblished in Science in JU'I" British andl American resear-chers showed that: w'hen rats in hale ,ex.cess carbon

It ioxide, astroc.ytes in, the br,ain 'stem sense 'the resulting im;:rea,s9 in blood acidily!, The tealA tagged 'flhese' i1,st1rotyl:es with a In'O .. tejn ·that lIuoFesces, in llie~poliise t,o cellular activ it, and SJaw thai th.e cells slg[lilale dl

t he neurons 'that inifllll,encI' b IjleaUli IIIg. The rat'S then breathed ,m or'e de eply, taking in more 'OX.ypn ~ "Th eS'8' I.u,s ,are e·w·en more sensit'ive Ulalil Ineu Ir,o:ns,," says Sergey Kaspalio,y, a Univ,ersitr 0" IBlr'j:stol mol&cula'f: physiO!lo,g~st NIM,HIIL S,'W.AIMINA'T1~AIN

63

011 02.2(H 1

3GI t

. .

".1.··· ·· ..• ·.·,$i

P~a'-·rt·-·IIC··,····· es

I," ..". . ."

Shake Physics

In Mlay an ~ nternationa I grou P 011' physicists stll~ d y~ ng the 8:1 usi ve particles known as neutrinos al~lrr1ounced tha~: they had spotted

,i"'IIIIfiIB spo kII~~n'B,f'!; II II {'"Iy' tra n' €'"fll"'i rm "11nO VIII II:~ ,;,;I; .' u ~ Ilf 1l.0I· oV'~>1.) .•.•. ,II ~i ~ '!""( I' b

,;j: 1).,." S I).,.,

II rom one type to a not~ '~e[, "~t~IC'~11

an ":I b ~I;'ihj!' ·lllflId·ICt:A-~iC" th et nsutriros

01111 tll··.!11 II'L)' I ~" ..•• 'il;Jl~' ,.~I!ii;l . 1111···.· 111 . hi..;!":;>',.

10 ng tin ought to be we~ ght ~essjl have rna 85-" a f nd i ng: wit ~I profound theoretical an d cosmologioa I illm pi catons,

INeutri~~o5· come in three varileti,e.s:: muon, tau, and el ectro n

Pr8'~"~'"lon n c" OVIf"j erim ents Ilk. ":I d 'f:'ua ~V~'1"lI ~ ~A.~'r;;;:; II It:; I ~ Q I!I il,tA1 .'. ", t;-

~sted ~ hat one, va r.~ety can tu rn into another, and seienfsts f nalny caught one I~n the act, They firlsdl

- b·III\' 1Lb."W·. , .. '111-" ·f· v' ..... 'C'~ER'NI

;a '. J 11,0 r]1 ull ~llllon m ~ .. MJ.rrlS r«lm ... _ -< •. ',

in Switzerland toward the! OPERA detector in ItailM hopir~8' to d iscover one ,of the:m transformi f1g ~ mo a tau ns utrmo, a ndl !iin late 2,009 t ~Iey d1idm The standardl theory of' particle p,hysiics does not aillow that to ha pps rill. (A S8'parate 2()1l0 lexper~ment at lFermillab found evidenos of a fourth type of neutrino -another m ajar puzzle) OPER~A physk.;ist .A~to nio IEn·ad itato notes that neutrinos alne so common t hart a ~thou',gh ths!ir mass ~s tii ny coillectiveiy they must account for a not~ceab[l,e fraction of the bul:~ of the u~liverse\. ANDREW GT.,:AINJl

Soma 12S mi 11[1 ion :~teB rs ,ago, a chiiiclken-size SinosaUfopteryx; an 6'ady relatiive of 7:' rex, sea mpersd th rou gh nort heastern Chiii na From its remains, W'8 know a Illom. about 'til:... n if'" 'dll'I'11I4I O iC';::j II n Ir - nil" W-eii co co' ~ .. iI1e lI"e' dl 'W'I'I t' I)... i:"'p i ny

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ha il~;, iit ate meat, and it' WEll! ked on its h~ nd legs, ,A r1ldi now 'we kn()w wh alt co lor it was. Last Ja nu a ry researchers date r'mli neld that Sihosaurop,te'ryx sported a stri pad chestnut ,~ndi 'Wh[t'9 ta ~~ -the' f rst ti me anyone has. been able to d ;Q,CC'- ribe t:li dinosaur's color

. ,61]'~ ltill .. I~ - U! I:. Ic;~j" ~. I : .. ' .... ,! a .. U II [I u{~a,' ',jl' .: J ... .) . : ... II.

MI i ke Be nto n " a pa I e onto logi st. at th e Un ive rsity of Bristo i in England, had set out to show that SinoseJufo:p,teryx's ha i r-

Illi ke b r istles 'we re precursors to the feam,hers on todays bi rd s .. Examli nir~g those, fossl li,zed bristles through ~ no'warflll i 11m icro co' If'!! n 8 he u ~ ~~ l 'y.j .. ~, ~ '.,.' .. ,:-:,.'~·U ~I ~ :. I .. " ". ip' u : I~.·. "Ii ~" .. ~ ':_ v,~jci" . .

,A, fossilii'z,ed Si"Qsaf1rtJP~ tell~ 't:be 'firs!t: dirnoSl'aUf '10 have! iis ICO;~Or.s; IIB,ea,led ~

did more tha-n confirm his hypotlrH3s.is.: He a lso n oticed t hat: the b ri st lies 'we rei br imm ing w~~h mela noso mss, col or-bela ring eel ~ pa rts fo t] nd in mod ern ,av~lan 'fHa~ hers, The shape 0]' m elanosornes determines th eir hue, and the more palcked they are" the darker the shade, The! round melanosornes I~n Sinoseunx: teryx iiinid icate a d~~ rk red shade arralnged in a sf r'il~M9d patts rn

Nlow th at he k ~IOWS. W hat to 1100 k for, Benton hopes to lunv;e'iil the colors of other real1hered din;os8urs" he!p~n@' scii'entiis1s trace' ""·II;..,O·11i" r'all~i';o·n·~[I,...~p to birds "'=In"d o'v~n' d ecode

IL!! 111;:0 II ..:;:;:, a lLu ." .:;:; I 1111- . ,1...1, Ii, ,~ ;:;AI, ~ 'II''''::;, 't;;;!LoU .~ . , .

their _s'ociial behavi O[ "These prilmiiitilve' 'feathers evolved before wings;,)J he says, "so ,iit's II~ ke Iy they' f rst 9rVO i\Nad fo r i nsu lat ion and d isplay rathe r than il ight," AM Y BARl H

of IlLoric,ifera (jellyfish-II ike, an ~mallis, II ess thaln a mi Ilimeter lon,g) in tihe sediment of mta!hJnm Basin", a zone ,of salty~ oJ{yg,en .. depleted w,ater at the bottom of ,the Medite'rra nean" 'When, Antoni 0 Pl!Isce d diu of 1'liIe Ma rche Po!lt,ltechnic UniV9~rsit, in 113,Iy a ad his colleagues found 'the Lor'i!cif,era,1 they assn med the an imals had fa II en to the' seafloQJf after' d,ing~ "We thought it was impossible~ th at 1lhey oould liive th ere·,,;" Piusced du say,sJ' but lests condu cted on two subsequent E!,xpedi-, lion s, i ndii.cated tha.t 'the spa c,iims'ns wen!] alivll',!,

Last Apri Illtalii an a Ad Danish. deep·sea r,es,earchers; d,escribed multicellular I'lilii m als

th at conduct thai 11' entiire lives without' respilring o:x.yglun!l The C'rew' f'ol!lnd th 9 thres' new spa,cia s

'T-he Loricilera Ihave u niqu e adaptations 10 an o.,c~"en·free lenviro:nment Instead of mitoc ilion .. dri a (the cell ui,ar eng.'liIes, that con~ert ox:yg,e'n 10 ener,gy, prese It in al ~ Dlthe r known ani m II celis), th 9S9 creatu lie,S contain ,structures ,re· sem'b nng hydr,ogenosomes" Ule ,o:rgane,lIes that ilnae reble microbes use to ge'oer,ate e nergyi' The fi ad i'ng raises the' IPossibility that complex a nimaJ life could e;xist: in an kinds ,of harsh, oX,Y'" gen··free, environmen'ts-on Ear'th arid perh aps

on IDtha'1i worlds, "00" LA URI E R~C" SAtER.NO

COM:BillNINO, TISSUE ,ENO:INEE'RINO' and th ,9 sam G mic ro-fah r lie, ~g'~'~i,n", ~r.J.,!L _' _ !i;.o .;)(\- ._ , ~ ,~, __ ._ .!Ii, _" ,. I;,'!,o. " ,,n. '_ ~~I!J!.v,.J!,.l,

tech niques that are used to produce computer chips, Harvard Universi ty cell biologist Don Ingb er and his co.ue'ague's. have built a living, breathing synthetic lun,g'-al.be;it '0:",8 just the size of a quarter,

Last JU[n,,€' Ingber' s b3;(1Un reported that it had placed! human lung lining cells and human capillary cells on ei ther side of a porous, flexible polym.'sr membrane, As the two cell types exchanged air and nutrients through the membrane, the researchers used 0,]],'· and -off suction to make it expand and contract, mimicking a lung s natural movement, "The whole thing breathes, just lliike w'e do:

Ingbe:r says,

Thi s lung -on -a-chi p could someday ,f'Sp,m,ace' animal te sting, Ingber sugge8].'ts~ His team has shown th at the synthetic lung responds to pathogene much like the real thing dOles. Afte-r "inhaling" E. coli; for instance, the lu.ng: attracted. human white blood cells to attack and kill. the bacteria, a proces s scientists have

Io ng understood but never before witnessed in vitro, o th er, nonin:f€'Ct~OU.8 nanopartieles traveled

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showing that the laboratorycreated lung also reacts much Iike a live :liung to air particulates.

Mn,gber and his colleagues are working on analogous mo delis of other organs,~ too, including a beating heart and a gut capable of a p eristaltic wave. C ould a "human-on-a-chip" 'be 'Very far

behind? VALERIE RO SS

LaG' ,

Pe:ople Sl~ ffering from anterograde aim nesia-caussd by' damage to ths bfa~n~ls h iippacampus,-can remerroer deta lils about thek past but lack, the: a biil ity to form new memories, N,o,t 9vslrythi n,g gists lost; however, In Apri II Un iV8!rsity of Illowa researchers observed that emotions persist in these a mnas eo ind ~viduall!s even atftelr they lorget the cause, an ~mp(ntan,t, due ;8 bout how the braii n stores d iflere nt ki nds of iitJ1f·orlmatio~.

Neu ropsychologist Ju:st:iln Faii nstei n and his collaborators showed a grou p of patis nts with S!8velre anterograde a rnnesia two series of

video clips (including scenes from The Notebook and Americe's Funniest Home Videos) to induce sadness and happiness ~[~I their !f''III[Ik..J" .ei;,f'IfiIIC' M'" emory te ("+e adrn ·In'I'le1'Bra.JI several m,,'I'llI'lut"s,e later shows d

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that the patients retei ned! f,ew, i'f any i' specif c' detaiiil s about th e c~ ips, But. emot ibn rn e',13SU rements s howedl that tin e fE:M911 i ngs iiilr~d uoed by the 'videos linge red, w'ith sadness outlasti ng heppiness,

"Even th ough emotions seem fused together with me rnories iiin our e·t· ream tf'o~ '0' nne- F\·I;i""i; II IIC' If'I a ee ·1'*" tu rns out th at t Ik. "I S tiC" not th 0 case jj' lLe ~ If'I

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.sts,i n says.

Partients. sufferirl(g from Alzhe!im,er~s disease and dementia have darna,ge to the! hippac8'mp'us sim ill'arF t,o that seen iin peopl e wii1h enterograde amnesia. The ns'w study therefore S[A gg:ests that a visit or tel sphons cell wimh such p\a~Jiients could halve profound positive' effects eve n ii the

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l VID I,A fQNG

Few' things; ii n plhy.sics have beenl more' thoroughly s11udij',ed than ,the pr'ot'ofl, a IU:lildame nbJ'li bill ilding block ,of alto.rns~ So ~t was a shoclk i'n July when PaullKnowles of the Univer.sly ,of Frioolllr,g in ,switzerland claimed 'Ihe prot1on is 4 pe:rc~ent smallls'r tha n eV8ryc:roe has tihoull1t for mO:ll'e 'th an 501 years'"

In the past, physicists have used eilectliOns to measu re ·the proton's; size indirectf<Y1I 'When a laser ,zaps

70 The Proton Glets Small(er)

.. ossil P'ri __ ts

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,.

GRZEGORZ NIED.zW·.]EDZ:i'] GREW U,P

wandering the mountains of central. Poland, once a stomping ground for ancient reptiles and. amphibians, Now' a paleontologist at the 'University ofWarsa:\iV~ he is building on his youtllful explorations: Last year be discovered two sets of fo sail footprints that add to our understanding oflifes .key evolutionary transitions,

The first group of prints - a 3,'95- million -year-old track. created. by a four-I 'egge d. land vertehrate=made the' cover of Nature; last Jan uary. NiedZ'med·zJkfs. :find is 18 million years older' than. any previous evidence of land animals, "Many basins are terrihle at preserving delicate bones but very good at capturing footprints,' says Steve Brusatte of the American Muse'0111 of Natural History in :N'ew York,

ho 0 'ks - 'th N' , m - d;.'· - ~. - d }d-' ifThI- - - - 'W 'v W',- r . G,1,m ..• ' .: ].IB·.· Z\w,e .. z . :., m ese

prints ,are, pushing back the oldest representatives of animal gtOups~~

In October Niedzwiedzld and Brusatte reported another ma] or find; 25:o-ln.ilmiort - y€'at- old fos silized fo otprin ts that repre sent the oldest evidence ofthe dinosaurs forebears, '~:TIl.e~H3 footprints are only t or 2, million years young,sf than the

P . ~;., .,.r!I-. to' I"

ermian- rrrassrc mass extmc non,

Brusatte says., "The lisle of dinosaurs is intimately related. to this event, :Mal1Y species 'went extinct, butt: for dinos aurs and their. (:IOSE' relatives it was an opportuni ty- to blos 80m,:" .AlM-Y BARTH

an e1'ec,tron orbiting '8 pr,otOI!l, the electron undergoe-s what: ij:s called the' lamb :shift, abso~bjng ener;gy' a'ndl jumpi'ng to a hi,llIer

energy ~evet ,Acconlil1g to' qutantum elec,troo,na'mics, the Lamb shift

is partly a ,'unction] of 'the' IP,rotod's

· . II ~ II h;O ... n ~nf'

Size,; n _IS a_ ,ows p_JYS1clsfs to Llr

its measurements" But instead of lasiing eleetrens, Knowles e,xam'i'ned pl'lotons, 'wUh PI·rti:clss ,calted muons, which be caUs "the electron'!s fat:

cDusin~" M1uons, he ~JS.~ are' more sensHhre to 'the prot1oni's sire, and so their Lamb shift gLves a Itulch more reliable estimate"

In quantu m physics, a 4 pe reent m~ stake iils, a mighty errer ~ '"Eithe r there's a pli'oblem with quatnlu m elet1Jrod,nalmics," Knowles says" "'O:1i there':s some fun I, phys'i1::s going on that. no '0:08 understan dis ,et~"

D'AN IElL ILAMETfl

. . DUIBY ,

2 S'tone-

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anl,dJuliets

In Mlay an iinternatii:ona ~ gwou p of biol ogists announced th at Nealnderthals and modern humans p reba b Iy' h aid ~ nte rb red in the Middll:s· East shortly 8iftS'1" m igrating () tJ t of ,A frii ca, possib~:~l as, hJi~g as 1001,10010 :yean; ,ago. A'S a resu It; many hsmaos todaiY ca rry '1 to -4, petrcent Ne\a.ndrart hall genes.

Svan1:e Paah a and his tea m am:

UU~ Mlaix, p~ anek I nstifuts for Eva .. , ~utii onary A'nt:hropo~ogy in Leii pzig, Gerlmatr~Y~1 i3lnallyz,ed DNA, iiin three Nisandert.hal bones from the Viiin-, d ij,a cave in C roati a, corn par ~ng th 13k genomes 'with those' of fi've; present.-day humans from souther n A ftr ica, West A.fri ca, Pa pua N'9W' Gunea, Chiina~ end Western Eur1ope,. N eanderthals ShOW8!d more :s~milari~y to people in EUlrqpe a nd East. Asia than to thOSI8 ii n AfJ'nlca. "The gene flow' between the two grou P'6, most ~i'k.e:ly occ Lllrred before mode r ~I humans carnie, to Europe' about 3:0j,OOO to 40i,OOO ye'8lrs. ago, JJ Paabo concludes,

Paabo~'s find ings are ec hoed linl work. from ,getru~tii C' anth ropologists at the University of' New' M1e:x:ieo" They studlli1edl geneti c d eta from 1 ~.g,8 3 I iv i ng ~ n d~lviid u-' als across ,Af'dca~ Europe, Asia, Ocean ia j and the: Americas and conclude d that Nls'a ndertha ls o r

another a ncient horn inid grolL~IP [must have interbred wiilth our ancestors at least once, in the eastern Me!d iter ra ns an, soon after hu mans m igrate dI out, of A fir ica That is 'whlY we, see the, Nleande rthal genetic fingerprint. in a ~ll non-A frican S -I not jju st iln Eu roIP a,an s. Says, stu dy i nvsstigato r IV l:!.'I'1 th H II Dtl"llle" u ~'W·' Eii ~ ra. cu rrsntlv n't;;:;; - lUll III •.• j~, c ',~ ,til' 6: ••.. ' ~ I .11111. J

A tDss~Uzed ,HamD' nee., dertlmlensis' 'foundl in 11908 in ,I cave ,at La lebai'"; peUe"aJUx..$aints, FlIfa1ilOO"

trying to pitn down how much

iin+'s Ii"·k,raad't'l nt' F'I.{",;{",! ~ illi"'II"'ed :!'Ji ~; 't,I .. - .. 11 U'~!G; - 0 U~'LJ:lkl!llj Ilj .:_"_ ._: [II

J·IILI~ NiEIM.A RIK,

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NASA has not designed a new manned S,P,8IC:9craft since tlhe shuttle started to fly in 1981. Entrepreneur

'·Dee D wants to step in with a private fleet of spece taxis,

lin tlhe, blrav.e new wor~d of: plrhnatel siP,acefl'iight~ ,Robert: Bilge hlW

m ;OiU' be th e bra she st nil ;O;'''de' . r A'f a I1II 'H' lav"I'ln a Il... U ~lllt- 1)...."1 iI!' ~A rtu Re' An

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the Bud!gert Suiites 10" AmIerii,ca hote,ll !eha'j'n~1 the las, Vergas, e,n'tre'" plf,e'IlliSU r ls shoot ~ n,g fOIl' 'the sta rs bet:ti ng a III esf mated :$:5001 milillio'n on hls eio,mlpalny~ Biigellow ,A,e'rospfil(:=e~ Hie launched the Ge,nlesi,s space modules, lin ,2006 and' ,20017 and no'w plans 81 'neet of s,pac,e taxis", space ho:telsr-!9ven 81 plrilva:te m:Qcunl base. lin

Jllu IIU n..,'e· and evec·UI .... II1i'-1e· . ~ fl1'lIi"'im' 18- ne'l" n o'b ISe' p' ,a i"i,a E'u nll!l!'"li ra",IlIIA n d ii""~11

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slen is nnou ncedl pla ns 'for 81 hlW'-'CC1s't, mlanlnedi ~spacecra,t~t call1l!ed Cr:e:n¥' ,Sp,Ej'ce TT;,8'n's:po,rta,tiol1 100" capable of ea Ii'fyi n:g ea rgo and lI[JlI'I'O seve,n pa'sSlelngelfS ilntol orbit Iby 201,5~ As NAS,A, 'wli'nds, d:own lts space shutt:le prog!rSlm,1 i,he, outspoken space Icowboy' has, :211 lot to s,ay albout QUI' missions of' ,the 'future-,and 'U'1;e, 'PSlst

I!..JIA'Mi A ill' d- oi!"!Io es som e' ene "'010-" Fluqar.v.- .: u:.··.la ~ ", '" '.U ," J ~.I.: ...

from hotell Imls,gna,te te slpa'c)e entre;p lfieneUlr?'

I decided 'when I was very young that I 'wanted to do something 'exciting and meaning ful in the space' arena and I had no idea 'what that woo going to be, but I assumed it. 'was gorung '[0 take a lot of:money so ill sp ant a lifetime as a developer, a bui~de:r, and. an owner ofbanks to understand the business communrty and acquire the money to follow :my dre am, " ill :fin;alIy decided to' do that about 13, 'Years ,ago" and in 1999 I formed our company; 'bundling on. a type

of ~NASA tec11no'lio,gy for which Congress had 'cut uloney-'so:ft structures that expand to full size in space. Oh, :my,g,osh, I. can't believe Congress did this because that tYP'B of teChlllology was obviously so superior to the

,."..1 ~"1 minum - can tech n olosv ,iU.~ . .lLJ. JLlL L.:I!.. ,,~, __ Li. ~G~ .. I. , V V.U1j'l!!

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:hUlmsn spacefllig)ht program, CCHllstellIhS:irtion, whichl 'was SJUp" Iposed! '1:0 tiake, us back 'to the moon, 'Was 'tllat: ,81 ,good" dlea'? IOh; abs oWutely. It 'was a deadman-walking progJ~amj, and it wasn't ] ust that there wa sn't enough mon ey. 'Ihe Americans already have $100 billion sunk into the International Space Station [rss] and haN'e no way,to get there. Then .along comes Bush ]:r:S fantasy ofgoing back unneeessarilyto the moon, created 'by NilSA and other folks as a eonselation for the Columbia disaster; It 'was a terribly expensive p:l1owam and had technological. and physical difficulties of execution, Ten billion doilllars have already 'been blown on, that, and Americans have nothing to show for it,

N,ASA, ,adlmlin'iist:raIDIr C:na lie,s, [Bo'l dieln has, seld tih,8rt [Jl'rivate, slpececra,ft' d evi'eh:;rperS 81r-e 1hl9 faces of ,the, new' f'rontiel'~ ls thai: how :,ou se,e it?'

W"hy should. the private sector get involved in spaJ)eflight? vVho 'was it that 'was very involved in getting us' "to the' moon? 'VVho 'was it that was very involved in building the structure's for the .ISS'? It wasn t NASA" because: ,NAS\A is a general 'co' ntra ..... tor It su b contra ct s

~ . _ ,'., .), ,. " . c_~. y, .... : .. ,'., !i..,..IU . aLr:·

practically everything out, so whom does it subcontract to?' It subcontracts, to all the' normal cast of characters, in the United State s p.rhnMUy;, 'Ihere are some foreign supphers, but they're in the minority compared 'with the amount of wo.rk and contracts that are awarded dome sttcally And we sh ould he~p feed our own. NASA is, on its knees, it has had, a terrible record olv'e:r the past 30 years, and you say~ well, why should tJH~ prtvate sector get tnvolved? The answer rs aDy i s, 'w,hy 'not? Because the private: sector hasn't had a chance all thls

tim ,- ,.0 0' ··V"·,o r ,~11 ·iF''k, U ~'Q d U,ofi' ad a;fi

. . .,re;. .. ,. v ru lUll !1.:;;'.::lIIJC., .!G!LoU ,\:i 0',;,

text by DA,VI D IIlJISIH NIE R phetograph 11:,' J,AR,EID McM I LlllEN and what do we have to S]10W'

D~SCOVER

for it? NASA has not completed a, human transpertation SYSb31i11 since the shuttle first started. to :fly in. ]l98'lli~

affordable capsule th a t can

'be put on the best rocket that A,~ ... '-"", _. ha - lth the b t rull.8:l[",h,,;.ans ".o.:ve 'ViII' _... . : . '!i";.o . es_

pedigree' and experience that Americans have" And that's the Atlas s [op erated by a j oint venture' betvil,een. Boeing and. Lockheed Martin].

demonstrated S-UCe:8 sses, AI,e these flights sufficient to g[Vi9 us the kind of comfort that is necessary to. en trust human lives? 'Not by a long shot. However, 'Bv,ery flight made by the' Falcon 9 [a Sp aceX . launch vehicls that achieved orbit in JUlH3]: puts exp erience on. nine motors, ·When. you multiply that out and you do a lot of 'Ul0Sl8 flightB:; your 1110tO IS can start to have it lot of seconds of experience.

So' where, shoulld tihel O'n''''O.t''n··m·c e' ·n· be .' d '1'1' If"i"'i'-+o;no 1'1' ....

t::!Ii"""¥'~11 .' ,I:. ..... ,... I~ ~'I:.I it::!! IL~'

!spendilng?

If you. were an. investor and you were an American taxpayer, would you want to shove these billions of dollars. back into :NASA's hands and &a~, ;HOK, do it

rIf-..-.. • j,\? 1.JliJ· "'~ 111d' 't t

·11i,.V us ,agawn ,,'f\!' Ow, ~ rit you wan

to say;, '~~Bo f'iling, we have SO:ro.6' belief in yo u. Here for a chan ge, let's do something unique and differen t:~' Lees take the most class-A aeros pace company we' have and 5a;1' to them, «-,H,fIeheres money, P:1e'aS'6 go out and execute a go od, safe, reli able,

HI,II .... !UIJ' ;i!"!I'an IP I!'I!I'~ 1f' .... ""1iI!:!ii "I'lndlu'~I"'l!"y'

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l~n'~eIli"'lAlm' e'" . ,eafe .. ··tv c' Alnl'c"'e''- rn~?

u '1M" .. ,II '!!ii#U II .... ,;;;tig ." ,1'1' .. u I .. '. 1l1<ii:!1,~

The lion's share of money needs to be awarded to. Boeing so. 'we~re SUT8 we have OUf bases covered with a wodd -class co:mpany that can get it done and make ]t happen. We also need '00 have another company as, a backup, 'Ihe sac end- best com c Ip-'ia~'n~ y:' II ('ii p .. ~ ['0- :1,.. ah :~"Y>:' S·:.: 'p- c ac 'iItIIX: ."

~U'" .I., ".'.__ .!IJ,~I , _ IUlOL ,_",1. _. ·_· .. ~J1._.PD

,- . "

[run by ParJP'rulcofuunder. Elon

Musk] be C.:3(US8' it has already

Shoulld the! Fed:en:111

,Av"jia1ticHll Adlmlinistmtion oy'elr .. , :see! nll"'iivats! 'spacer'lii:a)ht?!

~ ~,

We hope the ,FAA ,A(:quris;it~.on

System Toolset [FAST]' rather than .. N,l\$A takes jurisdiction over the execution .0:[ space-

.t1JI'~:g1!".t' .(j en - the P -~ ate s c '""tn -

Jll .. · n. :..J, l.'uf' j.d.· ·IT\n.·6 ~~ L' ~ vr~

N:ASA is n at capable of admtnistermg a lot of flights and overseeing them. efficiently NASA, wouldn't be on Its knees today lf it were good at executing pro,gram~~t We' want to give, that job to the ,FAA" which already admintsters tens of thousands of air High ts pet day in this, country and has. the expertise to be, agile in making these decisions. It will be' the death knell if it doesn't happen,

'Wbere woulld the 'FAA 'sUlrt?' Suborbital spaceflight will provide a perfect opportunity for FAST to establish itself as capable of handling demanding orbital spaceflight schedules,

'Whlere do yenJi see human space' eX1f:doratiion goilll\g'; lover ~lhia next dlecadls?

The United States appear.s to be decltntngin Its aJbllity to command s:paoe .. Other countries are ascending, Mfw€' pro] ect that out for another 12 or' ]5 years~, Jlfs a'Vlety uncomfortable piCtUI',8.

It means that not onlyis the United States not in. control, but the United States doesn' t hai 0 the ab ili ru tn ,~ ,oc~ - to

nave .iL'~ ,a, .. I 'Ial.j .. 0 exe .... U :",

by itSe]lf-'Mthout cobbling together a whole bunch of'part-

• ,~W diti

ners=a m,9,aulngju.1L. lexpl€'·.·l.·non.

Explcittng the moon, sooner

or later, Is going to happ en i: It. is the p erfect pl at form from which to jump to. the rest of the solar' system, It is, t'l"l€ perfect platform to gain. experience from, and it is self-endowed with frozen water, which is ter.rib~y' valuable from a rocket fuel standpoint, from a Icon8ump= tion standpoint, The moon has a noncontamlnating fuel, 2;;0

m ~llil Ion rn etrie tons o 'f~ 'h,:.,;'II~'i'~IW'Yii=3·:·

.,] ,.. ~!l.JLl . :L!.-v ,0 . . ~bilLlLU.~,

and the E arth has almost none, Exploi ting Mars, sooner or later, Is going to happen, These are gigantic opportunitles for the'

hum . 'an' .' '!ji!ia' CiCI, ,11. Jl ... /", .. ,w. _ -. ~11l

0.1 02.20111

C,1\LL rr 'IRE ~'NOW YOU SEE T,HE,M:,. S.Q(Ul you won't" phenomenon,

In a year that the 'United Nations declared the International Year of Bio dive,rsill:y; scienti sts announced a 'bevy of'newfound species that appeared to 'be already teetering on 'the' brink of extinction.

Injanuary a team from ill sraels Universi ty 'of Haifa at Oranim announced the discovery of CeJ~balus ara vensis; a spider with a leg Sp,RO of more than five inches. Unfortunately; its sole habitat is a desert :regjon in Israel called. the DUlt1IBS of Samar, an area once coveting about 7 square kilometers but reduced to ,8. fraction of that size by agriculture and min:i'ng;, Also in Jan uary, the nonprofit gr,oup Reptile 8: Amphibian ,Ecology International (RAE!) announced that all expedition to the rain forests of coastal Ecuador had found new'

70

'rr I ~jOO·: .. rj;lEI~ Ul~· .... PJI n

reptile S"- insects, and am phi hians whos 8 habitat is threatened by climate change and deforestation. Paul Hamilton, I,e,ader of the :RAEI Ecuadoran expedition, worries that some of these species :m,8lY disappear before they are EfVe']1 formally described,

1116' Caqueta titi monkey of Colombia (a remarkable animal resembling ,2, ,lieprEH::h,au.uj first described in Augut;t) Th s threatened, as, are Borneos Microhyla nepenthicola; the Old WClrld's smallest frog I{ WBO announced 'in Au,gust.), and Durrell's vontsira, a mongooselike carnivore from Madagascar whose' discovery was announced in. October. And things aren' t looking m uch better for plants. A team ofAmerican and Bri tish scientists, publi shing in the 2010 Proceedings cf the British. Royal ,$a,ci'ety; estimated that of all the plants on. earth, 80m.S 6o~ooo specie s remain to h e found, DisproportionatelYi, the scientists, say~ recently discovered species live in fragmented" ,fragu'e' h,abfut£tts-,8)nd therefore

'hi

tt ley, too; nl,ay number among' those

that are most th .. reatened,

REBECCA COFFEY

C,lo ck,wise, ffllml ~:ef~:

C\I!I~ll:Ii1iI'bil~:S C;aquerla

tili m,onkeY;i mUflmll'$,

wOl1tsir,a~! f\rom M;adi11ps(:ar;: an Ii Cetba/us'

Social tife B,e'gins iln teWomb

HU,MA.:NS ,ARE SO SOCIAL THAT' ,NEW,-' born b abies are able to imitate facial expressions of the' people' around them, In fact sociabiUty begins even earlier, in U'H~ womb, according to Umberto Castiello and bills team at the 'U:m.vers~ty of Pad ova. They 'used state-of-the-art ultrasound to monitor the movements of five pairs of fetal twins, between 14 and :1Il8 WEH~~k:S of ,ges'[ation~ The' results, rep orted last October, show that even the youngest fetusesin the smd;y:reco,g-' nized and responded to the other twin,

Wh,en reaching toward the' cotwin=espeeially around the' eyes

and rnouth-etheir motion was relatively slaw and delicate '\Vh,en the fetuses touched themselves, on the: other hand" they were lea s cautious I(although, thiey approached their own eyes and IDOUtll, more gingerly than other parts of their body). They were' rough"est toward the uterine wall, kicking and shoving it with force, '!tn SOIn,B 'Very primitive fo rm" Castiello

~f" I

says, 'it appears t aat the fetus, by the

seccnd trimester already has a sense, of 'self" thatis dLwffe':ren.t ftO,111 hitller~ ,

Andrew Mel tzoff the .p sychologi st 'who discovered. infant facial imi tation back in. the 1910S i.' agrees. !~lf these findings are rlght" he says, "the birth of sociality 'OC'CUf8 before physical birth -a fascinating prospect:"

:K:ATH.LEEN ,McAULIF,F,E

. b Iii •

1 es seem to t e' racing Ina

,'-

particular direction, roughly

aligned with 'the con stellation Centaurus, 'Ihe phenomenon was so unexpected that he conducted an expanded Sllll'"VBY; looking at more and brighter gal~ clusters,

The re-sults; relsas ed last March, 'not only confirm, the d ark fl ow b ut exten d its

. ID . ~....... "', iii,;.!' , , . ..' .. ' ~AII;.ID. . .l .. D

tel'S of galaxies scatter

the radiation in a 'way that makes it possible to determine how each cluster is moving. 'W]Jisn Kashlinsky plotted those motions, he determined that the' ,g.a].ax-

TRJ! ·V1S.w.BLE ED G:E, OF T..H.E universe is, 'by definition. the most distant thing that we can see, That does not mean it is th e :DTI.O st distant thing we

C- gY'lI ~oe-l1 l"iJO"W' ·'·~'v·\: ,Q'[ _ UJ.,I! .. U." .. _~., .t~. ._ ~_ 0 .,.

According to astrophysicist Alexander Kashlmsky Of,N.A.SA~S Goddard. Space Flight Center; something from way beyo:nd the edge seems to be pulling powerfully on. galaxiies in our universe, yanking them along, in. a motion be cans "dark tlQ>~v:

Kashlinsky and J['[,8. team noticed this phenomenon while' studying the co smic microwave background,

radi ation left over from just after the 'Big Bang, Giant clus-

known reach, ~'111is. motion p ersists as far as 'we can

see~: Kashlinsky 8ays ..

]\lothiIlg in. the known universe can account for the' dark fl.(Jw phenomenon. So Kashllnsky thinks the galaxies, are responding to the pull.

of matter and. 'Sn€'f;gy :lying beyond OU.r cosmic horizon. That uns E%3n stuff could be

at least a thousand times

.r; ..... rther n'U-1 t th all' th e ho 1- -]" ZO·- '1[1-'

,1Ii€llLIL,,~I!'~\!Il ~I.·,., .:. ~._ , _ .. "w. II, _.,'

an ,tll C,,fj'IU" s i!;, "a sli ah,i!"' tilt to ou r

'0:. .. 1LIl ~ c __ '!;i_-;;J< GI' . II!.. . . __ v.

universe,' he theorizes ..

Kashlinsky plans b) use

the European Space .Ag,ency~8 new Planck spacecraft to make refined measurements ofthe dark flow' to better understand what: is causing it.

h 'I!\.·'ii'D R~W -M~O' I[Ii'rGM- h ~.'i1' .lU~ .. 'I j _-:" =~', . : .. : •. : .. _.~. ,b~ ,"", £1.l·~1

7, 'Good Llsteners Get In.side Your Head

What is it like to ,get jil1,side iln-

DIlL., - - '-- L. - - d' V: I - d

_Iller pe rson s ~.ea.· ,I (IDIU a Irea.· y

klnow the ,answe F" ,accordin.g to Pdn C9·tO'1l ne UIIiOSC,j entis,t' lauren Silb ert, She' IP laced he:r$elf 'iin an fMR~ brai n scann,er an d noled

her Ineu mil respo'nSEi' wihen she· spm,kie abo at II vivid Imemory (two boys fighti ng' over h,er' at: her Irdgll school prrom)~ Ilaler' she an d her collaborato:fS scann ed the· br'llin s· of a group ,Oil vD,lunleers as ,'hey liste ned 'to ,I recordii og of her 'story ..

The D'l!Itcome'", pili b~ish ed last:

JUI1,e,. was f\emarkable~ Am,ong 'the lisl,eners, who paiia clese ,attent:j!o,n to the· story~as mellSU red b;v a sllIiblse ql en1: q uesti Q IiIna iire-b rain

a ct;ilvi~, pa mllele d: t he ,activity in Silb,ert's own br.aj'n," Mo re :surp'ris .. in.g, iii m ang ·the most atle!nlive list'snerS,t key brai n reglons I it IU Pi before her' words even came OUf~, sllJgges'tililg: antic:ipation of' what she would sal)' Inext j "The olo lie yotl a ntic.i1pate, someone" Ule more you're all,le, to ,enter thei Ii space',,"

Silb,art saysl AMfY' IIARTI

71

0,1 02.20111

"Fllro(Z)on" aloe,s, not 1I1IiIJoan l",sialic," ,1,1 least not among 'n",;. h-:,y ImtlGnfS; urbinng Saturnl~ A IFemark;able 201110 '"1-'m'~O'e '-rn'm IN-ii'S ·'If" 'C""!liJs;r, iii n iii III r nil.\. a IMilow;n "11"t"JI!' se'Ui!liJnl-h

I 'l!I!,b'" ul,,-j ,n"~1 ass I ~: !!I;!!l!il!ir.-JIII: , ~I-j :4!::,.!!ii;,I!~:-[

,'ealr orbiUng: tlUi] dnl,e dllpla net-,sh,owS! ,jlll,S,t hOlw' dJ1naimlic '~h:ese frig~'d! wor~,dis leallll,' l'Il'I!!',"

'Th;om;as liblmer a;nd Gordan UgiJ,rluJ¥ic'~ :gr,aprhic: dfHd;gJners; w1ho SiP eciialii\Ze! Iii AI iiJsd FtLJnomicll1 iMages, produ~ed Ihis port1Fait by mer,gin\1 t:WIO C;as,siniii

sh DIs: takenl mlinllilrtes. spa.'rt: as! the; p'l'\oll e whJb:;zed Pls,t Ence!ladus !1J1 Mar 1,8'!1 'Tita.ll] ,S:a~llI r,n~l,s, ~ arles,t mallin" d"Olmii'la~,es 'fl!ie view. ll:'~;s 'thi~ck" Il!Jjp,aquI' lorsnee

72

atmosphe'N rains I iqldd melUliulI8, w\hiclh flows iiinto lilakl!s ,0(111 'the Sln'lnaclll Ilhe! forellliQUnld! ae,lion tune comes, hOlD ijJlilother Sarturnia,g mloon~ 3,1 iQl-ndI1e-·wids! Ermlceladil!n;, wihh::lh emitsi IhUGe j;els; 10rl icy piartich;Js;" lhe'fle d~i'a.aUcalll" ba!c:lldiirt: Ilr title :sunl~ The 'm!atcrrialll

ihll' thsise IPillnnes mary originaie, ii'n alill IllIlnde!:rgJolUnd ocean before beii'nl, "OlflCifJd to 'IlliG .... 3001 de,grll lIFatirenil1ie:i~' surface, ,andl 5,pewed 0'IJ1 th mu,gh cr8ciks, at Ihe moon"'S: south poleTi 'That spook.,' line c!UHi~g aClE'OS'S the ,scene i,s ian edll~ign view of Sallllrn's~ ril1lp~

A~ IR[W GJR#liNT

TH-]'NlPii'T =y-OU -HA- - 'ti!'iE1 CLD A E' ,![iTiA ~N-'DA n-DS I{j,_ . .1, ..VJC._ -~"i G: . .fllJ.rl.,a:-\' '_:

of right and 'wIon,g written into

y,our brain? Think again. In .AprH neuroscientist Liane Youn.g and her coU·eagll.es at MillT and Harvard University reported that they 'had altered peoples moral j udgrnents using transcranial 'magnetic stimulation j' a. proced ure that. briefly disrupts.

''1j'1i Qlll''V'''-''~: p-'I'OcGQ~I·ng-' with ~, m agnetic ,JJ"l6._,·_Jl. w. 'I: ,,[.,". ~I~~ -: ::-.: 'rry.II. _ ' . I~ , ,1":- ~~.J. 'L .I~._ .~_

field induced by electric current,

Youn,g: asked each of :1;.,0 vchmteers to judge 24 scenarios that involved. lno.r.al]y questionable behavior, (On e example; Grace slip s her friend what she thinks is poi son but is actually sugar:. 11:16 friend :i s unaffected. How im m o r ..... 1I ·I··S' G"" races a ... tio n?') Then !['It.. G, .JL J J.. a-, ,j;:i(J, .... ":'",,,,,,'Ig 'IJ' iQ.1l;,;< .1, • .. ' " ,~ ;:,J.l"",

stim ulated the su bj eets' brains at

all. area near the right ear called the temporoparietal j unctio n, a .region theorized to playa role in our ability 'to figuT,e out others' intentions, and :rep·e,at;edl the: te sts.

Before and after; the sub] ects rated the scenarios on it sevenpoint S'Cru.,8; ranging from morally forbidden to morally permissible, Mer stimulation, her subjects w'e:f;(~~ consistently more :liik,ely to rank the' acti 11"'1;'10- s 0- f 't' h ;0 cha ira cter (ji Q Co' b ,10;1· n (1'

~.::I .[,IV. '. ~ ,"!'. .'~!L,... , .. _ !['-lil....._.~~ 0 ClbQl l[)~. ~,

..... loser to P erm '-'I· ssi bTI ,D~ th D'~ir g 1"'1, sw .,":"}-'II;;'I '4r ,vo~, _.'V ~." , 0In;) ._.'1.Il;i; _: ,,~,tlJ.i ~"".JJ.~. "._ ·u ,,~

ave~raged nne step higher on the SCaJlEL Young's interpretation is that when subj eets 'were zapped, tlley we:re more likely to focus (in this outcome [nob ,ii'1I, dy , r d 1· ed) ,fi.,l-.. oj; 1'] 0'- ,n- ·t 1], .Q; I· nten t

. !!.,;!! cu.,".. 'Ci< .. ',' I!.U.!£J..J._. '" 11l.J. I,L. :I!.IU.II. .

[Grace tried to pois on, her. friend],

Manipulating morality with

a. magnet may sound diabolical,

bu t You.n;g has no in terest in mind con-trot Her goal, she' explains, "is to Ie arn more ah au t w:hy' intention IS

m atter to '1Ll.!!;;I when w·· ',0 m ake m o,'i1,,,,,,,11 ." . c:~. ~.11 __ '4) " 0' . . .. ~.. _ Q " 11';lI!.· .I!.;O, ... ' ,i;I!Jl

judgnlents., DANI~L .LAMETTill

Fa C

YRANDS S

III8Dlulal, adarl ••• • NIDJD-lira.8,

Ba, 11IIla, ar Had a 81ara •• ar ,_ .... IKe.llesCa.pan'.CDm

1 ... 8 00· 2 75 .. 2 718 2m 0 Tbe O'KeelI"e"li Cmnpfll1}'

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UCIUDLDIIY ,

8 _ Mellilng Ice Exposes

the ast

A,s, i ee patcihes, melt ,8 roo nd the' world:. archae ol,ogists, are fin ding rem af kabll" preserved artif:ac,ts emerg.ng 'from mill ~e;nnia a,' deep f'r,eeze'~ Last ,AlP liilt Craig, Lee of th 9 ij niiwrs,ily af Color,ado at BOlddl,r announced the oldes,t disoovery yet: th 9 fOliElshaft of 31 1 O,400 .. yea r- D~d wooden dart'l n:to'Vered "rom melt .. 'i ng iice lnear Yell ow sl,on e' N',ational Park~ The slender birch object still show,s the ma~ks left by its makers sla,ne teels, A rtnaets made! of or;ganic materia!ls ,llike woodl-much ~,ess ~ i !(ely than stone to survive th e millennia .... give us ~anolhell' wjndow to the past,"' Lee ,notes ..

O'ler the past decade", "ice .. pakh arehae,ol agjsts'rJ have seoll red t:'he earth~ northemmost latitudes" Ilea' Ilooiked 'iartlli,et' sllnlllh in t'llie Roclky

MOlLlntains, hu ming in shad~ va1leys and ahlJng n DJlilh"',aci nB mOl!l ntaln slopes I, His saeeess was a im alter 101 t iiminlg ;8S mu,ch as strategy:

Olrganic artifacts !be,gin to decay the, m,oment the, iice melts III ae k. Wlhen' lee found ,the wooden d,art, j,t: was "IIi Ig U nd,er th e' ell ear blue sky, e,xposed,"' he says. EMit Y E.LERT

W~ en Universijty i(rf WalSi~iingt.or~1 biod~emist De'v~;dI Ba keu nE:M3ded heilip pried ~cfiin8' the structure! of' p roteins, he did not turn to his ,F'O' "lle'~:D'ue'e R;~r+he·,r. he d ecid ;8·d to

,v .~ '!.;;>_ 'I;:.lIiO:":~." GIll c~, .,;;;, '0 ...... 11, r;:;:;; "-v

let, the! wiholl:e, world part i;c~ pate,

,llncreas;ingly: scientists are r'ely~;n,g on such "\~rowd.sourcing:~·-calilliiilng on ord iinary citizens to volunteer their he!ip in ad dressing compl ~cated pmbllielms~ in 8akets! case, he helped deve:IJop lFoldiiit, .81 computer game thst chal'llenges pi,8Y-

e- IrC' to 'W" 'la!O~o and ,C'I!...'~k'·'f.:l p ro:IiI"e-··'·IIt"'ii ..... hans !",:: ~ .. ,.:_ . ~~f~ [!;_II U U·~ _.' ¥~ '~!PI -.IC!! _." _ .. IIL, _ ' I, [I '~"! [I tA 11 _ I~l

into stable structures, Illn Aug,ust a paper in Neture rev61aled [hart Fa Ild~lt plllayers~1

m est ,if"i,f" 'W·' h' om I!...I;:Jd·" [I r41 11.0. ,0:' r no" b ioohem -

U'~' - U ',' , I ~ II!~,_ iL~ c; .... , ,_. U",", co;

istry educetion S~ rpasssd or matched the pe rformancs of' a sophisticated pJrc1- tein-foldiin,g ~,Ig(ulithm on a of '10' puzzles. "People are better at ana ~y,zing lhe whdl e situatio ~I, D Baker say.s,. "Computers just approach prlobll,ems I~ando:mlly~~

Volllj nrre{3fS for t he IG~~ lalxy :ZOC) project have, classified a rni I 11111 on images from the" Sloa n Digita I Sky S u rve:y II ea dI ilrrl,g to a bout 20 scientitie publ ications and

74

ons gen uti ne :e ~Iig:ma: ,a psculier g;r'eenl intelrg~,lactic: b Ilob. Other crowd sourced p roiects ii'ncluidle Ilabel ing aeria I photos of MOI~gO!lia in a quest to find Genghii,s Khan's tomb and i1mp.ravii r:lg c~imatE models by pomg over WOlwld War ~ ship II:ogs 'for vvs'ather ii nto rmation,

GOrven~ment agencies, are, getting ~n on the action too, I ~gt~ng p:ro]ec~s on a new 'Web site, cha,lllllenge~i,gov~ a nd offsri ng prizes" In July a rs]ired engJineer'from INew Hampshire wanl $30,.()iOO from NASA for

a model t- hap·t fo ~e' ca st solar a C·t"I"V·i~" y w"1'1~h

'-1 -.... '.". I .. -.' . -' .",-- ; ..... ,', ." 1-1[" I' . '11 [1'1

I .... '''_ . ". , . ,... .. ,,,: .. :. ",: . .' .. " ". ,., .. :'.... ,,: ' .. ,".: "._ I

75 percent ClODU racy:, "T h e res a huge 8ppetib3 from people who ,are tJ1i 't scientists to aicttu,a,llly get invol'Jedilin soiience,,~' salys G ataxy Zoo prl noi pa I ~nv,estigat'or

IBrJtiiilh N,Ivy :ship I!og~ ,'r,o;ml

;W' !I.JI'W' III

.. Olli~~' ,ar' ~

:81i1 aIUow':~1iI1 Ic:itizen scienrtii'sls: to 'heilpi IlIianl&! cillllrU!lllsl Im,odels~

Ch r is ILii molt",

DA RLENE CAVA11IE,R

-L A sr 'V'[.'i; .;!;. n -BRITfSH 1L if'lTBON-OM-'lG'R S 'ifi'Dr'NI-ffij'i'iii 'I":!'lf-ED TH-E- -MO' ""'T' , :fil;;l! ,I, :i~J.'Ui ,,;: ~ ,lli·<, ~ .fi.J;;Ii, . ,",J 'I., Eo_ ,> ,!Il'.~ ,_lB"t",!I!. . \,1 .. , ,W·i ",I'g, .-

massive star ever seen: a b ehemoth we~ghil1g 265 times as much as our sun" S,Oo huge that it challenges astronomers' models of how stars are born, Those' models suggested that stars 111 ax, out at n.so solar masses, all}rthing merewas thought to be too unstable to coalesce, But PaulCrowther of the University 0:£ She'ffi,e~,d! examining images from the Very Large ~elesco:p'e in 'Chile and the Hubble Space Telescope, identified four young stars exceeding that mass in, RI36~, a stellar cluster 16,5,,000 light-years away;, The new' heavy'w!~dgbt" dubbed R13,6,;;tJ; shines as bright as 10 million suns ..

Normal stars form when. clumps of gas and. dust collapse due to glavity,. but Crowther slays this is inadeq uate to explain, Rl36IOO,. Possibly it beefed. up by colli,dlin,g' and :m,e~ng wi th other young stars in the' cluster. As, for the fate of these huge stars, he adds" "Ihey could explode as spe ctacular

d 1 - - ts b ] -' d ~ STE'P-H=E N ORN-'-E S

C!fU' p' grn-- I"V' "~l!~ i!li 'I1il ~Ji!Ji,;'r~1 110' 1"'~j"FI''1i,n, i!l 'FilII" '. J ." l]l lllI~' . '.~ . " j" . . . - .

~ ... ' . ...., " u>~ ClL.l,~ , !l:iQ.'!{~ ". '. ."",,!I!.l,!u,JIiCI!;.I.,w.~_ .'!o"o, '''~'.'' .... , ,", ,\ '_'" '. , .....

scored only a. m oderate 4J~, on. his 100- point intensity scale, so he correctly predicted th at it would not s:pread. far beyond Chile,

S alan nations around the world; . - -I d '" - g' 'r - dll"'- It al Pi - tu aa]1

me U __ ins J1:, ia, .. a y, 1:'Of"_.I!.g_."

and Taiwan; b,egan calling s.ong to inquire about his prediction system. He envisions !8'VentLUl,aUy dep]:oyi,ng one G PS receiver for eve',ry' 12, miles, of coastline to' track the strength of

1..::II":;,l:i'£!i,],of'i;p;;i'll'1ia tsun ;t!I']r'1""II']"'C; ~~';i'"]iPS" ad ,~I,p a LIl,,-=,,'r 10 JL v, ,.w.]..1I.!,o ,I ", ,iii. iU.. LUI. ,1;1'" U" 'IQ!.., U,g. , "

tsunami prediction system based, on GPS tle,amngs:, he tested. it suecessfully for the first time th is past year, Songs technique predicts the exact s cale of a tsunami by tracking g"ound motions to. estimate how much water has been displaced

on the ocean flcer=-and, by' extension, how much en.e'rgy:is feeding the wave,

W,h en the Chile earthquake struck; Song's system showed that an underwater fault had. slipped almost 1Il0 feet, poten tially enough to produce a tsunami is everal yards high. But thsn Song crunched the numbers and g,81W that the' tsunami

4 ··<,ardstic 'i ro ,. ···n er Waves

'WHIEN ,A .MAG.N.FT'UDE 8...13- EJ\ltTHquake' ravaged Chile in February,

the' Pacific Tsunami 'Warndng Center in Hawaii put most of the Pacific Rim on alert. With no wH:Y to know how big the resulting ocean wave :might become, the, center's ,ge'Op':hysicists had, no choice but tu prep ate for th e worst.

Aiming to. do better, Tony Song of 'N' iLSA" d'i a.'lin.,;:i ed '!li m meh more precise

,".',a·:·:·",~· ~'V,.Il.Pi;).~\~ Q"I, ,I,~ . ."_ i..L ,~,.I,,!v,~~ .",' "~'_'=>.I!.~'l;il

new dimension, a more complete picture that is ve,ry.fast: Song says, "~'We will tell not just 'what the tsunami is; but what it will b e,:j'

RIeHAB.D ,MORGAN'

denbill College and Jona,th an G ~en of 't'he U'iS~ Geofog'ical Survey' !,xamined 1S"millionryear-olll Nevada Ilava, they mund a,vidence 'that: the! ptanet:'s ,magnetic field sh ifled several thD IlIs810d HIneS 'faster fha,ill normal a,t !lleast oncel•

W'hen Illa'la cools, illocks. away :8 reco[~rlI of the earth's [malne·tit: lieldl~ Examii'ni'ng: lavas tihat: cooled in two consecut jive ,ears ~ Bogue! and! G:llen

A Supel fast Magnetic- Shift

E'1."e- ·r".20- fi'oo iii'Ii, ~a- rs n'-r so "h 0

1:.11" .. s· ,'l"iJJ-- ".11 ,,-' ~ v ~,' Ii. IIIiiii

earth'~ poles trade ptaces" Typica'll~ it, 'takes. several '~housan dl yean" But when geologjslts ScoH: Hogue of Oed .. ·

found ,the field swung ,53, degr,ees, from east: to DORIiI, about 1 degree I, week" Ih ey 'thou,gINt ,ttl ey had erred, lb ut more dela i1led tests co"nfilf:lmed the' pattern, wh ~ch t bey announ cad ii III Se,plembet" 'Th e on I, other evidence, ':0 r rapid field chang~' comes, f'ro lID 0 Iie,gon ,llava an al,z,ed ii Ii 198,5.

Bogue thinlks the qlll:i:clk shift t'Dok.

IP1ace near the end of a miUel1llnia .. ·

,BIGIDGY

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long polarity' rey,ersa II, when I' slow magflo,tic drift accele rated ,d raman .. ,cailly for r,easons ulilex,P,laii'led~ 1"1 suspect 'it.'~s a 'very herkYiij'erQ, IlIll1stead, pr-oceS'St" he' says~

Fill rther :study could hel:, geollogists understand the bJrbulent mo .. , tion of: 'rbe earth's II j:quid ,cor,e, which gener,at,es t:he mag,lnetii e fi:eld anld may initiate its fli ps. MARA, GR~ N8,AU'M

published in the' journal .. Pediatrics carne to a "V" QI"y' ,;4I',i ~a"r,gn··t con c ']·iU·C"I· 0-: n, 6····" n di n a' t']h' at c. ~ -li'~ ,-,

. ~ :' U.J!,l.!lit; ~ . _' ~V.II, .:._ . _ r.;li ',.. ~ ,lll.,a _ ],,,U._ ",_ ll.lll

dren of lesbian mothers experien ce he·a]tl1JY· social ~ emotional, and. psychological development, 111.8 study; led by University of 'California, San Francisco psychiatrist Nanette Gartrell, included 7,8 kids conceived through .. donor insemination and raised by lesbian mothers. Be~nni:ng in 1.986, Gartrell interviewed women :] n San Francisco, B oston, and Washin.gton, ·D,.C .. ~ durru:ng, pregnancy and again w hen their children turned 2, 5~ ]O~ and 117'; she al so use d cU:]].:i:c,al'C]ue8ti.onn.adn~'s to define behavior .. At ][7 those' child r,en

Sa •.. _8- Sex Paren .. 'S Do,NoHarm

:EVE1~~, SIMC.E us. SPERM: BANKS BEGAN' TO accept Ie s bian clients in the: ]nid-·JIl'98os~ critics have argued that same-sex parent:in.g could damage childrens psychological well-being . Injune a 2.s,-;yea~~ ongoing :su:tdy

a nd his O·~t:... inese co .. 11 ~,F-!l.o:::.·allllll;i'!l;'E' d J isco v·:-

c:l1 ", ~ U 0 "_ ~,~ y -.: 'W: .. _1.,:" II C"r.'c;Jib tJi!V·1:J; '_ :lll~y'. __ " .-.

ersd evidence! O"f' even older agricu ItUiral fields b'e"n"e' ath t', he"': excavated hO-)IIIC";e.,C'

~~ ,~, " . c ... 11;1 I~. 1,..,.. ¥.A.IL;;1l;I V o~.r;;;;;; '_ "'" ~'11;0~'

and a larger buried town about two. miiih3S aw.al~l. lr.~f these a re preserved ~ n the e i"!I m· a. w·· ,.!':I\J ~ he. houses .t';l re ·ltW·'-· 0: U ld

o ~. '_. ~fOJ v - '0;]- I~,~; UUI":;:'~~ Q u~ Ii!.."'" ," '",

rea Illy turn out to be. a staggering' de~ve!I~, oprn e nt :f.II 'K" 'l'I...Jlda r !f""~UC"

, ...• I: I" Ibj , .... (:I .. ' 6~ 3aj;;ll"

I r11 2003, 'Chiiinese a rehaeologists bega ~I excavati ng ,pi ~es of ti lies and brii c ks. in ,s,8Iny,angzhualng" ,E) rural town, located inl the cent rail plain om Chi~'6'., What t.hey

f·OUln....!l1 ·SVFlOO....!l F-!l.d th S"I'lf ~, .... , ·1'11....!II.ac·t', e' vpa . .....+\"1:!

'- , Ii il.iLII '. A'->6c;:U'c;:·.. . Ii II, .. 1 ''';';' !Ul1G~'.. '. ' .• ,;. . ,G(,j- L!OIf~

The 201103 'find was buried intact by :2:8 inc hes of flood sed iim ents, which formed a protective layer over t he 'vi I tage. K ~ d der t hi i n ks a Im·13iSS ive: late-su mmsr flood of th eYe Ilow R~ v'e r h it so q uii e k Ily th at D aople 118!ft be hind sveryth lil~,g" from ~ erge {5lr.iind i ng stones to tiiny coins, ~~ add ition ~ mpressions of mu I be rr~l '1Ieav'es., considered a sign of silkwormproduction were 'found, indicafiing that Sanya ngzh uan@' was one of the places 'where the Si Ilk Road began,

130 ZIHANG

t~ons~: an e'.nrtilre limm:aol] late:~y prese rved v i ~ lage dratiii ~Ig back more than 2,1[)OO years to the! H an DY~lals:ll!.y. The S~1e consets of flour w'alled houses-each the resi-

dence .nr'" ~ IF! ElI ........ i5n....!llad 'om ~1~J.'__c;,~ 1i'l1i"1I"'LII ~ nd.o.....lll , C;;~. 11-' ~ v!1 ';:;1 !III'I1;O.;I\.l'';;' . U~: I a' i I~ :, -,;) lUI I III 'l..,)'ullill., IG!IJ!

by weills, toi ~e~ts, ponds, and trees.

lin ,J uly~, arc ~~aeoliogis.t 'if rist ram K.idder 'of Wash i ngton Un iversii,Y' in 8m.. Lou i s

scared higher, on. av,erage~ than their peers in social and academic competence and.lower in aggressive b ehavior and social problems,

The results have appeared in ·].egaJ1 briefs,

d . d .~ "Th

ocnmentaries, anc . researen pap,ers .. ". ~I.S

study is continually brought up to counteract .I1O:o.- science -based allegations against s arne- sex marriage or adoption:' Gartrell says, She admits that there is more research to be done, however, 'By including 0111y mothers 'who s:onght donor insemination before it 'was largely accepted, the study does not reflect th e diversity of female

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C'ouP' lOIS 'irLgj 11 sm g of'i; 1'1 ren to . ay. Jl ~ ~ B· A 'roTH

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S' aer Electro, ..• ics

iEilCO- D'U . .;; 'fi."i"·O·"1I"1'..'I"JC!m, PO:·I'fi.'fT Fom! 'TU'iC'i "H'tI'iS:I·n'il',f:ITS 10." . 'JL~ N'-I'·. J., r. ,~~ ." -.,!.I!.~ , ~ r..: ~~ , d,c, 17" .. - _.Ii "_ j ~.lL.li;J! .. I

'who h ave been wor1\ting to make our electronic devices continually smaller and faster, The wires inside such devices are now' so thin that electrons sometimes have trouble passing through them:

A microscopic bump can seem like Mount Everest in a copper strand one- thousandth the thicknes s of a human hair;

Butlast yB:ar a group' of res earcher s at Princeton University- revealed .. materials whose surfaces ,aUow electrons to move unimpeded past pesky obstacles, These intriguing materials, called topol.ogi.'c,aJ. insulators, do not allow' electrons to p ass through (hence the "insulator ~ part 01:£ their name] but their surfaces have provedto be outstanding ,at shuttling electrons along,

In a study 'whose results were published in.

Nature last July; ]p,hysd.C-is:t.Ali 'Yazdani us/ad a. powerful micro ~H::Op e 'to track electrons as they encountered stairlike barriers on the surface of antim t\·ou '!lI materialth at sha orDS 'C"e'·Vi.:n ........ ·~' charac '~." .: .. v.' .J; Q. .] .. '~c~J!. .. :. ". g. Q .. 'O!,.!I!.t;. ~- . ·!!.~.:.Ji'ru. '""".I .~_ 0,"';"'-

teristics wi til. topologieal insulators such as· bismuth telluride.In a typical copperwire, most ele<c:itron.s, wollid. b ounce back :fr.Oln such an obstruction a;nd. the rlsst woUld glet aJ)sorbedj! imp Bdrn:ng

th e' fl.low~ ~'N:ith c:opper:, surface ~n1.perfe.ctiong sl(JW things do\Vn. an.d CFleate u:nwanted lU9at:~ YaZodani. eXl)lli.ains,. Will'll]. al1trn:mQny~ h()WBVer~ ne,ady 11 alf the electrons paS81ed rl .. g·h.t. across, th.e ·ba:rr.ier~, Yazd.ani tb.tnks that. topologiical insulators Inigbrt strut to rep 1 ace (:opp er in Il6'xt-g'e:neI'ation. eh3ctroni.[:s~

.ANDREW GRANT

77

'''The' ocean seems I ik,e a f'eature ~ lies'S place," ~sa,s, Dav1id Sims of the IMarine Bl01logjcal Associa~ian of

Ihe' United Kingdom!, "Mow does; a

sh arik 'find Iprey w'lIen iilt dees liI't

Ir'ea Ily know whe:re it is wh:en it mov'e5 ,ar,OJj ndi?" lin June Ite re,ported the an s,wer: The a ni mIll forag:es, along a 'cl'uTI,ple'x m alhemalicid pattern called a levy' 'Hi,gIlt, a type'

,Shalrks Use Malth to Hunt

78

of: tlattall! IMolieOver, a ,shalrlk"s move.ments, m,ore closely co:nformlo that pattern 'when "Iood is scarce, sllIgge Sling 'that lilllese routes optimize' the I'i kelihood of fin ding a meal,.

Sims and his colleagues ,tagged 65 marIne anima~s f'rom 14 ,species sind tracked them for ,8 total of 51,7001 allYl .. T he, observed tihat th., ,animals,' Imove'ments traced out

Levy fl~ght'$, tight bundles, O'f ,mndom motion punctuated by llong~:r leaps~ Those pattelins iUil9 sell'f-slmilar; 'th,at is, the,' look th e SI1iIiIe ",~1iI an

a rea the :sii'ze lof 81 footiDall fileld or ,th,e size of an IOCeallilj~" Sims sa,s~

Levy nights Inaly be a 'com mo n 'Iolr,a,gin,g pattern that eva ~ve d in malny specie 5, Ion land and in the

s'ea, Sims suspects, ~TEPH[N OR:NES

,ADVE:IRTIS,IEMENT

Th'·· i . .' ' - ct of life th 't·· mites '.', .. "." trols

iere IS one a,sp,e,c '" o ire I~., al unues, controts

. ','. d aitects 'al""} aeonle T-' 'hat :,,,: .. ,'.,i_:', ,""'-" "'·,·:..,· .. , .... :,t··, oflife "'-, t·"h1c.c,

,an, -JJJ'c,--- '~I(_, pelop e,~ ,'" al , one aspec -' ,0' lIe lS, 1,I,e

11 .' • f -- -" t .. ·· - ~- - 'I' I" .-. - - -' 'T' 'he ~ -- '''t", - - - -- tr -I'

co ecnon 0 na urai taws. .r ey umte, controt.

and affect 'human life no' matter' what people's race

, '-" ---', '. ",',.-".'. ' " .,' . '-' -,'--' '----' ". -'--' ,---- - "- ._ - -,' . "- .' -'-~ ,',' .. ',. '"-"'. -""

. . . ." . .

d d h hi 1 h I'll

gen . er, or cree or wnere on this pi an' t u ey .ive,

Consider that whoever or whatever created the laws of physics also created another law to unite. control

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and a''''::ifj'- ifect peo •• ople's re ation ships with 0, me anot .. her,

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R' .' L s Toll 1:1]' h ·'X ~ h·':·f,r~arll.yl!f,. 'f'fet'er,,' "~

.1906-=,1989

The problem being add res sed; here relates '[0 the fact that people unknowingly unite against one another and seek a kind of control that affects 'not only' their health and well-being but culm inates in, death,

If you ,al'·~ a. new reader of this subject matter, be

"P""[I ep ared "'0" . If 1 - a pi ····]e'gs,a' nt ;Qi h 0' c ·'k.-

.. v, .~ .. i':'LJL .. s ',. 1:1. ,,: ~ :< ~ .. _ a .• '_ .. " ll'!. ,'_',' '. I;"',il

Whoeve,r 'air' whatever is the creator' revealed nature's law oj right action to 'the mind ,of Richard 'w. Wetherill in 19'29~ 'The Iaw cal s for people to 'be

-. ti '" '1' I' ".,' id h" ", - .',.' t " - t- .. ·11". - O'-'~d~'O th laws - f-'

ra'"lO.na an, .' . 'ones, . 0.0 ll, olnJl,Y l.e6~ll.'II1.b I .. ' ,18 at:: S 01

physics but also t~) be rational and, honest in 'their thinking and behavior l oward one ,31 El'O t her,

After decades of rejection, the behavioral law' is as. viable and effective as when created, whereas people's behavior, in general, has 'been becoming more and more blatantly irrational and, dishonest,

Despite the fact 'that compliance to every law of

'l,t .. , '. .'.' "~ ~ 'h '. - d

pnysics requires its specmc .rIg ",'" action '£'0 sueceeo,

people's behavior toward one another, whether nobile or ignoble, was deemed to 'be a matter of persona] choice,

Wetherill used words to describe the elements of' nature's law of behavior such as rational, logical, hon ... , est, appropriate, moral and true '[,0' th.e facts, and, he also, cautioned that the law', itself is the 'final arbiter of what is, right beha vior: The formula states: Right action gets right results whether it "elates' to laws Qf physics 0'" the la'w' ofbehavior; 'whereas 'wrong results in eisner case indicate fa,i'l.ure prop'e,rly to clomp'ly~

There "'8 one .equirement of the behavioral law that people need '£10 give careful attention, Rational and, honest '~s.ponses in their relatE,onshi:ps w,~th Q,n,e another must b'e maide s,pec,ifi,c..al~,:y t!o satisfy the law a.nd no,'t to s.atisfy '~lhemr particular exp1ectations",

O'Id.ina.ri ly pe,op]e e~l]:nd:u.ct th,eir relati!onsllips t,o sat =, isfy 'thei.r :p;urposes~ none of w'hic::h q'-.alify according to n:atur,al law" S,uc.h be,h,a:V'm 0,'._, 'blowever,. d,o,es e,x_Pilai'-

why the earth ;'8 population is not bei _- ,g peacefully united contra 'il,od' nor fav ora bly a--".t:-.t'D'c·,·:,t:o'd:-,'

_ _ ~IJ,~ ,-" __ " _ '_'" _' 'I __ ',~ _' "I ,lUI, '"',,,lL ,1l.,Q, , .: _ .. ,l·:.: - ,~JI~: I~I._ !til

Do people intentiona ly refuge to accommodate the requirements of gravity for instance? No, 'they do, their 'best to keep their balance 0'-(," recover it when needed, Behavioral responses require that same attitude.

Do net act for personal reasons; act because a selfenforcing natura aw requires people's o bedience.

T h o " ,S" e' 'W" h 0" I ,g'I",0, "f' '~I om' ,~'m l' IIIJIiI- 'W:· : '1" ,~'In.., the 3' 1r"'C" : 0' 'U nts '0'" .- f c :'jf"\Q --

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ation 1" n 'C1 cri Pi ,'11 'IiI,I'\:: S· w nl- reali ze .,' n, h rat the fi r 'S' • .' , wr '0. 'n '(J' ? ct

1ti_~J!I, J!I"iI = p;:,)< _ = .. y_ ... =JL ,,Ij,iIo.,.;'_,,""=,,,_ __!!J.. ~ =_ = .. =~~ u _I!l.

of the created beings 'was to disobey. That wrong 'be= havior ended the perfect situation that had. existed, and it brought about the predicted 'wrung results",

Whether those accounts are actual or symbolic, they illustrate 'the problem,

Far' age:s' whoever or whatever is the creator allowed people to control their; behavior and suffer the ,resltltin:g troublesome problems but also created Q' natural lD'W 0/ behavior that when ,ide'Htifi!e,d and

b d '''t l II' iii th' t ~, t.1I

~I e ·~1';~;···:,' u': I'n' .~' es p' ."",~~,. ~I a·,.::.1 ,~ .. O:·.~ :W· >'i'~n" g'. 1 'I ,.; ·e .. ·· .m~.· -:.: .' I~l e·.·::.:ln.' r"l~lJ! ," :. ~'

lUI' .:;r:.- ..,_,~1t;..1!J!i ,iItr'Uri!t:r;'1 .. , . If, "_" .. ... lUI' ';J~)' It;.

be'n~fits that then control and ~ffe,ct their lives.

several natu .. ral-law essays and $,e'V€ll books desc ribe the changes calledfor by' ~~ho'le'ver or wh;a,teve'r createll nature's behavioral law. TI1;e material can be read" clow,nl'(J'ia,d:e,d, ,and/or lJrinte!d' FR'EE"

This ,p'ub,lic~se'rvice' ,meSS(lg'e i,$ jro'l1t ,a .self-filianCrt'dj, ,n,onpr:qfit ,g'roup of'fo-r:me.r st;udents ,of" Mr., 'Wetherill" Please help' by' d,irecting otite,r.s to our' 'We,b'site~ For more' injo Ylna,tiofl 'write to ~~ The Al'plh,a P ubli'sh.i,n,g' Ho,use~ ,PO Bo~' .2!,5j'~ Roy'ers/cnr-d" PA ,]94,68'",

Gre··I-e·-1n··

. , .. I

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IN SEPTEMBER. :RE81D ENTS, BEGllN :m.oving moo Masdar ICi:ty! a 2.7-squariemile €lxp1srim:ent in. ultragreen living ,taldng shape . in '[he: desert outside Abu Dhabi. 11~,e: $20 billion city aims to be the worldsmost sustainable; a '(:0111- munity of 40j.oOO residents and 5MOO commuters that is oompletely carbonneutral, Masdar has already lost some sparkle, though, Designers scrapped plans, to produce the city,~s renewable-

onlY' energy supply on-site, ,A fleet of s elf-driving cars zooming through underground. tunnels is planned, 'but for now there wHl just be street -Ievel electric: vehicles. Still! the city will serve as a test lab :for technologies that could be deployed less dramatic ally; but more meaning fully; in conven-

tional cities, MARA, GRU.NEAU,M

.so

ENVIRDNIIIE~~. _

atlur,aI Cycle ells

A'· G'· ·'··1 .1

.' ,p ne· •• · acrers

1 h e ea rth's rnou ntan k~e is not dl~ sa pp e E;u'lil ng f rom h um al n act i vii:t.y' all one, according to S'wiss glaciologists, Natu ra I s hifts ijlr~ ccea n cu rrents cou Id aecou nt for a bout ha Ii tlhe! melting of Aip~ne glaciers !iir~' this decade, Matth~as H US;5 and co ~ll eagues at the U n~ versiiity aT Fr iibou rg reported ilr1l ,J U [1;9..

Huss gathered more t hen 10QI years. of field m 981sun9 rnents aeri,alll photographs" and local 'weather logs pertsi ning' to 3{) large Sw~ss :~llaeiers to bu ild computer mode Is. {l,f each, ~dentifying fast. ms It ifni th e 19'4,Os ,9 nd in the past

couple of decades. This cyc~e: coincides with th e natu ra I rise and fa II '[)T sea surface tempelrat t]lrEH5 in the N o rth Atls ntic, which flluctllU1tS! lrlatJI,g!~ Iy O~2 degrse Cs Ifs.i us 9velry 60 yealFs as warm c urrents shiirft H C)W9'V91r, at IIe18 st half the dec~li ne iin A,I p ine ice du ri ng the pa:s115,Q Y06J3 rs ls "csrta iiniy du e to hu man -i nduced dll~mate cha nge," h e S'~lyS,.

H uss plans to c ~ar~'fy the future of the earths land ~ce by ,extBnd~ng h iis model

if£tT-11k. a b'llg- q II ,liES C+·I;"'i; n ~! IJ,.., ES if:' o:::.i\~'C" "is IJ,.., FLW' +0

II ~:Q- ,.' .• ~. uest 'V' - il 11'lld ,;J~!J'.5,.. ,;j, ~ Illv r t :

a pply this to ot her gjllaciiers and make iift r9 levant on a globe I scala. !

'T he UI nee rta ~ n ty a bou t g'~o b 81111 iiice r,em reat fu el ed co nt nJiV,8 rsy in 20110 when the lntergovernmerrtal Penel OIn C~iilmate Cha nge aeklrrlow~edged a blunder: The groups 200;7 cleim that H ima~8(y,a n gjl\a ciers cou:lldl mls Itt ,away bY' 203,5 W'ClS, they adm itted, poc,r:lly sourced.

[M~ tV IELERl

'TIiH! darkJ 'rocky :siIlIrf:aces; to n Triiifthorlill MlolLlliltaiilil ilA tlhe ·Swiss Alps ;ottes,t tal iC1olDsidlsr,albJ1e, :lliaci;!r' retr,eat,

43,252,00312'74,489,856,0001 pass, ble 'Starting positions~ Someone dubbed the effort:

81 :searclil "or ~God ~s number,'" ignoring: the theological consen~ sus that lEi nslein"s, ma:xij'm '''God does, n01 pia, dice'" is, nke~, to 31Pply' to YO"YOS.t ·sn nkies, Rub:i k's CubeS,11 and the 'whole r,ange of' handhe~d hUlman illililusem,en.ts.

'W'hatever you ea II it, the' searclh has eaded, Ilnl :2010 a

R--bik~s .•

u _ .

le,ube Decoded

Since its invention, Ru bi k's, Cube ha s ta U IiItedi mathematic la ns trying 10 'figure, the, maxiiimum numb er of move's n,B cecSSiUY'

to solve j:t "rD. ,alnr of its

malin of' 'whi'zzes laId' ba Ire '~he

U'pl ~flil1g: tr:ut'h: As Ihopelessly' S(:Jn'imbled as ,one,'s tube' may ,ap-

pear" one ii's never' mOlr'! t:han 20 moves, froml ~end,ering eaoh orf its six faces a solid color. "We, were secretly hoping: in our tests that there' wou'I:d! be on.e th at 1\9qu'i'red 21," team membelr Morl:ey D3Vii.d .. sen, a imathematician a1 Kent State WI,niv.rsi'ty~ tolld the IBBei BIt i. was· not 1,0 be. IBRUNO MAD DOl

HELEN FISH:ER~, A lUOLOG1CAL

an thropologist at Rutgers Urnversity in New' Brunswick, New Jen3'ey;. knows all. ab out lov,e .. She has observed the brain, regions associated Wiltll. romantic love light up as a man galz,ers at his inamorata, both in new relationships and in decadeslong' marriages, Fisher seems to hays b ecome a bit j aded by years ofHallmark moments, however, ~Who cares ab out people who are' happily in love?" she wants to know; "It's when youlve' been rejected that you turn into a menace" So she has started exploring the' science cf heartbreak instead.

In a study' published in May, Fisher and her colleagues asked ,15 people 'who had recently been dump ed but 'wens still in love' to consider two pictures=-one of the former partner and one ,of a neutral, acquaintance= while an. IVlRI: scanner measured their brain activity. Wh.en looking' at their eKe S'! the spurned lovers sh owed

ti . ty . t C t:u... b · t rd

;:fl,C IVl -: In pa.rs, or tne nrams reward

system, just as happy lovers do, But the neural pathways asso ciated 'With cravings and. addictions were activated too, as 'was a brain 'region associated with the distress that accompanies physical pain.

R,ej ected lovers also showed increased neural tB's,po:nse in regio ns involved in. aSS'9 ssing behavior and. controlling emotions, "These p eople were working on the' problem, thinking, what did 1 do; what should I do next, what did I learn. from this,' Fisher s,ays,. And the longer ago the: 'breakup was, the weaker the activity in. the attachment-linked region. In other words: LOVI8 hurts,

but time h e als, VllLETUE ,R.O S S

81

La_lp! hOllllde,1rS II i ~ this, 'o,ne W,ID dler seress Ih,!! Rat: ,el~r !sl!I!liface of Racetrack P~aya~1 a dr,' lalm bod ini Death YaII,If' :Nation.1 Pa'1if( ii1il'CaU~ mr'nisI, l~elvinllon,1 furrows but: no hhidt of: what :propelled! Ih,eml' Jlas1 s!l!ltnlfier~ NASA~s, Cynlth'f.a leheU'l1 mQ' hive di[sclvemd' Ihe'if' !ICrell: TlIJIe' r:oeks~ sime Wlilhi~1 slHJiall1 hUfldre d pounds,! pmbaJllJl'y :111 •• on col .. lar,s of ice' 'Illiel 'fo:mml a_follln;dl their basJeil' Wltenl Ain lor snowmelt web; l)he, 'vclllll, the co~llars, ,aet as, IfolatiODr devices, IC'ilIellllq saJ,s~, The bluldlers, '~hl;n :sUde II, easi~~' 'Ihat' hi'gh Willl;dl ean selila 'I,he,m scoo:lilFlI, ilmpfob '

abl', land beID1itaU", aCit.lt'r;lIe slitk: ~surku:;e,", WlilLL H~I~iT'

IIIlDIY

99

One in. every 10,000 chi'c'kens is born gyna,ndroln0 ~plhic~ half mall e and half femllle', Legend has, it that: sach birds w,ere once tried as 'the ''lspiril ... panneJfs'' Gf witches. Now' developmental bio!llogis,t 'M tclla,el en nmn has In 8'xplanation that is

a bit more :scie nflirfic, if nea,m1y as bizarre" "We iexpected tOI find t)ha~ the :b lrds had ,abnonmal ce~lls,"' says

s

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Seclrets olf ,·he: -Genlder Chic,ken

82

C~ihl'ton, wh 0, works at the Rosl in llilstitute inl Eft inburgblJ Scot~andll

I nsteadl he found 'health" Imale and female' ce II[s~ These cal ts hee p; the'ilr identity even 'when inj;ectedl ii nlo an embryo of t be' opposite sex,~ indicating 'I hat their ,gander is innate'.

The discovery that leach cell in 311chi'cken can be inherently' mals' or female is a huge d.l'parlure flliOm

biolo,gical dogma, whidh holds that hormones cont.ml sex, characteristics in vertebHltesii Gender~impri'ntedl eelh may ,pist in us, too~ "Male

and female! eeills, mi,ght respond sllgtdly' differently to hOlill1ona~ sillilals, whioh may pal1iall, e~xplail!l differences in male ali1dl #emale beha,vlor and suscepti bililty to some diseases, " 'Olinilol1l Sa:P", snlJ!l N,EWM,AN

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From ,8, lush Australian coastline to an ancient seabed in Kansas, the research 'behind the year's top 100 stories extends far and wide, But why :let the' scientists have an, the fun? Here 'w'e present a sele ction of places where enterprising travelers Gall experience some of the' discoveries for themselves,

#3'8 Guatemala Ct~ty j~~ S·lnk.k,ole

i"'"'!rn ''Ii '" ni tn , £!;I~Q '~I].Q, phenom ;Qll' 0-']1 of sin kholes

.JLlu 'r-~ .~, -e ry~~ 1Ur. .. ~ .. ,.~ 11.., .. -e ' ~" ; . r ~ . U I PQ. . ro. _.U~.IIr"~~

you need go no farther than Plorida: abundant shall . ow lime stone deposi ts and a. 'WEt climate make the state one nf th e

:lDO st sinkhole-ridden places in the world. At Devils Millhopper Geological State Park, travel back in time while descending 120 feet into abowl-shaped sinkhole" Hike to Cherokee' Sink, a water- filled sinkhole at Edward Ban 'Wakulla Spring'S State Park,

Or scuba [live into Leon Sinks. Geologi-

cal Area and '~Dq)lo.re more' than ,30 UTile s

of subaquatic cave s. NEAREST' iU:RPORT::

Jacksonville or Tallahassee 'WiLL H,UN"f

#50 Glant' heatsfa,ric Filter Feeder

TIle 7s-:rnnill'],on-Ylsar,-old, remains of the massive Bonnerichtkys are in the collection of the Ste'Jnberg Museum of Natural History in Hays; Kansas .. The [urn bled

b ill '] d ,. di ,,'. -1 d

nones, at], JL nest ea in sediment, Inc Uc:_'6

the fish's ribs, fins; and skull, The fossil

is curran tly accessible' to. the public onlY' upon, request; but the museums curators hope to have it on di splay by early zon, 111e Ul U~~H~um ffils'o fea tutes other ere'at-ute s that s"han~d tJl,e oce'€!.ns with this flITt.er feede'r.. :NEARES,T AJRP'Q',R,T: Wi'chittm

VI(~TORliA TANG

86'

, I,',

#.52: Tne Large' Hadron Coll'lder~ 'Wh]le the Large Hadron Collider is at 'work smashing protons '00 help phys;i(:i sts understand dark matter and other mysteries of the universe, you can vi sit (:ERN',;. the org.anization masterminding the, operation. The

$..1LoO' billion collider itself is off- limits, housed some 3,00 feet below the Swiss- French border in a 17-:milel-long tunnel, but a" free half-day tour includes afilm, a short lecture,

d ",. b d 'I

an ._' a VJlSJlt to an, a'ovegJou]]~_, acce erator,

1liIi.7fE· . .t. D''iEi~~T' jo,'fIj'RP-"O' "R" '-T'" Geneva W' 'H

J['W '-~I;I! ,..to "_ :- ...... 1,1_ Iii ," ,~1., I~'V'", .. _.I .OIl!I

#53 Twoi-,Tno'usa·nd~, Year-,Oid Pitl

11 , .. l.~: ~.1 ki ,~'1! d' .e.. •

Ie merncai ..• t sill.vage. .rrcm all, ancient

Greek shipwreck is among many Mediterranean treasures housed at the Arehaeological Museum of the Territory ofPopuJlonia in P:]_o:n~ibjno; ltaJly;, The museum traces the coastal regi(ln~s history with exhibits of ancient ceramic 'W:ases; antique gokl, silver, and brOI1Z1e ccins; and a sooJh -century B"IC~ reconstruc-

tion of an, Etruscan banquet hall, Piombino

• 'ilk.. "' . ..:11 ~ R 'po . .J

is a snorttrain n'U'6 tmm tome ori-isa, aCnLU

a :ferry will take you to beautiful, Elba ISland; 'where N apoleon lived out. his exile, NEAKES,T

.Ii lI'D'inO' ·O'T. II> P' 'i sa

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.its·· ·6···· Grea t Australian B- 0" soer ~14~'_);:O 7T'.. LT.r~~ _'~.' I~t-I-~!~~~j~ , .. ", ; ... ~~_. I(}~I-' U~,

Examine the elaborate courts that bowerbirds build to seduce mates d wring a vi SJt to Townsville on Australias northeastern coast. Just after JU]Yj, the 'birds, openly decorate their courts with stones, bones, shells; and man-made objects found around town, Oir drop 'by d.uring' th'6 :mjating ,season,

f .. om Septel11ber to ,D'ece'IobeTj, to see the :male S 'woo:i]]g th,€' .1adie s,. With patie-ncej disc~n~tin:n; and a hit of:Kuck;" you :may ev-en

TRAVIL

observe 3" female swo on at the sight of a ~'U' ffi', r» ,~I.t'!i'n-·t~·y·· g"iIl"a' nd b"'IOW-iG!!'f 'ft.:ll"'E;l AB-:-''iEj,iCJl'ifI ~·1i'-K-··-

i;l11~.· "' ,.~.:I!.~.". Jl.[ ',. LIl.·~ u.u _'. .._ ,_. ~II_!! 1,I~ft _ ~.~aJ'JL ru., .'_

Ti'Ii'O·'·'R'T·;t' Tow 1FII sville

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W. H,

#93,Masdar Cltp,

Although Masdar City's network O'f selfdr~vrnng vehicles is not 'Yet up to. speed, you can drive a conventional ear to th e grleen city's entrance and stroll around the first: completed section. ,A :lfe:w retail store s and places to eat are open in Masdar's public squares, but the real attraction is the architecture, which combines Middle Eastern traditions with modem sustainable design, Check out the 'building facades based on. traditional privacy SCftN3:nS and wind towers that cool outdecrplazas, Stay in neighboring Abu Dhabi for museums" garde:n.s~ and white-sand beaches, NEAREST AlR.PORT,:

Abu Dhabi :M:,.01-.

#94 Gla'cier Melt

Check, out "these- frozen ,g]lants. up close in the giaci,e:r mec ca of the United States: Alaska, ,At Glacier Bay National Park, behold vast tidewater glaeie~:rs from yowl' kayak in the tranquil Muir Inlet, Q1r head to Kenai Fjords N ational Park; ab out ][20 miles south of

,tIi .... t:"llh,)f'o::J"g' e-'; w·· rh :e'lI"'.9 3'-' w> "o'll-',m-' . ain t '~~I"'i'1,i9d-;1 trail

111J.tL,~ ,V;ll ~I._:i .,. "_' , JJ:.~l ._,_, ~"_ ~ ,_. ~IPLIJj ... l~lIUJ.J.V. __ Ilk .QJLlL

takes you alongside the dramatic blue face 'Of the Exit Glacier, NEAIlEST ,A]RPOJRT::: juneau for Glacier Bay':, Anchorage for Kenai w., H,

#98 Rocks QfD,le,atk Valley

To commune with the mysterious boulders of Death, 'VaUey National, Park, 'w:hi(~h seem to. move 'On their own, bop m a four-wheel drive and. cruise over te Racetrack Playa,

a dry lake' bed about three miles long: and. two miles wide, On. the north end is a reck formation called the Grandstand, where spectators can view' the scooting rocks

and furrows left in, their wake, 1116 park

}U1S nine campgrounds for extended stays,

N,EAR'EST AIR,PO:RT.: Las. Vega.s v. T.

m:SCQ\illER ,(,ISSNI 0\27~,~75;29J' III SP·S# ,o!OS,·1'Q 0) is: fHJ bUshQ~ mellltl!il'y'~ '~Cii!jipt '~'QII" !COJill'llDili!edi :~$s.ye;e in Jali!lII~[f)'.J rQb~III.U:!l!' ,aJil1Id Jlu'I~J:AlIJ.g~:s!t.

Vol. 32'~, [1'i'O." 1", !Publishedl hy I:'\:illmh a l1:ih PiuMi~liIirn:g Go.,

2~'02'7 C"C):S8!rn~(;Ils. Cir'C(I:e~ P:"O~ 8p:x, U;,1:2, 'Waukes!n a, WII 5;3,'11 87·11612., !lGlrilodf,c:a1 pCl\S!tag~ fi~idl at 'Waulf:e's;li\al,~ Will' !:}ndi ;at ,~dd it~o;n~1 m~mililr. ,of Hoes" POSfMA;S,TE1R': :S.andl :ad~drQSs ehali'll,g.a'S '110 IDISCOVER, 'I?-~O" IBox 3;7.8(:181 BOil!!IlII1;!t~ 1;1;, !!;)OOS'7. e~ulI&da P-UI;iiHeati'Q;1lIt ,AW'9QM!!;I!nt Ii ~'0011016Q, return ~ljllllliliJil:lI9'I'iYS'r,aIbI',e C<liM-di~liIi' !adldrQsses 'to, ,~:O. iBol( ,a;'i'6, 811N ,fl., Wind:GiOli, -ort4~ N 9A 6iP,2.

Baok ~S$UQS. 3!i!i}i~~d)IQI" Alii iriigh,l:S; IIJeSie fl/<Qd. Nlo'l:Irni ng herGin 'COJitt:a~IIIQd m~y be, r9preO'IIlI!Cedl 'W'ii1Ihmll'~ wwlil,1!ell:i, p'e\nm'T:s'si~OIiil of IKalimibaellri Publi:!1ilhil"ll(1: ,e!:io.~ 90 fUth ,AV!!li1!li1l.l9~ !New Yit:Hi'1';. NIV' ~ 0011" p,inktd iii'll 'ill'l,a; U.S.A"

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Breaking down gender barriers will bring more energy and fresh perspectives into the wo rld of science. Four leading ligh s discr ss how to make it happen.

JUST. A CENTURY A.,G·O, halfthe nation's brainpower 'was largely excluded frcm the .highest levels lor science education, How times change: In. 20,09 five of the 13 Nobel laureates (includingwinners in chemistry, medicine, economics, and literature) 'were women, That s ame y,ear women earned 'mote than half O'f all doctoral d.egree's, in the' 'United, States for the: first time, Yet so me o~lid. patterns ,P ersist, 'Wo:m, en. remain substantially underrepresented in many fields, .and :JllaJ.1.Y encounter disc:ouraglling attitudes at ev:e'.ry sta,g,e from ear Iy education to the peak of their careers,

MIl. p artnership 'with L'Oreal USd\., and JOined by the Am erican Aseociation for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)~ D]'S COVER of'!' n YIj,VQ''IfII ;0.,.,11 Cll 'P' g 'n° el 'J" n W' . "'g !['I'h"1 11 aton D' IC" "to' explore wavs to h eln

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of women, said that they knew of pe ople who had left the sciences because they had trouble integrating their life and. their science, I 'would hke to probe how government;, industry, academic, nonprofit and other insti tutions can help us make better use of womens talent,

AL]~ So much progress has been made over the last three decades that folks tend to

th '" k ~'.411 • I I "I~, _ '10, were dcnewtth the wora,

But we' have so. far to go, For example, research from B.aye:r Corporation reveals that 118 percent of female and 'minority chemists and chernicalengineers say professors discouraged them from pursuing a science' career, 'Ihts is about c'han.,ging: bali ef sys terns: the w,ay girls feel about themselves and their potential, and, the w,ay:.'. their educators, do as well,

, '

SEAG!E,R~ ThtS]8 the 21S,t

century; this is America, and we still don't have equality fot WOlneJI1., 'Uti s is not j ust philosop,lly; it matters for Americas :fu,tru""e., VVhen you 'want ·fDo have an educated voter population;

the re se arch, community-eand the' nation-emake the most of

its female' intellectual firepower, Participating m the' conversation were B,DS,slyn'II ,Ali" assistant secretary for civil rights at the Department of Education: Jo,an Steitz], a rnolecular biophysicist at Ya]IB Unive rsity who studies .RNA: S"lJlrl,ey.Mal,lco:m" head of 'Ole directorate for education and, human resources at J\AA.S;' and Sarr.a S'e~ger, a planetary scientist and physici st at MI'lF' who studies the atmospheres 'Of , planets 'beyond, the solar system.

'U.S. Representative Eddie :U,er,uii,e:e ,Jo,h:rl:tson provided introduc'tory c omme nt s, S:h,e:ri' :Kirs.:b1en b aum 'who researches public unders tanding of is cience ,at the U niversity of Texas and blogs for :nlSCOvrRB, at "The Intersection" moderated,

KIRSHENBAUMI: What are the

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Ic;.ie;mu:e, iilll1l 2011011

MALCOlM:;: Gender still matters wi th regard to success in science, In a SU:rv8y of AJ\.A.S memhers, aIll a verw:helmin,g' n umber

88~"

, '..

i t's not g.oing: to be there, At.

the graduate leveli at .M:I'f; a lot of :m.y 'best studen ts are from India, China, and Europe, 'We~:re teaching them about technology and how' to 'be leaders

in industrj; Some will stay

here; but others will take that training back to their home countries instead of putting it to work here, Meanwhile, W'(~.' are constantly ],0 sing wo men students in the sciences I want the 'won) en in the audience here to ask younselvesiJ are there times in your :tife when insecurity limjted you or inhibited you" from doing something? This lack of confidence actually g;ets amplified when there' are not enough women, around, STEIT,Z: I 'was appointed to the Yale faculty in 1'97'0;, 'Ihere was one' other woman in lny department at that time, It was very lonely. Besearch shows that

.p eople who are constantly in the minority suffer from somet.hing called ,~~ identi ty threat,'

'which. impairs their ability to contribute to the extent that fh_,ey otherwise would, And ill

want to underscore that the things that government does can make a big difference. In the early Jt 9 7'OS~; U. S., Secret ary of Lab or George Shultz told universities that if the'y didn't at least have plans for increasing the number

0,-, fwomen 0' ''Ifl t''t-. ~iiil1'" ,iC.. ii"'U~'1It~ Q.cI' iT'1b;Q.V "'. ',_<:IV ,,1IJ,~'~,'_, ':"~"l, Jrl,~-,w..u:. .Jl.Cl~_LU._J!}~O~ IIJ.JJ.~,]

might los€' their federal _grants. Nob odr lost their gr,anblh 'but there 'was a big increase :]-]:1 the

nu m be r of'wom ten 'as o::!Il result

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a I' pecJ'p e'IUI no a "OUl u e ,A 'WI' , "

lE:prd to ~ports" Ibut 'CR,1liI1 i~ h~~lP crealle ,olPportllo'ilIies 'for '.ame;nll~n s,cienee ilRd engi'mteering?

ALI:: N'o recipient of federal funds can have any discriminatory practice, intentional or not, that harms 3\ particular gender. 1]0 determine whether Institutions are in. compliance with the law, the Office for C:ivU Bights looks at things such, as, whether

-W' om'" en' h 'I'li'ii :re, equal '3 ""CiO,.t'iS 'to

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advanced course work in high school as well as postsecond,ar,. scho cling and grad uate work. 1lv_[u~n w,e determine that dlscrepancles between men. and women result from discriminatory practice, we vigOI'O[l8liy enforce the law, We also rely on people on the ground to help make us aware of problems, which is 'vitally- important in telling us howto target our investigatory resources,

istrator Jane Lubchenco has talked about how she and. her husband both worked less. than full-time at. some points during their careers, It is, importan t to have those kinds of options and to share strategies about how those arrangements have been carried out 'by others, SE:,AGER~ At MIT. w,e have an annual women in engineering symposium. The first question from the audience is a'liw,~ys; ~Dlo any of you. have children?" Usually half or more of the' panelists do, And then p,eople start asking all these q IU~ stion s, Last ye;at' one 'woman almost started crying,~ because' S,h19 had never se en a successful woman professor with children, Her professor had said: ~~you can't

have children, }';out II never sueceed" But those of us who have been through it have ideas that can help others make it-work.

[KIA,SM ~NIBAU,M:: M,QIe'lhsn 11811 ,of women! surveJldI bJ' [I:Or'8111 ,a~ndl MAS s~a,' they ha,v,e ,experienced '~M.,JJ!elli" biil~iIt", ~,t!Ii,,.i,II 77' [lil'ii!liI'Itei!e"'I"

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encounte,r barriers 'm, ballancin,g ~ Ie and c,a'lEer~ IHow can we overeo:me

thA'r'e ~!I).~llellm:L~' 1Ii",;i;i. ~~h;1 .,:, I _"""'~~;

MALC,OM:: 'Ihese aren't lust is,sue's for women, They

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are llSSUB'$, lor tamutes ,an., i

institutions, When, Eli Z abeth Blackburn and. CarolGreider '~Jere 'being: in terviswed after 'winning the Nobel Prize, they talked about in,stitu,tion,w arrangerJ1[llents that provided options for h,ow the scienoe Gnu1ld gist done', NOAA, adnlin-'

KI'IIS!HENBlUM: [Is 'Ih/ere! ,II role f;rJli 'T1i;tle ~[X, the U~S,~ law' thart. JDdJids sel: dilomiimination i~liIl.demll" 'tllllnd;edl,edl~a.tion pfllmlls? Usu ..

IK'IRSHIE,NIBAtlM:: 'Where are, 'the Ibigge,sl' dist!repa'ncl:e,s between lien and warneD in 'lcis(lllce and teChltDili" o~ 3'nd how can we 'bltk:le '~I1;Osf!i?'

S T"[;'I'T- z:~ A- recent -'.o'p-n'-t" ,t -i"'r;'n'~

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the National Research Council tracked what happens to

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as they advance through their careers, ,At 9'V€flrypoi.nt along

the 'W''''-~ ,t.''''~6 -mii"Nra orobabl 0 ,~'ll.... at "i" '!to 'o.Yj n s .mre r'Ji u lUlu 'II,;:, LJ.l!ibLil '"

In en will :mOV,9 on to. the' next step, V\7he:r>e i.s that coming from? For one thing, when 'women app]y to the ,NIH for grants. , their success rate is abou t equivalent to that of men but they ask, on aver-

age, for 20 percent [€"SS m,oney.; Men also get more lab s.p ace, have b etter access to leq ui pment at their un tversitte s and have more admi nistra.tiv,€ help, On the 'bright side, if women 'have mentors when theywnte grants, there's at 'big Ieapln their

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SEAG:ER,:: 'Alom,en should join a P€:€'f support gffiloup and find

a m ento r b ecai 'lil!t.'i oQi m " ' 0 st 0' ·f~ U'~ ;e;

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lack access to the old boys' network tha t's naturally h€']pring men most of the time, Whether those mentors are male or fem:ru:€ is not as relevant, FiJi,d, 'the people who can help you and. g].v'et you advtce at all levels, And be assertive, have conn = denee, an d look out for yourself Many women tend 'to put other p eop]:€ first, but that doesn' t

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wor ,In !:'H::I€:nC€'., 0< succee: '~

when vou have aareat I" .t11Ict:i1 yo 'U

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need to c,ar.ry it out,

AUDIENCE MEMBEIR: IHow can ins~i) .. '11ti,on5 mtlle i~: easier for' women to ,adva,flee i'o their scient~lfi,c 'ClJeIfS Im,d balilite work w;iilh fl'mil,' ~ife1? SEAGER,:: Don't have talks that ev~ryone is supposed to attend rlgh ,t' at J.'L,o end of t 'll..IQ i..J QV

til .' . 'IJ.J 1~~,. " J.l,~ U~J!Ii

MALCOlM::: Offer ,family leave' for graduate and postdoctoral researchers. Set up child-care centers, M'tl;, not, Just women who. n.-eied this b,al~,nce~ Th:ese ar-e t'he kinds of ,soiu ti.ons that help p,eoplie of both Srex!es to manage tbeir dual ro]es. Jt

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The 1930s brought unprecedented innovatlon in machine-age technology and, materials. Industrial designers from the auto, industry translated the principles of aerodyn amics and stream Iining into everyday ob] ects ru i ke radl os and toasters e. It was also 3. decade 'when an unequaled variety of watch cases and movements came into being, In. lieu of hands to ten time, one such co mpli cati 0 n, called a [urn .. ping mechanism, utiltzed numerals on a disc viewed through a window, WIDth its striking resemblance to the dashboard .. gauges and radlo dials of the decade, the jump hour watch was indeed "in '1 une" with. the times!

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retro look of a ~u.mp'i:ng di s:p lay' {not an

TI',ue to .Machine A .. rt esthetics, the slleek bruslutd stainiess steel' case is clear im1 tne back, allowing a p,eek; at the inner ·wor~dngs.

actual jumping complication). The stainless steel 1 1/2i~ case is complemented with a black alligator -embossed Ieather band, The band is 9 1/2!~ long and wfU fit

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T~Jy 1t:11e Stauer 1930s Dashtronic Watch. '&0' r 3,'i[0 da Y' ~c and 1~J:J you a Jog] no ··t receiving

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for a. full refund, of the purchase price. If' you have an appreciation for classic design with precision accuracy, the l'930s Dashtronic 'Watcll ~s built for you." This 'watch ru,s a llmlted edition" so please act q ukkly Our last two llmited edition watches !a'[1€ tot.aUy sold out!

Not Available' in Stores

Stau er 19]10,$; Dashtronk 'Wait~ch $99 +S;& H II1.l' 3 leasy' [Ire d it. card pay·me nts of $33 +5.& H Call now to ,take ad:';t/;~ntage of'this limited (}ffi"~

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.... he WAS J esus of Nazareth ,~nd, what was he Uk,er I or millennl a) people and. ,gro ups, of v.~.rying 0011 victions havepondered tb is question :@;.nd done rhei r best- 0 answer ] r .. This. course will eXpl~,:tll.ru.n. ·wha·r the best historical evidence seems to show,

plrofesso r :B,art D, Ell rma n. a pproaches the questio n from, a purel y h isto rl cal per~ speed ve, with. no Intenri on. of am rrn i Dg or de,n.ylng ,any P"@! rtlcula r th.eo.~.og]_cad. belie[s~ 'His primary source is 'the Gospels, read wid'l, ca re '[0 determine what they- reveal about J es us a.nd his Hfe:, and what we know about n&~H~ ,evldenee a.V2U~ ~ahle 1[0 the writers of the Gospels and 'their intentions. He explores the ~vaH able historical ev idence about Jesus :aJ nd. about Judah rn :a.nd. apocalyptic movements in jesus' r w me, Professor' Ehrman also reviews the evidence of noncanonical sources, such as the G,llostic: 'G,os.]? el of Thomas,

IRe'c1o,nstll"Uctiinig the L,ife' ,o,f Jesus

Af[er surveying rhe p oll tical, so cial ,. ,aJ.n(~, cult u ral hi~[o.ry of l~[-century Pa].esdne, you pro ceed '[0 a schola [i'1:y reconstruction of

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esus WOe S an. ueens,

Why do the earliest: SOUJoes ar O!1Llr dis-

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.posa :~. inc u - jug t :: e .• iospel 0:.. : .ar s, ~por[[;ay

Jesus as a. Jewish apocalypncist, one: who anricipated that God W'O uld soon overthrow

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'itJl,ie lOlltCf'S 0', evl, an, est:]. -'.II.i~Jt:ll at ,KInguam

h!e~e 0 n. Ea.ri~h.?

How ,close. is. thiS' por- :rayal 1[0 l~k? H(}w ~re retenenoes: to the ~om i n g ,of d~e' [~-s 0 n of

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~ U.'[O this an.al ysis.?

Abo'ut Y·our' Profl'essor

Dt~ 'S;a,n: D'~ Ehn.llan (Ph.:D.j, :Princeton.

Th_eo~o.gic~l Semilim-l~uy) ,~s t'he' Jaane.s A~ IG·ray

,Abou't IOur' S'lda P.ri1ee' POll ilcy

'Why is the sa],e· p,r.ice for this. course ,so m 1llm !.nw,e'f nr~h~Jl. i[s srandar-d pdJ:e:? Every cou.:rse w'e make goes on sale :at leaJs1i: once ,at year'. Produ-chlg larg.e qu;an~di~ies of only the sa~e con [rses kleeps cosu down :i.nd. :iitllows, us to pass dl!e sa:v,~ n._gs 011 '·[0 yoOU. Til rns, a.ppr.oach ,alsiQ eJ1ab~,es 'us to .flu. JQu.r o.rd[,er im ~ned]:ately:: "9;9% of ,~1l o:rd,ers pIa-oed by 2 pm

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Feb rrua:ry· m 1) 20 llli ~ "to receive these s.atvl:ng§.

Professor and Chair of the Departmenr of

R nl"' ,. 'S' d' T!' U" .. f N h

.eWrn,gU:M1JJ's otur .res ar J ne .. rnversury 0: ortr

Carolin a at Chapel Hill, He has ·WO]I several teach [n,g awards ~ hlC~udj n,g the Bowman

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Teachi ng" Professor Ehrman has written. 0':[' edited ~ 7 books, including the recern bestseller Misquoting,jesus,

Ablo,ut: The Glre'at: C'OUn5,es

'~e' review hundreds of top-rated p rofes-

'!L~,or--~ '~;"o' m-' , Arne .<!> ... lea ~,f' best 1"'01] .ciI!fr-p;~ a'il d·' ~ mi -

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versities ea.ch. year, F r1On'1. this extraordinary group we choose' onJ"y those rated ,h~ghest [by panels of our customers, 'ewer than 1100/0 of these world-class scholar-reachers are selected. to make The G.~e~rt Courses,

W"';'~?''!!l''e b reen doine - ~ "1(' !['~liAht"'.P ~I (9 •• 9·:0' - uro-

'_ '-' '!ir .~ ~ '~._.,I.Ii, U.!I.~ '-'~''';e. W] ~~ .;, !IHldl!,~ ! .:.'~ ,r' - y'

ducing more '[han ,3,)000 hours of material

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Uil .. mo. ern an ancient ustory, p; ].wOSO'pt]_Yj'

.1 . iterature, fine arts, the sciences, and mathematics ,for inrelligent, engaged, adult lwfelong· ·~earners,. If a course is ever ~.ess than

completely s~tisfYing~, yOIJ, may exchange wt for anoth er, or we will refund Y't)UX mODe-y pro.mpdy.

he .Many Paces of Jesus One Remarkable Life

Schola [~S Lo ok :ai~ the G ospels -act and Fiction In the Gospels The Binb of [he Gospe]s

Some 0 f t[1.,e Other Gospels

7. The Coptic Gospel of Thomas Other Sources

l.

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'.

8 .. 9 ,. Historical Criteria-e-

Getting Back to Jesus

'm 0 ~ More Hlstcrlcal Crirerl a 'ill 1., The .Early LIFe- of Jesus

'~- 2·' J . H··I· C·'·' r ,j.

.!II c., .. esus 1.11 .. .1 .~:s: .... on _eX'L

ill 3~ Jesus and Roman Rule

'ill 4., Je~us '[he Apocal ypric Prophet

'ill,,, Th.,E' Ap'0ca]yptlc Teachings of Jesus 'n 6~ Other Teachings 'Of Jesus ~ n 'their

Apocalypt ic Context

'm 7., The Deeds of Jesus. in their

.Apncalyptic Con (,eXf

ill 8 ~ Snll O dl,e·[i· Wo rds a od Deeds of] esus 'ill 9~ T[1J! Controversies of Jesus

2.0., The Last Days of J esULS

21., The 'Last Hours of jesus

22.,. The Death and Resurrection of Jesus 23;, Th:e: Afr.er.~ ~fe of J (!S;US

2-4" The Prophet of the New Ml]~,'enrdunl

~

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,I I· ...... REAT' IC,QUR.S.ES

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. u'~,:' ~~'~~~~~\~l~Y ~l~d:I.~~lnJ~_~.ars.

! _ They fil m your band and wcigh ]~S rnhan,1 OZS;, Bul they

~ack, an ~[lOr.mous \v.allilo_l)' ~]], hir'slJl.aU boily. P,urro roo.t:pru.m coumactioo ,and. ruhy<oated :Ierns:es ,gttmmltoo

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:~m,POliElt sharpn~qS, :8.ri any di8tamU}~. 1b~ :~ amm, ,abjooti,ve

:~emes proVide great ~jgbt .. gailiemg ,capacity mmog

JO\ an, A. ~lV"'iolL.l8 u.......J 'I'· 'IJ..'I • ;I-'L A'· n' iilh r-

'_ ' .. ~~,I~l!,'i'.~' lh.WJJ l:y ,re JlELtJiue evre;[Ij :Ill. Il.Ue !!lUll, ~:I,~,L~ O . .-

dawn,o;r dmk. T~le: zoom :Iever ]els you mloo!hJly Qh.~ge 'I)h,e

• fl' • 1Ii:..... iI, . '~ 10-.., om: tiih • '.' :tl. ... ;i..~. ilL., ... ,

rnllBWU . callen 'uu1l1 u(l{ to ,~~ 0]" '~~jL'I~mg m :W[,Ween. ,Mit:;

~11 ,w,whmg the pitclet:s windup OJ 6;(,1 Zoom to ~ 8K and

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Sinner. There tarrJJ 00 mothmg more uefbl :tm :spo:r.Isj nalJure

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'waJtC:~:liIn,~ :nafVJ,~~~O-]l~ •.. so many Q~:l~r ~~Ujf!S"

JOMJRAZOOMS :is aJlil instru_ment. 'llhat rsh.oul'~ 00 'in every bOlne,

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',II, ,ne 0 ' .. ~ 'Uft'lverscu 01'u)CCU ,um~wllenlli;'illllil

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P., SC10I"E

(the CflJ~plete loptical .~. system)

gam, us,'mdy' $!99~95*'

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,8 x, 210 DlOJ10cula:r mom us o.

~ Thlt op~iC;!j' of j~wtri~'i(jSroJM tlJ!1! 8xl'O - ax nf(Jgf#jicali()1:'i !With 2{)1 J,i'im (Joj'ec,Uve lens. ,it com'eS in Q noot ,'Zipp-ered'

w'ry'i~C($ge. The "!IIJIIIIIII"_

()bjecfii~ ,100 Can' .be ~lSluJ'

as un. 8.1 Wfto;g-;iijj'e},;' A 251c m~tJpe ali{:J;cJ~.men.~ ($29.95, .libr $5.9.9,0) is a'bo ,avaiiable.

r .... , <iI,i:li.,':'er ~Lft 1:.; .... 0- !ii!l'er :11--:::''1'114' ~'~V1' ~ IUU' ... l IUI~' .I~,"iI _" ... ~ iIIU~&U .til

'VR) fell: Idla,t sells lor onr $1, (JOO?

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No, it is t::h,e IArgon,aut:

Wat,c:h - yOlurs for only my *$"

In oon1ru~ to nm1Y ~y advertised 'w!MC.h~l tlle ,~,~lHIUfli1k~ is ]Dot a. 'mCcl1mica1 watclt U is powered. b-y 31], l~q,l~itt Ja,pan~ quartz mOl1',ern,ern:t ,~ide.s the' :hmtds and tb,e I&re d~k; 'Ibm ale DO moving pal1s. Notbillg can go wrong 00' '\¥tar (mt An~ no :m_' ~ow ~n.mly jewels, 'lihey 'may' have ~,:ineviJtab[y 'happell5 with, mechmri~

'I-'U-!llM'ik1'!'1:' _, ~'t1II'II1i""'::I'I1'iIF-'t' (J,I:' Itwiilirm, G~ '~'1I:1;''I!..;:1(Ij !li ''Ufflir -~rr!lWL~H~ ~1.J!~l[I_Jj~~J l~ ~-~[ ~I ¥.l~ NIl~lll~, I~; J . .u~~!

we guanmtee· 'ite Ar:pm_91ufM: for 'nbree :~U years. It YOIl ... 'b'~ '1]1· '11. ..... ,·~'d i',,.,,,' :I'·L·· 'lII'Ik ... , 'Irfit It raWU9L ,BY we :It S~Wl!iU: ~t you a ~hdlrn.e~ ~]n1;

,t\rgoOOu:fF"'1i Wal0ll :~s of solid s_~ mee] co.rnsDctioliL

'Fl is ,parantooj, to 00 watem,fli '~O aboum: 3,]0 'ft. YOtl~n :rm"~ffir ldive: '~at deep., ,ACCMmCY is glWl'mweiJ ro 3, soosimootll. '~Ou, wiD

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you, mare, tllMl $5'. The MglJOIU{fM W8itCh is, a '!bing of ruggoo, 'mascutirrw beauty. lit ,oom~ 'wiJtI 3. s,ph~ijdirl adjmmble smnril,ess steel, bad.

And, :dso~ :I~~' tihlitH\q~alautiiP~j' WatOOa «(or.6 :p\iHe;« ~)I,arnd we'UJi5'em!l }KOUJ ItMI splImdit1 hoi, P~F:Ii .Egg Ptl1~lI~: ~9,1S5 mtaR '\il~g~) 'Mimi omr .-nijllimmts, = ,&'b$~]D~tty FRlE!

J'~M1RASCO!1E i.'s ~~ Ismal.'th~~ j~ '!lls." Ujlob.tru~iv~~Y :111 a man's COflfl::pJcket or a bUl~t'5 purse, Yel, 'lit

:pa_cb a tremendous waTh[op in ~ts my 'bmlY., .Its 8, x 20

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ful]y 'pri8L'W1J~e and hood,-oo.8.wd IQPti,c.~ gi,ve :you 8x:

'magnifi'CattiOXtllj \VI:ti1 a, ~mwirnb]e f[,eJd of 4130 'I .. at

J ,fJOO yd1s~, Its .20 rom objeotive lens ;~;dlomB WlusUlal ~~~bit. gatheri'ng even at: dusk or dawn 'WlmLt was dtat

t· ~. '. thO IL., 'L ........ f1I W' ·411... JO"" A'TlJIl; A. COJe' '0' 'niH '~~,n

rus Ji[ng ][11 . e IUUS1~ (. : ]11;11;[ ,_,I,VUnH.L:)_E' yOU' n

disoo'ver t1alt j_:~ 'was aa iw.ry~b~]]oo, woOOPecker., Do

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you 'wish te 'explore e:v~ry 'f~atum on the moaa,

JOMIRASOOP,ffij wITl be ,your mslmment ofchoice,

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.. JIJLC, ,5l)]al. Muf;W! lev~ilt ,lIt' ... .,,!t'i..~, E,il11nQ(:Il MS an , ' WIiI:JUL

~·.'Dlit" '-m' '!IIgnW'\ t {Io~j9(;fiI,1'ri1 't;Jl~,n 'm' ;fio"~ 'liIi '0' '. il.lTiE!iI' :" .It ... "C'I ... CO'· "QIE

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sboilllrl be your oonslmU complllion. ADd do oollsi,de:r 61e 2-j'x, m1icroscope attaclmtelu of IabJratozy qualit}r;j which

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U!I.Wi:es .II' ... 11;'1IL1.l.\.i."!i:;Q'!!.;,..VT, . ,a cQ:mp.ur,;;;~' up . ,ca ' :Sfr5;~~m.

11,_, J~nft~-' -, . -,:- ~~ -n ,,:-ofR- -"oiIii.,.n,

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Ian mIC-ompar~eVIW;lIell'''''.

,~ rh-e' s.look ,szyJJng- of R-C Clock !m'(1ke:s itan ,adomme:tll

. , 1m" ,on~ n{)lI1(~ m" o.ffii$. 1$

Wl;jIrh ~ifl 0\~1e (i~INdc.d) M,·,bawtery (flul i~ ,rea~ to ,10 whe1i'ya'u ,get it.

rbi'S beautiful clock is clad in brushed, almmum;,

_ It8 s~~ ~ign, rrudres [t Sin ;adomn~ent fo]' My ~Qme

~ro .... mofi'oCii. WI 'm,"o;i;fII't~ ~'.::,] l'tili~. ,All' ~lf"Ifi ,i!'."illit'II iI., ..... f"a~ ,fi;Jt'ij 'Illfl!l~ii" d' ~~1t.!0.',"" Ulll~" ,w. '. _ ~'"u,~ ,,,;._F- 1/'1r ,1tt!Bf ~ILU! ~~. ~ ~!J. VLl J:!U!w ' .wA

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'Or JJJ,~ om a Wtm, _ uneis (USPkll;Y6U lID ,~If1\,.1J;Ii- JI~IL (!!!Igrts. In

,addition to 'Ike 'Mle (ho1u~ mutes. 'serolldS)j' you, also ge~ the da.le:~ the da:y (lfthe ,~~k" Md 1he'~ :HH F' (01 En C). There is ia. me]mlious but, insistent, a[~ camplete wiJtb,

,t'lt"Ii;l"ll.rr.,~ b,·!:ff.ti.1:1I1 ~'I" ,i<t..~ 1ii!;,Vi,..;.,;; 'L"HiA,.,;!~, .~. ·11 .. , •. ~ .... I ~I'I ....... 1,1.L.!l!,;I ..... LIII,> c I;lJLl-'VJHI!!I:~ll 11(;~~ """,,,u,~, Ii'! ,.nlfi4) , U!Le Cm,OO.t'i.., 18 von U!'IijI,~ ~l

by a mdio spl, emitted by:3. U; S. ,government deparmemt; that W:lS~ up-tto-th~~ood accUC3.CY:

RAD]~o.COmR:OLLED CLOCK, wum [!In one ,M-balJrety {incbllu~ of 001!l~). It's :ready '00' ~' WIDell you get, it. You, doll j,~ eva mve to ~et ['t - :iJt se~ itse]f .

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4'710: 3'..AI ,(:'I. 4I!l"'~1 11 's -'. F" -.--. "'-'" -. ·CA···· '. o.AI01" _-' . lu, bl'~ .. :~ fr.~J.!.I,,~, '·an ,_ ,rm1.cISC'O." "~'~ '::l""!!:' • .'

't: bd, h,ere is ou'r' '~sp'ecial, ldealn: Yo IILaay' buy any 'three, of'th'ese' i_ems, iii iii naed 01 :mat,ched, --

te'-. tit··, '. . f" ,...~" IIIL . t I. I' !I! th h ,_ 'I.. J tel, 'E'lDvE II

.... .__ .' .. _~U~.I ,,~_,e p~c, _O':,:~.~~.' lIJlI~',: ~a~ : ~~p.eI\SI~.:~.em. 'I'S~l\_,,'e :. ,~.se_·· ADS_O' ',Il.~y";,~ --~;, '." .

_YOll m"ay emer- by mU-&ee phQo,ej by.'~]], or by. fax. and] pay by cbecl or AME:XfV]s~S'terCard. ,P]ease: g~.ve or-der: code sbo\m. Ad!d, $6.95 fm Ship.ims. fm~ one

3Ind $9.90 :for '~mee ~tems~, l~xc~Pt one ~CII~taZooms. 'Or olle ,Adm. 'F'arm.guu~s Te~;~oop~ :is $'9.,'901 and, :aImy tm:l~e :i~.ems cQ]ltaiwng one; or :00011: JOWJ~:raZoom8 or Adm. :Fura,gnJ~S Te'tesc-opes, is $i ],2.'95. - p'[us sale-s mx 'for CA de'~v-ery. ¥Ol 'bve 30\;,day :refund. and on.e-yea_[ WamLE!~: We do no.t. refund, p~8tage.,

Fnf Ct)sto:meill' gerv]ce or \~hoLesale infurrtmt[o:ll, p']ease IC3JU (415) 1;6~ 1801. _.

'We s'hipl a,e same da, we ,!eaein 'your order,~, P'lease give ord,er' cad,e Z3,33!

O'r,der 'by t:olil-fre,e ph'o,n,e: 1,.,81010,/60'01-2777, or I(£aste,'st!!) by fax:: 1-4:15/3S'6;~78,04.

Vislt our _.' _ h'site at .~_ _ _ . _ .:jo . ! ~.ra. COI1l

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'FI~e cleft 8LU~ery which takes as '~ttle as 451 minutes ,and costs ,as little as~.1'2'50, can give' desperate children not Just a new smile- ~ but a new - ~···et,

I Help children with clefts and other problems ~ I

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I t:]1 $.250 Surgery., l] ,$,]2.$ Ha]{' surglCiry. l]:: 50 Me (UC a tions, LJI . . I

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I 'Cred,i~ Card #: . , :E-xpm !3, I

I ElVi;sa M:a~te't:CBl[\d IJAMEX. LJ D.~ 5COVSI :S]gnalt:lllr:e' I

I r"""I M. ,..,iL L' , .)1 .. ~: Zi lliO LH)'86ZFVY,3:3 I

LJ Y ~df!Cil'i.. ~£ enO:rOS6!!.J ...

I Smile'Train, RO, Box 962111 Washington., DC 20090-6211 :

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Donate online: www.smiletrain.org or call: ·1-800-932-954··

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,Aocorclmng to the LJ .S" Govern ment WOlme n ,s;hou~d take sumC~lent ~evel e of folic ,acid ~4[)O micrograimslday) !~uring pU!eg nam:.y to hellp prleverilt Ineurall tLJ~ e def,ects an d reeuce the r~sk for cleft lip ,aJndl pa.l1ate. Wlhe n 'fo,1 i C ,acid is taken one mOflt~ be:]Of'6 DonC61ption 8rild :throug hOllJtt the filrs.t tMi me ster, it r~as teen pm\fe~ to red uee the ~sk 'for n€J,ural tMbe defects b,y 50 to '70 per cent Be sure to fl"6c®'ive' proper pW~(f1atal care, quit smok,ing and dr~ilkii~g aJcohol and fo~I'aw your health Gar~ providefs gl~i'deiin®s for foods to a.vOJd duri~g pregnancy. F'oods to av'oid mla.y ~ nc~ ude raw or ILmdercookEd seafood 9 beef:", pork or POUIBf1j; de~1 h'!a.t€;ssen meats; ~i'sh 'that. conrtaiin h'i g h ~evels of mercu ry~ s,mOK'ed se-af'ooo'; fish ,exposed to indMsmrial pollu;tan~s:; row shellflJsh or eggs;' soft cbeeses: unp.asteuri\zed milk; pate; C8Jffe~ne:: and Llilwashed, vegetables, For m.ors' i'udormaijon~ visit www·.SmUEJ·Traln.org.Smi!e.fmln :is a 501 {c)(3} oollPrDfit ~~"ized

lJy l1e ~RS~ anti aJI OOl1atioos to Smile T rnin ae tax -{!ed~ct]lJile' in aDoordance with IRS re~u~ations. © 2011 Smile T fJain.- -

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How does HI,i,rbor Frlsight Tools sell hligh qual i'ty looll's at sueh ridi eu lously low prices? 'We bluy direct from Ilhle' factoriies w'ho alse supply 'the maier brands and sa III d lreet to 'you. lt's just that slmplel Come sea for ','ollrsellf ,21:1 ODle' of I]lur 3,3,01 'STDRES N,ATlIIDNWIIDE and 'use th is 20'0/0 Of'F· C,Dupon lOin a ~ll'y of 01 r 7:~,DOO plroduc,ts" We stock Automlo'Uvl! 'Iroduc1s, Shop Equipment, Handl Toolls" Iarps Com'p,re:ssDrs, A,ir & Po'wer Teals. Mate'rilal H,andliingl" W'lololdworklng Ieuls, Welders, Tool Boxe:s, Outdoolr E:quiipment,

Gelneral,o,rs, and much more"

,NOBODY BEATS OUR Q,UALITY~ SERV CE AND PRICEI

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.J Ovar 4.5 MILl'I.N .. En CUS, OI,ERS

iin Ie Last 18 Mon~hsl!

.J NO HASSLE RETURN PIU ~- Y .J Famill, Owned 1& Operate-· .J We WiiUl Beal Any Co,mpeillolr's, Pr:ce Wiilhinl11ar of Pu,rchasl'!

ON AU. HAND TOOLS!:

Get More Coupons at HarborFreight.com

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Mril"'~r.g-' Peace WJ,,,,th G"ra-'Y';'ry"'"

Th~AIta~d Scie~c~~t ·

Movement Fo.r Inner Harmony ~. Pain Rei Ief, and, Joint Longevity 'BY 'MICiH'AEL TONETTI

i DtfCA: mONA Lj 1. .,'. g,TR UCT1QNAL [l,VO - 54 M rN. ·~:DEALING'WITH'GRAVITY.'GOM

Support your health practice. Gently release tlght muscles UliaJrt block energy and cause lnflammntlon ..

Learn to harness gravity 'ro[ e·ffolt:leS$ movement and explore strategies to keep your joln:ts feeling good.

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IFor a limih:9d tj'm,e you C'QIr11 order this oornordi no ry coi n (It' spsclo 1 pre-release prk~e",~ .(),nly· $,2'9 ~48. I n ,addition, order rode.y land 5,hiiplP:ing h;; FREE"

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EXPE N''SI'V'E BUT FANTA,STI ( !

Same air bette r results 'j n exactl Y' 4· minutes ,on the R,OM iMalchitne as from 60 to gilD minutes ~in a gylm~" i unbe lleva b'[~'e bill t tr u!e!,

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E'ffecffiive 'flfif' 74%1 in '~ 8. week pl!Ibliished sci:,entif: .. · Ie; stl!ldlies" INct g lUUliJmlrhH~l:d to work for all~~ s~!nce boolV c,hl8'm'istrjie"s, dlhlffie'r; but wnlll work f'or' mos:t~ IC~s:m e~~cs nOrt a!~hro dis~;BlCS;,

Not in soo·re,s·, lI1:all (11 01) ,827'~IIOO' ~ Onillf "

, or .Sien.d_ to~: A~len_a Inslitu_~e\,,_ Dept DIClji, 11211 IB!raellilldl Rd~ 'Ch,oslter Springl~, FA 11'4:25

Send~ me'" ~.~ ~'v~!aJs'O(llai'i(ii .~n""@iJg~5O:'~'

and/or 'via~s m 11~~~ 3. 'for wom,9n@$9S.51]1

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Custom i zed iti n er a rile s. Wee k 1'1 d epa rtu res. m " , •

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MASKS ~ I(AIRV] NGS .' SHIELDS, ~ WiEAPONS • .clOTHING

O'~d Niorth American Indflan3 Northwest ICoast, Eskimo, IPI.aiins & 'Woodlands

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,BY,S HIE R I L III RS;IH [INB.AU M ,., ILL U S;TRA T ION BV JO N ATIH.DN .R USE N

1 ii 'Only you: Human. lips are different from those of all. other animals 'because they are everted, meaning that they-purse outward, 2. But we are not the only species to engage: in kissing-like behaviors, G-reat apes press their lips together to express excitement, affection, or reconciliation,

3ii Scientists are not Slue 'w:hy humans kiss, but some think. the answer lies in. early feeding experiences, Through. nursing and (in some cultures) receiving pre-chewed

fbOd. from. a parent's mouth, infants may learn to associate lip pressurewith a, loving act. 4. Another possibility:

Smelling a loved one's cheek has long served. as ·81 means

of recognition ]11 cultures around th e world, from New Zealand to Alaska, Over time, a brush of the: Ups m·ay have become a traditional accompaniment, 5. And. yet kissing :~ s not. universal, :leadin.g' some experts, like' anthropologist 'Vaughn Bryant of 'Texas A&M~ to think it might actually be a learned behavior, 16. The Roman military introduced kissing to many non-kissing cultures (after its conquests

Shlril Kiir.silllenbaurn's ~late,st book is:

The ,Science ttl,f ,lfissin,: IWhat lOur :J"~ - A .' 't" I~" .11: - ,LIps',.· _I'e I fl_~"" ~S'

(J,an(llla~y 2011, Grano Ce IiIlra;~ IPUiblish'ingllt

'9·-.·'6:

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·rr·· I ~'O' n\ 'E!~! Ul ~I .• v~it.~.n

were ove-r~ presumably), later it was European explorers who carried the torch, 7'ii Being close enough to kiss helps

our nos es as sess compatibihty; In alandmark study; evolutionary biologist. Claus 'Wed-eland of the University of Lausanne in Svviltzedand. reported. that women prefer the' scents ofrnen whose immunity-coding genes are differ-

ent from th,ejr own, 1Vfixing genes that way may produce offsp:rm,g with a stronger immune system, & We dekinds

,. t ··d ..... 1 kn 1.-'11,...!~ - hl T hi -!I. t d i!'jl

experiment; ·VVJ.:__,eay ' .. " own as tne sweal~}' -s urt st Ll~_y;

involved very lli ttle s·we'at Male participants 'were asked.

to shower beforehand so their scent 'would be faint, 9. 'The earliest li terary evidence for kissing comes from northern Indias Vedi,c Sanskrit texts, written IJOOrO to 2-000 years

,ago; .A portion of the Satapatha Brahmana mentions lovers ~~s-ett]n.g 1110U.th to mouth" 10. Love Is the Drug Dopamine, a neurotransmitter asso elated with neclin.gs of desire and

.~ ... ~.~.l QP1'·11,~.oO'~ in l''QC'PO''lfl Qg to ·]P'li·ov .. •J exneri ;On;f'>,Q·i;:I whic '1\'" ,1IL~'-ww-u,. ~I .. ::' ~~~, ,~~~:.:. •• '~ ·.IJ:.I~~ ._y . L.lL· ',,_,. er !o~ .. ~.~~ 0'.16 "I~~'~~j ',_ '_ n '~]:l

explains. 'wlty a kiss with someone new can feel so sp ecial .. [11 iii In some people, a jolt of dopamine can cause a loss of

" d 'bill' ~' nl

appetite an -_" WI rna "_ 'lty to steep, symptoms commo .. y

associated with falling in love. ltl. ICan~t IGet Enough ofYow~' Love: Dopamine' is pro dueed in 'the. ventral tegmlen:W area ofthe brain; the same region affected by addictive dlrug.~ El~,e co caine, 11 In. men, a passionate kiss GaD also promote the hormone oxyto cin, which "fosters bonding' and attachment, according to behavioral. neuroscientist Wend~' ill]! of Lafayette College in Pennsylvania, .' 4. Holding hands and 1O.ssing reduces levels of the stress hormone cortisol, thereby lowering bloodpressure and optimizing immune respon se, 15. And. a passionate russ. has the same effect

as belladonna "in making our pupils dilate. ilL Prelude to

a Kiss: Two-thirds of-an. people turn their head. 'to. the rigllt when kissing ,aoconiin,g to psychologist Onur Gunt(irkiin ofBuhr-University Bochum in Germany This behavior :m,a!y mi rror the head- turning preference observed in babies and even in fetuses" 117 •. Evolutionary p\sycholo~.sts 'have discovered that men. are far more likely to' prefer sloppy

to 'Ifl ttl]l;t:, 1....::: c!ltIon i[!I th 9 'I!'1i WO'Ifl en 11ft The exc h ange- of [(I'~ liva _ ._',:Jj,,15~~ KJ1~o~.;. u Q.i,lL .. ,_,' _. "ll.l.~~!, I!! u.". ~I f~},.1 ,-:. __ ' ",.} ... IV ~ruJl..""~'_J

could provide a reproductive advantage for males" During an open-mouthed kiss, a man. passes a bit of testosterone

to t, ~ C' par - tn er O'1'Jl ~:9ir "WQG 1 ....... o::IIT"Iid' m onths reoeated ki ("(!11"'Od' 1,U~l.~.·~_, _. ,I~_!! ' .. ··,·I~ - ~.·;IV~./~ QJj.,I,_,_, .. ",:", .. lL._ U~l ·.IO~~._:_·_J~~.~·_ ru~~ ",~

could enhance a females libido; making her more reeeptive to sex, 19 .. AllA:rays brush and floss, b oys, Evolutionary psycholo~,st Gordon. Gallup of the' State University of.N;ew· ·York. at .AJlb any found. that when deciding whether to kiss

so I'm' eone ve 0-' m an- p- 911 m ' .. 111'ch-f'~IO- I~G"1Ii" att en ·tl ~ ]" h]"1I1 tl ran 111-'" en

,.;,'01_ " .. ..". I.!I..U:;~ .. _ .,II..I!.~ . C_":),,, .'.~. . WI;7! ...... !J: ~ __ ~ _:v . .!Ii. ." g "JI .. .1 ........

do to tJ'!8 breath and teeth of the,ffir partner, 24. You 'Give Love a Bad Name: One milliliter of saliva, contains about l(H)!OO o.ooo bacteria, ])1

193

~UAY

Over 70 yea rs (JIg 0; our fou n d e rj. Vitail,@ Bra man i invented th e firs t rubb er so I e ever used on rnountaineerlnq boots, It was ,an invention that changed outdoor sports forever, To this day, most of' the' best footwear b rands :r n th e wo r ld use Vi b ra m soles,

'-- .....___, Today" we flnd ourselves the' ~eaders of an exciting new movement in runnlnq and 'fitness,

as. a u r Vi bra m Five Fi nqers have b eCOI11 e th e cata Iyst of th e na tu ra I fo otwear revolutio n, We do nit know what the fu ture w~ II ho I d, but we're pretty confid e n~ t hat whatever it's wea ri n g CHi its feet 'wi ~ I have a Vi b ra m ~ Q g 0,

rested whe,re it matte IiS"

WHAT'S IN THE LAB TODAV COULD BE IN y'OUR ILJFE T'DIM:ORR'OW

FOUR-PART SERIES

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