22

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
nvironmental engineers are concerned with works developed to protect and promote public health, improve the environment, and prevent degradation of land, water, and air. Their practice includes surveys, reports, designs, reviews, management, operation, and investigations of such works. They also engage in research in engineering sciences and such related sciences as chemistry, physics, and microbiology to advance the objectives of protecting public health and controlling environment. Environmental engineering deals with treatment and distribution of water supply; collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater; control of pollution in surface and underground waters; collection, treatment, and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes; housing and institutional sanitation; rodent and insect control; control of atmospheric pollution; limitations on exposure to radiation; limitations on noises; and other environmental factors affecting the health, comfort, safety, and well-being of people. This section, while covering primarily the aspects related to handling of liquid wastes, also deals briefly with other environment-related tasks, such as solid-waste handling and air pollution. (See also environmental discussions in Sec. 14 and subsequent sections.)

Dan L. Glasgow*
Consulting Engineer Gardnerville, Nevada

E

22.1 Prevention of Environmental Pollution
Because of public concern over accelerating deterioration of the natural environment, Congress established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and passed legislation to control disposal of solid wastes and pollution of water and air. The following legislation is of particular significance to environmental engineers. National Environmental Policy Act I All agencies of the Federal government and state and municipal agencies executing programs supported by Federal funds are required to carefully consider the environmental consequences of major actions, including proposed construction projects, and proposed legislation. The objectives are: 1. Fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as trustee of the environment for the succeeding generation. 2. Assure for all Americans safe, healthful, productive, and esthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings. 3. Attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health

*Revised Sec. 22, originally written by William T. Ingram, Consulting Engineer.

22.1

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22.2 I Section Twenty-Two
or safety, or other undesirable and unintended consequences. 4. Preserve important historic, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage, and maintain, wherever possible, an environment that supports diversity and variety of individual choice. 5. Achieve a balance between population and resource use that will permit high standards of living and a wide sharing of life’s amenities. 6. Enhance the quality of renewable resources and approach the maximum attainable recycling of depletable resources. Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act) I The objective is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. The act directs EPA to establish technology-based limitations and standards for industrial discharges. The states set waterquality standards for their waters. Control is achieved principally by issuance of permits by EPA or delegated states under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). EPA in some instances provides financial support for construction or modification of publicly owned sewage-treatment works and awards grants to states for preparation of water-quality management plans and for executing requirements of the act. Safe Drinking Water Act I EPA is required to establish regulations for public drinking water supplies. Primary regulations set maximum allowable levels for contaminants in drinking water and establish criteria for water treatment. Secondary regulations deal with taste, odor, and appearance of drinking water. Other regulations protect groundwater through controls over injection wells under the Underground Injection Control Program. EPA delegates primary responsibility for enforcement to the states and supports state programs with grants. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act I The objectives are to improve management of solid wastes, protect the environment and human health, and conserve valuable material and energy resources. The act also provides for state programs regulating hazardous wastes from generation to disposal, including disposal of industrial sludges containing toxic materials. The states regulate disposal of solid wastes on land in accordance with Federal criteria. Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act I EPA is required to protect the oceans from indiscriminate dumping of wastes and to designate safe sites for dumping. An objective is an ultimate halt in ocean dumping of wastes. The Corps of Engineers issues, subject to EPA approval, permits for dredging, filling of wetlands, or dumping of dredged material. Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) I The Federal government is authorized to remove and safely dispose of pollutants in hazardous waste sites, underground water supplies and other facilities. The act establishes a Hazardous Waste Response Fund to pay for cleanup and damage claims. EPA designates substances that may present substantial hazards to public health or welfare or to the environment. The National Response Center should be notified of releases of hazardous substances. Clean Air Act I The objective is to protect public health and welfare from the harmful effects of air pollution. EPA promulgates National Ambient Air Quality Standards. To meet these standards, the states prepare State Implementation Plans and plans for enhancement of visibility and prevention of significant deterioration of air quality in areas where the standards have been attained. EPA also develops New Source Performance Standards, to reduce pollutant emissions, and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, applicable to pollutants that will cause an increase in mortality or incapacitating illness. In addition, EPA sets limits on emissions from moving sources of air pollution. (R. A. Corbitt, “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering,” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.)

22.2 Major Sources of Water Pollution
There are two major sources of water pollution: point sources and nonpoint sources. The former consists of sources that discharge pollutants from a well-defined place, such as outfall pipes of sewage-

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Environmental Engineering I 22.3
treatment plants and factories. Nonpoint sources, in contrast, cannot be located with such precision. They include runoff from city streets, construction sites, farms, or mines. Therefore, prevention of water pollution requires a mixture of controls on discharges from both point and nonpoint sources. Under the Clean Water Act (Art. 22.1), the EPA may provide funding for planning control strategies under its Water Quality Management Program. Domestic wastewater and industrial discharges are major point sources. The Clean Water Act and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (Art. 22.1) aim at elimination of discharge of pollutants in navigable waters and the ocean. Wastewater is the liquid effluent of a community. This spent water is a combination of the liquid and water-carried wastes from residences, commercial buildings, industrial plants, and institutions, plus groundwater, surface water, or storm water. Wastewater may be grouped into four classes: Class 1 I Effluents that are nontoxic and not directly polluting but liable to disturb the physical nature of the receiving water; they can be improved by physical means. They include such effluents as cooling water from power plants. Class 2 I Effluents that are nontoxic but polluting because they have an organic content with high oxygen demand. They can be treated for removal of objectionable characteristics by biological methods. The main constituent of this class of effluent usually is domestic sewage. But the class also includes storm water and wastes from dairy product plants and other food factories. Class 3 I Effluents that contain poisonous materials and therefore are often toxic. They can be treated by chemical methods. When they occur, such effluents generally are included in industrial wastes, for example, those from metal finishing. Class 4 I Effluents that are polluting because of organic content with high oxygen demand and, in addition, are toxic. Their treatment requires a combination of chemical, physical, and biological processes. When such effluents occur, they generally are included in industrial wastes, for example, those from tanning. Domestic wastewater is collected from dwelling units, commercial buildings, and institutions of the community. It may include process wastes of industry, groundwater infiltration, surface-water inflow, and miscellaneous waste liquids. It is primarily spent water from building water supply, to which have been added the sanitary waste materials of bathroom, kitchen, and laundry. (See Art. 22.14.) Storm water is precipitation collected from property and streets and carrying with it the washings from surfaces. Industrial wastes are primarily the specific liquid waste products collected from industrial processing but may contain small quantities of domestic sewage. Such wastes vary with the process and contain some quantity of the material being processed or chemicals used for processing purposes. Industrial cooling water when mixed with process water is also called industrial waste. Industrial wastes, as distinguished from domestic wastes, are related directly to processing operations and usually are the liquid fraction of processing that has no further use in recovery of a product. These wastes may contain substances that, when discharged into surface water or groundwater, cause some biological, chemical, or physical change in the water. Organic substances exert a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of relatively high proportion compared with domestic waste. It is not unusual in food processing to have wastes with a BOD of 1000 to 5000 mg/L or in the processing of edible oils to have 10,000 to 25,000 mg/L BOD. The wastes may cause discoloration of a receiving stream, as in the release of dyes, or increase the temperature of the water, as in the case of a cooling tower or process-cooling water discharges. Chemicals in the waste may be toxic to aquatic life, animals, or human populations using the water, or may in some way affect water quality by imparting taste or odor. Phenols introduced into water in the parts-per-billion range can produce such marked taste that the water becomes unusable for many purposes. Nitrogen and phosphorus may stimulate aquatic growth, and algae populations in the receiving stream may be increased. Some algae are detrimental to water quality since they too produce taste, odor, color, and turbidity in the water. Industrial wastes that contain large quantities of solids may produce objectionable and dangerous levels of sludge on the bottom of a stream or along the banks. These add to the chemical, bio-

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Discharges containing oil may render bathing beaches useless. storm sewers. Force mains flow full under pressure from a pump. Wastes containing acids or alkalies may attack pier structures and water craft and produce serious toxic effects on fish life. or house connections. Design should be based on the flow estimated at some future time. Some types are always under pressure. Toxic pollutants are controlled by EPA General Pretreatment Regulations. Combined wastes are the mixed discharge of domestic waste and storm water in a single pipeline. if mixed with municipal waste. even an advanced stage of treatment to remove trace chemicals (see also Art. Industrial waste may or may not be found in a combined waste and can be carried apart from either in an industrial sewer. and present extra problems of removal in watertreatment processes. it includes all the sewers between the ends of building-drainage systems and sewagetreatment plants or other points of disposal. Eckenfelder. render the whole treatment process inoperative. A submain. Combined sewers are designed for both domestic wastewater and storm water. such as those containing copper. Nemerow. Inverted siphons. Pretreatment of industrial wastes is often required to protect the sewers and treatment plant maintained by a municipal agency. Sewerage is a system of sewers. L. They may also receive some industrial wastes. Jr. and physical degradation of the stream. in some instances. L. Treatment of industrial wastes to the degree required to protect a receiving body of water is a requirement in all states. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A storm-overflow sewer carries storm-flow excess from a main or intercepting sewer to an independent outlet. A large flow of water from a storm may make adequate wastewater treatment impossible or increase its cost considerably. Practices and Treatment.” and R. A main. Inc.. “Industrial Water Pollution Control. New York.. the flow goes to a common sewer. the engineer must have. or at completion of the development. sewer takes the flow from two or more laterals. domestic-wastewater or storm-water flow does not completely fill the conduit. Usually. or other wastes flow.” and R.) Storm sewers are designed specifically to convey storm water. limited quantities of storm water from several combined sewers. 22. In urban areas. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. which serves abutting property. This conduit may be a lateral. N. 25 to 50 years ahead. or branch. Culp et al. “Advanced Wastewater Treatment. conduits that dip below the hydraulic grade line. the community or area to be served should be studied for the purpose of estimating the type and quantity of flow to be handled. The system may comprise sanitary sewers. An outfall sewer extends from the end of a collection system or to a treatment plant disposal point. Building sewers. . (W. W. 22.22. Click here to view. storm water. Some wastes. sewer handles the flow from two or more submains or a submain plus laterals. policy decisions on whether separate or combined sewers will be built.4 I Section Twenty-Two logical. “Liquid Wastes of Industry: Theories.3 Types of Sewers A sewer is a conduit through which wastewater. New York. A. street wash. interfere with nesting water fowl. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An intercepting sewer receives dry-weather flow and specific.” McGrawHill Publishing Company. in advance. But they are not designed for storm water or groundwater. it may range from neutralization and other simple primary treatments to complete treatment or. or trunk.31). which contain limits on specific substances discharged by various industries.4 Estimating Wastewater Flow Before a sewer is designed. one that receives wastewater only from house sewers. Also. They cost less than separate sanitary and storm sewers. 22. Sanitary sewers carry mostly domestic wastewater. But all sewers may be filled at some time and must be capable of withstanding some hydraulic pressure. but disposal of the flow may create objectionable or hazardous conditions or involve costly treatment. A relief sewer is one built to relieve an existing sewer with inadequate capacity. interfere with the normal processes of wastewater treatment and may.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. also flow full and under pressure. and other surface water to disposal points. Usually. Corbitt. or a combination of both. All rights reserved. are pipes carrying wastewater from the plumbing systems of buildings to a sewer or disposal plant.

Industrial operations of a seasonal nature influence the seasonal average. water use. The rate of flow of domestic wastewater varies with water use. The peak flow often is several times larger than the average. pumping stations. Estimating Storm-Water Flow I An estimate of the quantity of storm water flowing into sewers during or following a period of rain is necessary for their design. for estimating purposes. Sewers in wet ground with a high water table or close to streambeds will have more infiltration than sewers in other locations. commercial requirements. Some of these losses. however. the estimate may be based on the gcd of water being consumed by an existing similar community. Wherever possible. At the outfall. Often. expansion of service geographically. A pronounced peak usually occurs about 9 A. and shape and size of the drainage area. Inflow does not include infiltration into sewers. walls of manholes. cellar. In a residential district. distances the water will travel before reaching the sewers. Peak flows may exceed 300% of average in laterals and 200% of average at the treatment plant. and leakage does not reach the sewer. permeability and slope of the drainage area. and main. Inflow into Sewers I Water may inflow into a sewer system and service connections from such sources as roof. and any known substantial amounts of industrial waste. enforcement agency specifications and requirements call for leakage tests. street washing. the wastewater flow may be estimated from the gallons per capita per day (gcd) of water being consumed. it is undesirable. Daily and seasonal variations depend largely on community characteristics. and drains from flooded cellars. measure flow in existing sewers and at treatment plants to determine actual variations in flow. though. storm water. groundwater geology of the area. The seasonal and annual averages often are about equal in May and June. and foundation drains. generally is less than water consumption since some portion of water used for firefighting. The seasonal average may rise to about 125% of the annual average in late summer and drop to about 90% at winter’s end. where water is used all day. and illegal connections from roof drains. and outfall sewers. Estimating by the rational method (empirical) incorporates these general considerations into one equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Table 22. All rights reserved. however. cross connections from storm and combined sewers. including normal infiltration (see below). For residences housing families with both spouses working. weekend flows may be higher than weekday flows. groundwater infiltration. and topography of the area. Some specifications limit infiltration to 500 gal per day per inch diameter per mile. Click here to view. But short-term fluctuations tend to dampen out inasmuch as there is a time lag from the time of water use to the time the flow reaches the sanitary-sewer mains. lawn irrigation. industrial requirements. Several state health departments require that laterals and submains be designed for a minimum of 400 gcd. drains from springs and swamps. and the joints should be carefully made in the field. For a planned community. The sewer design should specify joints that will allow little or no infiltration. The quantity of domestic wastewater. manhole covers.M. . perforated manhole covers. trunk. and street washes or drainage.1 lists reported flows for several large United States cities. catch basins. cooling-water discharges. water demand. and seasonal fluctuations.5 The quantity and flow patterns of domestic wastewater are affected principally by population and population increase. a peak may occur during the day. Some states limit the net leakage to 500 gal/day per inch diameter per mile for any section of the system. In commercial and industrial districts. Preparation of the estimate requires knowledge of intensity and duration of storms.Environmental Engineering I 22. and treatment plants. may be offset by addition of water from private wells. for a minimum of 250 gcd. area. greatest use of water is in the early morning. industrial processing. Since infiltration increases the sewage load. If the community to be served by the sewerage system already exists. the peak flow probably will occur about noon. but it is less pronounced. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in the laterals. cracked pipes. including normal infiltration. Infiltration into Sewers I Water may infiltrate sewers through poor joints. daily. yard. surface runoff. and water consumption. 100 to 110 gcd. Although flow may range from 70 to 130% of water consumption. population density and density change. Hourly. affect design of sewers. designers often assume the average flow equal to the average water consumption or.

Rainfalls that are exceeded only once in 10 years are called 10-year storms. time of concentration equals inlet time. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In built-up areas. (See also Art. (V. Where failure would endanger property. “Wastewater Treatment Design. borings should be taken to determine soil characteristics along the alignment and at sites for structures in the system. At an inlet. 60 and 37.30 to 0. Preferably. Inc. often a catch basin. water courses. McGhee. 22.. and Metcalf & Eddy. Chow et al. “Water Supply and Sewerage. “Wastewater Engineering: Treatment.4). a preliminary layout of the sewerage can be made.” 3rd ed. In such cases.39). The effect of this approximation is calculation of a larger rate of flow.22. Scale may be 1 in to 200 ft. a 5-year storm may be used for design of storm sew- 22. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In addition. Physical characteristics of the area. Time of flow in a sewer (assumed to be flowing full) may be taken as the length of the sewer to the point of concentration divided by the velocity of flow. 25. slopes.6 I Section Twenty-Two (22. once in 20 years. in/h of rain producing runoff ers with reasonable safety. including contours.70 to 0. and so on. Also. ft3/s A = drainage area. combined sewers may be designed on the same basis as storm sewers.90. should be shown on a topographic map. C may be taken as 0. All rights reserved. Where branches connect to a sewer. pipe sizes.. a 10-. New York. a survey should locate. acres C = coefficient of runoff of area I = average rainfall rate. “Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction. the theoretical time required for a drop of water to flow to the inlet from the most distant point of the area served by the inlet. For relatively inexpensive structures in residential areas. Observations indicate that rainfall rate I is a function of storm duration t. or 50-year storm would be more conservative. After the preliminary design has been accepted. which provides a safety factor in design. Water Environmental Federation.” 6th ed. minutes.) A common value for C used for residential areas with considerable land in lawn. and shrubbery is 0. Therefore. costbenefit studies may be made to guide selection of a suitable storm frequency. in plan and elevation. construction costs should be estimated. 20-year storms. But cross sections and appurtenances of the sewers must be designed to handle the dry-weather flow efficiently. T. garden. T.) The time of concentration is the time required for the maximum runoff rate to develop at a point in a sewer. Click here to view.” and “Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. I for design of storm sewers may be estimated from rate-duration curves or formulas by substituting time of concentration for t (Art. buildings. Inc.. and geology. The designer has to decide for which frequency storm to design. Rainfall-intensity values are selected on the basis of frequency as well as duration of storms that have occurred in the vicinity. Preliminary drawings should include a plan of the proposed system and show. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. and this involves a calculated risk combined with engineering judgment. to a sewer. unless the number of details requires a larger scale.. No. Arlington.or 10-ft intervals usually are satisfactory.. Critical duration of rainfall on a watershed is the time required to develop maximum runoff and therefore equals time of concentration.39. in elevation and plan. Flood crest and storage time while the sewer is filling usually are neglected.1) where Q = peak runoff. . the longest time of concentration for all the branches is used in design. The time of concentration for a point in the first sewer entered equals the inlet time plus the time of flow in the sewer to that point. This requires a comprehensive study of the community or area to be served (Art. underground utilities. Va. basements.40. Since storm-sewage flow is very large compared with dry-weather flow. respectively. the quantities of wastewater to be handled and the rates of flow must be estimated. all existing structures and underground utilities that may affect the design. 21. Disposal and Reuse. A 50-year storm may be chosen if flooding would cause costly damage and disrupt essential activities. Contours at 5. location of roads.5 Sewer Design Before a sanitary-sewer system can be designed. streets. 21. Then.” Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice. Elevations of streets should be noted at intersections and abrupt changes in grade. and depths below grade can be tentatively selected.” MOP8. “Applied Hydrology”. Inlet time may range from 5 min for a steep slope on an impervious area to 30 min for a slightly sloped city street.

400.800 110.783 988. II.985 494.000 925.030 177.000 21.101 635.840 220. Sparks Salt Lake City San Francisco North Point Richmond.000 105.1 125 240 251 240 45 223 277 107 203 140 122 502 142 195 166 130 148 143 137 141 147 265 182 248 424 136 208 194 253 282 254 135 164 123 96 35 1290 55 48 30 150 151 174 538 120 134 173 Design flow.000 218.000. C. EPA 440/9-74-001.000 275.450 77. Click here to view.650 353.357 1.000 849.000 3.000 377. Office of Water Planning and Standards.000 181. gcd 133 133 247 413 513 330 IA MI TX FL MO CA MN NY OK PA OR NV UT CA NY WA MO DC KS * From Computer Run 1974: National Water Quality Inventory. Inc. Sunset South East Schenectady Seattle (West Point) St.516 164. All rights reserved.000 120 57 17.5 85 420 14 218 180 150 120 60 310 15 30 175 136 100 20 45 150 30 37 15.108 205.000 201.2 1200 310 410 Design. vol.330 OH 819.000 460.000 1.240.000 2.000 115. app.1 Municipal Discharges* City Bismarck Boise Bozeman Chicago West S.243.000 1.780.000 75. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.463 173.433 IN 539.95 10 5.000 418.200 2. Calumet North Side Cleveland East South Des Moines Detroit Houston North Side and 69th Sims Bayou Southwest Indianapolis S.000 460.000 604. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7 Table 22. .W.100.000 770.000 2. Belmont Rd Southport Rd Jacksonville Kansas City Los Angeles Hyperion Terminal Island Minneapolis New York Wards Island Hunts Point Bowery Bay Tallman’s Island Newtown Creek Oakwood Beach Oklahoma City (South) Philadelphia Northeast Southwest Portland Reno.000 725.000 434. mgd 4. Louis Le May Bistle Point Washington Wichita State ND ID MT IL Population served 37.000 359.900.Environmental Engineering I 22.900 1.270.

Appurtenances may have a different life since replacement of mechanical equipment will be necessary. should be fully investigated. however.) A common value for n is 0. ft2. or city agency. to flow full. Approval of a supervising government agency. For combined sewers. Diversion structures should be located at or near water courses into which storm water may be discharged. parish. with provision made in design for parallel or separate routings of trunks of smaller size to be constructed as the need arises. usually must be obtained for the plans. of fluid divided by wetted perimeter.486 (conversion factor to account for change from metric units used in development of the formula) (See also Art. Velocity changes. Velocity Formulas I Velocity of flow. ft/s. All rights reserved. Maximum flow occurs when a conduit is not completely full. approximately the slope of the conduit invert for uniform flow C = 1. will occur at obstacles and changes in sewer cross section and should be considered in making hydraulic computations. Sanitary sewers should be designed to carry peak design flow with a depth from half full for the smallest sewers to full for the larger sewers. ft = area. such as a county. . whereas sewers from 15 to 60 in in diameter may be designed to flow three-quarters full and sewers larger than 60 in. or inverted siphons are necessary because of a drop in terrain or encounters with obstacles. should be designed to withstand some hydraulic pressure. Sewer designers should be familiar with requirements for sewers in the locale in which work is to be done. detailed plans of all appurtenances and structures. Municipal and state regulations on cover should always be reviewed before a design for a specific location is undertaken. however. smooth concrete Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.013. provision also must be made for handling dry-weather or sanitary flow at proper velocities in sewers that may carry large quantities of water after a storm. a complete report with necessary charts and tables to make clear the exact nature of the project. maximum discharge takes place at about 0.22. For example. Horizontal scale may be 1 in in 40 ft or 1 in in 100 ft. The final design should include a general map of the whole area showing location of all sewers and underground utilities and the drainage areas. complete specifications. Design Flows I Unless force mains are required because sewage must be pumped.2) where n = coefficient dependent on roughness of conduit surface R = hydraulic radius. common practice is to permit pipe to carry design flow at full depth. ft S = energy loss. Sewers. The addition to flow from connecting sewers should be included. The effects of discharging polluted water. in straight sewers without obstructions may be estimated with satisfactory accuracy from the Manning formula (22. Extensive plans require tabulation of data beginning at the upper end of the system and proceeding downstream from manhole to manhole. Design is complicated by the need for diversion of waters not flowing to a sewage-treatment plant. and a confidential estimate of costs for the owner or agency responsible for the project. Usually. 21. depending on the amount of detail.9. Inc. Click here to view. the sewers should be below the frost level.8 I Section Twenty-Two Sufficient depth of soil cover is necessary to prevent damage from traffic loads. Also. For storm sewers. ft/ft of conduit length. Trunk sewers may be planned for long periods. sizes of pipe and slopes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Submains may be designed for 10 to 40 years ahead. sewers under 15 in in diameter are usually designed to flow half full during peak flow periods. flow may be assumed uniform in straight sewers. suitable for well-laid brickwork. and location of appurtenances. detailed plans and profiles of sewers showing ground levels. Laterals may be designed for ultimate flow of the area to be served.9 of the total depth of the section. In general. they are designed for 20 to 25 years ahead. for a circular pipe. a combination of sanitary sewage and storm water. and a timetable of additions during that period is then scheduled in an overall improvement plan. The location of the sewers should be shown in elevation on profiles. sewers usually are sized for open-channel flow. For example. Vertical scale generally is 10 times the horizontal.

02 for the plain pipe or pipe with a paved invert.4 ft/s.40 0 45 0.14 1.005 0. a minimum of 3 ft/s is desirable.80 0.143 0.60 0.627 0.2 of the diameter. Slopes I Pipe slopes generally should exceed the minimum desirable for maintaining minimum velocity for design flow since actual flows. ft3/s.52 0.982 1.40 0.336 0. but the roughness.12 1.09 1.000 3 Velocity partly full Velocity flowing full 0 0. ft3/s.8 ft/s.067 1.07 1. Where sewers are sized for lower velocities than recommended minimums.500 0. Smaller values of n than the preceding may be used for new smooth pipe. partly full Quantity.90 0. Greater velocities are desirable for storm and combined sewers because the flow may carry heavy sand and grit.195 0.77 0. and plastic and resin-lined pipes.021 0.25 0. Slopes and cross sections of sewers should be chosen to achieve this or a larger velocity for design flows. ft3/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. n may range from 0.748 0.Environmental Engineering I 22. may be much smaller than design flow.137 0. For corrugated-metal pipe. For example. The quantity of flow. is likely to increase with age. when the respective values for the pipe flowing full are known. Actual velocity then may be less than the self-cleaning velocity. ft2.011 for a spun asphalt lining to 0.70 0.2 Hydraulic Characteristics of a Circular Pipe Depth of flow Inside diameter 0 0.075 1.858 0. But if the depth of flow drops to one-third the diameter.25 0. for flow full may be estimated from (22. ft /s. provision for flushing and removal of obstructions should be made in the design. It enables the quantity and velocity of flow to be computed for a circular pipe flowing partly full. velocity declines to about 1. suppose a circular pipe is sized and sloped to handle design flow when flowing full at 3 ft/s.9 pipe.262 0.35 0.50 0. flowing full 0 0.62 0. 0.2 gives the hydraulic characteristics of circular pipe.3) where A = cross-sectional area of flow. This velocity will also be maintained when the pipe is flowing half full to full. the velocity will decrease to about 2.95 1.437 0. is given by (22. All rights reserved. especially before a development reaches its ultimate size.094 0.20 0.90 0.84 0.70 0.416 0.30 0.10 0 15 0. Table 22. and value of n.196 0.05 0.088 0.977 1. and at a depth 0.019 0.00 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.00 Partial area Total area 0 0.011 may be used for n for design purposes. and vitrified clay pipe with liner plates.500 0. For vitrified clay pipes without liner plates.00 1.95 1. Click here to view.049 0.12 1.950 0.4) and the velocity for flow full from Table 22. Minimum Velocity I Velocity should be at least 2 ft/s in sanitary sewers to prevent settlement of solids. .000 Quantity.837 0. The quantity.312 0.252 0.374 0.671 0.052 0.

offers a rapidly decreasing cross-sectional area for decreasing flows. . the designflow-depth points of the pipes may be set at the same elevation. and plastics formulated for the purpose. Click here to view. and in large cities and metropolitan areas 10 in may be the minimum.10 I Section Twenty-Two (22. This should be taken into account in hydraulic computations for flow near intersections of large sewers. Sewer Shapes I In selection of a sewer shape.3 lists the quantities and slopes given by these formulas for various velocities and diameters. any structure combining the flow from two or more sources. This may quite often be true. Maximum Velocities I High velocities in sewers also should be avoided because the solids carried in the flow may erode the conduit. brick. To account for the energy loss due to change in direction of sewers at manholes. reinforced concrete. though. an egg shape.3 may be stored in computer memories for design use. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Often. a compromise shape is chosen. is advisable. with the small end down. designers sometimes favor one that permits higher velocities at both small and large flows. will parallel the sewer invert. The energy losses may be determined by application of formulas found in references on hydraulics.2). For example. Information such as that in Tables 22. But because of the roundness. or water surface. For velocities in that range. may be much greater when such flows are likely to occur infrequently. Sewer pipe is covered by Federal standards and specifications of the American Public Works Association. and earth and traffic loads with economy. Figure 22. If the sewer size decreases at the manhole. there is added cost in bedding circular pipe compared with shapes with a flat bottom. such as vitrified-clay blocks. 8 in is the minimum diameter of sewer permitted. the carrying capacity of the sewer will change. regardless of the constancy of the invert slope. circular sewers generally are used. coated steel. All rights reserved. galvanized iron. A usual upper limit for sanitary sewers is 10 ft/s.1 shows some typical shapes that have been used for large reinforced concrete sewers. In any case. Energy Losses I The assumption of uniform. the invert in the manhole may be dropped about 0. Sewer Materials I Sewers should be made of materials resistant to corrosion and abrasion and with sufficient strength to resist hydraulic pressure. especially for prefabricated conduit. Minimum Pipe Size I In many cities. Thus. In curved sewer lines. pipe smaller than 6 in in diameter should not be used because of the possibility of stoppages. velocity is inversely proportional to area. to concentrate small flows to obtain desirable velocities. Loads on Sewers I Sewers must be designed with adequate strength to withstand superimposed loads without crushing. Inc. But cost of constructing such curved sections may be higher than that for simpler shapes. Materials meeting these requirements include vitrified clay. Concrete channels have carried 40 ft/s without damage. Table 22. it reduces the danger of the flow backing up and building up pressure. Since. bituminized fiber. handling. This shape provides the maximum cross-sectional area for the volume of material in the wall and has fair hydraulic properties (Table 22. however. lining at least the lower portion of the sewers with abrasion-resistant material.1 to 22.5) where d = inside diameter of pipe. interchange of velocity and pressure head. asbestos-cement. or small channel. or through cracks. The inverts usually are curved or incorporate a cunette. velocity in an egg shape does not fall off so rapidly with decreasing flow as in other shapes. The invert drop also may offset head losses due to size changes. Usually. and submerged outlets at outfalls. open-channel flow in sewer design implies that the hydraulic grade line. Maximum design velocities for storm sewers. the loads are produced by earth pressure or loads transmitted through earth and may be assumed to be uniformly distributed.22. allowance must be made for larger energy losses than in straight sewers. If the sewer increases in size at the manhole.04 ft. ft. for a given quantity of flow. For this reason. Programs for application of the data are available commercially. cast iron. one that has favorable hydraulic characteristics and relatively low cost. But where conditions exist that change the slope of the water surface. collapsing. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. pipe invert elevations may be kept the same.

7 95.6 199 1.8 8.64 392 0.4 0.5 32.1 7.56 6.14 88.8 170 1.6 2.8 1.013.4 119 1.0 1.6 1.7 17.91 221 0.17 66.4 4.59 58.9 5.3 2.11 Table 22.7 0.7 628 1.8 0.0 1.4 2.9 29.2 226 2.1 56.9 4.1 402 1.4 40.5 7.7 3.1 30.4 7.0 8.8 7.8 4.1 7.7 3.0 14.5 3.09 3.8 0.30 31.3 22.8 11.8 12.26 39.6 3.9 2.3 62.8 7.3 23.0 9.7 6.7 111 3.0 1.4 1.70 3.3 1.20 4.5 0.5 1.4 8.3 Quantities.3 18.40 99.83 252 0.36 5.3 265 1.6 10.1 24.4) and (22.9 5.1 19.7 3.8 0.5 0.10 157 0.013.4 0.0 10.4 13.2 63.9 5.82 37.3 1. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and Slopes for Circular Sewers.8 53.3 5.3 17.99 192 0.8 48.4 3.5 14.20 56.7 25.1 35.0 270 1.51 71.0 0.1 4.81 7.45 84.8 309 1.33 133 0.8 7.3 0.92 6.0 143 1.8 20.80 113 0.27 191 0. All rights reserved.6 8. multiply slopes given in the table by n / 0.12 127 0.23 236 0.3 4.1 1.0 2.5 50.2 5.6 1.0 5.7 15.9 1.5 308 2.5 7.1 2.6 190 3. † Q = quantity of flow ft3 /s. multiply quantities and velocities by 0. For other values of n.6 19.36 115 0.5)] for n = 0.2 4.0 9.9 0.6 29.Environmental Engineering I 22.9 508 1. ft /s Dia.5 9.2 302 1.7 1.0 2.6 98.2 2.2 157 3.7 0.5 0.2 76.0 28.2 18.7 11.8 0.68 47. ‡ S = slope.1 2.13 101 0.8 19.2 0.6 5.1 21.8 2.2 12.1 4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 49.9 12.4 118 2.8 166 2.2 35.7 4.6 6.57 11.3 549 1. Click here to view.90 95.9 79. Inc.8 15.4 198 2.30 151 0. in 2.8 38.4 2.2 14.9 8.71 133 0.93 471 0.5 1.2 0.3 4. ft / 1000 ft.5 * From Manning formula [Eqs.7 12.5 1.1 34.1 14.3 9.9 2.2 137 2.6 3.0 8 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 108 120 Q† S‡ Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S Q S 0.76 318 0.6 0.58 177 0.4 31.1 12.4 2.3 31.9 10.3 1.2 232 2.8 30.5 27.4 13.1 0.66 9.6 352 1.8 1.8 17.8 101 4.7 0.1 28.0 2.4 5.5 39.3 2.7 3.5 444 1. (22.4 13.1 8. Flowing Full* Velocity.0 41.4 4.4 39.2 47.2 1.9 127 4.4 3.2 9.5 88.41 314 0.16 77.3 22.0 3.1 15.0 3.3 0.5 3.0 57.5 1.0 78.6 2.5 5.48 254 0.5 23.64 154 0.0 23.36 25.1 0.0 0.1 381 0.50 14.5 67.6 7.53 201 0.1 9. Velocities less than 2 ft /s are not recommended.5 1.1 9.1 166 0.45 19.23 47.8 266 2.2 141 1.8 23.1 6.7 4. Velocities.9 3.9 0.2 0.8 2.4 1.3 353 2.6 17.77 8.013 /n.4 231 1.3 75.

Along rural highways. (d) horseshoe. inlets usually are positioned at street intersections to remove storm water before it reaches pedestrian crossings and so that water is never required to cross over the street crown to reach an inlet. No. 37 and 60. “Handbook of Hydraulics.” and “Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction.” Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice. inlets generally are installed at low points. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 7. (b) rectangular. King and E. C. Fair. New York. T. and the sewers can be sized to resist these stresses.2 ft higher. Inc. Brater.28. If the distance between intersections is more than 500 ft long. McGhee. All rights reserved. however. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Metcalf & Eddy. American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 Some shapes used for large reinforced concrete sewers: (a) Circular. J.” 3rd ed. (c) semielliptical. J. M. Spacings generally range from 300 ft for flat terrain and expressways to 600 ft.” John Wiley & Sons.” 6th ed. (G.6 Storm-Water Inlets An inlet is an opening in a gutter or curb for passing storm-water runoff to a drain or sewer. In urban areas. A common practice is to provide three inlets in each sag vertical curve. W. 22. Okun. “Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. Inc. “Elements of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal. Vertical earth loads on sewers may be estimated as indicated in Art. and D. the capacity of an inlet is increased by permitting some of the water to flow past to an inlet at a lower level.. F. Often.. New York. Geyer..) 22. one at the low point and one at each side of it where gutter elevation is about 0. Stresses in large sewers may be computed by elastic theory.. . and H. A.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Standard culverts and sewer pipe generally may be selected with the aid of allowable-load tables prepared by the manufacturers. an inlet may be placed near the midpoint.22. Click here to view. “Wastewater Engineering.12 I Section Twenty-Two Fig. respectively.

a gutter grating. (22. Flow through an inlet is directed by a concrete or masonry enclosure to a pipe at the bottom (Fig. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. The size of the enclosure generally is determined by the inlet length. capacity of inlet may be calculated from the weir formula (22. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7) and (22. 22. the gutter may be depressed up to 5 in below the normal gutter line along the length of the inlet. because the curb opening provides in. depth of water in the gutter at the inlet.4 ft. Capacity of the curb-opening type when diverting 100% of gutter flow may be computed from (22.8) Fig. All rights reserved. especially at low points.6) where Q = quantity of runoff. ft3/s L = length of opening. ft. Depth of flow in the gutter may be estimated from the Manning formula.2 Storm-water inlet with opening in a curb. ft a = depression in curb inlet. capacity may be computed from the orifice formula (22. of grate opening over which water may flow. Inc. . ignoring the bars.13 Several inlets also are necessary to reduce pondage where the drainage area would be too large for a single inlet in a valley. An inlet may be a curb opening. Click here to view. The depression may extend up to 3 ft from the curb. ft In practice. which in turn is determined by the quantity of runoff to be drained. 22.1)].7) where P = perimeter. Combination inlets are desirable. 32 ft/s2 At depths between 0. neither formula may be applicable because of turbulence. Runoff quantity can be estimated by use of the rational formula [Eq.2). Grate inlets should be placed with bars parallel to the flow.4 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Length of opening should be at least 18 in to allow the flow to fall clear of the downstream end of the slot. or a combination of the two. ft y = depth of flow at inlet. and slope of the gutter.4 ft.8). Slope of the gutter commonly is 1 in in 12 where A = total area of clear opening. For depths of flow greater than 1. A rough estimate may be made by using the smaller of the values of Q obtained from Eqs.Environmental Engineering I 22.4 and 1. (22. For depths of flow up to 0.

Also. G. The upper portion generally tapers to the opening to the street. New York. Stainless steel or plastic-coated rungs on the manhole walls enable workers to climb down to the sewers. Hence. catch basins are unnecessary because flow will be adequate to prevent debris from clogging the sewer. The lower portion usually is cylindrical. Sewers are interrupted at manholes to permit inspection and cleaning. Fair et al.4a shows a typical manhole for sewers up to about 60 in in diameter.. The flow passes through the manholes in channels at the bottom. Furthermore.22.) 22. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.3 Catch basin with grating inlet in a gutter. Metcalf & Eddy. since water trapped in catch basins may permit mosquitoes to hatch and may be a source of bad odors. only the grate capacity should be depended on in designing a combination inlet. simple inlets are preferable. If the gutter grate is efficient..” 3rd ed. About 2 ft in diameter. with an inside diameter of at least 4 ft to allow adequate space for workers.. Inc. Fig. (“Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. catch basins are more expensive to maintain because they must be cleaned frequently. and Fig.4b shows one type used for larger sewers. 22.” Manual 37. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.3) are inlets with enclosures that permit debris to settle out before the water enters the sewer.7 Manholes A manhole is a concrete or masonry enclosure for providing access to a sewer. New York.14 I Section Twenty-Two relief from flooding if the gate becomes clogged. “Wastewater Engineering. Inc. . 22. All rights reserved. Click here to view. the combination inlet will have a capacity only slightly greater than a similar inlet with grate alone. American Society of Civil Engineers. the opening is capped with a heavy cast-iron cover seated on a cast-iron frame. M. however.” John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 22. With good sewer grades and careful construction. Catch basins (Fig. Figure 22.

the upper sewer also extends to the manhole at constant slope past the sharp drop through which the wastewater flows.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No.15 Fig.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. grade. a wellhole may be used. because of objections of maintenance workers. For sewers up to about 60 in in diameter. The fall may be broken by staggered horizontal plates in the shaft or by a well or sump at the bottom from which the sewage overflows to a lower level sewer. Drop manholes are used where one sewer joins another several feet below. . R. All rights reserved. turns down sharply just outside the manhole and enters it at the bottom. 60. a steeper slope for the upper sewer is usually more economical. is decreasing. They also are placed where sewers intersect or where there is a significant change in direction. Inc. Most street and highway departments and departments of public works have standard plans for manholes. New York. (“Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction. In a flight sewer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Where a large quantity of sewage must be dropped a long distance.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. manholes are spaced 300 to 600 ft apart. If the drop is less than 2 ft. however. concrete steps break the fall. To permit cleaning of the upper sewer from the manhole. where a channel feeds the flow to the main channel. however. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. A. manholes for these may be spaced farther apart. Use of deep manholes.Environmental Engineering I 22. Click here to view. Since workers can walk through larger sewers. use of the drop manhole permits a more reasonable slope and thus saves considerable excavation. or pipe size. American Society of Civil Engineers. (b) for larger sewers. The upper sewer. Although the upper sewer could be brought down to the lower one more gradually.4 Concrete manholes: (a) For sewers under 60 in in diameter. The lower sewer enters the manhole at the bottom in the usual manner. 22. however. Corbitt.

Depth of water over the outfall must be sufficient to accomplish dispersion before currents can transport the concentrated effluent streams shoreward. or into shallow water. All rights reserved. thus spreading the effluent over a large area and through a large volume of water. For protection against waves and scour. After passing under an obstruction. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. subways. and extensive utility piping and structures.5 Three-pipe inverted siphon. M. the pipe is brought to grade to permit open-channel flow in the con- Fig.. The outlet should be located to avoid pollution of water supplies and creation of a nuisance.9 Inverted Siphons (Sag Pipes) These are sewers that dip below the hydraulic grade line. An outlet discharging treated wastewater into a small stream should be protected. 22. Submerged outlets away from shore are preferable to discharge along a shore or bank. Outfalls in tidal waters require special investigations to ensure suitable dispersion of the wastewater and to avoid floating wastes at the water surface.) 22. Inc.16 I Section Twenty-Two 22. against undercutting by the flow of the stream or wastewater.8 Sewer Outfalls Type of outfall depends on quantity of sewage to be discharged..” John Wiley & Sons. Fair et al. Click here to view. which may create an unsightly appearance and odors. (G. and characteristics of the disposal source. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. over shellfish beds. New York. open-cut railways. degree of treatment of the sewage. A flap valve or automatically closing gate is desirable at the outlet to prevent entrance of water into the sewer during highwater stages. . The outfall may be laid on the bottom. Inc. The dry weather flow may be carried farther out into the river through a small pipe along the bottom. Currents should be strong enough to prevent buildup of sludge near the outlet. These outfalls often are constructed with a multiple discharge at the end. It should be protected against scour by its location or suitable construction. the pipe may be set in a trench or between two rows of piles and securely anchored. by a concrete head wall and a concrete apron on the bank.22. They are used to avoid such obstructions as waterways. A similarly protected outlet may be used at a river bank for storm-water discharge from a combined sewer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

To prevent solids from being deposited and obstructing an inverted siphon. .9) where l = length of weir. ft h = depth of flow over weir at downstream end. ft Siphon Spillways I Although simple to construct.Environmental Engineering I 22. An inlet chamber is constructed at the upstream end of the inverted siphon and an outlet chamber at the downstream end (Fig. which may be entered through manholes extending to grade. usually to twice the dry-weather flow. 22. the smallest pipe may be assigned the minimum dry-weather flow. Inc. 12 to 24 in in diameter. ft3/s. Siphons operate under higher heads than weirs and permit much larger flows.) 22. All rights reserved. The outlet may be placed considerably below the inlet (differences in elevation up to 33. Control is better because siphons can be constructed to start or stop discharge at any desired depth of flow in the combined sewer. Hence. even if feasible. Area. and the largest pipe. A three-pipe system may be used for a large sewer.” 6th ed. In that case. a larger pipe. Diversion. the inlet chamber may also incorporate a bypass. As indicated in Fig. The excess flow is diverted into other conduits or discharged untreated into a waterway.6b) are more effective. the remainder of the flow. These chambers may be concrete enclosures. Side Weirs I A simple device for such an application is a side weir. it must have tight joints and be made of a suitable material and it must be designed for the maximum expected pressure.10 Flow-Regulating Devices in Sewers Sewerage systems often require some means for controlling flow. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 22. ft3/s c = coefficient of discharge. carrying flows with such velocities. spillway siphons. 22. For large sewers. Treatment of maximum flow may not be economic. ft2. The portion of the sewer below the hydraulic grade line flows full under pressure. and gates and valves.5).8 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a regulating device is installed in the sewer to permit the desired quantity to pass to the treatment plant. especially for large flows.. which becomes the invert of the continuing sewer. Click here to view. to keep down the amount of cut and thus the cost of installing the sewer. where the venting of the air entrapped upstream of the siphon would be undesirable because of odor. two or more parallel pipes may be used instead of a single pipe. such as weirs. or overflow.5. McGhee. Built-in weirs may be used to regulate the flow to each pipe. another pipeline may be required to transfer the air to the downstream siphon manhole. pipe to relieve the inlet should the inverted siphon be overloaded or obstructed. Siphon spillways (Fig.9 ft at sea level under standard atmospheric conditions may be used). the excess up to a specified percentage of the maximum flow. of the siphon throat can be determined from (22. (T. For this purpose. In the outlet chamber. Although experience has been good with a single pipe.17 tinuation. The devices may be used to divert flow from one conduit to another or to distribute flow among several pipes. side weirs may not control flow as closely as desired.6a). Provision should be made in the chambers for cleaning and repairing for pipes and for draining them for these purposes. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The inlet chamber for a multiple-pipe inverted siphon usually incorporates flow-regulating devices to control the flow to each pipe. it should be sized and sloped to keep flow velocities as much above 3 ft/s as feasible. a pipe big enough to handle the maximum flow at an adequate velocity may carry small flows at undesirably low speeds. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As a safety measure. The pipeline transferring the entrapped air should be about one-fourth the diameter of the siphon pipeline and may span or undercross the obstacle that necessitated the siphon. J. an overflow weir along the side wall of the combined sewer (Fig. so flow to the plant is limited.6 to 0. New York. the inverts of the pipes merge into a single channel. A common application is control of flow in a combined sewer when the discharge goes through a treatment plant. The designer should always investigate the hydraulic heads required in the inlet chamber to avoid surcharge on the upstream pipes. 22. which varies from 0.10) where Q = discharge. may be estimated from the Engels formula: (22.

2 ft/s2 h = head. Leaping Weirs I A leaping weir. having higher velocities. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. laid out with transit and tape sufficiently far away to avoid disturbance. ft For proper operation. but occasionally sewers may be constructed or installed in tunnels or laid at grade and covered with embankment. clog the openings. low flows may be permitted to reach an outfall through an opening controlled by a gate. The outlet should be completely submerged or sealed by the discharge. 22. All rights reserved. For example. a float valve closes the gate to divert the water to a bypass. For small sewers. For large sewers.18 I Section Twenty-Two Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . 13. and otherwise defeat the purpose of the flowregulating device. The siphon inlet should be shaped to minimize entrance losses. Higher flows.11 Sewer-Construction Methods Sewers usually are placed in trenches.22. Gates and Valves I Diversion of flow also may be accomplished with float-actuated gates and valves. Inc.6c). When water reaches a predetermined level in a float chamber.or 50-ft intervals. set in an invert of a combined sewer. The opening may be made adjustable to correct for inaccuracies in computations based on theory. the sewer line is located with respect to an offset line. Click here to view. In rock. both the vertical and the horizontal positions of the conduit in the trench may be determined with the aid of a string set at a convenient elevation across batter boards straddling the trench at 25. jump the opening and are discharged through a storm sewer. g = acceleration due to gravity = 32. key points should be located with transit and tape. The designer must provide access to diversion cham- bers for cleaning since debris carried into the combined sewer will fill in the channel. 22. permits low flows to drop through an opening into a sanitary sewer (Fig. the air vent should have an area of about A/24. The trench then is marked or staked out on the ground and excavated. In trench construction. 22. Trench excavation may be done by hand or with powered equipment as described in Sec.6 Flow-regulating devices for sewers. explosives should be avoided or used with great caution to avoid collapsing the trench or damaging nearby structures or utilities.

so that at least 120° of the pipe will be supported on it. Backfilling should start as soon as possible. After all the material previously excavated from the trench has been replaced. Invert elevation usually is required to be within 1/2-in of that specified. Backfill must be carefully placed throughout. to reduce future settlement. or a vertical pump. Field notes should record the location of each branch so that it can be found when a connection has to be made in the future.12 Pumping Stations for Wastewater Lift stations are used where it is necessary to pump sewage to a higher level.24 are applicable to trench construction.7). For sewers in tunnels. Main pumping stations should have at least three pumps.) The motors may be started and stopped by switches operated by a float rod. The sheeting methods described in Art.19 Experience generally will indicate whether the depth and type of soil require that the sides of the trench be sheeted and braced. If these connections are not made when the feeder is installed.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No. The smallest pump should be able to handle minimum flow. Usu- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which rises and falls with the liquid level. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. sewage flows into a wet well. Resilient joints are preferable to rigid types. or a concrete cradle. In rock. and materials that may permit excessive settlement should not be used. At a small pumping station. The location is usually referenced to a nearby manhole. the pumps operate automatically when the liquid in the wet well reaches a selected level. the forms for the upper portion are supported on the hardened invert concrete. 22. Earth should be placed and tamped evenly around the pipe to avoid disturbance of newly made joints and creation of high or unbalanced side pressures on the pipe. cast in long. Pipe is laid with bell ends upstream. Click here to view. The support for the sewer should be shaped to the conduit bottom. Often. The pumps may be installed above or in an adjacent dry well. Then. reusable forms.7. Water may be drained. Often. the other two should be able to handle the design flow. 22. if the surface over the trench is to be paved. the resulting mound may be left to settle naturally. to receive the spigots of subsequent sections. (See. At a large pumping station. All rights reserved. with the largest pump out of service. A horizontal pump may be installed in a “dry” compartment alongside the manhole. 22. or portland cement mortar (1:1 mix). excavation should be carried to a depth of one-fourth the conduit diameter below the bottom of the conduit.) 22.Environmental Engineering I 22. housed in a building. The others can be brought on-stream in succession as flow increases. Wellpoints may be necessary to prevent quicksand from forming in a sandy trench bottom or to dry out the bottom. The space between the trench bottom and the conduit should be refilled with 3/4-in gravel or lean concrete (1:41/2:9 mix). New York. a granular fill. For trenches in fields. but not less than 4 in below. Several pumps with different capacities permit flexibility of operation. Proper bedding of flexible pipe is required to avoid excessive vertical deflection and subsequent collapse. Joints between lengths of pipe usually are calked with a plastic or rubber-compound gasket and a filling of plastic. One is available as a standby.) Most installations have at least two pumps. for example. (For a discussion of sewage pumps. . 60.13. Large sewers in trenches generally are constructed of reinforced concrete. see Art. Unless this is forbidden by specifications to prevent possible failures. sewage may flow into a manhole or a tank. by leading it to sumps and pumping it out. American Society of Civil Engineers. the backfill need not be tamped. sheeting should be used so as not to endanger workers. Pipelaying usually proceeds upgrade. the sheeting may be salvaged as backfilling proceeds. 7. on the roof of the tank (Fig. Material should be placed in layers not exceeding 6 in in thickness and tamped lightly until the fill covers the top of the pipe. Inc. The initial trench backfill around flexible pipe is critical and should be evaluated for each installation. Fig. whether the support be the subgrade. If there is any doubt. the invert is concreted first. a disk stopper is mortared into the bell of the stubs. 20 may be used. which differential settlement may crack. Feeder sewers come with Y or T stub branches for house sewer connections. ready to take over if the first should fail. bitumen. The installation may be underground or above grade. (“Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction. The upper portion of the backfill should be heavily tamped. the methods described in Sec. except in quicksand.

” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. the well must be designed to handle maximum flow without flooding. though nonclogging. New York. Va. which may be isolated for cleaning and repair by closure of a gate. FD-4. It can be drained by one of the sewage pumps or by a special pump. Pumps. The wet well usually is small. If the screen clogs frequently. and Metcalf & Eddy. to preclude septic action in the sewage. Inc. . a comminutor may be installed to grind the clogging materials prior to pumping. For that purpose.” 6th ed. however. a basket screen may be placed at the entering sewer or a bar screen ahead of the wet well. Arlington.” MOP No.. “Wastewater Engineering: Collection and Pumping of Wastewater. The well should be vented to the outside. If no attendants are present in an automatic station. Seepage in a dry well should be directed to a sump. “Design of Wastewater and Stormwater Pumping Stations. provision should be made for an alarm to be sounded and recorded at a remote station when a pump fails or the liquid level rises above a selected elevation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.J. should be protected against debris in the sewage by a screen. to prevent accumulation of odors. 22. It may be divided into two interconnected compartments. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. “Water Supply and Sewerage. two sources of electric power are provided to ensure continuity of operation.) Fig. All rights reserved.22. McGhee. Inc. This pump may also have a suction line to the wet well to drain it for cleaning and repair..7 Small automatic wastewater pumping station. Water Environmental Federation.20 I Section Twenty-Two ally. (T .

Vertical pumps permit installation of motors above the pump pit. Types preferred have a high efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. grit chambers may be desirable ahead of pumps. a more economical method is to raise the wastewater in a pumping plant and then let it flow by gravity. the greater is its concentration or strength. Much of the flow looks like bath or laundry effluent. which are considered to be organic material. Similarly. Check valves in inlet and discharge pipes prevent back flow.Environmental Engineering I 22. During this stage. Also. or the only way to get wastewater from a cellar to a sewer at a higher level. In buildings where compressed air is available. The pumps generally are driven by electric motors. with garbage. “Pump Application Engineering. They can pass through filter paper but are retained on a filtering membrane. which are assumed to be inorganic. fats. Click here to view. The loss of weight when dried solids are burned is attributed to the volatile solids.. and feces floating on top. Solids also may be classified as volatile or fixed.21 22.12. Colloids. New York. pieces of wood. J. Pumping may be the most economical means of conveying wastewater past a hill. such ejectors may be used as sump pumps. Solids I Total solids in wastewater comprise suspended and dissolved solids. perhaps mechanically cleaned. it may become septic. the float valve shuts the compressed-air valve and opens the air exhaust. are smaller than 0. strength will vary with the amount of organic matter. The more putrescible compounds there are in wastewater. water consumption per capita. and other sulfur compounds predominating. wastewater contains less than 0. taste. to prevent accelerated wear in the pumps. The residue comprises fixed solids such as salts. Usually more than half of these solids are organic material. often with the odors of hydrogen sulfide.13 Wastewater Pumps Although wastewater generally flows by gravity through conduit and treatment plants. Where desirable invert slopes would place a sewer far underground. Principal nonnitrogenous compounds comprise soaps. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. wastewater becomes stale. Within a few hours at temperatures above 40°F. The shaft of the pump may be horizontal or vertical. These single-suction volute pumps may be bladeless or have two vanes. They are capable of passing solids with a maximum size of about 80% of the inside diameter of the pump suction and discharge pipes. Later. making construction costs high. may be justified. When the storage chamber is emptied.1% of solid matter. . Organic Content I The organic content of wastewater may be classified as nitrogenous and nonnitrogenous. The compressed air forces the wastewater up the discharge pipe. rags. where they are less likely to be damaged by floods. Excessive dissolved solids can have adverse effects on living things. but dependability is the most important characteristic. air is exhausted from the chamber as the liquid level rises. pumping may be necessary to give sufficient head for wastewater to flow by gravity through a treatment plant. Suspended solids include settleable solids and colloids. Wastewater ejectors operated by compressed air are an alternative to nonclogging centrifugal pumps. pumping sometimes is required. About one-third of the total solids usually are in suspension. 22. In a commonly used type of wastewater ejector. Dissolved solids are the residue from evaporation after removal of suspended solids. urea.” and I. Principal nitrogenous compounds include proteins. Inc.. Suspended solids are those that can be filtered out. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (T. “Pump Handbook. See also Art. Hicks. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 22. In general.0001 mm in diameter and can remain in suspension indefinitely. and amino acids. amines. A float rod closes the air exhaust and opens a compressed-air inlet. mostly organic material. irrigation. mercaptans. Elimination of suspended solids from wastewater is desirable because they contain insoluble organic and inorganic pollutants and harbor bacteria and viruses. the wastewater flows into a storage chamber until it is full. and carbohydrates. matches. and water reuse after treatment.14 Characteristics of Domestic Wastewater Usually. slow-speed pumps are desirable for long life and less noise. Settleable solids precipitate out in sedimentation tanks in the usual detention periods. Karassik et al. water softness. paper.” 2nd ed. G. All rights reserved. and amount of industrial wastes. and bar screens. In some cases. “Nonclogging” centrifugal pumps are generally used.

If the BOD of wastewater discharged into a stream or lake exceeds the oxygen content of that water. breaking it down into substances that do not decompose further. which can stimulate undesirable algae growths in lakes and streams Heavy metals.22 I Section Twenty-Two Analyses of Wastewater I Tests are made on wastewater to determine its strength. depending on the method of disposal. BOD is determined by diluting a wastewater sample with water with known dissolved-oxygen content and storing the mixture for 5 days at 20° C. such as mercury. small laboratories are not equipped with suitable apparatus to run the required test Chlorine demand. and lead. and the difference is reported as the BOD. which decrease as wastewater is treated Nitrites and nitrates. which are toxic Total organic carbon (TOC).) Bacteria are useful in stabilizing wastewater. silver. thriving without air. drinking waters. The oxygen content at the end of the period is measured. 22. In aerobic stabilization also. and progress made in treating it. Bacteria I These may be aerobic. . trickling filters.22. 22.8b). the effluent may have to be chlorinated or otherwise treated to eliminate such bacteria. Fecal coliform tests may be required when effluent is discharged into bathing. oxygen is furnished by passing air through a mixture of wastewater and previously activated sludge and by strongly agitating the mixture to dissolve air into the liquid. or facultative. Fish and aquatic plants cannot survive in such conditions. it usually is not carried to complete stability but to a stage where further decomposition proceeds slowly. If they are present. anaerobic action will occur and disagreeable odors may be produced. requiring air for survival. and produces more disagreeable odors. the stabilization of organic material removed from wastewater by sedimentation. release by algae. It is a measure of the amount of biodegradable organic material present. or tidal waters. oxygen is supplied by allowing wastewater to pass over filtering media while air circulates through the voids. In streams. which approximates the total oxidizable carbonaceous content Phosphorus. and production by decomposition of such compounds as nitrates. as wastewater becomes stale Chemical oxygen demand. the amount of chlorine added to wastewater to produce a residual after a certain time. usually 15 min Bacteria and other microorganisms Coliform tests are usually required. and finally are reconverted into wastes (Fig.11) where O = oxygen demand when t = 0 or at start of any oxidation period Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the supply of oxygen is inadequate. Inc. All rights reserved. Because the process is lengthy. potential harmful effects in its disposal. causers of intestinal diseases. which increase as wastewater is treated Dissolved oxygen Ether-soluble matter. which decreases. is more sensitive to environmental conditions. Anaerobic stabilization takes longer than aerobic. decomposition occurs in steps and is part of a cycle (Fig. Anaerobic bacteria are used in sludge digestion. however. carrying on with or without air. Aerobic bacteria serve in self-purification of streams. the oxygen will be used up and the stream or lake will become septic at the discharge area. BOD and COD I The amount of oxygen used during decomposition of organic material is the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). At the end of a period of t days at 20° C (22. oxygen may become available from several sources: absorption of air at the water surface. Click here to view. Stabilization is part of a cycle in which the products of decomposition become food for plants. The most commonly made tests measure: Suspended solids Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Amounts of ammonia. anaerobic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which may be determined in large laboratories or in industrial plants. (Some may be pathogenic.8a). and the activated-sludge method of treatment. which can form a heavy scum pH value. or fats and greases. In trickling filters. In the activated-sludge process. then in turn food for people and animals. which absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. indicating greater acidity.

Environmental Engineering I 22.23
K1 = deoxygenation coefficient, usually about 0.1 for wastewater, but may range from less than 0.05 to more than 0.2. For temperatures other than 20 °C, multiply K1 for 20 °C by 1.047 T–20. Regression analyses of laboratory data should be used to determine K1 for the wastewater being tested. T = temperature, °C To obtain the initial oxygen demand at temperatures other than 20 °C, multiply O for 20 °C by 0.02T + 0.6. The load on a receiving body of water may be estimated from the size of contributing population. For example, the 5-day BOD, lb/day per capita, may be assumed as 0.2 for domestic wastewater, 0.3 for combined wastewater and storm water, and 0.5 for when the combination contains large amounts of industrial wastewater.

Fig. 22.8 Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles in (a) anaerobic decomposition; (b) aerobic decomposition. (From E. W. Steel and T. J. McGhee, “Water Supply and Sewerage,” McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

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22.24 I Section Twenty-Two
Sometimes, the wastewater concentration is expressed as population equivalent, the number of persons required to create the total oxygen demand of the wastewater per day. For example, suppose domestic wastewater has a BOD of 5000 lb/day. The population equivalent then may be taken as 5000/0.2 = 25,000 persons. As an example of the use of BOD, consider a residential community of 100,000 persons producing a wastewater flow of 25 mgd to be disposed of in a river with no BOD and a dissolved-oxygen content of 10 ppm. Permissible oxygen content downstream is 6.5 ppm. What should the flow in the river be? The total oxygen demand may be assumed to be 100,000 × 0.2 = 20,000 lb/day. Since a gallon of water weighs 8.33 lb, the total demand for 25 mgd of wastewater is equivalent to living things and can create undesirable taste, odors, and colors in a receiving body of water. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of the quantities of such materials present in the water. COD, however, as measured in a COD test, also includes the demand of biologically degradable materials because more compounds can be oxidized chemically than biologically. Hence, the COD is larger than the BOD. Treatments are available for removing COD and BOD from wastewater. Relative stability is a measure of the amount of oxygen needed for stabilization of a sewage-treatment-plant effluent. Table 22.4 shows how relative stability varies with storage time at 20 °C. The table indicates that the aerobic process is nearly completed after 20 days. If the time required to exhaust oxygen from an effluent is known, the relative stability given by Table 22.4 also is taken as the percent of the initial oxygen demand O that has been satisfied. The time can be determined by adding to a sample of an effluent a small amount of methylene blue, an aniline dye. On exhaustion of the oxygen in the sample, anaerobic bacteria become active. They release enzymes that remove the color from the dye. The time required at 20 °C for this to take place may be used with Table 22.4 to determine the percent of organic material stabilized. For example, a sample that decolorizes in 5 days has a relative stability of 68%. Only 32% of the initial oxygen demand remains. Such an effluent may be stable enough to be discharged into a stream.

The required river flow Q, mgd, must supply this oxygen. Hence, 8.33(10 – 6.5)Q = 20,000 and Q = 686 mgd Some of the organic material, such as pesticides, in wastewater may not be biologically degradable. They are not measured by BOD. Some of these materials may have adverse long-term effects on

Table 22.4 Relative Stability of Treatment-Plant Effluent Time at 20 °C, or time required for decolorization of methylene blue, days 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Proportion oxidized or relative stability, % 11 21 30 37 44 50 60 68 75 80 Time at 20 °C, or time required for decolorization of methylene blue, days 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 Proportion oxidized or relative stability, % 84 87 90 92 94 95 96 97 98 99

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Environmental Engineering I 22.25
Since concentration and composition of wastewater vary considerably throughout a day, care must be taken to obtain a representative sample for each type of test. Sampling and analyses should be made as directed in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Sewage, American Public Health Association, 1015 18th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036; American Water Works Association, 6666 Quincy Ave., W., Denver, CO 80235; Water Environmental Federation, Arlington, Va. (R. A. Corbitt, “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering,” Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., “Wastewater Engineering,” T. McGhee, “Water Supply and Sewerage,” 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York; G. M. Fair, J. C. Geyer, and D. A. Okun, “Elements of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York; L. D. Benefield and C. W. Randall, “Biological Process Design for Wastewater Treatment,” Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.) water on the ground. Part evaporates and part percolates into the ground, but a sizable amount remains on the surface and must be collected in surface drainage channels. For domestic wastewater, the method is not efficient. A modification, spray irrigation, however, has been used successfully for some industrial wastes. Flood irrigation also discharges the wastewater on the ground, but the wastewater seeps down and is usually collected in underdrains. The soil acts as a filter and partly purifies the waste. But unless the wastewater is treated before irrigation, odors and insects may be produced, the soil may become clogged by grease or soap, and surface and groundwater may become contaminated. Surface irrigation sometimes is used for watering and fertilizing crops. This application, however, may create potential health hazards unless treatment has stabilized and disinfected the effluent. Another form of irrigation, subsurface irrigation, often is used with cesspools (Art. 22.24) and septic tanks (Art. 22.23). Self-Purification I Wastewater, with or without extensive treatment, has been disposed of by dilution in a natural body of water. Partial or complete treatment then takes place in the water. Sometimes self-purification occurs; more often, if the wastewater has not had adequate treatment, the body of water becomes polluted. It may be unsafe for water supply and swimming, may contaminate or kill fish and shellfish, and may produce odors and have an unpleasant appearance. Therefore, treatment consistent with the selfpurification characteristics of the body of water is desirable and is usually required by law. Secondary treatment now is required in most states. Requirements for tertiary treatment may be imposed to protect stream-water quality. In polluted water, decomposition of organic matter utilizes oxygen from the water. If there is an adequate supply of oxygen, the BOD may be satisfied while enough dissolved oxygen remains to support fish life. If not, anaerobic decomposition will occur (Art. 22.14); the water becomes septic and malodorous and unable to support fish life. Unpolluted water usually is saturated with oxygen. Table 22.5 shows the amount of oxygen that fresh water can hold in solution at various temperatures. The saturation quantity also depends on the concentration of dissolved substances. Salt water, for example, holds about 80% as much oxygen as fresh water.

22.15 Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
Because of the objectionable characteristics of raw wastewater (Art. 22.14), it must be treated before disposal, and disposal requires consideration of many factors, especially health hazards; odors, appearance, and other nuisance conditions; and economics. Selection of the type and degree of treatment depends on the nature of the raw wastewater, effluent quality after treatment, initial cost of the treatment plant, costs of operation and maintenance, process reliability, capability for disposal of sludge produced, potential for air pollution from pollutants removed, treatment chemicals required, energy consumed in the process, space requirements for the treatment plant, and potential hazards within the plant and in the surrounding area if the plant should malfunction or during transport of materials to and from the plant. Several methods are used for disposal of wastewater on land: oxidation ponds, or lagoons (Art. 22.26); irrigation; incineration (Art. 22.33); burial; composting; and dewatering and conversion into fertilizer. Irrigation is of importance because it permits reclamation of the water content, to replenish the groundwater. Surface, flood, or subsurface irrigation may be used: Surface irrigation discharges waste-

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

(22. The time at which this occurs may be calculated from (22.22. The lowest or critical point of the sag curve indicates the occurrence of minimum dissolved oxygen.92 7.60 10.53 8. or t = 0.0 51.4 48.17 8.6 37.4 66. (22.80 12. which ranges from 0. As oxygen is removed from the water. the deoxygenation curve indicates the amount of dissolved oxygen remaining at any time as wastewater with initial demand O stabilizes.0 Dissolved oxygen. The oxygen deficit D.38 8.83 8. 89.5 at 20 °C.23 13. multiply K2 by 1.13 12. The reaeration curve shows the amount of new oxygen dissolved during the same period.48 13. All rights reserved.99 8.15 Temperature °C 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 °F 60.0 78. vol.74 9.59 11.2 68.8 62. ppm or mg/ L.17 11.4 84.87 11.08 10.8 53.12) where K1 = coefficient of deoxygenation [see Eq. velocity. ppm of mg per liter 9.6 82. as given by Eq. Click here to view.6 46.9.22 8. if the supply of oxygen is not replenished.” Transactions.63 Oxygen deficit D is the difference between saturation content and actual content.8 44. days. the sum of the remaining oxygen after deoxygenation and the oxygen from reaeration.35 9.0 Dissolved oxygen.05 to 0.84 13. ppm or mg per liter 14. American Society of Civil Engineers.4 57. p.11)] K2 = reaeration coefficient.37 10.13) where f = K2/K1 = self-purification coefficient.047 T– 20 T = temperature. is the ordinate of the oxygen sag curve measured from the horizontal line representing oxygen content at saturation.48 12. depending on depth. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “The Role of Atmospheric Reaeration of Sewage-Polluted Streams. The rate at which this reaeration occurs depends on deficit D. °C O = oxygen demand at t = 0.54 9.0 69.77 7. the loss is offset by absorption of atmospheric oxygen at the surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83 10. For temperatures other than 20 °C.8 35.95 9.2 50. The oxygen sag curve represents at any given time the dissolved oxygen present.8 71. At any time t. W.6 64. .6 73.2 77. Inc. 1926. Streeter.33 11.26 I Section Twenty-Two Table 22.07 7.0 42.4 75. ppm or mg/L Do = oxygen deficit at point of pollution.2 59. or maximum deficit. 1355.2 86.5 Solubility of Oxygen in Fresh Water at Sea Level Temperature °C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 °F 33.68 8. ppm or mg/L (H.2 41. (22. and turbulence of the water.8 80.4 39.6 55.) In Fig. the amount of turbulence. and the ratio of volume of water to the surface area. 22.12).

Seasonal variations in temperature and water level or stream flow affect the amount of oxygen the water can hold and the amount of water available for dilution. Wastewater treatment is any process to which wastewater is subjected to remove or alter its objectionable constituents and thus render it less offensive or dangerous. while pH must be between 6. density. chemical. Outfalls should be designed to take advantage of conditions encouraging dispersion. to prevent sludge buildup at the discharge. 22. both fine and coarse. and the initial deficit Do. They carry pollutants back and forth many times. Self-purification is slower in lakes than in streams because of the low rate of dispersion of wastewater. the most critical conditions usually occur during summer. or it may be unit operations that prepare the wastewater for major treatment. Inc.9 Curves show the variation in oxygen content of a stream below a point of pollution. When f = 1. (See also Art. Hence. Types of Treatment I Any of several degrees of treatment of wastewater may be used to satisfy disposal requirements. Preliminary treatment or pretreatment may be the conditioning of industrial waste before discharge to remove or neutralize substances injurious to sewers and treatment processes. tides complicate dispersion.5 mg/L. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. coefficients f and K1. Primary treatment is the first and sometimes the only treatment of wastewater. Treatment may be classified as preliminary. colloidal. (22. and currents may change with time. primary.5 mg/L.14) is preferred. Details of treatment methods are given in the following articles. secondary. The initial deficit is determined by existing pollution.45. mixing of water and wastewater in lakes depends mostly on currents and wind. Advanced waste treatment is any physical. The coefficients may be estimated from tests on the wastewater and the receiving body of water. The significance of this factor is questionable. 21. the effluent is considered only partly treated. Special care is necessary in outfall design to promote mixing and to take advantage of currents. Efficiency of treatment depends on quality of plant design and operation and on type and strength of sewage. depending on the degree of processing.001 mg/L.) Stream Capacity I A rough approximation of the capacity of a stream to absorb a pollutional load may be based on the dilution factor. These factors may also affect dispersion in ocean waters. the ratio of amounts of diluting water to wastewater. or values may be assigned based on experience. and organic matter. Tertiary or complete treatment removes a high percentage of suspended. or biological process that accomplishes a degree of treatment higher than secondary. Use of Eq. .Environmental Engineering I 22.14) The critical deficit is given by (22. Dissolved oxygen may be required to be at least 5 and average 6. (22. or tertiary or advanced. Organic matter still present is stabilized by aerobic processes.5. 5-day BOD to an average of 3 and a maximum of 6. In estuaries. Salinity. and phenols to a maximum of 0. All rights reserved. The wastewater also may be disinfected. The allowable value of Dc usually is established by law.27 Quality Standards I Present legal standards for water quality for recreation and water supply are not uniform. If a plant provides only primary treatment. A typical standard may limit coliforms to an average of 10/mL.5 and 8. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Secondary treatment applies biological methods to the effluent from primary treatment. With turbulence usually not present. This process removes floating solids and suspended solids. when rainfall is low and temperatures are high.15) The pollution load O that a stream may absorb depends on the value of Dc. Fig.

These processes occur while wastewater moves slowly through a settling basin. H. “Wastewater Engineering. “Water Supply and Sewerage. “Advanced Wastewater Treatment. to settle out subsequently in a sedimentation tank.” 6th ed.” 3rd ed. which tend to form scum. New York. (T. “Water Supply and Sewerage.. W. perhaps 0. screenings are passed through a grinder and returned to the flow. to catch debris. New York. Inc. T. But often. Englewood Cliffs.22. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Racks are fixed screens composed of parallel bars. L.” Manual 36. Digestion of sludge proceeds normally when fine screenings are added in sludge-digestion tanks. McGhee. have bar spacings of 1/2 to 11/2 in.. L. and G.) 22.” 3rd ed. Skimmers remove oil and grease. which then pass on to a sedimentation tank. “Sanitary Landfill. applied through porous plates in the bottom of the tank. Movable racks are three-sided cages. Various types are used: rotating disk or drum. obstruct filters. with uniform-size openings or slots 1/8 in wide or less. Culp. New York. barminutors.J. Moffa et ..” John Wiley & Sons. Inc.. About 0. Compressed air. Culp. Fixed-bar racks may be manually or mechanically cleaned. Wastewater enters through the open side and leaves through the bars. Metcalf & Eddy.) wastewater treatment but are useful for removal of bulky and fibrous materials from industrial wastes. They usually are used for large plants to protect sewage pumps. Screenings may be disposed of by burial. Click here to view. Inc. band. While a minimum velocity of about 2 ft/s is desirable in the approach channel to prevent sediment from clogging it. Detention period ranges from 5 to 15 min. This requires enlargement of the conduit in the vicinity of the rack.. valves. They may be fixed or movable. Medium racks. G. skimming devices built into sedimentation tanks. plate. “Wastewater Engineering. the coagulated material is removed with the scum or settled solids.5 to 1 ft/s. incineration. . Inc. New York. Inc. It also is used after oxidation of wastewater on trickling filters. Corbitt. clog fine screens. G. and nozzles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. sedimentation is required after oxidation. Fair et al. P E. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Various types of screening devices are used for this purpose. In activated-sludge plants. Generally. Generally. they are the first units in a treatment plant. In some treatment plants.. or digestion. fine screens are movable and mechanically cleaned. and griductors.. The major objective of sedimentation is removal of settleable solids. while wastewater passes through a second cage. and “Glossary— Water and Wastewater Control Engineering.28 I Section Twenty-Two (R. and reduce the efficiency of activated sludge.17 Sedimentation At most wastewater-treatment plants. Skimming tanks are advantageous ahead of sedimentation tanks. N. Parker. velocity through a rack should be lower. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. have low efficiency for 22.” Van Nostrand Reinhold. R. sedimentation is a primary treatment.16 Wastewater Pretreatment The purpose of pretreatment of wastewater is to remove coarse materials that may interfere with treatment. Coarse racks have spaces between the bars of 2 in or more.” Metcalf & Eddy. Wesner..” Manual 39. J. so that objects should not be forced through. “Wastewater Systems Engineering. the conduit bottom may be lowered below the rack 3 to 6 in. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. After the effluent reaches the sedimentation tank..” Prentice-Hall. some floating materials also are removed by clarifiers. McGhee. Fine screens. To allow for head loss through a rack.” American Society of Civil Engineers. pipes. Their high-speed rotating edges cut through the sewage flow and chop and shred the solids. “Control and Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflows. or may damage or clog pumps. The bars may be curved to the horizontal at the top to facilitate cleaning. al. New York.. set vertically or sloped in the direction of flow. “Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. coagulates the grease and oil and causes them to rise to the surface. Shearing-type units should be located after a grit chamber to prevent excessive wear of cutting edges. M.. Screening and cutting are combined in such devices as comminutors. A. One cage is periodically hoisted to the surface for manual cleaning. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.1 ft3 of air is required per gallon. J. About 2 mg/L of chlorine increases the efficiency of grease removal. All rights reserved.” 6th ed. or do not respond to treatment. used more frequently. or vibratory screens.

Also. where Q is the flow.29 Efficiency of a sedimentation tank depends on particle size. The average detention period is V/Q. Grit chambers (Fig. . Flow may be controlled by specially shaped gates or weirs to keep velocity constant. or overflow rate.2 ft/s2 d = particle diameter. Surface settling rate. if the surface layer of water were removed. Since most of the settleable solids will settle out in 1 to 2 h. 32. long detention periods are not advantageous. Settling velocity of a particle is a function of the specific gravity and diameter of the particle. total length of flow. Hence. (21. Design of a grit chamber should ensure settlement of all particles over 0. After that period.10 Grit chamber. Scour will occur if the horizontal velocity. Grit chambers are necessary with combined sewers if the flow is to be treated. if the forward motion of the water is less than the vertical settling rate of all the particles. selection of an overflow or surface settling rate establishes a relationship between flow and area.16) where f = roughness coefficient (Darcy formula for flow in pipes) for chamber (see Fig. ft/s. times the settling velocity. they will settle some distance below the surface in a given time interval while in the tank. All rights reserved.2 mm in size but should not remove organic solids. and settling velocity and on several other factors: concentration of suspended matter. of the wastewater exceeds (22. In fact. Settling rates of particles larger than 200 µm are determined empirically.133)] . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. temperature. 21.10) are settling basins used to remove coarse inorganic solids. ft/s. Inc. mgd or ft3/s. Sizes less than 200 µm settle in accordance with Stokes’ law for drag of small settling spheres in a viscous fluid [Eq. 21. surface area of the liquid. the basin volume. and biological effects. The flowing-through period should be at least 30% of the theoretical detention period. ft2. equals the surface area.) Theoretically. 22. which must be removed to prevent damage to pumps and interference with wastewater treatment. wind. The material settling out may be removed manually or mechanically. of the smallest particle to be removed. depth and shape of basin. they are undesirable because the wastewater may become septic. devices may be added to Fig. They may also trap heavier organic material. specific gravity.Environmental Engineering I 22. and specific gravity and viscosity of fluid. Detention period is the theoretical time water is detained in a basin. The flowing-through period is the time required for wastewater to pass through the basin. is a measure of the rate of flow through the basin when the rate of flow. The wet-weather flow usually contains sand and grit. Flow should be fast enough to secure this result but without scouring solids already deposited. (See also Art. This time may be estimated by adding sodium chloride (or dye) to the influent and testing the effluent for increase of chloride or checking for dye. such as seeds. grit chambers are designed for a flow of about 1 ft/s.19) g = acceleration due to gravity. Click here to view. Improper baffling may reduce the effective surface area of the liquid and create dead or nonflow areas within the tank. 22. gal/ft2 of surface area per day.46. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. baffling. it would contain no solids. Density currents and short circuiting may negate theoretical detention computations. ft s = specific gravity of particle Usually. Dye may be used to follow the flow pattern. retention period. and V. ft3/s.

to form a conglomerate with better settling characteristics. the up-flow tube clarifier.11 Circular sedimentation tank. Flocculent suspensions have little or no settling velocity. Some of the settled sludge is raised by air lift and mixed with the floc. Variations utilizing the preceding principles have been introduced by several manufacturers. suspended material. Final sizes may be determined by dimensions of available sludgeremoval equipment.22. move scum to the outlet end. The surface-settling-rate requirement generally is 600 gal/(ft2⋅day) for primary treatment alone and 800 to 1000 for all other tanks. The suspensions may be removed by passing inflowing wastewater upward through a blanket of the flocculent material (vertical-flow sedimentation tank). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Minimum length should be at least 10 ft. Depth should be no larger than necessary for preventing scour and to accommodate cleaning mechanisms. traveling with the sewage flow. the same blades may be lifted to the surface and. Blades moving along the bottom against the flow of sewage push the sludge to the hopper. Provision should be made for sludge removal on a regular schedule. more frequently they are encountered when effluents from activated-sludge units undergo secondary settling. Rectangular tanks are built in units with common walls. so depth usually is held to 10 ft or less (at sidewalls). Although they may occur in raw wastewater. 22. Any of several methods may be used to remove light. sludge and scum are removed mechanically. the hopper is located near the inlet end since the heaviest sludge accumulation occurs in that region. heavier floc. There. Surface area of the liquid is more important than depth. the scum may be trapped by a baffle until taken out by a scum-removal device. These must then be broken up so that they will settle. In rectangular tanks. . for example. or sludge. Design of a sedimentation tank should be based on the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be removed. The lengthwidth ratio should not exceed 5:1. Click here to view. In circular tanks (Fig. The detention period normally is 2 h. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A plain sedimentation tank is a settling basin where sedimentation is not aided by coagulants and the settled solids. gasification occurs. These three design parameters must be adjusted since each is dependent on the other for a given design flow (average daily flow for a plant). Generally. Width per unit ranges up to 25 ft. Inc. In some tanks. to aid formation of larger. Another removal method employs an inner chamber equipped with baffles that rotate and stir the liquid.11) radial blades scrape the bottom to move the sludge to a central sludge hopper. Fig. The same results also may be achieved by agitation with air. and large blocks of sludge appear on the surface. If sludge is not removed. All rights reserved. are not retained for digestion. 22.30 I Section Twenty-Two mechanically cleaned units to wash most of the organic material out of the grit. which then have sufficient weight to settle. The objective is to produce a mechanical sweeping action in which small particles attach to larger particles. or they must be removed by a scum-removal mechanism.

to still the currents.46. as measured by reduction of BOD. et al. and polyelectrolytes are chemicals used to expedite precipitation.5 is preferred. Intermittent sand filters are sand beds.11). New York. “Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. minimum sludge blanket levels. A rest period between doses allows time for air to assist in oxidation of the organic matter. “Technologies for Small Water and Wastewater Systems. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Martin.) (T. and controlled horizontal movement of clearer water by launder or weir spacing and by weir overflow rate control. G. Manufacturers’ literature should be carefully studied and specifications written to ensure procurement of equipment exactly meeting design requirements. control of slurry concentration. Each finger is connected to a common discharge trough. a launder is used. Effectiveness of the various chemicals depends on the conditions under which they are used and the types of wastes. Filtration is one of these secondary treatments. For rectangular tanks. is applied to the sand surface in intermittent doses. adsorption occurs. Inc. J.000 gal/ft of weir per day in small plants. . Measurement of zeta potential (an electrical potential related to particle stability and hence useful in controlling coagulation) and of phosphate content is also desirable.T. usually 21/2 to 3 ft deep. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For circular tanks. the microorganisms coat the filtering media. and removal of trace metals are examples of such treatment. “Wastewater Engineering. These oxidation methods bring organic matter in wastewater into immediate contact with microorganisms under aerobic conditions. and most of the organic materials are removed by contact with the coating. There has to be an optimum pH and an optimum dosage for efficient wastewater coagulation. ferric sulfate. All rights reserved. and irrigation. Alum. and Metcalf & Eddy. Rates may go as high as 0. American Society of Civil Engineers. 3. dosages are often determined by trial (jar tests).” 6th ed. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Inc. however.” John Wiley & Sons. Normal weir loading should not exceed 10. is high. with underdrains for collecting and carrying off the effluent. (See also Art. ferric chloride. the result of a complex group of reactions involving the hydrolysis products of the added chemicals. ferrous chloride. Consequently. As the wastewater flows through. At the outlet. Actual flowing-through time is influenced by inlet and outlet construction. mixer-blade peripheral speeds less than 5 ft/s.” Manual 36. New York. the effluent from a sedimentation tank.. Chemical precipitation has. or 15. Settled wastewater.. ferrous sulfate. at the center (Fig.J.Environmental Engineering I 22. McGhee. sodium aluminate. the wastewater is brought to a trough that has a weir extending the width of the tank. 22. More often. oxidation ponds.) 22.18 Wastewater Filtration Secondary treatments of wastewater frequently employ oxidation to decompose and stabilize the putrescible matter remaining after primary treatments.000 gallons per acre per day (gad) to 125. 21. Fair. been found useful in specialized treatment. The organisms decompose organic nitrogen compounds and destroy carbohydrates.. The outlet device nearly always is a circumferential weir adjusted to level after installation. This consists of a series of fingerlike shallow conduits set at water level and receiving flow from both sides. In filtration. inlets are submerged. The notches permit more constant flow since they are less affected by local differences in weir elevation and surface tension. Others include the activated-sludge process. “Water Supply and Sewerage. preparation of sludges for filtration or dewatering. Design requirements include rapid mixing. The weir may be sharp-edged and level or provided with V notches about 1 ft or less apart.” E. but at one end. Application rates generally range from 20. Sand for an intermittent filter should have a uniformity coefficient of 5 or less. to provide enough weir length. inlets also may be submerged.000 gad when the filters serve as a secondary treatment. The coagulation resulting is.” 3rd ed.2. Efficiency of the method. The process is similar to that for water clarification. lime.. (Uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the sieve size that will pass 60% of the material to the effective Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The flow then moves forward with less short circuiting. Chemical precipitation sometimes is used to improve the effluent from sedimentation.000 in units handling more than 1 mgd. and E. The high cost of chemicals and the intermediate grade of treatment obtained with chemicals have kept the process from general use. Click here to view..5 million gallons per acre per day (mgad) for tertiary treatments. Inc. Phosphorus removal. actually.31 Many mechanical aids for use with sedimentation tanks are available commercially. Wastewater rises inside a baffle extending downward.

In that case. flour. slag. When. (a) Schematic of process with single-stage filtration. by weight. such as milk waste. the mat can be scraped off when dry. rock sizes are kept between 2. Design of these basins is similar to that of primary sedimentation tanks. Filter media include gravel. the bed may be ridged on 3-ft centers to support the ice while the wastewater flows underneath it. Colo. Generally.22. (“Water Treatment Plant Design. (c) Cross section of a trickling filter with a rotary distribution of wastewater. Filters may be ventilated through the underdrain system or by other means. of a trickling filter generally is measured for both the filter and final sedimentation. A mat of solids forms on the filter surface and must be removed periodically. In time. (b) Schematic of process with two-stage filtration.32 I Section Twenty-Two size of the sand. crushed rock. Since suspended solids can clog filters. a waste. In winter. Fig. contains a concentration of dissolved solids. oxidized matter breaks away from the filter media and is flushed from the filter with the effluent. of the sand. there is danger that the sand surface will freeze. the effluent is passed through a secondary settling basin. Effective size is the size. or clarifier.) The effective size of the sand should be between 0. Filtration rates above 3 gal/(min⋅ft2) lead to high terminal head loss and short runs. however. but occasionally the top 6 in or so of the filter material must be replaced. sedimentation of the wastewater is desirable before it is fed to the filters. The design should provide 6. A bed of gravel 6 to 12 in thick usually underlies the sand. mm. preaeration is desirable. it may be applied directly to a filter. Granular filters may be adapted from potable backwash sand filter types to the treatment of secondary effluents from wastewater-treatment plants. of the sieve that passes 10%. Click here to view. 22. Generally.5 mm. All rights reserved. to supply air to the aerobic organisms that grow on the media surfaces. or plastics.) Trickling filters are beds of coarse aggregate over which settled wastewater is dropped or sprayed and through which the wastewater trickles to under drains (Fig. 22. Underdrains collect and carry off the effluent. Inc. redwood slats. Stone and crushed rock that do not fragment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or percent reduction of BOD. Denver.12).12 Trickling filters supply bacteria for consumption of organic matter in wastewater.2 and 0.and 4-in nominal diameter. Efficiency. To keep the filter in operation. ceramic chapes. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” American Water Works Association. Experience gained in filtration of potable water should be used to support designs of this type. .to 8-h runs with terminal head loss less than 10 ft. or soften on exposure to wastewater are widely used. so that the waste contains some dissolved oxygen. Hence.

All rights reserved. lb/day⋅acre-ft of filter volume. 22. often not more than 15 s. 22. Later.19) where A = 5-day BOD of influent. Some state health departments limit the load to 2000 to 5000 lb of BOD per acre-ft per day. Sometimes.1. lb of BOD per day per acre-ft of filter volume. standard filters are built round in plan. These low-rate filters are dosed at a rate of 1 to 4 mgad. to be applied to a singlestage high-rate filter or the first filter of a two-stage system. At each passage.Environmental Engineering I 22. Loading also may be expressed in terms of 5-day BOD. offsets fluctuations in wastewater flow.20) where A1 = 5-day BOD of influent of first-stage filter. two filters are connected in series. the fixed nozzles were superseded by a rotary distributor. mg/L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. allows continuous dosage. and reduces odors by freshening the influent. If the ratio of the decrease per passage to the BOD is given by k. may be computed from (22.18) where R = recirculation ratio. mg/L High-rate filters receive a load three or more times greater than that usually applied to standard filters. but rates from 9 to 44 mgad have been used. In some cases. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the filter surface is sprayed as the arms revolve.12b) may be used when a better effluent is desired than can be obtained from a single filter. Click here to view. Thus. is intermittent. Dosing. Settled wastewater was distributed over the surface through fixed nozzles. Several recirculation alternatives may be used. dual recirculation is used: The filter effluent is returned to the primary sedimentation tank. then the number of effective passages of sewage through a filter may be computed from (22. Recirculation reduces the load on the filter. high-rate. the sludge from the final clarifier is recirculated through the primary clarifier.17) where A = 5-day BOD of the influent. substantially lower than that for high-rate filters. This type of distributor has two or four radial arms supported on a center pedestal (Fig. Two-stage filtration (Fig. For example. Jets of wastewater from nozzles on the arms cause rotation. (Proponents of this method of recirculation claim direct return intensifies biological oxidation. Usual rate is about 20 mgad. and controlled. A distributor may be kept rotating continuously by feeding the nozzles from a weir box or a dosing tank. the amount of BOD removed decreases because response to treatment decreases. when the BOD of the wastewater is known and a limit is specified for the BOD of the effluent. mg/L B = specified maximum BOD of effluent.12a). Such high rates are feasible because the effluent is recirculated through the filter (Fig. They consisted of an underdrained bed of stones. 22.33 Trickling filters are classified as standard or lowrate.) Or part of the effluent of the filter or the final clarifier may be combined with the influent to the primary sedimentation tank. or ratio of returned effluent to sewage influent. 6 to 8 ft deep. with siphons or pumps. lb/acre-ft⋅day. may be computed from (22. The approximate load w to be applied to a filter. Standard filters were introduced in the United States early in the twentieth century. . when the BOD of the sewage is known and a limit is specified for the BOD of the effluent. Some state health departments limit the load on a standard filter to 400 to 600 lb/acre-ft⋅day. mg/L B = specified maximum BOD of effluent. mg/L The approximate load for a second-stage filter may be estimated from (22. The recirculation ratio. The approximate load. as a result. ranges from 1:1 to about 5:1. part of the filter effluent may be returned directly to the filter. Various recirculation methods may be used in this case also.12c). though the interval between doses is short. Under normal conditions. Inc. while part of the final clarifier effluent is sent back through the filter. For this purpose. To accommodate rotary distribution. k may have a value of about 0. seeds the media continuously with organisms.

September 1946).” Sewage Works Journal. except at the top. Wastewater is sprayed over high-rate filters by rotary distributors or by a motor-driven disk that rains wastewater continuously and uniformly over the surface. Click here to view.13). mg/L F = number of effective passages through second-stage filter Equations (22. vol. temperature control between 15 and 30 °C.20) are based on formulas recommended by a committee of the National Research Council (“Sewage Treatment at Military Institutions. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. For domestic wastes having BOD values that do not limit the rate of absorption of oxygen. means for introduction and distribution of controlled quantities of wastewater to top or upper sections of the filter. no. and nonabsorbing filter media of sufficient uniformity to provide both media surface and void space (Fig. 22. mg/L A2 = 5-day BOD of influent of secondstage filter. mg/L B2 = specified maximum BOD of effluent of final clarifier. Hence. means for introduction of controlled quantities of air under each section of filter. the filters are built circular. 22. p. Each filter is sealed. and has liquid inlets and outlets and an air inlet. Essentials of this type of filter include sectional design. 18.13 Controlled filtration applies wastewater to tops of filter sections installed in sequence vertically. 5. Controlled filters consist of sectionalized units combined into a deep filter. Inc. hydraulic loadings may be used as a primary design parameter according to the equation Fig.34 I Section Twenty-Two B1 = specified maximum BOD of effluent of first-stage filter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 794.22. .17) to (22. The loading rate with no recirculation is 10 to 12 times that for low-rate filters.

“Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. million gal per 1000 ft3/ day (mgtcfd) since (22. Click here to view. 22. G.65 k – 0. All rights reserved. 103 ft3. Inc. Hence.482 – 0. Q is the daily flow.” American Water Works Association. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. it is advisable to develop pilot-plant information on filter application before final design.22) is used in industrial-waste treatment. V′ is the total filter volume.” Manual 36. allowance must be made for organic loading and treatability of individual process wastes. to provide continuous washing or scouring of the filter.30. Hydraulic surface loadings should always be greater than 70 mgad. thousands of ft3 Q = daily flow. (22. (Metcalf & Eddy.” John Wiley & Sons. New York.343 – 0.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Unlike high-rate and low-rate filters. The V′/Q value may be read directly as the reciprocal of the filter hydraulic application rate LH.” 3rd ed.22) When Eq.48 0. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 22. application of wastewater must be continuous. Inc.35 Curve a b c d C 0. mgd R = recirculation ratio k = constant Figure 22. New York. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. “AWWA Standard for Filtering Material... Inc...343 Fig. See also Filtration in Art. M.52 0. American Society of Civil Engineers. “Wastewater Engineering.14 can be used to select the constants C and k when R = 0.51 0. Fair et al.21) where n = fraction of BOD remaining C = constant V′ = total filter volume.Environmental Engineering I 22.795 – 0. and C and k are constants: (22. where n is the fraction of BOD remaining.14 Curves represent the equation n = (V′/Q)k for controlled filtration with no recirculation. mgd.

Reduction of BOD and suspended solids in the conventional activatedsludge process. As the organic matter is adsorbed. Furthermore.36 I Section Twenty-Two 22. by volume. Generally. and reduces ammonia nitrogen a little. Passing air bubbles through wastewater coagulates colloids and grease. atmospheric air is mixed with the liquid by mechanical agitation. Click here to view. the effectiveness of aeration is considerably improved. All rights reserved. are relatively high. the aeration period ranges from 6 to 8 or more hours.22. (b) step aeration. however. In either method. and irrigation. the wastewater thus is brought into intimate contact with microorganisms contained in the sludge. The process proceeds rapidly at first.15a). filter tubes. the sludge adsorbs suspended and colloidal solids. cost of constructing an activated-sludge plant may be competitive with other types of treatment plants producing comparable results. then falls off gradually for 2 to 5 h. Inc. usually in the ratio of 1 part of sludge to 3 or 4 parts of settled wastewater. (From “Environmental Pollution Control Alternatives: Municipal Wastewater. In a conventional activated-sludge plant (Fig. The organisms in the sludge decompose organic nitrogen compounds and destroy carbohydrates. as is done in activatedsludge methods. incoming wastewater first passes through a primary sedimentation tank.” Environmental Protection Agency. oxidation ponds. Aeration also may prevent wastewater from becoming septic in a following sedimentation tank. biological oxidation occurs. may range from 80 to 95% and of coliforms. In that tank. Cincinnati.19 Activated-Sludge Processes An activated-sludge process is a biological treatment in which a mixture of wastewater and a sludge of microorganisms is agitated and aerated and from which the solids are subsequently removed and returned to the aeration process as required. But if wastewater is mixed with previously aerated sludge and then aerated. Ohio. and the mixture goes through an aeration tank. These oxidation methods bring organic matter in wastewater into immediate contact with microorganisms under aerobic conditions. The aeration-tank effluent goes to a secondary sedimentation tank. . Activated sludge is added to the effluent from the tank. satisfies some of the BOD. where the fluid is detained. In the first 15 to 45 min. After that. Fig. The activated-sludge method is a secondary biological treatment employing oxidation to decompose and stabilize the putrescible matter remaining after primary treatments. or compressed air is diffused in the fluid by various devices: filter plates. Unit operating costs. 22.15 Schematics of activated-sludge processes: (a) Conventional. Other oxidation methods include filtration. ejectors. (c) complete mix.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it continues at a nearly uniform rate for several hours. from 90 to 95%. and jets. 22. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. including presettling and final sedimentation.

seeking to improve performance or cut costs. An air main is generally run along the top of the wall to feed diffusers (Fig. or the liquid may pass down draft tubes while air is bubbled through it. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or circular tanks. Width of channel ranges from 15 to 30 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are in use. and the Kraus. depending on the mechanism employed for agitation. activated. usually from 11/2 to 2 h.16 Air main atop aeration-tank walls supplies air to diffusers in adjoining channels in which the mixture of activated sludge and sedimentation-tank effluent flows. tapered. step. About 25 to 35% of the sludge from the final sedimentation tank is returned for recirculation with incoming wastewater.37 Fig. 22. rectangular. Air requirements normally range from 0. biosorption.16a and b) or porous plates (Fig. The effluent from this tank is completely treated and.5 ft3/gal of wastewater treated. To conserve space. In some plants. Results are intermediate between primary sedimentation and full secondary treatment. . Depth is about 15 ft. Multiple aeration tanks are required when total tank volume exceeds 5000 ft3. after chlorination. Activated aeration places aeration tanks in parallel.16c) along its length. Most state authorities require a minimum of 1000 ft3 of air per lb of applied BOD per day. the fluid may be drawn up vertical tubes and discharged in thin sheets at the top. Detention periods generally are longer. multiple sedimentation tanks are desirable.Environmental Engineering I 22. The activated sludge from one final sedimentation tank or group of such tanks is added to the influent of the aeration tanks. and complete-mix aeration. with a common wall between the flow in opposing directions. agitation at the surface produced by the movement of the liquid increases aeration. Click here to view. than for tanks with diffused air. The air sets up a spiral motion in the liquid as it flows through the tanks. With much less air. Sludge should not be detained in the tank. Modified aeration decreases the aeration period to 3 h or less and holds return sludge to a low proportion. results are better than with modified aeration. This agitation reduces air requirements. 22. In both methods. When tank volume required exceeds 2500 ft3. Weir loadings preferably should not exceed 10. Frequent removal (at intervals of less than 1 h) or continuous removal is necessary to avoid deaeration. Dissolved oxygen should be maintained at 2 ppm (mg/L) or more. These include modified. Aeration tanks in which compressed air is used generally are long and narrow. Other sludge is concentrated and removed. 8 h or more.2 to 1.000 gal/(lin ft⋅day). Inc. the channel may be turned 180° several times. Mechanical aeration may be done in square. Overflow rates for final sedimentation normally range from about 800 gal/(ft2⋅day) for small plants to 1000 for plants of over 2-mgd capacity. Several modifications of the activated-sludge method. 22. may be safely discharged. to settle out the sludge. and bioactivation processes. All rights reserved.

The latter may be the simplest because only suspended solids concentration in the aeration basin and in the waste activated sludge need be measured. All rights reserved. Excellent results have been obtained by substituting oxygen for air in the activated-sludge process. Inc. This requires frequent checking of the sludge content of the mixed liquor. (Metcalf & Eddy. Extended aeration is similar.” Manual 36.” John Wiley & Sons. “Low Maintenance Wastewater Treatment Systems. Sludge age is measured by the ratio of dry weight of sludge in the aeration tank. However. Pressure under the tank cover is close to atmospheric and enough to maintain control and prevent backmixing of successive stages. active growths of microorganisms are maintained on plates of impervious material. Inc. more diffusers are placed near the inlet end of the aeration tanks than near the outlet.. The theory is that oxygen demand is greater near the inlet.” 3rd ed.38 I Section Twenty-Two Tapered aeration differs from conventional in that air diffusers are not uniformly spaced.3 days for a modified process that is well operated. New York. % A good settling sludge has an index below 100. but the wastewater is aerated for 24 h instead of the conventional 6 to 8 h. of the incoming wastewater. and L.15b). M. Step aeration adds wastewater at four or more points in an aeration tank (Fig.17) also uses air diffusion to supply oxygen and keep a suspension containing microorganisms thoroughly mixed with incoming wastewater. The Kraus process adds to the wastewater an aerated mixture of activated sludge and material from sludge digester tanks.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.) 22. Inc. Contact stabilization (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The biosorption process mixes wastewater with sludge preaerated in a separate tank. “Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Operating control may be maintained by holding a constant mixed-liquor suspended-solids (MLSS) or volatilesuspended-solids (MLVSS) concentration. Solids usually are limited to 1500 to 2500 ppm (mg/L) in diffused-air plants and about 1000 ppm when mechanical agitation is used. mixing may be achieved with surface aerators or a submerged rotating sprayer. G. 22. then adds activated sludge and passes the mixture through aeration and final sedimentation tanks. . sludge age is 3 to 5 days. lb. In a well-operated activated-sludge plant. the aeration tanks may be covered. or by holding a constant mean cell residence time (MCRT).. Each increment reacts with sludge already present in the tank. Click here to view. Settling characteristics of the sludge are indicated by the Mohlman index: (22. It is the average time that a particle of suspended solids remains under aeration. 100 divided by the Mohlman index. New York. 22. a trickling filter. But it may be only 0. Pure oxygen permits use of smaller tanks. results depend on degree of longitudinal mixing. air content of sludge or mixed liquor. An alternative measure is the sludge density index. 22.22. and characteristics of recirculated matter. such Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The oxygen may then be recirculated through several stages. and oxygenation time may be 11/2 to 2 h instead of the conventional 6 to 8 h. “Wastewater Engineering. rate of sludge return. air requirements are nearly uniform throughout the tank. For efficient use of the oxygen. for example. Rich.20 Contact Stabilization This is a secondary treatment similar to the activated-sludge method. Activated-sludge plants should be closely controlled for optimum performance. and short secondary sedimentation. Instead. % Vsus = volume of suspended solids. Within each stage. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. The activated sludge produced settles more easily and is easier to dewater than that from conventional processes. Complete-mix aeration (Fig. by holding a constant ratio of food to microorganisms (F:M).. In addition. to produce a uniform oxygen demand throughout. to the suspended-solids load. American Society of Civil Engineers. The bioactivation process uses primary sedimentation. entering the first stage of the process and flowing through the oxygenation basin with the wastewater being treated. Fair et al.23) where Vset = volume of sludge settled in 30 min.. Thus. and so the efficiency of the treatment should be improved if more air is supplied there. Sludge age is another important factor. lb/day.15c) obtains better results by dispersing the influent wastewater as uniformly as possible along the entire length of the aeration basin.

It is not highly odorous when fresh. The organisms decompose organic nitrogen compounds and destroy carbohydrates.Environmental Engineering I 22.20 lb of these solids per capita daily in sanitary wastewater.) 22.39 Fig. They may be disposed of by burning.” Environmental Protection Agency. Roughly. Solids are removed as screenings.2.21 Sludge Treatment and Disposal Sludge comprises the solids and accompanying liquids removed from wastewater in screening and treating it.27. A.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. The aeration period in contact aerators may be 5 h or more. biological growth adheres to them and is alternately immersed in waste liquid and exposed to the air.5 ft3 of air per gal of flow is required. The treatment to be selected depends on quantity and characteristics of the sludge. New York. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. is putrescible and odorous. This alternation ensures an aerobic condition for growth. viscous identifiable solids and has a moisture content of 95% or more. granular or flocculent. All rights reserved. Often sludge treatment is necessary to make possi- ble safe. (R. primary sludge. nature and cost of disposal. The load on the contact aerator is based on two factors: pounds per day of BOD per 1000 ft2 of contact surfaces (6.) as asbestos cement. 22. more than 90% is water containing suspended solids with a specific gravity of about 1. Corbitt. Usually. and scum. grinding and return to wastewater. and 0. Sand and other gritty materials also may be present in widely varying amounts. Coarse screenings may range from 0. Primary treatment of 1 million gal of wastewater may produce about 2500 gal of this sludge. 0. Click here to view. there may be about 0. . Aeration usually is preceded by 1 h of preaeration of the raw sewage and return sludge before primary settling. grit. with a higher percentage removal of suspended solids. Plates may be fixed or rotate about a horizontal axis. secondary sludge. Normally.36 lb if the wastewater contains ground garbage also.0 or less) and pounds per day of BOD per 1000 ft2/h of aeration (1. economical disposal of these wastes. As they rotate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. burial. 22. and liquid passing by furnishes the organisms on the plates with nutrients. Moisture content may be about 93%. the volume will be between 1 and 10 ft3/million gal.17 Schematic of the contact stabilization process. Passage of 1 million gal of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Ohio. (From “Environmental Pollution Control Alternatives: Municipal Wastewater. About 1. It is composed of gray. Cincinnati.19 and 22.32 to 0. Screenings are putrescible and offensive. and cost of treatment. The quantity of screenings is variable and dependent on wastewater characteristics. Slime growth forms on the plates. Sludge varies in quantity and characteristics with the characteristics of the wastewater and plant operations. See also Arts. Fine screenings may range from 5 to 35 ft3/million gal.3 to 5 ft3/million gal. Trickling filter sludge is black or dark brown.22 lb if a moderate amount of industrial wastes is present. Overall plant efficiency may be about 90% BOD removal. or grinding and transfer to a sludge digester. Primary sludge. derived from sedimentation tanks or the influent of digestion chambers of Imhoff tanks.2 or less). Inc.25 lb in effluents of combined sewers if considerable industrial wastes are present. and partly decomposed. 0. suspended in the mixing liquor of the aeration tank.

Sludge is treated with chemicals or heat so that the water may be readily separated. . When wet. unless Imhoff-type tanks or septic tanks are used. The sludge is fed from the reactor to a settling tank. air is injected into the sludge under pressures of 40 to 80 psi. chemical precipitation from 1 million gal of wastewater will yield about 5000 gal of sludge with moisture content of 95%. Sludge treatment may require: 1. Under these conditions. Digested sludge.22. Still another conditioning method is to apply heavy doses of chlorine under pressures of 30 to 40 psi. and mineralization of the solids. Containing large amounts of dissolved air. Removal of as much water as possible by gravity or flotation. gravity thickening is essentially a sedimentation process. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion I Sludges are transferred to separate digestion tanks. Chemical-precipitation sludge may have a solids content more than double that of sludge from primary sedimentation. Processes known as sludge digestion are employed to stabilize (make less odorous and less putrescible) the organic solids in the sludge so that they can be handled or used as soil conditioners without creating a nuisance or health hazard.18b). such as ferric chloride. or organic polymers. Imhoff. All rights reserved. is very dark in color and has a homogeneous texture. where a skimming mechanism removes them. with air injected into the sludge. Conditioning. There. lime. from septic. or gravity thickening. performed in closed tanks devoid of oxygen. 22. Roughly. digestion is not usually employed. The sludges removed in wastewater treatment may contain as much as 97% water. 4. such as cyanides and chromium. Best results are obtained with sludges from primary wastewater treatment. in sludge to achieve gasification. Click here to view. Stabilization. reduction in moisture content. and partly decomposed. The digested sludge may be used as a soil conditioner and weak fertilizer under certain conditions. which is difficult to thicken by gravity.500 gal of waste sludge per million gal. Advantages of sludge digestion include production of a stable. the dissolved air comes out of solution as minute air bubbles. This method is effective on activated sludge. Sludge Thickening I This may be accomplished in one of two ways: settlement. or aerobic. Furthermore. Dewatering. 3.) Digestion may be anaerobic. granular or flocculent. Activated sludge is dark to golden brown. Normally. Moisture content may be about 98%. The solids are converted into a stable form by incineration or wet oxidation processes. Another method is to first grind the sludge and then heat it to between 350 and 450°F under pressures of 150 and 300 psi in a reactor. gases produced during digestion may be used as fuel. Further removal of water by drying the sludge with heat or suction. which makes up about 70% of total solids. Influent to an activated-sludge plant may yield about 13. where the solids are concentrated before the dewatering step. by weight. or separate digestion tanks. Simple and inexpensive. 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It has an earthy odor when fresh. One method is to add a coagulant.18a). These attach themselves to solids in the sludge and float them to the surface. employing a tank similar in appearance and action to a circular clarifier used in primary and secondary sedimentation (Fig. Thickening. treatment of 1 million gal of wastewater will produce 800 gal of digested sludge with a moisture content of about 90%. inoffensive sludge (if the process is continued long enough). liquefaction. The objective of sludge treatment is to separate the solids from the water and return that water to a wastewatertreatment plant for processing.40 I Section Twenty-Two wastewater through a trickling filter may produce about 500 gal of this sludge. 55 to 75% reduction in dry weight of volatile matter. Sludge Digestion I This employs the biological decomposition of organic matter. Inc. Sludge Conditioning I This may employ any of several methods to facilitate separation of the water from the solids in sludge. which cause the solids to clump together. it has a tarry odor. While sludge decomposes in a digester. the water contained in the solids is released. 5. and production of a sludge from which water may be more easily removed. It can be applied to treatmentprocess sludges other than chemical sludges and those containing substances toxic to sludge organisms. or flotation thickening. Reduction. fresh sludge is Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In flotation thickening (Fig. 22. under atmospheric pressure. 35 to 45% reduction of suspended solids. the sludge flows into an open tank. (If the sludge is to be dewatered and incinerated.

is high in solids and biochemical oxygen demand. The gas may be used at the treatment plant to operate auxiliary engines and provide heat for sludge-heating systems.Environmental Engineering I 22. The gas is 60 to 70% methane. 100 °F is the optimum temperature. it is disposed of by insertion in the influent to a primary sedimentation tank. Speed of anaerobic digestion depends on temperature (Fig. of the solids in the tank. conditions for digestion will be most favorable. acid digestion occurs. If the pH holds between 7. as illustrated in Fig. thermophilic. with an optimum temperature of 130 °F. and digested solids makes room for fresh sludge. Tanks usually are heated to hasten digestion (Fig.4. Excess gas is burned. 22. Click here to view. It has an offensive odor.18 Cross sections of sludge-thickening equipment: (a) Gravity thickener.41 Fig. the liquid fraction in a digester. In the final stage. Inc. a period of digestion. bacteria become active and speed digestion even more. Then. and the pH rises. with methane as the principal gaseous product. plus minor amounts of other gases.20a (mesophilic range). Fuel value of sludge gas usually ranges from 600 to 700 Btu/ ft3. In conventional sludge digestion.2 and 7. Speed of digestion is indicated by the rate of gas formation. added periodically. Periodic removal of liquefied matter. After this initial acid fermentation. 22. All rights reserved. Sludge-gas production under good operating conditions is about 12 ft3/lb of volatiles destroyed. balance may usually be maintained if addition of fresh solids is held to less than 4%. and gasification takes place. Organisms living in the acid environment attack the organic acids and nitrogenous matter. . in which the anaerobic bacteria feed on proteins and amino acids. excess liquor (or supernatant liquor). stabilization.20b). All stages of the anaerobic process proceed simultaneously in the tank. (b) flotation thickener. methane fermentation occurs. such as acetic or butyric acid. Mixing of well-digested sludge with fresh sludge provides balance. Between 110 and 140 °F (thermophilic range). 22. or heat-loving.19). Withdrawn from a digester in small quantities at a level where the liquor contains relatively few solids. forming organic acids. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Anaerobic bacteria attack the carbohydrates first. 22. including hydrogen sulfide. Volatile acids are reduced. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 20 to 30% carbon dioxide. Once achieved. by weight. Supernatant liquor.

42 I Section Twenty-Two Fig. stirring mechanism. . reaching a minimum in the mesophilic range at about 100 °F and in the thermophilic range at about 130 °F.10 to 0. The system also may include preheater and heater equipment. Inc. ft3 per capita. Click here to view. A floating cover allows the liquor to be withdrawn before or after the fresh sludge enters the tank. detention time 30 to 60 days. Typical requirements set a capacity. for heated tanks of 2 to 3 for primary sludges. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Capacities of unheated tanks should be twice as great for each type of sludge. (a) Standard-rate digestion—unheated. supernatant-liquor drawoff at several levels.22. as a result of which the liquor being removed may carry off some of the sludge. 22. They generally provide a means of manipulating the sludge. loading 0.03 to 0. intermittent feeding and withdrawal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Most states have established schedules of capacity requirements for digestion tanks. continuous or intermittent feeding or withdrawal. loading 0. an equal volume of supernatant liquor must be removed. depending on type of sludge and whether or not the tanks are heated. and homogenous.20 Sludge digestion. (b) High-rate digestion—heated to between 85 and 95 °F.50 lb of volatile suspended solids per ft3•day. recirculation pumps with sludge suction at several levels. and stratification. when fresh sludge is added to a tank kept full.19 Digestion period decreases with increasing temperature. With a fixed cover. and drawoff. gas dome or collector. Fig. 22. 3 to 4 for mixtures of primary and standard-filter sludges. All rights reserved. sludge rakes.10 lb of volatile suspended solids per ft3•day. Addition of sludge creates currents. and 4 to 6 for activated sludge or mixtures of primary and high-rate filter sludges. The tank cover may be floating or fixed. detention 15 days or less. Sludge-digestion tanks may be circular or rectangular in plan.

21). For relatively large treatment plants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and pressure filtration. The process provides about the same reduction in solids as the anaerobic process but is more stable in operation and recycles fewer pollutants to the wastewater-treatment plant. two or more digesters are placed in series. after which the mixture usually is cured for about another month before its reuse. Placed in piles or windrows about 7 ft high. Stabilization I Primary and secondary wastewater sludges may be stabilized for reuse as sludge conditioners by composting. Area needed for this purpose is about 2 to 3 ft2 per capita (about three-fourths as much if the beds are covered). Inc. to retain solids longer. This removes undesirable amino-ammonia nitrogen and reduces or eliminates the need for conditioning chemicals. usually spaced about 30 ft apart. Also. As an alternative. and digested sludge is removed from the last (Fig. It may be used as a weak fertilizer or may be landfilled. The natural earth bottom is sloped to underdrains. has higher power costs and does not produce fuel gases. The composting takes about 3 weeks. Sludge removed from the bed has little or no odor. good results may be obtained if less than 20%.21 Two-stage anaerobic digestion. In this process. In twostage digestion. or washing of sludge with plant effluent. mechanical dewatering systems are advantageous because they are more compact and more controllable. Click here to view. for a given-size tank. 22. In multistage anaerobic digestion. The bed is dosed with sludge to a depth of 9 to 12 in and allowed to drain and dry. One sludge-processing method is elutriation. Beds consist of up to 12 in of coarse sand over 12 to 18 in of gravel. The sludge drawoff of each is fed to a subsequent one. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Aerobic Digestion I Organic sludges are aerated in an open tank similar to an activatedsludge aeration tank. the mixture undergoes biological action that stabilizes the sludge and heats it sufficiently to kill most disease-causing organisms in it. Sludge Dewatering I Before disposal. digested sludge from relatively small treatment plants may be concentrated in drying beds. the sludge is mixed with a bulking material. of material transferred from the first to the second tank is the best-digested sludge and more than 80% is supernatant liquor with the lowest solid content. The system provides flexibility in manipulating and mixing sludges and in controlling supernatant liquor. All rights reserved. A well-digested. Aerobic digestion. centrifuging. granular sludge drains easily and reduces to a depth of 3 to 4 in when dry (60 to 70% moisture content). lime or ferric chloride may be used to prepare sludge for vacuum filtration.43 Fig. It may be bounded or separated from an adjacent bed by a concrete wall extending about 15 in above the sand surface. 22. Sludge processing may be required if the sludge is to be disposed of by other methods. by volume. however. A bed may be from 20 to 30 ft wide and up to 125 ft long. the washed sludge is drawn off for conditioning and filtration. it may be possible to use a smaller tank than required for single-stage operation or. . Such systems include vacuum filtration. After settlement.Environmental Engineering I 22. such as wood chips or refuse.

raw sludge is conditioned and processed on various filters without digestion. Costs and results are similar to those obtained with vacuum filtration. Pressure filtration is accomplished by pumping sludge at pressures up to 225 psi through filters attached to a series of plates. (In some plants. 22. a blade scrapes the cake into a conveyor or the cake is dislodged by release of the vacuum when the filter fabric passes off the drum over small rollers. the sludge feed is stopped. the solids are spun to the outside of the drum and removed by a conveyer (Fig. All rights reserved. crops fertilized with liquid sludge include corn.23). produces a clear filtrate. and winter wheat.22 Rotary drum vacuum filter. As the drum turns. soybeans. Vacuum filtration reduces moisture content to about 80%.22. Click here to view. the liquid passes through the filters while the solids are retained. and for health reasons.5 lb/(ft2⋅h) of dry solids for fresh or digested activated sludge to 8 for primary digested sludge. The Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. sludge is dried in high-heat flash driers to reduce the volume substantially. however. Usually. plastic. The plates are supported in a frame between a fixed and a moving end. Filter cakes are easier to handle than the digested sludge from digesters. Some cities apply liquid sludge to croplands. it can be used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. Sludge is pumped into the centrifuge and injected with polymers for sludge conditioning. The filter cake is dislodged by shifting the moving end so that the plates can be moved. Centrifuge dewatering of sludge is accomplished in a horizontal drum rotated at 1600 to 2000 rpm. . and often reduces chemical conditioning costs. In the Chicago area. or cotton cloth or with flexible. For that purpose. Flash driers operate by mixing a portion of dried sludge with incoming wet sludge cake and introducing a high-velocity high-temperature gas stream. Sludge Soil Conditioning I Because sludge from municipal wastewater treatment contains some essential plant nutrients. The filter is covered with wire. a vacuum filter is a hollow drum that rotates slowly about a horizontal axis in a basin of sludge (Fig. When the filter chambers fill up with solids. springlike coils. This eliminates dewatering costs but requires transporting of large amounts of sludge. it is desirable that the sludge be first stabilized. 22. Pressure filtration provides the driest cake obtained by mechanical dewatering methods. When sludge is forced into the chambers between plates. A vacuum in the compartmented interior of the drum holds sludge against the cover and separates water from the solids.22). It is often also dewatered. In some cases.44 I Section Twenty-Two Fig.) Filter rates range from 2. Such sludge is offensive and is handled in the same manner as screenings. As the drum rotates. The filtrate is returned to wastewater influent or to elutriators. 22. the sludge cannot be used for root crops or crops eaten raw. Inc. metal.

the temperature should be maintained at 1500 °F or more. cost of sludge incineration may be high.33. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Environmental Engineering I 22. Ash residue. As an alternative. solid-bowl. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. conveyor-discharge centrifuge. Inc. it can provide heat for sludge drying. . however. solid-bowl. may be disposed of by incineration. To avoid excessive odors. may be used for fill or cover on sanitary landfill. sludge is pushed down to the next hearth by agitator arms as it dries.23 Centrifuge equipment for dewatering sludge: (a) Continuous countercurrent. If digester gas is not available for fuel. 22. Auxiliary heat is needed because the moisture content of the filter cake is high. In the past. Digested as well as undigested sludge. The heat drives off water and volatile gases. filter cake may be mixed with solid wastes and burned in a municipal incinerator. or wet oxidation. screw-conveyor-discharge centrifuge. Sludge Reduction I If sludge is not to be used as a soil conditioner and if a landfill disposal site is not available. if it meets state standards. may be used as fuel. if it adjoins the treatment plant. A fluidized-bed incinerator is an alternative (see Art. chemical oxidation.) Fig. 22. Gas. the moisture in the sludge is completely evaporated and the organic solids are burned to a sterile ash. All rights reserved. or coal. During incineration. oil. If a refuse incinerator is located at the wastewater-treatment site. (b) Concurrent-flow. Fed initially to the top hearth. Flue gases are passed through a scrubber to limit air pollution. including digester gas. which are ignited by the high temperature. incinerators used to burn sludge were multiple-hearth. Click here to view. the sludge may be reduced to a more innocuous and more easily handled form by incineration.45 dried material is separated from the gas in a cyclone separator and moved to storage.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but the process creates a liquid very high in BOD.24).8 gal of recirculated sludge per gal of raw sludge (Fig. Most of the free available chlorine reacts to form hydrochloric (HCl) or hypochlorous (HOCl) acids.to medium-size treatment plants. Lime Recovery I When wastewater treatment involves the coagulation-sedimentation process. Chlorine is added to the mixture in dosages ranging from 600 to 4800 mg/L. The HOCl subsequently breaks down into HCl with release of oxygen O. The sludge then is mixed with conditioned sludge in the ratio of 3. or centrifuging.22. vacuum filtration. dosage usually ranges between 1500 and 2000 mg/L of sludge added. where the reaction with chlorine takes place almost instantaneously. 22. except for limitations on heavy metals. A portion of the flow is fed to a second reaction tank. and this liquid must be returned to the wastewater-treatment plant. In addition to eliminating the dewatering step. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 22. Inc. The sludge dewaters easily in conventional drying beds. and nitrogen. the process has the advantage over incineration of a lower potential for air pollution because oxidation takes place in water without producing exhaust gases and ash. the sludge is ground and then fed into a reactor where temperatures about 500 °F and pressures of 1000 to 1700 psi are maintained. Generally. The raw sludge is pumped through a macerator to reduce particle size. which results in formation of biologically inert compounds. A recirculation pump feeds the mixture to a reaction tank. The process provides batch treatment of sludge with chlorine. The sludge is sterile and may be disposed of by incineration or landfill. Thus the process is suitable for reduction of sludges difficult to dewater. . depending on the type of sludge. Bed filtrate is returned to the primary settling tank.24 Schematic of process for chemical oxidation of sludge. large volumes of chemical sludges are produced. Air is injected into the sludge to speed oxidation.46 I Section Twenty-Two Chemical oxidation of sludge is suitable for use at small. In the wet oxidation process. phosphorus. Wet oxidation utilizes the principle that a combustible organic material can be oxidized in the presence of water in liquid form at temperatures between 250 and 700 °F. and the remainder is recirculated. the sludges may be dewatered Fig. A pressure control pump at the discharge end of the second reaction tank maintains from 30to 40-psi pressure on the system. The high pressure prevents conversion of the water to steam. Click here to view. Both HOCl and O are strong oxidants. The liquid and oxidized solids are separated by settling. All rights reserved. For domestic primary sludge. The recirculation aids in mixing and provides efficient utilization of the chlorine.

” Noyes Data Corp.25). Sludge settles into a lower chamber for digestion. 22. American Society of Civil Engineers. M. M. Park Ridge. To facilitate transfer of the settling solids. sludge digestion takes place without heat. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Ohio. this type of tank has been Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. they are trapped in the 22. .47 Fig. granular appearance. It dries easily. chamber. Imhoff effluents are suitable for treatment in trickling filters.” Environmental Protection Agency. it is comparatively odorless.Environmental Engineering I 22. and sludge digestion is the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in sludge (Art.25 Imhoff tank permits sedimentation of wastewater in upper compartments and sludge digestion in lower compartments. Satriana. the sludge is dewatered by one of the processes described previously and then subjected to recalcining in a multiple-hearth or fluidized-bed incinerator. “Large-Scale Composting. Va. New York.) widely used in the United States since 1907 for primary treatment of wastewater.” MOP 15 no. If lime is the coagulant used. R. however. A. it may have a moisture content of 90 to 95%. and disposed of in the same manner as the organic sludges from secondary treatment. F. the lime may be recovered for reuse. 22. Ettlich et al. It is dense. sloping bottom (about 60° with the horizontal) with a slot at the lowest level. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. FD1.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. The tank permits both sedimentation and sludge digestion to take place. “Handbook of Incineration Systems. In an Imhoff tank. Corbitt. the flowing-through chamber has a smooth.” C.. Imhoff sludge has a tarlike odor and a black. Efficiency of Imhoff tanks is about the same as for plain sedimentation tanks. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. It is an excellent humus but not a fertilizer.22 Imhoff Tanks Developed by Karl Imhoff in Germany for the Emscher sewage district. Inc. Click here to view. Sedimentation occurs in an upper. 22. Since rate of digestion decreases with drop in temperature (Fig. or flowingthrough.. W.J. and when dry. When withdrawn from a tank. Brunner. J. lack of temperature control is a disadvantage. G.” John Wiley & Sons. Cincinnati. Imhoff tanks are compartmented (Fig.” Manual 36. “Low Maintenance. Rich. 22. which can be collected for reuse.” and R. Water Environmental Federation. especially in regions where winters are cold. Inc. After particles pass through the slot. “Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Arlington. (Metcalf & Eddy. Sludge digestion. Recalcining drives off water and carbon dioxide and leaves a residue of lime. “Wastewater Engineering... Mechanically Simple Wastewater Treatment Systems.21).19). Sludge comprises the settled solids in wastewater.. L. “Operations Manual—Sludge Handling and Conditioning. may proceed much more slowly in an Imhoff tank than in a separate digester.. N. “Sludge Thickening. New York. All rights reserved.” 3rd ed. Fair et al. For that purpose. however.

22. sludge removal is less frequent. the sludge can be expelled under the hydraulic pressure of the liquid in the tank.22. But unlike Imhoff tanks. the digestion chamber may be designed for a capacity of 3 to 5 ft3 per capita of connected wastewater load. 22. All rights reserved. the sludge is removed through drawoff pipes. Some states require a second compartment of 300-gal capacity. As digestion proceeds in the lower chamber. or by a triangular beam with an apex just below the slot. Surface settling rate generally is 600 gal/(ft2⋅day). † Add 250 gal for each bedroom over 4. The tanks have a capacity of about 1 day’s flow. the settled sludge is in immediate contact with wastewater flowing through the tank. While undergoing anaerobic decompositions. as shown in the cross section in Fig. septic tanks do not provide separate compartments for these processes. Such tanks also are used by isolated schools and institutions and for treatment of sanitary wastewater at small industrial plants. and dangerous because of possible content of pathogenic organisms. Multiple units are preferable to a single large tank. or if industrial wastes with large quantities of solids are present in the wastewater. If garbage grinders may be used. however. If bedrooms are used as a criterion. Length-width ratios of Imhoff tanks range from 3:1 to 5:1. allowance should be made for future conversion of some rooms into bedrooms. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. After sufficient time has elapsed for anaerobic decomposition. flow reversal permits a more even distribution of settled solids over the digestion chamber. Most states set a minimum capacity of 500 gal for a single tank. Ordinarily. Vents should be at least 24 in wide.000 gal/lin ft of weir per day. 22. Velocity of flow is held below 1 ft/s.6 Minimum Capacities of Septic Tanks Liquid capacity. separated from the first Table 22. In the digestion chamber. Large tanks are provided with means for reversing flow in the upper chamber. As gases escape. high in biochemical oxygen demand. If. Inc. septic tanks permit both sedimentation and sludge digestion.) The scum chamber should have a surface area 25 to 30% of the horizontal surface of the digestion chamber. sludge sinks back from the scum chamber to the lower chamber.6).48 I Section Twenty-Two lower chamber. If foaming occurs at a gas vent. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Their path is obstructed either by overlapping walls at the slot. however. Sometimes it also is expedient to set two flowing-through chambers above one digestion chamber. Since the height of a tank usually is 30 to 40 ft. sludge settles to the sloped bottom. And top freeboard should be at least 2 ft to contain the scum.22). Click here to view. tank capacity should be increased (Table 22. Their effluents are odorous. Septic tanks. scum is formed by rising sludge in which gas is trapped. Some chambers have been constructed with capacities up to 6. (The gas vents occasionally may give off offensive odors. are widely used for treatment of wastewater from individual residences. Detention period in the upper chamber usually is about 21/2 h. sludge withdrawals are made twice a year. Design of residential tanks generally is based on 75 gal of wastewater per person per day or 150 gal per bedroom per day. it can be knocked down with a water jet from a hose. The weir overflow rate normally does not exceed 10. Since sedimentation generally is largest near an inlet. gal Bedrooms Persons Without garbage grinders* 2 or fewer 3 4 4 6 8 500 600 750 With garbage grinders† 750 900 1000 * Add 150 gal for each bedroom over 4. . Septic tanks have limited use in municipal treatment. plus storage capacity for sludge. The scum is directed to a scum chamber and gas vent alongside the upper chamber.25.5 ft3 per capita. the capacity should be greater. With such a schedule.23 Septic Tanks Like Imhoff tanks (Art. Depth to slot is about equal to the width.

The tank top should be between 12 and 24 in below finished grade. It should have a minimum liquid depth of 4 ft. Inc. to permit passage of effluent from the first compartment. unless completely reinforced. When the length of a tank exceeds 9 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Length of a rectangular tank may be about twice the width. A septic tank may be constructed of coated metal or reinforced concrete and should be watertight. should be reinforced to support 150 psf. above the invert of the outlet. All rights reserved. The invert of the inlet pipe should be at least 1 in. The top slab. Click here to view. Cast-in-place concrete tanks should be at least 6 in thick. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. at least. Figure 22. 22. The underside of the tank top should be at least 1 in above the tops of partitions and baffles. The partition has a horizontal slot.26 shows a typical tank. about 6 in high. preferably 3 in.Environmental Engineering I 22. An opening at least 16 in in diameter should be provided for a manhole.26 Septic tank permits sedimentation and sludge digestion in the same compartment. two compartments should be used. Fig.49 compartment by a vertical partition.

min* Wastewater application. All rights reserved. For camps for 40 or more persons. not more than 1/16 in/ft. in. The latter consists of lines of open-jointed tile or perforated pipe laid in trenches 18 to 30 in deep. To perform a test. 22. disperses over the entire trench bottom and seeps into the ground. of 300 0–5 6–7 8 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 45† 46 – 60† 2. The size of the tile field should be determined from the results of soil-percolation tests (Table 22.8 0. The lines receive the effluent from a distribution box. the capacity may be two-thirds as large. The aggregate should extend 12 in below and 2 in above the conduit. plus stored sludge. Using a tank truck equipped with pumps. the tile or pipe is firmly set in a bed of crushed stone or washed gravel. the lines spread out. Place 2 in of coarse sand or fine gravel in the bottom of the hole. From the box. soil absorption. the sludge may be buried in an isolated site. in Trench length. which distributes the liquid equally.7 Allowable Sludge Accumulation in Septic Tanks Tank capacity. For residential units.to 24-h flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. gal /day.0 1.50 I Section Twenty-Two Table 22. The effluent. For day schools. separate vents for the tanks are desirable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.8 Suggested Sizes of Tile Fields for Septic-Tank Effluent Soil-percolation rate. . but none should be over 60 ft long. At least two soil-percolation tests should be made in the area of the tile field.6 0. Municipal and institutional septic tanks are designed to hold 12. for wastewater loads. septic tanks should have a liquid capacity of at least 25 Table 22. Actually. Commercial scavenger companies are available for sludge removal in most areas. It should extend 6 in below the trench bottom or about 30 in below the final ground surface.4 24 24 36 36 36 36 36 36 63 73 59 77 95 125 167 250 450 94 110 88 116 143 188 250 375 600 125 146 118 154 191 250 334 500 1000 209 244 196 256 317 417 555 834 † If the percolation rate exceeds 60 min. the main vent for the house plumbing normally provides adequate ventilation. Inc.7. dig a hole 8 in in diameter or 12 in square.7 1. Septic-tank effluent may be disposed of in a leaching cesspool (Art. special care should be used in design and construction. gal per ft2 per day Trench width.3 1. the system is not suitable for a tile field. A rate over 30 min indicates borderline suitability for * Time for 1-in drop in water level in soaked hole. discharging from the openings. gal 500 600 750 900 1000 Distance from bottom of outlet device to top of sludge. For large septic tanks. Lines should be of equal length. In rural areas. they remove the contents of a septic tank and cart them to a sewer manhole or a treatment plant for disposal.25) or a tile field. Presoak the hole by filling it with water several hours before the test and again at the time of test and Residential septic tanks usually are buried in the ground and forgotten until the system gives trouble because of clogging or overflow.0 0.8). sludge should not be permitted to accumulate to a depth greater than that indicated in Table 22. however. so that they are at least 6 ft apart.22. lin ft. Click here to view. for liquid depth of 4 ft 16 13 10 7 6 5 ft 21 18 13 10 8 gal per person served. Laid on a slight slope.4 2.

Size of seepage pit should be determined on the basis of 75 gal per person per day or 150 gal per bedroom per day. U. the bottom should 22. the outside diameter and effective depth of pit may be obtained from Table 22. This water would saturate the soil and interfere with proper operation of the field. The bottom of a seepage pit should be at least 2 ft above groundwater and 5 ft above rock. The pits also may be used in series with cesspools or septic tanks. A larger excavation may be made for the upper portion of the hole. Lots with less than 10 ft of soil above a rock formation usually are not suitable for construction of both wastewater systems and well-water supplies because of contamination hazards. “Low Maintenance Mechanically Simple Wastewater Treatment Systems. or pumped to a discharge point. J. All rights reserved. Pour clean water to a depth of 6 in in the hole.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. is a buried sand filter placed below the tile drainage system. The pit lining should be open-jointed or perforated to permit liquid to leak out. Where soil is impervious or nearly so. in reality. Seepage pits of similar construction may be used to supplement tile fields (Art. Clear distance between two pits should be at least two times the diameter of the larger pit. A leaching cesspool allows wastewater to seep into the surrounding ground.” Parts 1 to 3. Rich. allowance should be made for future conversion of some rooms into bedrooms. With rectangular block. Department of Health. The fields should be more than 100 ft away from any source of water supply. Inc. Percolation tests for seepage pits are the same as for tile fields (Art. however.23). should be determined from soil-percolation tests (Table 22. the waste may be either drained out by gravity. Use of a leaching cesspool for direct disposal should be restricted to a small family in a remote location where there is absorptive soil and no danger of groundwater pollution. to drain overflow liquid into the surrounding soil.. W. Repeat until the time for the water to drop from the 6. N.to 5-in levels is about the same for two successive tests. by pumps or buckets. “Water Pollution Control in Low-Density Areas. The drainage tile is laid in trenches filled with gravel or other porous media. 22. Underdrains at the bottom collect and convey the effluent to a central collection point.9).23) or instead of such fields where conditions are favorable. 20 ft from house foundation walls. Lots with less than 10 ft of soil above a rock formation generally are not suitable for construction of both seepage pits and well-water supplies because of contamination hazards. or effective absorption area. State of New York. 22.S. New York. L.51 allowing the water to seep away. Remove any soil that falls into the hole.23). The tests should be made. .” University of Vermont. It is used only when a sewerage system is not available. The required wall area. 20 ft from buildings. Wall area should be large enough to allow the soil to absorb the liquid without the pit overflowing. “Studies on Household Sewage Disposal System. Click here to view. chlorinated and discharged to a body of water. When bedrooms are used as a criterion. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center. minutes. It may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10. Results are similar to those obtained with septic tanks (Art.9.Y. Robert A. and basement drains should not be connected to septic tanks or they will be overloaded with water not requiring treatment. and 10 ft from property lines. Swan. Public Health Service. When the required absorption area has been obtained from Table 22. Thickness should be at least 8 in. Use the results of the last test as the stabilized rate. Trench bottoms should be at least 2 ft above groundwater. This.) watertight or leaching. Pits should be located more than 100 ft from a source of water supply.Environmental Engineering I 22. an underdrained tile field may be used. Bulletin 1. Alternative percolation-test methods have been developed for use where peculiar soil conditions exist. Albany. A watertight cesspool retains wastewater until it is removed.24 Cesspools and Seepage Pits A cesspool is a lined and covered hole in the ground into which wastewater is discharged. required for the water to drop 1 in. footing. Tile fields should not be constructed under driveways. There. Leaching cesspools and seepage pits should never be attempted in clay soils. Water from roof gutters and other storm water should be routed away from the tile field. This type of cesspool is used only where no drainage into surrounding soil or rock is permitted. 22. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at half the depth and at the full estimated depth of the seepage pit. Jewell and R.” Part III. Roof. The lining generally is made of concrete block or precast-concrete sections. (“Sewage Disposal Systems for the Home. and 10 ft from property lines. to facilitate execution of the test. Record the time. 5 ft above rock.

The top should have a watertight manhole and concrete cover.) 22. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Bottom area excluded from computations. When a seepage pit is used at the end of a tile field. min* Wastewater application.10 Seepage-Pit Dimensions* for Required Absorption Area. the lining should be structurally designed to resist saturated-earth pressures. Normally. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 0. special care should be used in design and construction.9 Suggested Absorption Areas for Seepage Pits Soil-percolation rate. N. A 2 in-thick layer of straw should be placed on top of the gravel before soil is backfilled. (“Sewage Disposal for the Home. Department of Health.5 1. Bulletin 1.2 2.25 Chemical Toilets Chemical toilets are sometimes substituted for a pit privy when there is danger of polluting groundwater. State of New York. of 300 0–5 6 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 45† 46 – 60† * Time for 1-in drop in water level in soaked hole. Albany. Click here to view.52 I Section Twenty-Two not be more than 10 ft below grade.” Part III. gal /day.8 0. the system is not suitable for a seepage pit. for wastewater loads. . ft2. ft 5 47 63 79 94 110 126 141 157 173 188 6 57 75 94 113 132 151 170 189 207 226 7 66 88 110 132 154 176 198 220 242 263 8 75 101 126 151 176 201 226 251 276 302 9 85 113 141 169 197 225 254 282 310 339 10 94 126 157 189 220 252 283 314 346 377 11 104 138 173 207 242 276 310 346 380 415 12 113 151 188 226 263 302 339 377 415 453 * Outside diameter and effective depth.Y. 11/2 to 2 in in diameter. For deeper pits. Table 22. gal per ft2 per day Required absorption area. Ft2 Depth. Inc. The pipe connecting the end of the line with the pit should have tight joints. Table 22. a chemical toilet is used only when required by the health authority having jurisdiction.3 1. All rights reserved.22. the pit wall should be at least 6 ft from the end of the trench. Backfill around the lining in the absorption area should be clean crushed stone or gravel.5 94 130 167 200 273 375 600 450 141 196 250 300 409 562 900 600 188 261 334 400 545 750 1200 1000 313 435 555 666 911 1250 2000 † If the percolation rate exceeds 60 min. ft 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Outside diameter. with interlocking block. to a thickness of at least 6 in. A rate over 30 min indicates borderline suitabili- ty for soil absorption. Coarse gravel should be placed in the bottom of the pit to a depth of 6 in. not more than 15 ft.8 1. 3.

27 Biodisks or Rotating Biological Contactors Wastewater secondary-treatment quality can be achieved with a method that has characteristics of both trickling filters and contact stabilization. When sludge deposits on the pond bottom become sufficiently deep. McGhee. With greater depths. A series of closely spaced. 220 BOD per acre per day is maximum for shallow aerobic ponds. Hence. Click here to view.” Manual 36.” T. subject this growth alternately to submersion in the wastewater and the air. plastic disks (biodisks) is mounted vertically on a horizontal shaft and rotated slowly with about half their surface area continuously immersed in a reservoir of wastewater (Fig. Aerated ponds are not so susceptible to climatic conditions as ordinary lagoons. A.002 acre per capita for wastewater with primary treatment.5 to 4 ft. or a combination of settling and chemical treatment of the effluent. The disks provide a surface for buildup of attached microbial growth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but the ice prevents odors. New York. For large installations. “Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Algae develop.. In place of the pit. consume carbon dioxide. effluents are poor. Methods for removing the algae include filtration through sand beds at low rates. which decreases substantially at night and in cold weather where algae are depended on heavily for oxygen.14). a watertight corrosionproof container is provided. About double these areas are required in northern regions. filtration through a rock bed.003 acre per capi- 22. they expose to the air a film of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.53 The superstructure of the chemical toilet is ordinarily the same as that provided for a pit privy. Another basis for design is a strength-surface-loading relationship in which 50-lb BOD per acre per day is considered satisfactory. a large ratio of surface area to volume of liquid is desirable. American Society of Civil Engineers. aerobic conditions in the first pond can be improved by returning some of the effluent from the second pond. The chemical is dissolved in 10 gal of water per seat. Shallower ponds permit vegetation to emerge. .” 6th ed. ammonia. two or more ponds may be operated in series or in parallel. may be used to increase the supply of oxygen. Unless controlled. All rights reserved. Successful operation. Pond depths normally range from 2. Effluents may be equal to those from wastewater treatment plants providing secondary treatment. however.to 12-ft-diameter. and other waste products. It contains caustic and has a capacity of about 100 gal per seat. ta for raw sewage and 0. Aeration. “Water Supply and Sewerage. 10. however. Oxidation ponds are suitable for use where large areas of land are available at low cost. 22. they provide satisfactory treatment even for raw wastewater. Properly designed and maintained.27). McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Ponds nevertheless are in use in northern states. which is desirable for solution of atmospheric oxygen. As the disk surfaces emerge from the reservoir during their rotation.26 Oxidation Ponds These are artificial lagoons of wastewater utilizing natural forces for purification. When the water surface freezes. they are removed by dredging. Wastewater treatment in oxidation ponds depends on aerobic decomposition of organic matter (Art. Bacterial decomposition of this matter releases carbon dioxide. usually requires relatively high temperatures and sunshine. An acceptable location for the inlet to a pond is its center. septic conditions may develop at the bottom. The container normally is provided with an agitator that can be operated after each use. 22.Environmental Engineering I 22. Size of pond required may be conservatively estimated for southern areas at 0. Inc. The degree of treatment thus achieved may exceed the requirements of secondary treatment for both BOD and suspended solids. this encourages mosquito breeding and obstructs movement of the water. For large installations.) 22. Oxygen also is dissolved from the atmosphere at the lagoon surface. and aerate both the wastewater and biological growth suspended in the wastewater. (R. Effluent can be discharged at a convenient point along a bank. Corbitt. Oxidation ponds may fail to meet requirements of secondary wastewater treatment for removal of suspended solids because of algae carried in the pond effluent. With series operation. The receptacle is charged with at least 25 lb of caustic per seat. and under proper climatic conditions release oxygen during daylight.

wastewater that adheres to them.28). With several sets of disks in series. Click here to view. 22. Inc. or biological contactor. Oxygen is supplied as the wastewater splashes between the redwood slats and by movement of the wastewater in a film across the microbial growth on the slats. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The fixed growth occurs on the redwood slats comprising the filter media of a trickling filter about 14 ft deep.28 Schematic of activated-biofilter process.) 22. 22. “Wastewater Systems Engineering.28 Activated Biofilters Another means for attaining wastewater secondarytreatment quality is the activated-biofilter process.. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” Prentice-Hall. It employs a combination of fixed microbial growth and a high concentration of suspended growths. they absorb and break down other organic substances. N.. As these microorganisms pass through the reservoir.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. process. R. Loading rates range from 2 to 4 gal/day•ft2 of effective media area. Englewood Cliffs.22. The high concentration of suspended growths is developed by recirculating the process effluent and settled sludge from a secondary clarifier (Fig. All rights reserved. Also. an aeration tank may be installed between the filter Fig. 22. N. New York. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. this film adds oxygen to that already present in the reservoir. microorganisms from the wastewater adhere to the rotating surfaces and grow in number until the disks are covered with a thin layer of biological slime. including biological conversion of ammonia to nitrates. Inc. (H. Parker. Excessive growth of microorganisms is sheared from the disks as they move through the reservoir and is carried out with treated wastewater to a settling basin for removal.J. Corbitt.27 Schematic of biodisk.54 I Section Twenty-Two Fig. A. it is possible to achieve higher degrees of treatment. On returning to the reservoir. To provide a high degree of treatment.

is an alternative to chlorine for disinfection of treated wastewater. 6.5 ppm after 10 min. Some states place rigid restrictions on discharge of effluents containing chlorine that may form trihalomethane.” 4th ed. Chlorine gas normally is dissolved in water. sodium bisulfite. Corbitt. or sulfur dioxide. Chlorine also may be useful in preventing odors at wastewater treatment plants. may be accomplished by ion exchange. or injection of alum. activated biofilters provide stable operation and few system upsets. chlorine or ozone is generally used. The accuracy of the chemical feeders should be checked daily by determining the weight of chlorine or hypochlorites used. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. filtering through activated carbon. Ultraviolet Disinfection I Another alternative to chlorine is use of ultraviolet light to kill bacteria and viruses. sodium sulfite. Dechlorination. Inc. Ozonation I Ozone. A circular windshield wiper keeps the tube surfaces clean. “Standard 22. The contact period should be at least 15 min at peak hourly flow or maximum pumping rate and 30 min at average daily flow. White. ppm or mg/L. They can be installed before existing activated-sludge basins to improve plant efficiency or increase plant capacity. activated-sludge-plant effluent. The following dosages. 8. Check with state authorities for limitations on free available chlorine in discharges. control of ponding and filter-fly larvae on trickling filters. Chlorination should be done in a baffled contact tank. In small plants and some large plants. 20 or more. when required. time in a conduit or outfall before the chlorinated effluent is discharged. The wastewater is passed over horizontal glass cylinders. is usually larger than the cost of chlorine for accomplishing the same degree of treatment. and the solution is pumped into the effluent in measured amounts. the process can produce an effluent with less than 20 mg/L of BOD and suspended solids.” 2nd ed.29 Disinfection The last step in secondary treatment of wastewater is disinfection of the effluent to kill pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria and viruses.55 and the secondary clarifier. as shown in Fig. It has the advantage that the only residual left in the water is dissolved oxygen. in receiving waters used for drinking. R. the efficacy of dosages applied should be checked frequently by bacteriological tests. With about 1 h of supplemental aeration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Chlorination I The major purpose of chlorinating treated wastewater is to destroy pathogenic organisms. or beaches. Chlorination before primary sedimentation is not detrimental to sludge digestion. (American Water Works Association. Requiring less area than a trickling-filter plant.. New York.2 to 0. or prevention of its formation. Sufficient chlorine should be added to treatment effluent to satisfy the demand and provide a residual of 2 ppm (mg/L). The 5-day BOD of wastewater is reduced about 2 ppm for each ppm of chlorine added. trickling-filter-plant effluent. 15. New York. “Handbook of Chlorination. Other uses of chlorine include neutralization of hydrogen sulfide. For the purpose. For this purpose. may be required for disinfection of treated wastewater: primary sedimentation effluent. conditioning of sludge before dewatering. All rights reserved. A. increasing the efficiency of air in grease removal in skimming tanks.. 22. G. A BOD reduction of 15 to 35% may be expected with residuals of 0. Click here to view. Inc.28.Environmental Engineering I 22. These may feed sodium hypochlorite (laundry bleach) or calcium hypochlorite. In addition. where it may corrode concrete sewerage or structures. a potential cancer-causing agent. however. . McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. and treatment of industrial wastes. The cost of ozone. and sand-filter effluent. Such disinfection is desirable and often mandatory where discharge of the effluent may pollute water supplies. proportional to the flow. A tentative maximum contaminant level of 100 mg/L has been proposed. inside of which are ultraviolet light sources. This interval usually is taken as 15 min since this is the time required to kill nearly all the objectionable bacteria.. C. Chlorine demand of domestic or industrial wastewater is the difference between the amount of chlorine added and the residual after a short time. it may be added on line or to primary influent. produced at point of use by passing dry air between two high-voltage electrodes. shellfish beds. “Water Quality and Treatment. Chlorinators usually are used to feed chlorine to the treatment effluent. hypochlorinators may be used. unless there will be sufficiently long contact Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. wastewater treatment should be applied. . The activated carbon can then be reused.1 mg/L or less and eliminate suspended solids. eliminating biological secondary wastewater treatment. 22. alum (aluminum sulfate). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as phosphorus. Inc. Coagulation-sedimentation also may remove high percentages of phosphorus. Where these pollutants in an effluent are of major concern. nitrogen. or ferric chloride.56 I Section Twenty-Two Handbook of Environmental Engineering. This action is accelerated by addition of a polymer as a settling aid and by flocculating. After flocculation.29 Schematic of coagulation-sedimentation process. They speed settlement of the solids in the wastewater because they cause the solids to clump together. Click here to view. however. usually removes only small percentages of some pollutants. from where they are removed (Fig. Carbon adsorption may be applied as an independent physical-chemical (IPC) treatment. coagulants. and garnet. are injected into the wastewater. such as coal.30 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Wastewater secondary treatment and disinfection generally produce an acceptable effluent for disposal on land or a large body of water in that more than 85% of the BOD and suspended solids and nearly all pathogens are removed from the wastewater. The following processes are capable of improving the effluent from secondary treatment to the degree that it is adequate for many reuse purposes.) wastewater. Plain filtration (Art. and viruses. coagulation-sedimentation improves overall treatment of wastewater by providing a means for removal of the excessive quantities of solids that may escape occasionally from the biological processes. sand. The filters are coarse in the upper layers and become uniformly finer with depth.29). or clarifier. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. heavy metals. 22. composed of a mixture of different materials. advanced. which are responsible for the color of secondary effluent. The wastewater is passed downward during normal operation. soluble COD. bacteria. Coagulation-Sedimentation I When used as a tertiary treatment. 22. Effective filtration of the effluent from tertiary coagulationsedimentation can reduce phosphorus to 0. and heavy metals. Filtration may be performed in an open concrete structure by gravity flow or in steel vessels by pressure. This treatment. where the solids settle to the bottom. In this treatment. or slowly stirring. filtration is used to remove suspended solids from a secondary effluent or from the effluent from a coagulation-sedimentation process. the wastewater flows to a sedimentation tank. Carbon Adsorption I Activated carbon has the capacity for removing from wastewater refractory organics. New York. or tertiary. or where very high degrees of treatment are 22. organic substances resistant to biological breakdown. The filters may be multimedia. the Fig. All rights reserved.18) can reduce the suspended solids in activated-sludge effluent from 50 to 75%. but flow is reversed to clean the filters.22. Filtration I In tertiary treatment. These substances adhere to the surfaces of the porous carbon particles and can be removed by heating the carbon in a furnace with very low levels of oxygen. such as lime.

22. Hence. To achieve the conversion. suitable for many reuse purposes. and obtain a neutralized waste. free of bacteria and viruses. the wastewater to be treated is passed through beds of granular carbon particles.8 mm in diameter. for example. As a result. such as methanol. The result is a degree of treatment better than biological secondary but not as good as that achieved with a combination of secondary treatment and carbon adsorption. The latter include ammonia stripping. with a BOD of less than 1 mg/L and a COD of less than 10 mg/L. sometimes also filtered. For the IPC process. Ammonia. Peak solids production and BOD may also be reduced or regulated. Both carbon adsorption and nitrogen reduction should be tried out on the wastewater to be treated in a pilot plant before the prototype is built. an oxygendemand source. biological conversion of the nitrates to gaseous nitrogen. Selective ion exchange removes ammonia nitrogen from wastewater by exchanging ammonia ions for sodium or calcium ions contained in an insoluble exchange material.. Nitrogen Reduction Treatments I Nitrogen contained in wastewater is converted into ammonia during conventional biological secondary treatment. In any case. which escapes to the atmosphere. this condition is not likely to exist after nitrification. (R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is toxic to fish and is objectionable also because it consumes dissolved oxygen. and filtration. Denitrification can be performed in an anaerobic activated-sludge process (suspended growth system) or a fixed-film system.5 lb per pound of ammonia nitrogen in the wastewater).” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. can be segregated from high-strength wastes. R. which resembles a conventional cooling tower. . Time for contact between carbon and wastewater may range from 20 to 40 min. after secondary treatment. a naturally occurring zeolite.2) is highly specialized.) 22. Biological nitrification-denitrification first biologically converts the ammonia nitrogen into nitrates (nitrification).57 desired. Culp et al. L.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. about 10 mg of chlorine must be added per mg of ammonia nitrogen in a liter of wastewater. In this step. and increases the amount of chlorine needed for disinfection. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. about 0. such as acids and alkalies. New York. Inc. (3) Circulating large quantities of air through the tower to carry the ammonia into the atmosphere. The specific ionexchange material used in this process is clinoptilolite. This is accomplished by injection into the wastewater of sufficient oxygen (about 4. Ammonia stripping is a physical-chemical method for removing gaseous ammonia. Cooling water. then subjected to carbon adsorption. Selection of treatment processes must be engineered to the peculiar characteristics of a process waste. Corbitt. It comprises three basic steps: (1) Raising the pH of the water with lime to form gaseous ammonia. Breakpoint chlorination removes nitrogen by forming compounds that eventually are converted to gaseous nitrogen. arranged like a gravity filter or in columns 20 to 25 ft deep. It is also possible with equalization tanks to mix wastes of different characteristics. Click here to view. The amount of ammonia retained in wastewater can be reduced by biological or physical-chemical methods. to reduce the volume of wastewater requiring treatment or to separate wastes requiring intensive treatment from those requiring little or no treatment. This is more efficient than treatment units designed to handle maximum flows produced during an 8-h shift. This combination of processes can produce a colorless.31 Industrial Waste Treatment The treatment of industrial wastes (see Art. Process wastes have a wide range of flow from hour to hour. odorless effluent. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. It is desirable. whenever possible. corrodes copper fittings. New York. coagulationsedimentation. (2) Cascading the water down a stripping tower. although not toxic to humans. about 40 or 50 times more chlorine is required than that normally used in a wastewater plant for disinfection only. selective ion exchange. “Advanced Wastewater Treatment. the raw wastewater is usually first coagulated and settled. is added to the wastewater because conversion of nitrates to gaseous nitrogen will take place only when there is a demand for oxygen in the absence of oxygen. All rights reserved. A. The next step is denitrification. thereby reducing the size of the treatment plant. and breakpoint chlorination. depending on the operation. it may be necessary to provide equalization or holding tanks to produce a more uniform flow to be treated over a 24-h period. to release the gas.Environmental Engineering I 22.

including pulp and paper. “The Treatment of Industrial Wastes. New York. and remove fibers and other coarse solids by screening Primary treatment to remove settleable solids Secondary treatment by biological processes applied to biodegradable wastes Secondary treatment with chemicals for chemical conversion. dialysis. When preparing for treatment of any specific waste. lb per unit Suspended solids.11 Types and Characteristics of Industrial Wastes* Type of waste Unit Volume.000 lb product 1 ton oil 12. metal plating.0 2.22. reverse osmosis.2 12 20-25 125 74 84 2 90 110 125 1 9.6 800 1. Table 22. Treatment of process wastes may require a series of methods selected to accomplish certain degrees of treatment that would ultimately produce an effluent acceptable for discharge to a receiving stream. 2 cans Ton Ton 1. textile and apparel manufacture. such as food processing.075 360 14.0 29.2 8.0 13.9 540 186 0. Besselievre and M. in order: Pretreatment to reduce temperature. Schwartz.7 121 0.250+ 18.5 200.6 500+ 144. precipitation and removal of solids. and oxidation or reduction of substances contained in the waste Preconditioning or secondary treatment by anaerobic digestion to produce a biochemical conversion of substances Ion exchange. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 60.35 280 82 10 204 400+ 36.11 indicates some characteristics of waste typical of the several classifications.2 1.5 10 * From E.0 18. chemical manufacture.58 I Section Twenty-Two Industrial wastes may be placed in general classifications. Inc. or evaporation to remove inorganic solids or recover chemicals Table 22. lb per unit Population equivalent per unit Canning Corn products Beans Peaches Tomatoes Milk products General dairy Fermentation Brewing Laundry Roofing Paperboard General slaughterhouse Paper mill Paperboard Textile Cotton sizing Basic dyeing Rayon viscose Wool dyeing and scouring Vegetable oils Acidulating waste Ton Case no. glass.2 7.000 lb raw milk 1 barrel beer 100 lb dry wash Ton 1 animal Ton pulp 1. iron and steel. McGraw-Hill Book Company. B. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement..000 140 240.4 570 30. gal per unit BOD. . All rights reserved. and rubber production and processing.500 0. plastic. and basic materials manufacture.0 3. Click here to view.000 385 1. These methods may include. oil processing.000 lb product 1. neutralize the wastes. an engineer should see that the waste is sampled over a sufficient time period to include major variations introduced by process operation.000 lb goods processed 1.000 60.000 35 2.” 2d ed.610 227 340 19.000 lb goods processed 1.

22. land treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.59 Chlorination for oxidation or disinfection purposes Various forms of irrigation. landfills with the option of fixation before landfilling. 22. or plant irrigation. or algal oxidation ponds It is frequently necessary to select theoretically best combinations of treatment for a process waste and to follow up the selection with pilot-plant operations to establish the parameters of design for the full-scale treatment plant. EPA has also compiled a list of toxic chemicals that are often contained in industrial wastes. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. or toxic. If a waste is on this general list. reactive. Studies should be made to determine acceptable waste-loading rates and monitoring requirements. Permits usually are written for a specific term (up to 5 years) and contain effluent limitations and monitoring requirements for each discharge point. which set specific industry-byindustry standards with specific limits on effluents. incineration.16 to 22. requiring long storage periods. such as electroplating wastes or air-pollution-control scrubber sludges from coke ovens and blast furnaces. liquid wastes are injected through shafts into deep subsurface geologic formations.29. lagooning.and nitrogenbearing compounds. the producer must treat it as a hazardous waste. where the wastes will be contained. and dilution and disposal. packaged. Permissible concentrations of radioactive material in water are usually specified in microcuries per milliliter of water. Several methods of treatment are described in Arts. chemically altered. immobilized. 22. and 22. Land treatment is suitable for wastes that can be biodegraded. Provisions should be made to prevent discharge from the site of untreated water or for treatment of such water. Evaporation is widely used for concentration of low-activity wastes. Cation exchange with synthetic resins may be used on small liquid volumes having low solids concentration and low radioactivity levels. Unless contaminated soil is to be removed and transported to a treatment or disposal facility. But even if a waste is not on either list. Federal and state regulations should be reviewed whenever radioactive wastes are to be disposed. . fish propagation for food. Inc. For deep-well disposal. Click here to view.) EPA has established a list of hazardous wastes from specific industries. The sludge is transferred to polyethylene-lined drums for burial. One objective is to have industry apply the best available technology economically achievable for controlling toxic pollutants and the best conventional pollutant-control technology for conventional pollutants. The technique has long been used by the oil industry for disposal of brine. Care must be taken that groundwater which might be required for use above ground will not be polluted. The radioactive sludge concentrate is then removed. control of phosphorus. Control of pollutants from these sources is achieved through EPA General Pretreatment Regulations. (Industries discharging to municipal sewer systems. may be safely enclosed in containers and buried or stored in isolated caves or other underground facilities. Concentration of radioactive wastes before storage may be accomplished by coprecipitation. and buried. Discharge Permits I In accordance with the Clean Water Act (Art. Hazardous Wastes I Options for disposal of hazardous wastes include recovery for reuse. and deep-well injection. and reduction of excessive amounts of suspended solids. Radioactive wastes are subject to severe restrictions when the receiving body of water may be used for human consumption.30. are not required to obtain NPDES permits.Environmental Engineering I 22. Procedures that have been used for the treatment of radioactive wastes include concentration and storage. while high-activity material. such as removal of trace metals. ignitable.24. applications of wastes containing metals should be controlled so that no toxic hazard will result. Burial after required decay may follow the first and discharge to sewers or streams may follow the latter. mine storage. 22. it should be considered hazardous if it is radioactive. anyone discharging wastewater to the waters of the United States is required to obtain a permit for that purpose from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a designated state. however.19. or deactivated by interaction with soil. corrosive. After the last load of waste has been placed. Low-activity material may be diluted. Wastes containing any of these chemicals must be treated as a hazardous waste. Employment of advanced waste-treatment methods may be necessary for specified purposes. recreational bathing.1). under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). the site should be stabilized with vegetation or capped as required for a landfill to control infiltration and erosion. Condensate may be released to a sewer.

the final disposition of the site should be planned in advance. temporary sides.22. “Chemical Fixation and Solidification of Hazardous Wastes. “Subsurface Migration of Hazardous Wastes. Also. and consumption of food. cooking. It may be assumed at 25% in estimates. Freeman.) an estimate of volume required computed from (22. or slag to permit gases to escape to the atmosphere. Devinney et al.” H. and top.” R. It may consist of garbage. body wastes. dead animals. see Art.” E. Dasgupta. Even settlement of such buildings may be achieved with mat footings. Garbage consists of putrescible wastes resulting from processing. The method is suitable where low-cost land is available within convenient hauling distance of the contributing population and good soil is available for the earth cover. handling. and after filling should be planned in advance. M. J. For this value. “Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment.to 12-in-thick intermediate layers. of sanitary landfill R = weight of refuse. and institutional sources. New York.60 I Section Twenty-Two For landfills. Also.32 Sanitary Landfills Refuse collected from households. Nemerow and A.33. “Standard Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment and Disposal. front slope.. J. including cover.” and S. of cover material required (6. a site should not be located within 200 ft of a fault nor within a 100-year floodplain. Conner. About 14 acre-ft. preparation. 22. commercial establishments. Parks.” and N. Buildings may be erected on piles driven through the fill when suitable protection against gas entrapment is provided. crushed stone.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Provision should be made for windbreaks to keep dust. groundwater.25) Drainage of the site before. “Hazardous Waste Management Engineering. and industrial plants must be disposed of at minimum cost and without creating health hazards or nuisances. Sufficient land should be available to ensure area for a preplanned period of 5 to 10 years. rubbish.000 population per year of operation will be required for sanitary landfill. and garbage from domestic. Light buildings may be constructed over old sanitary landfills if the surface is topped with gravel. which requires daily compaction of refuse and daily placement of an earth cover 6 to 12 in thick. yd3 per capita per year. Rubbish consists of solid wastes other than ashes. and air and potential for subsurface migration of leachates. to be handled at landfill D = average density of refuse. lb per capita per year. and outdoor storage are suitable end uses for landfills. W. New York. see Art.. Johnson.. Other factors to consider in selection of a landfill site are possible adverse effects on quality of surface water. for incineration. but excavation may be hazardous and expensive because of the presence of obnoxious toxic and flammable gases produced by decomposing refuse. R. Reed and E. L. during. Soil used for cover should not have a high proportion of sand or clay or operation of trucks will be 22. street cleanings. commercial. Inc. “Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment. recreational areas.24) where V = volume. and other light objects from being blown away from dumping areas and becoming a nuisance. per 10. The area needed can be derived from Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Culp et al. H.” J. Martin and J. “Industrial Water Pollution Control. lb/yd3 P = percentage reduction of refuse volume from compaction Cν = volume. The cover is increased to 2 ft when filling has been completed. the required volume of landfill may be estimated from (22. Eckenfelder. . C. Refuse comprises all solid wastes except body wastes. Click here to view. Middlebrooks. Choice of end use should be influenced by the uncertain settlement characteristics of such fills and the objectionable odors that may be released where excavations are made. yd3. (W. Jr. paper. All rights reserved. A covered fill may be odorless. ashes.32. One solution is a sanitary landfill. and at least 24 in on all finished surfaces) Cν varies from 17% of the refuse volume for deep fills to 33% for shallow fills. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Advanced Wastewater Treatment. abandoned automobiles and solid market and industrial wastes. 22. J.

The process must be controlled to prevent emission to the atmosphere of hazardous combustion products or products of incomplete combustion. carrying pollutants with it. This trench. 60637. D. handling of surface water and fill drainage. Chicago. The plan should also include details on application of cover material. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Both require that refuse be compacted and covered daily. Construction and Monitoring of Sanitary Landfills.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. may be unchanged. applicable to swamps. nuisance control. volatiles are driven off by destructive distillation. and emission not exceeding 180 mg/m3 of exhaust gas. 22. municipalities may resort to incineration for refuse disposal. or impermeable clay. the facility will fill up with water and overflow. Clay also is difficult to handle. air-pollution prevention measures. In the trench method. composition of waste. The refuse should be placed in the trenches in layers 1 to 2 ft thick and 8 to 10 ft wide and compacted. Landfills must meet a number of restrictive requirements imposed by state regulatory agencies. Refuse I In incineration of refuse. American Public Works Association Committee on Refuse Disposal. any data required to ensure that environmental impact (Art. and below-grade terrain. it cracks. All rights reserved. Even after 25 years. A. compacted refuse is built up in layers 6 to 10 ft deep and covered daily with soil brought in from elsewhere. Fuel value may range from 600 to 6500 Btu per pound of refuse. If an impermeable liner is placed under the site and the cover is relatively permeable. Liners often are concrete. 100 to 400 ft long. Gases produced pass through a series of oxidation changes in which time-temperature relationship is important. 1313 E. Such incineration is capable of converting many hazardous wastes into innocuous gases and ash and often recovering some of the energy produced by combustion.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 22. and. . The material is not homogeneous. including newspaper and some types of plastic. the engineer is required to submit a plan and report on the specific areas to be filled. usually after Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. insects. A sand-clay-loam mixture with about 50% sand has been found satisfactory.” Public Administration Service. some of the organic matter. In the area method. as fired. site preparation..35) will not be adverse or unacceptable to the enforcement agency. EPA regulations require incinerator operators to obtain a permit to burn the specific wastes to be treated.Environmental Engineering I 22. The specific requirements in each state should be ascertained by the engineer. Combustion products ultimately discharge from a stack at 800 °F or less. Landfills should be provided with means for controlling leachate and runoff. and its characteristics vary considerably. New York. Final height may be 6 to 10 ft. erosion control. soil for covering a compacted windrow of refuse is obtained by digging a trench 15 to 25 ft wide. synthetic fabrics. (R. Bagchi. Only enough length of windrow should be built up in this manner daily so that full height is reached and sides and top are covered with soil at the end of a workday. Controlled high-temperature (1600°F or more) incineration is an effective alternative to traditional methods of disposal of hazardous wastes. “Municipal Refuse Disposal. and subbase. including the method of collection and treatment of leachate to prevent groundwater or surface-water pollution. Sanitary landfills may be carried out by the trench or area methods. Wilson. New York. Corbitt. Basic standards call for 99. sources and types of materials to be used as cover. Moisture content influences this value significantly. providing openings for rodents. Ill.99% destruction and removal efficiency for each principal hazardous component of the waste. and at least 3 ft deep. They must be heated above 1400 °F to destroy odors. “Design.) 22. method of record keeping. is filled with refuse and covered with soil from an adjoining trench. Usually. in turn. next to the windrow. when the wastes contain more than 0. 60th St. in general. marshes. schedule of filling.30). “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. “Handbook of Solid Waste Management. They ignite from the heat of a combustion chamber (Fig. Click here to view. and air.61 hindered. final grades.” and A. Refuse comprises all solid wastes except body wastes. Choice of liner depends on the nature of the wastes to be discharged. Inc. Decomposition in a landfill is anaerobic and proceeds slowly. Leachate may be contained by placing an impermeable liner under and around the site. and when dry.33 Incineration of Refuse and Hazardous Wastes Where land is costly or unavailable for sanitary landfill. 99% removal of HCl from the exhaust.5% of organically bound chlorine. G.

stoker. with grates. liquid-injection incinerators are usually used. As a rough approximation.3 ft2 of stack area may be required per ton of rated capacity. Small incinerators for apartment buildings and institutions are loaded at much lower rates. percentage of combustible and inert material.30). or barrel-type rotary (Fig. Dust emissions may be in the range of 2 to 3 lb per ton of refuse charged for a well-operated unit equipped with scrubbers. helps dry wet refuse. Incinerators generally are rated in accordance with the estimated weight of refuse they are capable of burning in 24 h. Feed may be continuous. Heat balance can be calculated from several estimates based on averages. and wet scrubbers. only submicron.000 Btu/ft2. Manufacturers of each type of incinerator recommend sizes for various conditions.and the smaller micron-size particles should escape with the flue gases. Vertically aligned units are generally used for wastes high in organic salts and yielding large quantities of ash. Air needed ranges from 5 to 8 lb per pound of refuse burned.000 Btu/ft3. Stack heights usually range from 100 to 180 ft. Available heat from the refuse must be balanced against heat losses due to radiation. Volumes of such chambers range from 10 to 25 ft3/ton of rated capacity. Secondary combustion chambers permit combustion to continue to completion. 22. lb/(h⋅ft2). For nonhomogeneous wastes.22. Several types of incinerators are available from manufacturers. . Normally. For rational design of incinerators. passing through an expansion chamber. The air provides oxygen for combustion of organic matter. and ash. Expansion chambers are desirable where a stack serves more than one furnace.62 I Section Twenty-Two Fig. Inc. excess air. Stacks should be designed for gas velocities of about 25 ft/s with maximum air. the engineer should know or estimate such characteristics of the refuse to be burned as weight. Furnace volume may be approximated by allowing 20. Some types have drying hearths. The hearth may be horizontal and fixed. multiple. The kiln may be stationary or rotate about a horizontal axis. traveling. gravity.30 Schematic of refuse incinerator. flue gas. Expansion chambers and other air-cleaning devices remove fly ash and other particles carried out of the furnace by gases. of 20 in 100-lb/h burning units to 30 in 1000-lb/h burning units. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with grates. Click here to view. and mixes with organic gases. But the air cools the gases if too much dry material is being burned. Hazardous Wastes I For incineration of hazardous wastes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water content. or batch. Loading rates range up to slightly over 100 lb of refuse per hour per square foot of grate area for incinerators with mechanical stoking. 0. fly-ash collector. up to 200% of theoretical requirements may be needed for combustion. Gas velocities in secondary chambers should not exceed 10 ft/s. and Btu content. Air should be passed over the refuse and through it from under the grates. Kiln shape may be round or rectangular. step movement. Horizontal incinerators are preferable for wastes producing small quantities of ash. Height is desirable for creating natural draft and for dispersion of gases in the atmosphere. and grate area by allowing 300. 22. All rights reserved. Standards of the Incinerator Institute of America suggest loading rates for domestic refuse.

however. Inc.63 A fluidized-bed incinerator is one alternative (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Civil Engineering. All rights reserved.Environmental Engineering I 22. This equipment makes more efficient use of fuel than the multiple-hearth furnace (Art. and combustion air come into intimate Fig. Studies indicate that organic wastes can be used to replace on the average up to 15% of cement-kiln fuel. injected into the sand.31).) Incinerators should be designed to ensure that the wastes. which. September 1981. Other alternatives include starved-air/pyrolysis incinerators. 22. Dewatered sludge. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Oppelt. and mobile incineration employing special heavy-duty truck trailers. They can be used to burn solid and containerized wastes. incineration in high-temperature industrial facilities. is simpler to operate and maintain. Because facilities that incinerate wastes and produce energy for other applications are exempt from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act emission-control regulations. “Thermal Destruction Options for Controlling Hazardous Wastes.21). 22. (E. incineration at sea on special ships or off-shore platforms. there is an incentive to cofire wastes in industrial facilities. Ash is carried off with the exhaust gases and is captured in air-pollution-control devices. 22. such as cement kilns and industrial boilers.31 Schematic of fluidized-bed incinerator. It is a vertical steel cylinder with a grid supporting hot sand through which combustion air flows at a velocity high enough to keep the sand in suspension. Click here to view. Rotary kiln incinerators are another alternative. is burned at temperatures between 1400 and 1500 °F if it does not contain hazardous wastes and over 1600 °F if it does. auxiliary fuel if needed. slurries. plus fuel-fired combustion. The sand is heated by an air preheat system. hot combustion gases. and liquids. T.

There would be about 16. road and street paving. a mixture that at times reduces visibility to zero. acid gases. Air-pollution control requires knowledge of what constitutes an ideal atmosphere. Martin and J. and heat. industrial.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York.” and E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. H.22. meteoric dusts. and waste disposal by combustion processes. Coal is only one source of nucleating particles that are responsible for smog. liquid-waste disposal. odor. Click here to view. burning of soft coal yields particles that combine with fog to produce smog. and coal-fired furnaces used to produce heat for dwellings. ventilation products from local exhaust systems. These are liquid or solid.34) are advantageous for removal of particulates. oil-. OH 45268. Johnson. visibility may be limited to 1600 ft. “Handbook of Solid Waste Management.” Academic Press. “Handbook of Incineration Systems. air pollution is always present but in varying degrees. are present for a sufficient time in the atmosphere in quantities and with characteristics injurious to life or property. Smog is created when microscopic water droplets condense about nucleating substances in the air to form aerosols. Since pollutants are contributed by many sources. or vapor. New York. 22. and utilities. The major correctable sources of pollution are associated with community activity. M.” Environmental Protection Agency. high-efficiency burners should be used. Beer. mist. and pollen from weeds. Commercial and domestic heat and power sources include gas-. Emission-control devices should be used to limit emission of hazardous exhausts. municipal activities. such as dust. G..) Agricultural sources include applications of insecticides and pesticides and burning of vegetation. In addition to its adverse effects on health. and vessels. Hence. surface detritus. R. C. and fallout. D. because community air generally is more polluted. submicron-size particles dispersed in a gaseous medium. there is ample reason to conserve air as a resource. or detrimental to comfortable enjoyment of life and property. Chemical conversion of reaction products in the air also produces nucleating substances that grow large enough to cause light scattering. gas. Environment is made less desirable by pollutants. This leads to establishment of criteria for clean air and standards setting limits on the permissible degree of pollution. All rights reserved. fumes. and excess combustion air should be supplied and controlled to maintain turbulence in that chamber. commercial and domestic heat and power. (“Engineering Handbook on Hazardous Waste Incineration. “Combustion Technology. Cincinnati. “Solid Wastes: Engineering Principles and Management Issues. Transportation sources include discharges from motor vehicles. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rather than rural activity.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Scrubbers (Art. power.64 I Section Twenty-Two contact and that the wastes stay long enough in the combustion chamber to be destroyed. In many parts of the world. Wilson. In an atmosphere with an aerosol concentration of about 1 mg/m3. agricultural. Afterburners may be employed to provide additional combustion volume at high temperatures to burn incompletely combusted exhaust products. Palmer and J. In effect. Fallout comprises radioactive pollutants suspended in the air after a nuclear explosion. For this purpose. liquid-waste feed should be atomized for insertion in the combustion chamber. Jr. and residual organics from the exhaust. They may be roughly classified as natural. commercial establishments. in many ways parallel to the need for conservation of water. “Hazardous Waste Management Engineering. 22.” and G. Municipal activity sources include refuse disposal. Industrial sources include process waste discharges. transportation. B. Inc. Control also requires means for precise measurement of pollutants and practical methods for treating polluting sources to prevent undesirable emissions. Brunner. J. pollution from natural sources is a base line with which total pollution can be compared. .34 Air-Pollution Control Air pollution exists when one or more substances. Natural sources include water droplets or spray evaporation residues. Tchobanoglous.000 particles per milliliter restricting visibility by scattering light. smoke. airplanes. air pollution also is objectionable because of its contribution to reduced visibility. Converted sulfur dioxide too becomes a nucleating substance as it oxidizes and hydrolizes to form sulfuric acid mist. and fuel-fired combustion operations. H. These pollutants derive from numerous sources. rail-mounted vehicles. windstorm dusts.

Complete elimination of air pollution. . Aerosols and particles can be removed from a gas stream by air-cleaning equipment. can be decreased by use of a fuel with low sulfur content.5 – 200 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and combustion of wood.65 The most desirable means of controlling air pollution is to prevent contaminants from getting into the atmosphere.1 – 1. taking into account costs and energy requirements.4 0.01 – 0.5 – 3 1 – 10 1 – 12 1 – 60 1 – 50 1. Click here to view. Particles between 10 and 200 µm can be removed in cyclone separators. For example.12) are a major factor in selection of air-cleaning devices. EPA has issued limitations for the following: SO2 and NO2 emissions from industrial boilers NO2 emissions from diesel engines Hydrocarbon emissions from dry cleaning equipment Emission of volatile organics from numerous processes and storage units Evaporative emissions from metal cleaning and degreasing operations Particulate emissions from numerous processes. These list the maximum amount of an air pollutant that can be present with an adequate margin of safety in protection of public health and welfare and that will not cause significant deterioration of air quality in areas where ambient standards have been attained. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops National Ambient Air Quality Standards.Environmental Engineering I 22.1). Dusts. Air-Quality Standards I In accordance with the Clean Air Act (Art. coke ovens. with an effi- Table 22. EPA also develops National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants to limit emissions that cause or contribute to air pollution. however.1 – 11 5 – 200 8 – 300 8 – 1000+ 10 – 900 10 – 500 30 – 900 50 – 600 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and high-efficiency particulate controls for several sources of fugitive emissions. for restricting emissions of inorganic arsenic from smelters. for example.01 – 1. An industrial process with a gaseous effluent can be changed to eliminate the gaseous waste.01 – 1.2 0.01 – 0. In addition. Coarse solids can be removed by screens.05 0. Check with EPA for the latest criteria because they are subject to change when appropriate for public protection. The standards apply to both new and existing sources. Sulfur dioxide release.03 – 1. Particles down to 10 µm in diameter can be settled out in settling chambers with expanding cross section for velocity reduction to under 10 ft/s.4 0.5 0. EPA develops New Source Performance Standards based on the best systems that have been demonstrated to reduce emissions continually.1 0. municipal solid wastes. But there are many means for reducing it.3 0. including battery manufacturing. and bagasse—alone or combined with fossil fuels Air-Cleaning Devices I Sizes of substances to be eliminated (Table 22.01 – 0.6 0. Microns 0. For example.0 0.01 – 0. and Fumes Type of Particle Tobacco smoke Rosin smoke Carbon black Zinc oxide fumes Magnesium oxide smoke Metallurgical fumes Viruses Oil smoke Pigments Ammonium chloride fumes Alkali fumes Metallurgical dust Sulfate mist Spray-dried milk Bacteria Pulverized-coal fly ash Fog Sulfuric acid concentrator Cement dust Sulfide ore for flotation Foundry dusts Stoker fly ash Pulverized coal Ground limestone Mist Size Range. 22. processing of minerals prior to metal reduction. All rights reserved.09 – 8 0.3 0. The standards apply to new sources and existing sources that have been modified after establishment of EPA criteria.12 Approximate Sizes of Particles in Aerosols. Inc.01 – 0. manufacture of asphalt roofing and gypsum. refuse-derived fuels.1 – 1. is not always practicable. effective capture systems. EPA requires high-efficiency particulate controls operated at optimum temperature for arsenic condensation for process gas streams. phosphate rock processing.

Before the gas leaves. Oppositely charged plates trap the particles.1 µm in size can be removed by electrostatic precipitators with an efficiency of 80 to 99%.22. diffusion theories predict that ground concentration of a gas or fine-particle effluent with very low subsidence velocity is inversely proportional to the mean wind speed. metalworking. films. Raising the temperature of gas leaving a stack is equivalent to increasing stack height. Filters made of cloth usually are tubular bags. Click here to view. They also are used for processes producing fine dust. In general. Turbulence caused by buildings and topography usually is so complex that theoretical computation of the effect is impractical. dynamic or centrifugal forces. The efficiency of such filters. and the dust falls into a hopper. centrifugal collectors. The water breaks into a fine mist. foundry. or collision. model studies in wind tunnels have been used successfully to make predictions based on measurements of gas concentration and visible patterns of smoke. roasters. or glass fiber. These devices ionize particles in a gas passing by high-voltage electrodes.000 ft/min or more and water under 250 psi or more jet through venturi tubes. which trap particles as air or gas passes through. Wet collectors or scrubbers remove particles 1 to 5 µm in size. efficiency may be only about 50%. hit the side walls. and gustiness. aided by water. and drop to the conical bottom of the chamber. increasing the probability of contact with tiny particles. Air Sampling and Monitoring I The degree of air pollution at any time and place is determined by taking air samples and analyzing them. The water may be sprayed or atomized. But air or gas velocities leaving such filters are low. which usually is in the form of ceramic saddles. such as an oil with low volatility. metal. Ionizable aerosols and particles down to 0. centrifugal forces throw particles in the air against wetted collector surfaces. may be increased by application of a viscous coating. Air-sampling methods may be classified as those sampling particles. humidity also is important. In centrifugal collectors. These devices also may remove water-soluble gases.66 I Section Twenty-Two ciency of 50 to 90%. however. Filters packed with activated charcoal are used to absorb gases. Vertical temperature distribution determines the distance from a stack of given height at which maximum ground concentration occurs. and building configurations. In this equipment. In dynamic precipitators. When loaded with dust. collectors with high-pressure nozzles. and exits at the top. then upward through the vortex at high velocity. and mists in food. however. Under some conditions. Orifice collectors deliver large quantities of water to a collecting zone where dust is removed from the air by centrifugal force. the current to the plates is interrupted or the plates are rapped. All rights reserved. Many bags may be enclosed in a large chamber. the gas to be cleaned may pass through a countercurrent water flow. particles are centrifuged out. In packed towers. direction. In some cases. The scrubber may have deflectors to improve mixing of the gas and water. Dispersal of Pollutants I When pollutants cannot be completely eliminated at the source. It may accumulate aloft when the atmosphere is calm or nearly so and be brought down to the surface as the sun heats the ground in early morning. Inc. they are shaken. air pollution may be reduced by keeping the concentration of the pollutants low by dispersing them. clean the air. . and ceramic industries. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Particles 10 µm in diameter or smaller may be removed with filters made of cloth. however. Wet collectors often are used to clean air from kilns. local topography. the gas to be cleaned is injected tangentially into a cylindrical chamber. The turbulence disperses the water. inorganic metals and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. while water flows downward. orifice collectors. After striking the surfaces. and packed towers. impingement. For dry fiber filters. causes quick impact with dust in the air. and driers. Bag filters remove 99% of particles larger than 10 µm. Basic meteorological conditions of the atmosphere that must be considered include wind speed. Gas does not normally come to the ground under inversion conditions. the particles fall to the bottom of the device and are removed. air at 20. The gas spirals downward. and vertical temperature distribution. In a scrubber. In collectors with high-pressure nozzles. Chemicals may be added to the liquid to improve absorption. vapors. chemical. Scrubbers may be classified as dynamic precipitators. To rid the plates of the particles. Whether atmospheric dilution is a suitable solution depends on the meteorology of a region. and removes the particles. dust particles are removed when air flows upward through the packing.

absorption and adsorption media. O. scrubbing apparatus. departments. potentiometry. 22.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.” M. organic substances. They can be operated with few attendants and little manipulation. Combination instruments may be used for general sampling and location of emission sources. impingers and impactors. certificate. plastic. Federal agencies. All rights reserved. subsidies.67 salts. Click here to view.35 Environmental Impact Statements In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (Art. New York. Cornwell. Faith and A. In addition to standard wet chemical methods of measuring gases. and visible light photometry. gas chromatography. and after use may also be essential to maintain reliable test results. Many automatic. “Air Pollution. or cloth. Agency reports on legislation initiated elsewhere but concerning subject matter for which the agency has primary responsibility 3.Environmental Engineering I 22. Agency recommendations on their own proposals for legislation 2.” and H. flame ionization. and establishments are required to prepare environmental impact statements in connection with proposals for legislative and other major Federal activities significantly affecting the quality of human environment. “Analy. Actions whose impact is significant and highly controversial on environmental grounds 2. as early as possible. Davis and D. The actions may include all or any of the following: 1. thermal conductivity. A. permit. regulation. heat of combustion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gilbert. and mixed miscellaneous substances. These employ many different analytical principles. Peavey and D. glass. Inc. Rowe. cyclones. particle-sampling devices generally use gravity or suction-type collection and pass the sample through thermal or electrostatic precipitators. Actions that are precedents for much larger actions that may have considerable environmental impact 3. The tape is moved automatically so that successive samples are taken for timed intervals on fresh paper. S.. or other entitlement for use 4. loans. sis of Air Pollutants. there are many automatic or semiautomatic instruments designed to measure a spectrum (mass spectrometer) of one or more specific gases. inorganic gases.” and W. grants. L. coulometry. Although there are many variations. Corbitt. colorimetry. A. infrared. or other forms of funding assistance c. A.1). L. P O. Part of a Federal lease. license. It is generally necessary to calibrate automatic instruments against a standard wet chemical or physical measurement method.) 22. Subsequent field calibration before. “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Technology. the following actions are generally considered major or environmentally significant: 1. such as electrical conductivity. during. .” Van Nostrand Reinhold. Supported in whole or in part through Federal contracts. “Environmental Engineering. R. Stack sampling requires special techniques and usually a train of sampling devices to measure particles and gases. Projects and continuing activities that may be a. “Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring. each representing a wind-direction sector. New York. Electron microscopes may be used to examine aerosols and submicron particles. air-monitoring instruments are available. Undertaken directly by an agency b. Warner. New York. It is essential that a draft statement be prepared. Actions that are decisions in principle about major future courses of action Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. High-volume samplers are used at many sampling network stations in the United States. and procedure making Although it is possible that there can be exceptions. Such devices measure wind direction and velocity and direct air samples into multiple sample units. by the project engineer or other appropriate authorized person for review and comment. (R. ultraviolet. Photoelectric meters are used to control alarm systems connected to stacks. or filters of various materials. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Several types of units with air pumps drawing air through paper tapes mounted on a spool are available. recording. Decisions of policy. such as paper. atomic absorption and electron capture.” John Wiley & Sons. R. Atkinson. Inc.

it must also include any discussions. sedimentation.68 I Section Twenty-Two 4. housing and building displacement River and canal regulation and stream channelization In environmental engineering areas of activity. beaches.22. estuaries. and herbicides Transportation and handling of hazardous materials Wetlands. The purpose of the statement is to disclose the environmental consequences of a proposed action. Click here to view. A detailed description of the proposed action. the public. waterfowl refuges. Alternatives to the proposed action that might avoid some or all of the adverse environmental effects. and local agencies. objections. or Federal. Any irreversible or irretrievable commitment of resources that might result from the action or that would curtail beneficial use of the environment When the final statement is prepared. Impact Statement Review I In general. food sanitation. Any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided 4. state. erosion. and hydrologic conditions Noise control and abatement Food additives. . private organizations. outdoor recreational areas and wildlife Soil and plant life. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An assessment of the cumulative. Actions that are major because of the involvement of several Federal agencies. marine-pollution control Historic and archeological sites Flood plains and watersheds Mineral land reclamation Parks. including any impact on ecological systems and any direct or indirect consequences that may result from the action 3. including information and technical data adequate to permit a careful assessment of environmental impact 2. forests. including its relationship to short-term use of the environment versus the environment’s long-term productivity 6. congestion in urban areas. Discussion of the probable impact on the environment. the principal government agency having responsibilities for reviewing impact statements is the Envi- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. long-term effects of the proposed action. or any combination of these). Inc. and individuals that addressed the subject during review of the draft statement. Congress and the President to environmental risks involved. pesticides. Environmental impact statements should present: 1. any Federal. Actions whose impact includes environmentally beneficial as well as environmentally detrimental effects Contents of Environmental Impact Statements I Environmental impact statements must assess in detail the potential environmental impact of a proposed action. even though a particular agency’s individual action is not major 5. state. state. and. All rights reserved. Agencies to be consulted include those having responsibilities for the following (state or local agencies may have additional agency review requirements): Water quality and water pollution control Air quality and air-pollution control Weather modification Environmental aspects of electric energy generation and transmission Toxic materials. or local agency that has jurisdiction by law or specific expertise with respect to any environmental impact involved must be consulted for comments. perhaps on major works. That disclosure is designed to alert the agency decision maker (local. including analysis of costs and environmental impacts of these alternatives 5. or comments presented by Federal. and chemical contamination of food products Microbiological contamination Radiation and radiological health Sanitation and waste systems Transportation and air and water quality Environmental effects with special impact on lowincome neighborhoods Rodent control Urban planning.

and culture as well as to overall community well-being. Correspondingly. and land characteristics. Health and safety considerations. In dealing with any particular project. the engineer can select from the matrix in Table 22. in which a series of actions that are part of a proposed project are related to the characteristics and conditions of the environment that are affected. environmental interests related to recreation. 14. and the impact either favorable or unfavorable that will result with and without the proposed action. As a matter of fact. should be presented in full detail with objective substantiation of all statements. pesticides. engineers should check with the appropriate regional and municipal planning agencies. All rights reserved. history. science. in the discussion of impact. must be discussed. 22. 645.32 Matrix used to demonstrate the environmental impact of proposed actions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. One method that has had technical acceptance is the base matrix. if any. education.13. 22. the procedures for reducing the harmful effect. a ranking from 1 to 10 can be inserted concerning the importance of a specific impact as related to an environmental condition. both within the project and in any exterior community relationship. If unavoidable harm may result from the proposed action. The basis for the preparation of this matrix is indicated in Table 22. It is very important that engineers present the multiphasic effects of the proposed project on air. engineers should ascertain specifically any agencies in addition to EPA that may have review responsibilities. the alternate action proposed.) How to Prepare an Impact Report I There are several alternate formats of report that would contain all the pertinent information required under the Federal guidelines. the report must assess: 1. . In addition. drinking water supplies. water.13 on either margin those conditions and actions applicable to the project. the biota.Environmental Engineering I 22. It is then possible for the engineer to prepare an environmental impact statement so that reviewing agencies can provide comments in an orderly fashion. As required by the Environmental Protection Agency. Under each of the actions proposed. (See also Sec.32. radiation. It appears as a separate attachment in Geological Survey Circular No. Engineers should also determine to what extent the state agencies dealing with the above areas have jurisdiction. Hence. One of the more complete diagrams for an information matrix was prepared by the United States Geological Survey in 1971. Within the format. Any suitable form of text that will discuss the significance of these two interrelated indices should be acceptable. together with the ultimate benefits resulting even though some harm may be done. and on constructed structures. 10 being the highest order. and noise may be involved. It is also important to relate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. under a diagonal in the box. a ranking from 1 to 10 is placed to indicate impact magnitude. The probable impact of the action 2.69 ronmental Protection Agency. A sample matrix illustrating these points is shown in Fig. The adverse environmental effect should the project be implemented Fig. Click here to view. it is important to present both present conditions and current trends. any Federal agency having a jurisdiction that centers around air and water pollution. solid waste.

Click here to view. Cut and fill r. Wilderness and open spaces b. Irrigation j. Dredging f. All rights reserved.22. Subsurface excavation and retorting d. Channel revetments l. Ranching and grazing c. Blasting and drilling q. Exotic flora or fauna introduction b. Microflora f. Metallurgical industry h. Automobile and aircraft k. Corridors C. Solution e. Deposition (sedimentation. pipelines. Fish and shellfish d. Recharge g. Trees b.70 I Section Twenty-Two Table 22. Alteration of ground cover e. Land Transformation and Construction a. Piers. seawalls. Dairying e. Transmission lines. Railroads g. Cultural Factors 1. Burning l. Weather modification k. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Blasting and drilling b. Floods b. Physical and Chemical Characteristics 1. Land animals including reptiles c. Insects f. Barriers i. Modification of habitat d. Earth a. complexing) f. Dams and impoundments n. Stress-strain (earthquake) i. Oil refining l. Processing a. Endangered species h. Endangered species h. Commercial fishing and hunting D. Wetlands Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Mineral resources b. Farming b. Air movements B. Clear cutting and other lumbering g. Resource Extraction a. Biological controls c. Atmosphere a. Barriers i. Land form e. Flora a. Airports d. Food m. Tunnels and underground structures C. slumps) h. Mineral processing g. Corridors 2. Canalization i. Sorption (ion exchange. particulates) b. Climate (micro. Benthic organisms e. precipitation) d. Underground d. Snow. Modification of Regime a. Alteration of groundwater hydrology f. marinas. Roads and trails f. Shrubs c. Aquatic plants g. and corridors i. Erosion c. Channel dredging and straightening k. Feed lots d. Inc. Land Use a. Compaction and settling g. Ocean c. Surface b. Offshore structures p. . macro) c. Stability (slides. Canals m. Noise and vibration B. and sea terminals o. Highways and bridges e. Surface or paving m. Construction material c. Temperature 4. Microfauna g. Textile industry j. Force fields and background radiation f. Cables and lifts h. Soils d. Temperature f. Water a. Lumbering Left Margin: Existing Characteristics and Conditions of the Environment A. Energy generation f. River control and flow modification h. Surface excavation c. Quality e. Biological Conditions 1. Unique physical features 2. ice. Crops e. Industrial sites and buildings c. Urbanization b. Alteration of drainage g. and permafrost 3.13 Items for Inclusion in Environment Impact Matrix Top Margin: Proposed Actions That May Cause Environmental Impact A. Grass d. Chemical industry i. Processes a. Birds b. Barriers including fencing j. Well drilling and fluid removal e. Fauna a. Quality (gases.

Monuments h. Open space qualities d.Environmental Engineering I 22. Eutrophication c. Recreation a. Health and safety c. Camping and hiking f. Historical or archaeological sites and objects j. Pipeline H. Underground storage e. Others Left Margin: Existing Characteristics and Conditions of the Environment C. Picnicking g. Waste disposal e. Communication k.71 Table 22. Groundwater recharge d. Commercial h. and overburden d.13 Items for Inclusion in Environment Impact Matrix (Continued) Top Margin: Proposed Actions That May Cause Environmental Impact D. All rights reserved. Strip mining rehabilitation d. Parks and reserves g. Swimming e. Fertilization b. Population density 5. Reforestation b. Land Use (Continued) c. Utility networks d. River and canal traffic g. Landfill c. Resorts 3. Erosion control and terracing b. Forestry d. Cables and lifts j. Employment d. Septic tanks. Spills and leaks c. commercial and domestic m. Cooling water discharge i. Fishing c. Mining and quarrying 2. Aesthetics and Human Interest a. Barriers f. Chemical stabilization of soil d. Land Alteration a. Product storage E. Food chains e. Wildlife stocking and management c. Hunting b. Scenic views and vistas b. Chemical deicing. Structures b. Emplacement of tailings. Deep well emplacement h. . Operational failure K. Constructed Facilities and Activities a. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Oil well flooding g. Stabilization and oxidation ponds l. Shipping e. Agriculture f. Brush encroachment g. Mine sealing and waste control c. Presence of misfits 4. Disease-insect vectors d. c. Landscape design e. Ocean dumping b. Waste Emplacement and Treatment a. Junk disposal f. Accidents a. Pleasure boating h. Corridors D. Trucking d. Industrial i. Automobile c. Cultural Status a. Pulp and paper o. of highways. Resource Renewal a. Municipal waste discharge including spray irrigation j. etc. Transportation network (movement. Inc. Trails i. Salinization of surficial material f. Liquid effluent discharge k. spoil. Other E. Weed control e. Wilderness qualities c. Explosions b. Railway b. Boating d. Others Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Grazing e. access) c. Waste recycling G. Insect control (pesticides) J. Cultural patterns (lifestyle) b. Processing (Continued) n. Chemical Treatment a. Spent lubricants I. Aircraft f. Rare and unique species or ecosystems i. Harbor dredging f. Salinization of water resources b. Landscaping e. Ecological Relationships Such As: a. Changes in Traffic a. Click here to view. Stack and exhaust emission n. Marsh fill and drainage F. Residential g. Unique physical features f. Cultural Factors (Continued) 1. Fertilization application e.

S.. F. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Englewood Cliffs. Inc.” McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. J. Click here to view. and D.” Van Nostrand Reinhold.22.” and J. “Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook. Corbitt. “Manual for Environmental Impact Evaluation.” and D. R.. Hagerty. A. Rona. “Environmental Permits. All rights reserved. The alternatives 4.. C. The commitments of resources that might be considered irreversible if the proposed action should take place (E. Woolen. New York.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. E. Jr.J. “Environmental Protection. Chanlett. New York. Heer. J. T.” Prentice-Hall. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. J. . “Environmental Assessments and Statements.72 I Section Twenty-Two 3.” 2nd ed. Rosen. Rau and D. and maintenance of or increased benefit to the environment over the long term 5. The relationship between the local short-term effect on environment. C. N. Inc.

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