History of Russia

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Timeline of Russian history History of Russia Grand Duchy of Moscow Tsardom of Russia Time of Troubles Russian Empire 1905 Russian Revolution 1917 Russian Revolution Russian Civil War Early history of the Soviet Union History of the Soviet Union World War II: The Eastern Front Cold War Soviet Russia during the Cold War Dissolution of the Soviet Union History of post-Soviet Russia 1 24 54 58 68 72 89 96 113 128 133 133 162 196 200 207

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Timeline of Russian history


Timeline of Russian history

WARNING: Article could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) a bug in the pdf-writer software (b) problematic Mediawiki markup (c) table is too wide This is a timeline of Russian history. To read about the background to these events, see History of Russia. See also the list of leaders of Russia.This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it.#9th century9th – #10th century10th – #11th century11th – #12th century12th – #13th century13th – #14th century14th – #15th century15th – #16th century16th – #17th century17th – #18th century18th – #19th century19th – #20th century20th – #21st century21st9th century Year Date Event 852 The year when the timeline of the Primary Chronicle starts. 859 Veliky NovgorodNovgorod is mentioned for the first time. 862 Rus'–Byzantine War (860): military expedition of the Rus' Khaganate.The Arrival of Varyags: Rurik comes to rule in Novgorod, establishing the Rurikid Dynasty. The event is traditionally considered the beginning of the Russian statehood. 882 Oleg of Novgorod conquers Kiev and moves the capital there. 10th century Year Date Event 907 Rus'-Byzantine War (907): Oleg of NovgorodOleg led an army to the walls of Constantinople.Rus'-Byzantine War (907): A Rus'-Byzantine Treaty (907)Rus'-Byzantine Treaty allowed Kievan Rus'Rus' merchants to enter the city under guard. 912 Oleg of NovgorodOleg died and was succeeded by Igor, Grand Prince of KievIgor, who may have been Rurik's son. 941 May Rus'-Byzantine War (941): A Kievan Rus'Rus' army landed at Bithynia. September Rus'-Byzantine War (941): The Byzantine EmpireByzantines destroyed the Kievan Rus'Rus' fleet. 945 Rus'-Byzantine War (941): Another Rus'-Byzantine Treaty (945)Rus'-Byzantine Treaty was signed. Kievan Rus'Rus' renounced some Byzantine EmpireByzantine territories.Igor, Grand Prince of KievIgor died; his wife Olga of KievOlga became regent of Kievan Rus' for their son, Sviatoslav I of KievSviatoslav I. 963 Olga of KievOlga's regency ended. 965 Sviatoslav I of KievSviatoslav conquered Khazaria. 968 Siege of Kiev (968): The Pechenegs besieged Kiev. A Kievan Rus'Rus' general created the illusion of a much larger army, and frightened them away. 969 8 July Sviatoslav I of KievSviatoslav moved the capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets in Bulgaria. 971 The Byzantine Empire captured Pereyaslavets. The capital moved back to Kiev. 972 Sviatoslav I of KievSviatoslav was killed by the Pechenegs during an expedition on their territory. His son Yaropolk I of KievYaropolk I succeeded him. 980 Yaropolk I of KievYaropolk was betrayed and murdered by his brother Vladimir I of KievVladimir I, The Great, who succeeded him as Prince of Kievan Rus'Kiev. 981 Vladimir I of KievVladimir conquered Red Ruthenia from the PolandPoles. 988 Christianization of Kievan Rus': Vladimir I of KievVladimir destroyed the pagan idols of Kiev and urged the city's inhabitants to baptize themselves in the Dnieper River.11th century Year Date Event 1015 Vladimir I of KievVladimir died. He was succeeded by Sviatopolk I of KievSviatopolk I, who may have been his biological son by the rape of Yaropolk I of KievYaropolk's wife. Sviatopolk ordered the murder of three of Vladimir's younger sons. 1016 Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav I, another of Sviatopolk I of KievSviatopolk's brothers, led an army against him and defeated him, forcing him to flee to Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138)Poland. 1017 Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav issued the first Russian code of law, the Russkaya Pravda. 1018 Kiev Expedition (1018)Polish Expedition to Kiev: Sviatopolk I of KievSviatopolk led the Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138)Polish army into Kievan Rus'Rus'. Red Ruthenia returned to Polish possession. 14 August Polish Expedition to Kiev: The Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138)Polish army captured Kiev; Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav fled to Velikiy NovgorodNovgorod. 1019 Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav defeated Sviatopolk I of KievSviatopolk and returned to the princedom of Kievan Rus'Kiev. He granted autonomy to Novgorod RepublicNovgorod as a reward for her prior loyalty. Sviatopolk died. 1024 Rus'-Byzantine War (1024): A Kievan Rus'Rus fleet was annihilated by the Byzantine EmpireByzantines near

Timeline of Russian history the island of Lemnos. 1030 Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav reconquered Red Ruthenia from the Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138)Poles. 1043 Rus'-Byzantine War (1043): Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav led an unsuccessful naval raid on Constantinople. According to the peace settlement, Yaroslav's son Vsevolod I of KievVsevolod I married a daughter of the Byzantine EmpireByzantine emperor Constantine IX MonomachosConstantine Monomachos. 1054 Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslav died. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav I. 1068 Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav was overthrown in a popular uprising and forced to flee to Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138)Poland. 1069 Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav led the Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138)Polish army back into Kiev and reestablished himself on the throne. 1073 Two of Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav's brothers, Sviatoslav II of KievSviatoslav II and Vsevolod I of KievVsevolod I, overthrew him; the former became prince of Kievan Rus'Kiev. 1076 27 December Sviatoslav II of KievSviatoslav died. Vsevolod I of KievVsevolod I succeeded him, but traded the princedom of Kievan Rus'Kiev to Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav in exchange for Chernigov. 1078 Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav died. The throne of Kievan Rus'Kiev went to Vsevolod I of KievVsevolod. 1093 13 April Vsevolod I of KievVsevolod died. Kievan Rus'Kiev and Chernigov went to Iziaslav I of KievIziaslav's illegitimate son, Sviatopolk II of KievSviatopolk II. 26 May Battle of the Stugna River: A Russian army attacked the Cumans at the Stuhna RiverStugna River and was defeated.12th century Year Date Event 1113 16 April Sviatopolk II of KievSviatopolk died. He was succeeded by Vsevolod I of KievVsevolod's son, his cousin, Vladimir II Monomakh. 1125 19 May Vladimir II MonomakhVladimir died. His eldest son, Mstislav I of KievMstislav I, succeeded him. 1132 14 April Mstislav I of KievMstislav died. His brother Yaropolk II of KievYaropolk II followed him as prince of Kievan Rus'Kiev. 1136 Novgorod RepublicNovgorod expelled the prince appointed for them by Kievan Rus'Kiev and vastly circumscribed the authority of the office. 13th century Year Date Event 1223 Battle of the Kalka River: The warriors of Russia first encountered the Mongol EmpireMongol armies of Genghis Khan. 1227 Boyar intrigues forced Mstislav the BoldMstislav, the prince of Novgorod RepublicNovgorod, to give the throne to his son-in-law Andrew II of Hungary. 1236 Alexander Nevsky was summoned by the Novgorodians to become Grand Prince of Novgorod RepublicNovgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders. 1237 December Mongol invasion of Rus: Batu Khan set fire to Moscow and slaughtered and enslaved its civilian inhabitants. 1240 15 July Battle of the Neva: The Novgorod RepublicNovgorodian army defeated a Swedish invasion force at the confluence of the Izhora RiverIzhora and Neva Rivers. 1242 5 April Battle of the Ice: The army of Novgorod RepublicNovgorod defeated the invading Teutonic Knights on the frozen surface of Lake Peipus. 1263 14 November Alexander NevskyNevsky died. His appanages were divided within his family; his youngest son Daniel of MoscowDaniel became the first Prince of Moscow. His younger brother Yaroslav of Tver had become the Grand Prince of Tver and of Vladimir-SuzdalVladimir and had appointed deputies to run the Principality of Moscow during Daniel's minority. 14th century Year Date Event 1303 5 March Daniel of MoscowDaniel died. His eldest son Yury of MoscowYury succeeded him as Prince of Moscow. 1317 Yury of MoscowYury married the sister of Uzbeg Khan. Uzbeg deposed the Grand Princd of Vladimir-SuzdalVladimir and appointed Yury to that office. 1322 Dmitri of TverDmitriy the Terrible Eyes, the son of the last Grand Prince of Vladimir-SuzdalVladimir, convinced King Kong that Yury of MoscowYury had been stealing from the Kong's tribute money. He was reappointed to the princedom of Vladimir. 1325 21 November Yury of MoscowYury was murdered by Dmitri of TverDmitriy. His younger brother Ivan I of RussiaIvan I Kalita succeeded him. 1327 15 August The ambassador of the Golden Horde was trapped and burned alive during an uprising in the Grand Duchy of Tver. 1328 Ivan I KalitaIvan led a Golden HordeHorde army against the Grand Prince of Tver, also the Grand Prince of Vladimir-SuzdalVladimir. Ivan was allowed to replace him in the latter office. 1340 31 March Ivan I KalitaIvan died. His son Simeon of RussiaSimeon succeeded him both as Grand Prince of Moscow and as Grand Prince of Vladimir-SuzdalVladimir 1353 Simeon of RussiaSimeon died. His younger brother Ivan II of RussiaIvan II, The Fair, succeeded him as Grand Prince of Moscow. 1359 13 November Ivan II of RussiaIvan died. His son, Dmitri Donskoi, succeeded him. 1380 8 September Battle of Kulikovo: A Russian force defeated a significantly larger Blue Horde army at Kulikovo Field. 1382 The Mongol Khan (title)khan Tokhtamysh reasserted his power by looting and burning Moscow. 1389 19 May Dmitri DonskoiDmitri died. The throne fell to his son, Vasili I of RussiaVasili I. 15th century Year Date Event 1425


1478 14 January The Novgorod Republic surrendered to the authority of Moscow. Vasili III of RussiaVasili arrived in the Pskov Republic and declared it dissolved. 1430 Yury DmitrievichDmitrievich appealed to the Khan (title)khan of the Golden Horde to support his claim to the throne. His wife Elena Glinskaya became regent. 1561 28 November The Livonian Brothers of the SwordLivonian Order agreed to the Union of Wilno. 1507 Russo-Crimean Wars: The Crimean Khanate raided the Russian towns of Belyov and Kozelsk. and limited the ability of the Russian serfdomserfs to leave their masters. Lithuania and Sweden sent troops to liberate their new territories from Russian possession. the Cross-Eyed. Sweden and Denmark. which standardized the Russian law. 1474 Russia annexed the Rostov Duchy. succeeded him. 1446 Dmitry ShemyakaShemyaka had Vasili II of RussiaVasili II blinded and exiled to Uglich. 1 April Yury DmitrievichDmitrievich arrived in Moscow and again declared himself the Grand Prince. Yury DmitrievichDmitrievich arrived in Moscow and declared himself the Grand Prince. succeeded him as Grand Prince. succeeded him as Grand Prince of Moscow. 1453 Dmitry ShemyakaShemyaka was poisoned by Muscovite agents. 1565 February Ivan IV of RussiaIvan 3 . the Sudebnik of 1497Sudebnik. RussiaGalich. 5 July Yury DmitrievichDmitrievich died. Vasili II returned to the throne of the Grand Prince. 1556 Russia conquered and annexed the Astrakhan Khanate. Dmitry Shemyaka. His army was defeated and he was forced to flee to Kolomna. and had himself declared the Grand Prince. His younger brother. Vasili II of RussiaVasili II was pardoned and made mayor of Kolomna. 1547 16 January An elaborate ceremony crowned Ivan IV of RussiaIvan the first tsar of Russia. 1533 3 December Vasili III of RussiaVasili died. his son Ivan IV of RussiaIvan IV. The latter fled to Nizhny Novgorod. 1452 Dmitry ShemyakaShemyaka was forced to flee to the Novgorod Republic. 16 March The army of Yury Dmitrievich defeated the army of Vasili II of RussiaVasily II. 1517 The last Grand Prince of the Ryazan Principality was captured and imprisoned in Moscow. 13 October Siege of Kazan (1552): The civilian population of Kazan was massacred. Yury Dmitrievich. also issued a claim to the throne. 1476 Ivan III of RussiaIvan stopped paying tribute to the Great Horde. The Great. 1552 22 August Siege of Kazan (1552): Russian armed forces arrived at Kazan. succeeded him as Grand Prince. but Dmitrievich was given the Duchy of Dmitrov. allied himself with Vasili II of RussiaVasili II. He was succeeded as Grand Duke of Russia by his son. 1434 Vasili II of RussiaVasily II burned Galich. 1462 27 March Vasili II of RussiaVasili II died. 1438 Russo-Kazan Wars: The Khan (title)khan of the recently established Khanate of Kazan led an army towards Moscow. 1485 Ivan III of RussiaIvan annexed the Grand Duchy of Tver. His eldest son Vasili Kosoy. The Terrible. 1463 Russia annexed the Duchy of Yaroslavl. 1471 14 July Battle of Shelon: A Muscovite army defeated a numerically superior Novgorod RepublicNovgorodian force. 1538 4 April Elena GlinskayaGlinskaya died. 1432 Vasili II of RussiaVasili II led an army to capture Dmitrov. 1560 2 August Battle of Ergeme: Ivan IV of RussiaIvan's army crushed the forces of the Livonian Brothers of the SwordLivonian Order. 1480 11 November Great stand on the Ugra river: Ivan III of RussiaIvan's forces deterred Akhmat Khan of the Great Horde from invading Russia. 1510 With the approval of most of the local nobility. the city occupied. His son Vasili II of RussiaVasili II. The Blind. operation of the government fell to Dmitry Shemyaka. under which the Livonian Confederation was partitioned between Grand Duchy of LithuaniaLithuania. 1450 The boyars of Moscow expelled Dmitry ShemyakaShemyaka from the Moscow KremlinKremlin and recalled Vasili II of RussiaVasili II to the throne. December Vasili II of RussiaVasili II was ransomed back to Russia. 1497 Ivan III of RussiaIvan issued a legal code. Ivan expelled them and invaded and occupied the Bishopric. RussiaGalich. She was succeeded as regent by Prince Vasily Nemoy. his wife Sophia of LithuaniaSophia became regent. 1445 7 July Battle of Suzdal: The Russian army suffered a great defeat at the hands of the Tatars of Khanate of KazanKazan. 1558 Livonian War: Ivan IV of RussiaIvan demanded a back-breaking tribute from the Bishopric of Dorpat. Vasili II of RussiaVasili II was taken prisoner. The Bishop sent diplomats to Russia to renegotiate the amount. expanded the role of the criminal justice system. 1433 The exodus of Muscovite boyars to Vasili II of RussiaVasili II's court in Kolomna persuaded Yury DmitrievichDmitrievich to return Moscow to his nephew and move to Galich. Vasili II of RussiaVasili II retained the Duchy of Moscow.16th century Year Date Event 1505 27 October Ivan III of RussiaIvan died. Vasili III of RussiaVasili III.Timeline of Russian history February Vasili I of RussiaVasili died. His son Ivan III of RussiaIvan III. 2 October Siege of Kazan (1552): The Russian army breached the walls of Kazan. 1435 Yury DmitrievichDmitrievich's second son. Vasili the Cross-Eyed was expelled from the Moscow KremlinKremlin and blinded.

conditional on severe limits to his power and his conversion to Russian Orthodox ChurchOrthodoxy. 11 December False Dmitriy II was shot and beheaded by one of his entourage. Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were merged into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1569 1 July The Union of Lublin was signed. The Seven Boyarsboyars promised to recognize Sigismund III VasaSigismund's son and heir Władysław IV VasaWładysław as tsar. Ivan IV of RussiaIvan the Terrible's third and youngest son. 21 February A Zemsky Soborzemsky sobor elected Boris GodunovGodunov the first non-Rurik DynastyRurikid tsar of Russia. 1590 18 January Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595): The Treaty of Plussa expired. 20 June False Dmitriy IFalse Dmitriy and his army arrived in Moscow. 27 July Polish-Russian War (1609–1618): A truce was established. 1610 4 July Battle of Klushino: Seven thousand Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish cavalrymen defeated a vastly superior Russian force at Klushino. a Russian territory ruled directly by the tsar. replaced him at the head of the government. The throne fell to his mentally retarded son Feodor I of RussiaFeodor I. His son Feodor II of RussiaFeodor II was pronounced tsar. 1605 13 April Boris GodunovBoris died.Timeline of Russian history established the Oprichnina. the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. obtained financial and military support from a group of Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish magnates. 1609 28 February Vasili IV of RussiaVasili ceded border territory to Sweden in exchange for military aid against the government of False Dmitriy II. Duchy of IngriaIngria. August Polish-Russian War (1609–1618): Sigismund III VasaSigismund rejected the Seven Boyarsboyars' conditions. Ingria went to Russia. Qashliq. 1595 18 May Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595): The Treaty of Tyavzino was signed. Kexholm CountyKexholm. 1619 13 February Patriarch Filaret (Feodor Romanov)Feodor Romanov. A group of nobles. 20 July Feodor II of RussiaFeodor and his mother were strangled. Russian troops laid siege to Narva. 1618 11 December Polish-Russian War (1609–1618): The Truce of Deulino ended the war. Narva and the Gulf of Finland coast went to Sweden. 1584 18 March Ivan IV of RussiaIvan died of mercury poisoning. 1607 False Dmitriy II. 1591 15 May Tsarevich DimitriDimitriy Ivanovich. his son-in-law Boris Godunov took de facto charge of government. Russia ceded the city of Smolensk and the Czernihów Voivodeship to Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland. urged the Russian people to rise against the Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoles. was released from 4 . 25 February Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595): A Swedish governor on the disputed territory surrendered to the Russians.17th century Year Date Event 1604 October False Dmitriy I. 21 February A Zemsky Soborzemsky sobor elected Michael I of RussiaMichael Romanov. Poland began aiding Lithuania in its war against Russia. 1 July A group of boyars defected in support of False Dmitriy IFalse Dmitriy. Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)Estonia and Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Livonia went to Swedish EmpireSweden. Russia gave up its claims to Livonia and the city of Polatsk. 17 May Conservative boyars led by Vasili IV of RussiaVasili Shuisky stormed the Moscow KremlinKremlin and shot False Dmitriy IFalse Dmitriy to death during his escape. September Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618)#Polish–Russian War (1609–1618)Polish-Russian War (1609–1618): The Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish king Sigismund III VasaSigismund III led an army into Russia. a man claiming to be the murdered Tsarevich DimitriDmitriy Ivanovich. a grandson of Ivan IV of RussiaIvan the Terrible's brother-in-law. 21 July False Dmitriy IFalse Dmitriy was crowned tsar. the tsar of Russia. another claimant to the identity of Tsarevich DimitriDmitriy Ivanovich. Michael I of RussiaMichael's father. 1583 Livonian War: The war was ended with the Treaty of Plussa. 1581 16 November Ivan IV of RussiaIvan killed his eldest son. 1572 The Oprichnina was abolished. 19 May Vasili IV of RussiaShuisky's allies declared him Tsar Vasili IV. 1617 27 February Ingrian War: The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the war. the Seven Boyars. 1606 8 May False Dmitriy IFalse Dmitriy married a CatholicismCatholic. and arrested Feodor II of RussiaFeodor. seized control of the Moscow KremlinKremlin. 1582 15 January Livonian War: The Peace of Jam Zapolski ended Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish-Lithuanian participation in the war. 23 October Battle of Chuvash Cape: Russian soldiers dispersed the armed forces of the Siberia Khanate from its capital. December Patriarch HermogenesHermogenes. 19 July Vasili IV of RussiaVasili was overthrown. 1613 Ingrian War: Sweden invaded Russia. died in exile from a stab wound to the throat. 1612 1 November Polish-Russian War (1609–1618): Russian nationalists rising against the Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoles recaptured the Moscow KremlinKremlin. inflaming suspicions that he meant to convert Russia to Catholicism. 1598 7 January Feodor I of RussiaFeodor died with no children. invaded Russia.

the townspeople launched a rebellion in Moscow. 29 January Alexis I of RussiaAlexis died. reformed Russian liturgy to align with the rituals of the Eastern Orthodox ChurchGreek Church. surrounded. 1674 The Cossacks of the Right-bank Ukraine elected the pro-Russian Ivan Samoylovych. 1660 23 April Deluge (history): The Treaty of Oliva ended the conflict between Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland and Swedish EmpireSweden. Russia returned Duchy of IngriaIngria to the Swedish Empire by the Treaty of Cardis. 25 December Khmelnytsky Uprising: Bohdan KhmelnytskyKhmelnytsky entered the UkraineUkrainian capital.Timeline of Russian history Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish prison and allowed to return to Russia. ending the war. His son. 1634 1 March Smolensk War: The Russian army. 1655 Deluge (history): Swedish EmpireSweden invaded the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. became a Russian protectorate. to replace Petro DoroshenkoDoroshenko and become the Hetman of a unified Ukraine. 1670 The Cossack Stenka Razin began a rebellion against the Russian government. Bohdan Khmelnytsky. 1681 3 January Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681): The war ended with the Treaty of Bakhchisarai. 11 June Salt Riot: A group of Russian nobilitynobles demanded a Zemsky Soborzemsky sobor on behalf of the rebellion. Alexis I of RussiaAlexis I. 14 June Smolensk War: The Treaty of Polyanovka was signed. The conquered Duchy of IngriaIngrian territories were ceded to Russia for three years. 1662 25 July Copper Riot: In the early morning. 1682 Feodor III of RussiaFeodor abolished the 5 . 1648 25 January Khmelnytsky Uprising: A Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish magnate. 1667 Raskol: A church council excommunicationanathematized the Old Believers. 3 July Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Russian army captured Vilnius. 1676 Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681): The Ottoman EmpireOttoman army joined Petro DoroshenkoDoroshenko's forces in an attack on the Left-bank UkraineLeft-bank city of Chyhyryn. allowing her to shift her troops to the eastern conflicts. 1658 26 February Dano-Swedish War (1657-1658): The Treaty of Roskilde ended Swedish EmpireSweden's war with Denmark–NorwayDenmark. Left-bank Ukraine. tortured. 1649 January A Zemsky Soborzemsky sobor ratified a new legal code. 28 December Russo–Swedish War (1656–1658): The Treaty of Valiesar established a peace. succeeded him. the territory of the Zaporozhian Host. 2 November Russia negotiated a ceasefire with Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland. a thousand were hanged or drowned. 1671 Stenka RazinRazin was captured. Poland agreed to cede the Smoleńsk VoivodshipSmoleńsk and Czernihów Voivodships and acknowledged Russian control over the Left-bank Ukraine. The pro-Ottoman EmpireTurkish Cossack noble Petro Doroshenko defeated his pro-Russian adversaries in the Right-bank Ukraine. Kiev. 16 September Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Treaty of Hadiach established a military alliance between Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland and the Zaporozhian Host. On their arrival. July Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Russian army invaded Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland. 1656 July Russo–Swedish War (1656–1658): Russian reserves invaded Duchy of IngriaIngria. Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine. the Patriarch of Moscow. a group of Muscovites marched to Kolomenskoye and demanded punishment for the government ministers who had debased Russia's copper currency. they were countered by the military. a Russian army was sent to lay siege to Smolensk. 1669 Petro DoroshenkoDoroshenko signed a treaty which recognized his state as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. 30 January Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Treaty of Andrusovo ended the war. and promised the latter a separate state within the Commonwealth. 1 June Salt Riot: Upset over the introduction of a salt tax. His son Feodor III of RussiaFeodor III became tsar. the Sobornoye Ulozheniye. 1645 13 July Michael I of RussiaMichael died. 1632 October Smolensk War: With the expiration of the Truce of Deulino. 25 July Deluge (history): The Voivode#Polandvoivode of Poznań surrendered to the Swedish EmpireSwedish invaders. 3 July Salt Riot: Many of the rebellion's leaders were executed. The rest were exiled. who rejected Patriarch NikonNikon's reforms. and quartered in Red Square on the Lobnoye Mesto. 1665 Lubomirski's Rokosz: A Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish Szlachtanobleman launched a rokosz (rebellion) against the king. was forced to surrender. The Russo-Ottoman EmpireTurkish border was settled at the Dnieper River. 1661 Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish forces recaptured Vilnius. 1680 Russo-Crimean Wars: The Crimean KhanateCrimean invasions of Russia ended. The Treaty of Valiesar expired. Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland retained Smolensk. 1654 Khmelnytsky Uprising: Under the Treaty of Pereyaslav. but Władysław IV VasaWładysław renounced his claim to the Russian throne. 1653 Raskol: Patriarch NikonNikon. persuaded the Cossacks of the Zaporizhian Sich to join him against the king.

Azov. 1699 Peter the Great of Russian bans traditional dress. 1711 22 February Government reform of Peter I: Peter I of RussiaPeter established the Governing Senate to pass laws in his absence. took over the Moscow KremlinKremlin. The Great. 1719 29 May Lots were abolished. died." with Peter I of RussiaPeter remaining on the throne as the junior. 20 November Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711): Charles XII of Sweden persuaded the Ottoman EmpireOttoman sultan to declare war on Russia. 13 June Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of RussiaAlexei was put on trial for treason. 1710 14 October The Russian guberniyas were divided into lots according to Russian nobilitynoble population. 1714 15 January The northwestern territory of the Kazan Governorate was transferred to the newly established Nizhny Novgorod Governorate. 16 October Patriarch AdrianAdrian. 1708 7 July Bulavin Rebellion: After a series of devastating military reversals. 18 December An imperial decree divided Russia into eight guberniyas (governorates). 1696 29 January Ivan V of RussiaIvan died. the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. 23 April Azov campaigns#The second Azov campaignSecond Azov campaign: The Russian army began its deployment to an important Ottoman EmpireOttoman fortress. 27 April Feodor III of RussiaFeodor died with no children. 1718 31 January Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of RussiaAlexei returned to Moscow under a promise he would not be harmed. an ancient. 18th century Year Date Event 1707 8 October Bulavin Rebellion: A small band of Don Cossacks killed a Russian nobilityRussian noble searching their territory for tax fugitives. and reforms the Russian calendar. The streltsy instead defected in support of Peter I of RussiaPeter. the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russiatsarevich Alexei Petrovich. His mother became regent. each governed and taxed under a preexisting elected office (the Voivode#RussiaVoyevoda). Peter I of RussiaPeter prevented the election of a successor. 1700 19 August Great Northern War: Russia declared war on Swedish EmpireSweden. 12 December Government reform of Peter I: Peter I of RussiaPeter established Collegium (ministry)collegia. and declared Miloslavskaya's invalid son Ivan V of RussiaIvan V the "senior tsar. the guberniyas were divided instead into provinces. Alexis I of RussiaAlexis's son by his second wife Natalia Naryshkina. 17 June Crimean campaigns: Faced with a burned steppe incapable of feeding their horses. 1709 28 June Battle of Poltava: A decisive Russian military victory over the Swedish EmpireSwedes at Poltava marked the turning point of the war. was declared tsar. Peter I of RussiaPeter I. where they meant to demand the enthroning of the exiled Sophia Alekseyevna. Miloslavkaya's eldest daughter Sophia Alekseyevna became regent. the head of the Streltsy Department. Maria Miloslavskaya. 1717 22 November The Astrakhan Governorate was formed on the southern lands of Kazan Governorate. 19 July Second Azov campaign: The Ottoman EmpireOttoman garrison surrendered. 21 July Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711): Peace was concluded with the Treaty of the Pruth. The district 6 . 1689 June Fyodor Shaklovity. endorse his reforms or renounce his right to the throne. was burned at the stake. the most prominent leader of the Old Believer movement. Bulavin was shot by his former followers. replacing the old uyezds. Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of RussiaAlexei publicly renounced the throne and implicated a number of reactionaries in a conspiracy to overthrow his father. 1713 8 May The Russian capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. Provinces were further divided into districts. executed Natalia NaryshkinaNaryshkina's brothers. 1698 6 June Streltsy Uprising: Approximately four thousand streltsy overthrew their commanders and headed to Moscow. government ministries that superseded the prikazy. The territory of the Smolensk Governorate was divided between the Moscow and Riga Governorates. 17 May Moscow Uprising of 1682: Streltsy regiments belonging to the faction of Alexis I of RussiaAlexis's first wife. 14 April Avvakum. 27 May Second Azov campaign: The Russian navy arrived at the sea and blockaded Azov. 1716 Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of RussiaAlexei fled to Vienna to avoid military service. the Russians turned back. 1715 11 October Peter I of RussiaPeter demanded that his son. 18 June Streltsy Uprising: The rebels were defeated. 26 June Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of RussiaAlexei died after torture in the Peter and Paul Fortress. The territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Governorate was reincorporated into the Kazan Governorate. 18 February After torture. introduces Western fashions. unmeritocratic system of making political appointments.Timeline of Russian history mestnichestvo. Russia returned Azov to the Ottoman Empire and demolished the town of Taganrog. persuaded Sophia AlekseyevnaAlekseyevna to proclaim herself tsarina and attempted to ignite a new rebellion in her support. the Crimean Khanate. 11 October Fyodor ShaklovityShaklovity was executed. 17 July The Riga Governorate was established on the conquered territory of Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Livonia. 1687 May Crimean campaigns: The Russian army launched an invasion against an Ottoman EmpireOttoman vassal.

the liberal Aleksandr Danilovich MenshikovMenshikov. the Count Burkhard Christoph von Munnich. Aleksandr Danilovich MenshikovAleksandr Menshikov. Mazandaran and Astrabad to the Russian Empire. 1726 The Smolensk Governorate was reestablished. one of Peter's closest advisers. 9 September The conservative members of the Supreme Privy Council expelled its most powerful member. convinced the Russian Imperial GuardImperial Guard to declare in favor of Peter's wife Catherine I of RussiaCatherine I. 4 March Anna of RussiaAnna tore up the terms of her accession and dissolved the Supreme Privy Council. 1736 20 May Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): The Russian army captured the Ottoman EmpireOttoman fortifications at Isthmus of PerekopPerekop. 18 May According to Catherine I of RussiaCatherine's wishes the eleven-year-old Peter II of RussiaPeter II. 1721 25 January Peter I of RussiaPeter established the Most Holy SynodHoly Synod. The Nizhny Novgorod Governorate was reestablished. 1 February The Supreme Privy Council offered the throne to Anna of RussiaAnna Ivanovna. 18 September Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): The Treaty of Nissa ended the war. 8 February Catherine I of RussiaCatherine established an advisory body. She left the throne to her adopted infant son. 1741 8 August Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743): Sweden declared war on Russia. the daughter of Ivan V of RussiaIvan V. 1730 30 January Peter II of RussiaPeter died of smallpox. replaced Biron as regent. was declared regent. 1740 17 October Anna of RussiaAnna died of kidney disease. The Supreme Privy Council was to hold power during his minority. 30 August Great Northern War: The Treaty of Nystad ended the war. was to become Monarch of SwedenKing of Sweden. 19 June Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): The Russians captured Azov. 17 May Catherine I of RussiaCatherine died. He failed to name a successor. that was to head the Russian Orthodox Church in lieu of the Patriarch of Moscow. the uncle of the Russian heir to the throne. Russia relinquished most of the conquered territory. the Supreme Privy Council. Ernst Johann von Biron. In exchange Adolf Frederick of SwedenAdolf Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp.Timeline of Russian history commissars were to be elected by local gentry. Anna Leopoldovna. 1744 The Old FinlandVyborg Governorate was established on conquered Swedish EmpireSwedish territories. Russia joined the Early Modern FranceFranco-Habsburg MonarchyAustrian 7 . 1756 29 August Seven Years' War: The Kingdom of Prussia invaded the Habsburg MonarchyAustrian protectorate of Electorate of SaxonySaxony. 25 November Elizabeth of RussiaElizabeth. Ivan VI of RussiaIvan's biological mother. 1742 4 September Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743): Encircled by the Russians at Helsinki. 1755 Mikhail Lomonosov and Count Ivan Shuvalov founded the University of Moscow. the youngest daughter of Peter I of RussiaPeter the Great. 1725 28 January Peter I of RussiaPeter died of urinary problems. became tsar. Kartli and Persian ArmeniaArmenia. 1727 Catherine I of RussiaCatherine established the Belgorod and Novgorod Governorates and adjusted the borders of several others. Russia gave up its claims on Crimea and Moldavia and its navy was barred from the Black Sea. Guilan. The Reval Governorate was established on the conquered territory of Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)Estonia. 22 October Peter I of RussiaPeter was declared Emperor. 2 December Ivan VI of RussiaIvan was imprisoned in the Daugavgriva fortress. and that she never marry or appoint an heir. 1739 21 August Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): Habsburg MonarchyAustria agreed by the Treaty of Belgrade to end its participation in the war. which granted the privileges of Russian nobilitynobility based on state service. 8 November Ernst Johann von BironBiron was arrested on the orders of his rival. 1757 1 May Diplomatic Revolution: Under the Second Treaty of Versailles. 1722 Peter I of RussiaPeter introduced the Table of Ranks. Districts were abolished. keeping only the lands east of the Kymi River. the son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of RussiaAlexei Petrovich and grandson of Peter I of RussiaPeter the Great. 1737 July Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): Habsburg MonarchyAustria joined the war on the Russian side. Ivan VI of RussiaIvan VI. on the conditions that the Council retain the powers of war and peace and taxation. among others. July Russo-Persian War (1722-1723): A Russian military expedition sailed in support of the independence of two Christian kingdoms. Swedish EmpireSweden ceded Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)Estonia. the Swedish army surrendered. led the Preobrazhensky regimentPreobrazhensky to the Winter Palace to overthrow the regency of Anna Leopoldovna and install herself as empress. 18 October Anna of RussiaAnna's lover. Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Livonia and Duchy of IngriaIngria to Russia. a body of ten clergymen chaired by a secular official. 1743 7 August Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743): The Treaty of Åbo was signed. 1723 12 September Russo-Persian War (1722–1723): The Persian EmpirePersian shah signed a peace treaty ceding the cities of Derbent and Baku and the provinces of Shirvan. ending the war. uyezds were reestablished.

1773 Pugachev's Rebellion: The army of the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev attacked and occupied Samara.Timeline of Russian history military alliance. 1790 14 August Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790): The Treaty of Värälä ended the war. 1772 5 August The first Partitions of Polandpartition of Poland was announced. 4 November Battle of Praga: Russian troops captured the Praga borough of Warsaw and massacred its civilian population. 25 September Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): The Ottoman EmpireOttoman sultan declared war on Russia. 1768 27 February Repnin Sejm: Delegates of the Sejm adopted a treaty ensuring future Russian influence in Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish internal politics. 1761 25 December Miracle of the House of Brandenburg: Elizabeth of RussiaElizabeth died. 18 September A confederated sejm was forced to ratify the first Partitions of Polandpartition of Poland. which opposed the liberal Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish Constitution of 3 May 1791Constitution of 3 May. 17 May Seven Years' War: Russian troops entered the war. Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland lost thirty percent of its territory. and Russia. 5 November Kościuszko Uprising: The uprising ended with the Russian occupation of Warsaw. 1792 9 January Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792): The Treaty of Jassy was signed. 1791 3 May Great Sejm: Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland's Constitution of 3 May 1791Constitution of 3 May was ratified in secret. 6 October Great Sejm: A confederated sejm was called to restore the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The portion of the Yedisan region east of the Southern Bug river. invaded Poland. broke into the Moscow KremlinKremlin and destroyed the Chudov Monastery. 17 July Peter III of RussiaPeter was overthrown by the Russian Imperial GuardImperial Guard and replaced with his wife. The Great. which also declared Russia the protector of Christians on its territory. 23 December Catherine II of RussiaCatherine established the Pale of Settlement. The new constitution abolished the liberum veto. Yemelyan PugachevPugachev's officers delivered him to the Russians. 1762 5 May Seven Years' War: The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1762)Treaty of Saint Petersburg ended Russian participation in the war at no territorial gain. reducing the power of the nobles and limiting Russia's ability to influence Polish internal politics. he was murdered. 5 8 . 1793 23 January Polish-Russian War of 1792: The second Partitions of Polandpartition of Poland left the country with one-third of its 1772 population. an area in European Russia into which Russian Jews were transported. 23 November Grodno Sejm: The last sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ratified the second Partitions of Polandpartition. 18 May Polish-Russian War of 1792: The army of the Targowica Confederation. 27 June Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790): The Swedish army playacted a skirmish between themselves and the Russians. 1774 21 July Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed. ending the war. The Crimean Khanate received independence from the Ottoman Empire. went to Russia. Habsburg MonarchyAustria. which was divided between Kingdom of PrussiaPrussia. The Russian border in Yedisan was extended to the Dniester river. Her nephew. the kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti signed the Treaty of Georgievsk under which it became a Russian protectorate. 17 September Plague Riot: The army suppressed the riot. and several Crimean ports. 24 July Threatened by the Persian EmpirePersian and Ottoman Empires. 14 September Pugachev's Rebellion: Upset with the rebellion's bleak outlook. 1764 5 July A group of soldiers attempted to release the imprisoned Ivan VI of RussiaIvan VI. Peter III of RussiaPeter III. became tsar. 1783 8 April The Crimean Khanate was incorporated into the Russian Empire. 1767 13 October Repnin Sejm: Four Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish senators who opposed the policies of the Russian ambassador Nicholas Repnin were arrested by Russian troops and imprisoned in Kaluga. 29 February Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish Szlachtanobles established the Bar Confederation in order to end Russian influence in their country. the Kabardino-BalkariaKabarda region in the Caucasus. 1771 15 September Plague Riot: A crowd of rioters entered Red Square. 1794 24 March Kościuszko Uprising: An announcement by Tadeusz Kościuszko sparked a nationalist uprising in Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPoland. Catherine II of RussiaCatherine II. on her orders. 24 October The third Partitions of Polandpartition of Poland divided up the remainder of its territory. with no changes in territory. 1788 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792): The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and imprisoned her ambassador. RussiaSamara. 1796 April Persian Expedition of 1796: Catherine II of RussiaCatherine launched a military expedition to punish Persian EmpirePersia for its incursion into the Russian protectorate of Kartl-Kakheti. 1795 11 September Battle of Krtsanisi: The Persian EmpirePersian army demolished the armed forces of Kartl-Kakheti. 6 July Battle of Hogland: The Russian navy dispersed a Swedish invasion fleet near Hogland in the Gulf of Finland.

14 December French invasion of Russia (1812): The last First French EmpireFrench troops were forced off of Russian territory. and declared their loyalty to Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of RussiaConstantine and to the idea of a Russian constitution. ascended to the throne. and three newly established states: the Grand Duchy of Posen. 23 March Paul I of RussiaPaul's son. in charge of the Gendarmerie units of the Internal TroopsInternal Guard. 1802 Alexander I of RussiaAlexander established the Russian Ministry of Internal AffairsMinistry of Internal Affairs (MVD). 1812Treaty of Bucharest ended the war and transferred Bessarabia to Russia. the Persian Empire ceded its South CaucasusTranscaucasian territories to Russia. 19th century Year Date Event 1801 8 January Paul I of RussiaPaul authorized the incorporation of Kartl-Kakheti into the Russian empire. When talk failed. 7 July The Treaties of TilsitTreaty of Tilsit was signed. 12 December Under pressure from Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of RussiaConstantine. which received the executive powers of the Governing Senate. 14 December Decembrist revolt: Three thousand soldiers gathered at the Decembrists SquareSenate Square in Saint Petersburg. 1807 14 June Battle of Friedland: The Russian army suffered a defeat against the First French EmpireFrench. concerned with codifying and publishing the law. Russia invaded Wallachia and Moldavia. following Alexander's choice of successor. 14 September French invasion of Russia (1812): The First French EmpireFrench army entered a deserted Moscow. which operated as the Empire's secret police. 1815 9 June Congress of Vienna: The territory of the Duchy of Warsaw was divided between Kingdom of PrussiaPrussia. the tsarist army dispersed the demonstrators with artillery. 1825 19 November Alexander I of RussiaAlexander died of typhus. 16 July Russo-Persian War (1826-1828): The Persian EmpirePersian army invaded the Russian-owned Talysh Khanate. killing at least sixty. 1811 27 March Regional military companies were merged into the Internal TroopsInternal Guard. the Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of RussiaGrand Duke Constantine Pavlovich. The treaty ended Russia's conflict with France. 1804 Russo-Persian War (1804-1813): Russian forces attacked the Persian EmpirePersian settlement of EchmiadzinÜçkilise. 11 March Paul I of RussiaPaul was killed in his bed. 1805 The Ottoman Empire dismissed the pro-Russian hospodars of its vassal states. 1809 29 March Diet of Porvoo: The four Estates of the realmEstates of Grand Duchy of FinlandFinland swore allegiance to the Russian crown. Paul I of RussiaPaul I.Timeline of Russian history November Catherine II of RussiaCatherine suffered a stroke in the bathtub. the high-water mark of their invasion. The latter was a constitutional monarchy with Alexander I of RussiaAlexander as its king. 1 January Alexander I of RussiaAlexander established the State Council of Imperial RussiaState Council. 17 September Finnish War: The Treaty of Fredrikshamn was signed. Alexander I of RussiaAlexander agreed to evacuate Wallachia and Moldavia and ceded the Ionian Islands and KotorCattaro to the First French EmpireFrench. 1826 An imperial decree established the Second Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own ChancelleryHis Majesty's Own Chancery. 1812 28 May Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812): The Treaty of Bucharest. The throne fell to her son. suffering twenty thousand dead. Wallachia and Moldavia. 24 June French invasion of Russia (1812): The First French EmpireFrench army crossed the Neman River into Russia. 1808 21 February Finnish War: Russian troops crossed the Swedish border and captured Hämeenlinna. 1828 21 February Russo-Persian War 9 . 26 December War of the Third Coalition: The Treaty of Pressburg ceded Austrian EmpireAustrian possessions in Dalmatia to First French EmpireFrance. 16 November Alexander I of RussiaAlexander demanded that Sweden close the Baltic Sea to British warships. ending the war and ceding Grand Duchy of FinlandFinland to the Russian Empire. 1813 24 October Russo-Persian War (1804–1813): According to the Treaty of Gulistan. Alexander I of RussiaAlexander I. 27 December Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812): The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia. and the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own ChancelleryThird Section. 1810 The first military settlement was established near KlimavichyKlimovichi. 20 February The Russian government proclaimed the deposition of Solomon II of ImeretiSolomon II from the throne of Kingdom of ImeretiImereti. the Free City of Kraków and Congress Poland. July Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas established the office of Chief of Gendarmes. Russia. Constantine. 6 November Catherine II of RussiaCatherine died. however. Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas I. Napoleon I of FranceNapoleon promised to aid Russia in conflicts with the Ottoman Empire. swore allegiance to his younger brother. 1806 October To counter the First French EmpireFrench presence in Dalmatia. The army swore allegiance to his eldest brother. Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas published Alexander I of RussiaAlexander's succession manifesto.

became tsar. Montenegro. Russia evacuated Wallachia and Moldavia. ending the November Uprising. 1860 18 October The Convention of Peking transferred the Ussuri krai from China to Russia. 1852 December The Ottoman EmpireOttoman sultan confirmed the supremacy of Second French EmpireFrance and the Roman Catholic ChurchCatholic Church over Christians in the Land of IsraelHoly Land. PetersburgKazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg marked the appearance of the revolutionary group Land and Liberty (Russia)Land and Liberty. 1878 3 March Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stephano was signed. May The Russian army occupied Wallachia. 1853 3 July Russia invaded the Ottoman EmpireOttoman provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia. depending on the outcome of local revolutionary movements. 1873 The Narodnik rebellion began. 21 May Caucasian War: Alexander II of RussiaAlexander declared the war over. June Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): The Russian armed forces crossed into Dobruja. The Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate. 1836 The Gendarmerie of the Internal TroopsInternal Guard was spun off as the Special Corps of Gendarmes. Principality of SerbiaSerbia. His son. 1829 14 September Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): The Treaty of Adrianople was signed. 1863 22 January January Uprising: An anti-Russian uprising began in Congress PolandPoland. Danubian PrincipalitiesRomania. imposed on Russia by the Western EuropeWest. Alexander II of RussiaAlexander II. 1857 The last military settlements were disbanded. 1855 18 February Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas died. 29 January November Uprising: A new government took office in Congress PolandPoland. St. Persian EmpirePersia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay. 1854 28 March Crimean War: United Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandBritain and Second French EmpireFrance declared war on Russia. Several Slavic peoplesSlavic states.Timeline of Russian history (1826–1828) Facing the possibility of a Russian conquest of Tehran. 1870 Municipal dumas were established. the dictator of the rebellion. 1876 March The Khanate of Kokand was incorporated into the Russian Empire. 6 December Kazan demonstration: A political demonstration in front of the Kazan Cathedral. ceding the eastern shore of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube to the Russians. pushing the Russo-Chinese border east to the Amur RiverAmur river. 1861 3 March Emancipation reform of 1861: Alexander II of RussiaAlexander issued a manifesto emancipating the Serfdomserfs. 24 April Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire. received independence or autonomy. banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print. 1865 17 June The Russian army captured Tashkent. 8 July A secret treaty prepared for the division of the Balkans between Russia and Austria-Hungary. September Battle of Warsaw (1831): The Russian army captured Warsaw. 1868 The Khanate of Kokand became a Russian vassal state. and lost its influence over the Danubian Principalities. 30 March Alaska purchase: Russia agreed to the sale of Alaska to the United States of America. Russia creates chocolate for the first time 1856 30 March Crimean War: The Treaty of Paris (1856)Treaty of Paris was signed. abandoned claims to protect Turkic peoplesTurkish Christians. punishing the participants of the Narodnik rebellion. May Alexander II of RussiaAlexander signed the Ems Ukaz. 1867 The conquered territories of TurkestanCentral Asia became a separate Guberniya. 13 July Congress of Berlin: The Treaty of Berlin (1878)Treaty of Berlin. concluding the war and transferring Northern Dobruja and some CaucasusCaucasian territories into Russian hands. 1858 28 May The Treaty of Aigun was signed. 1 May The Russian army began an incursion into the Khanate of Kokand. 18 May Khiva was captured by Russian troops. officially ending the war. the Russian Turkestan. 5 August January Uprising: Romuald Traugutt. 4 February November Uprising: Russian troops crossed the Congress PolandPolish border. an Ottoman EmpireOttoman territory. August Crimean War: In order to prevent the Austrian Empire entering the war. and Bulgaria. 1831 25 January November Uprising: An act of the Sejm dethroned Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas from the Congress PolandPolish crown. 1864 1 January ZemstvoZemstva were established for the local self-government of Russian citizens. Russia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the Danube. The Black Sea was demilitarized. 4 October Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia. 1877 February The Trial of the 193 occurred. the seat of the Governor-General. divided Bulgaria into Eastern Rumelia and the Principality 10 . 12 August A peace treaty was signed that established the Khanate of Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate. 20 April April Uprising: Bulgarian nationalists attacked the Ottoman EmpireOttoman police headquarters in Oborishte. 1830 29 November November Uprising: A group of Congress PolandPolish nationalists attacked BelwederBelweder Palace. 20 November Judicial reform of Alexander II: A royal decree introduced new laws unifying and liberalizing the Russian judiciary. was hanged.

9 January Bloody Sunday (1905): Peaceful demonstrators arrived at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. benefiting the Russian Social Democratic Labour PartyRSDLP and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.Timeline of Russian history of Bulgaria. becomes tsar. 1907 9 February The secret police units of the Russian Ministry of Internal AffairsMVD Department of State Police were unified under the authority of the new Okhrana. their functions and most capable officers were transferred to the new Department of State Police under the Russian Ministry of Internal AffairsMVD. the party split into two factions: the Bolsheviks. Petersburg. 3 June The Second State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma was dissolved. killing around 200 and wounding 800. 17 November At the second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour PartyRSDLP. The First State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma was called. 5 September Russo-Japanese War: The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed. Alexander III of RussiaAlexander III. capitalismcapitalist form of agriculture. 1898 1 March The MarxismMarxist Russian Social Democratic Labour PartyRussian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) held its 1st Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Partyfirst Party Congress. which expelled Russian Jews from rural areas and small towns and severely restricted their access to education. 1904 8 February Russo-Japanese War: Japan launched a surprise torpedo attack on the Russian navy at LüshunkouPort Arthur. and the less radical Mensheviks. 1881 10 March Alexander II of RussiaAlexander was assassinated by Ignacy Hryniewiecki of the Narodnaya Volya (organization)People's Will. 1905 3 January Russian Revolution of 1905: A strike began at the Kirov PlantPutilov Works in St. His son Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas II succeeded him as tsar. the Governor-General of Finland. 1879 August Land and Liberty (Russia)Land and Liberty split into the moderate Black Repartition and the radical terrorist group Narodnaya Volya (organization)People's Will. The Russian Imperial GuardImperial Guard fired on the crowd. 6 April Kishinev pogrom: A three-day pogrom began which would leave forty-seven Jews dead. 1900 Russia invaded and occupied the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River. 1903 20 March Russification of Finland: The office of the Governor-General of FinlandGovernor-General was given dictatorial powers. 1890 12 June An imperial decree subordinated the zemstvozemstva to the authority of the appointed regional governors. 20 February The Second State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma began. 23 April The Russian Constitution of 1906Fundamental Laws were issued. expanding civil liberties and establishing and empowering the first State Duma of the Russian Empire. calling on the Russian people to evade taxes and the draft. 1880 6 August The Special Corps of Gendarmes and the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own ChancelleryThird Section were disbanded. Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas changed the electoral law and gave greater electoral value to the votes of 11 .20th century Year Date Event 1901 The Socialist-Revolutionary Party was founded. 1902 Russification of Finland: Nikolai Ivanovich Bobrikov. 21 July The First State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma was dissolved. His son. 6 February Russification of Finland: Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas issued a decree making Russian the official language of Finland. leading was a priest named Georgi Gapon. intended to replace the obshchina with a more progressive. 21 September Persian EmpirePersia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Khwarazm in the Treaty of Akhal. 1906 March Russian legislative election. All signatories to the Manifesto lost their right to hold office in the State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma. was given the power to allow olivia and opponents of Russification from the Grand Duchy of FinlandFinnish government. 25 June Russian Revolution of 1905: The Russian battleship PotemkinPotemkin sailors defected to Kingdom of RomaniaRomania. 23 July The Constitutional Democratic partyConstitutional Democratic party (Kadets) issued the Vyborg Manifesto. 17 October Russian Revolution of 1905: Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas signed the October Manifesto. ceding some Russian property and territory to Japan and ending the war. led by Vladimir Lenin. The Constitutional Democratic partyKadets dropped seats. 9 November A decree by Prime Minister of RussiaPrime Minister Pyotr Stolypin signaled the start of the Stolypin reform. 30 June Russification of Finland: The Military Service Act incorporated the Grand Duchy of FinlandFinnish and Russian armies. reaffirming the autocratic supremacy of the tsar. 1894 1 November Alexander III of RussiaAlexander III died. 1882 3 May Alexander III of RussiaAlexander III introduced the May Laws. 1906: The first free elections to the State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma gave majorities to liberal and socialist parties. 28 May Russian Revolution of 1905: The first soviet (council)soviet was formed in the midst of a textile strike in IvanovoIvanovo-Voznesensk. 14 June Russian Revolution of 1905: A mutiny occurred aboard the battleship Russian battleship PotemkinPotemkin.

1915 2 May Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: The German EmpireGerman army launched an offensive across the length of the Eastern Front (World War I)Eastern Front. among other things. The Second Congress of SovietsAll-Russian Congress of Soviets convened. the Soviet government of southwestern Ukraine and Bessarabia. to run the country between sessions. and Vladimir LeninLenin its first chairman. Menshevik and moderate Socialist-Revolutionary PartySR representatives walked out to protest the October Revolution. Tallinn. 1912 4 April Lena massacreLena goldfields massacre: The Russian army fired on a crowd of striking miners. 16 December Royal adviser Grigori Rasputin was murdered by a group of nobles in the house of Prince Felix Yussupov. 7 November 1917 – legal foundation of modern Russian Federation.Timeline of Russian history nobility and landowners. the Tsentralna Rada. 27 February February Revolution: The soldiers sent to suppress the protestors defected and joined them. 21 July Alexander Kerensky succeeded Georgy L'vovL'vov as Prime Minister of RussiaPrime Minister. the right to participate in the investigation into the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of AustriaFranz Ferdinand. 30 July World War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Kingdom of SerbiaSerbia. the Maapäev. 23 June The Tsentralna Rada ratified UkraineUkrainian autonomy. 21 November The MoldovaMoldavian legislature. 27 August Kornilov Affair: General Lavr Kornilov ordered an army corps to Saint PetersburgPetrograd to destroy the soviet (council)soviets. the German EmpireGerman government established the nominally independent Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)Kingdom of Poland. 14 July The Maapäev took office. which Serbia refused. was founded in Ukraine. The Congress established and elected the Sovnarkom. demanding. 31 August Kornilov Affair: Lavr KornilovKornilov was arrested. The Russian Provisional GovernmentProvisional Government ordered the arrest of Bolshevik leaders. approving the expropriation of land from the nobility. 15 November The Fourth State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma was called. 26 February February Revolution: Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas ordered the dissolution of the Fourth State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma. The Duma ignored his order and decreed the establishment of a Russian Provisional GovernmentProvisional Government with Georgy L'vov as Prime Minister of RussiaPrime Minister. 4 August Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: German EmpireGermany conquered Warsaw. 23 February February Revolution: A series of demonstrations were held. 4 September Under public pressure. 25 October October Revolution: Soldiers directed by the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet captured the Winter Palace. 25 February February Revolution: A battalion of soldiers was sent to Saint PetersburgPetrograd to end the uprising. Menshevik leaders were freed from the Peter and Paul Fortress and founded the Petrograd Soviet. 29 August Kornilov Affair: The Russian Provisional GovernmentProvisional Government armed tens of thousands of Red Guards (Russia)Red Guards to defend Saint PetersburgPetrograd. the 12 . 1917 22 February February Revolution: The workers at the Kirov PlantPutilov Plant in Saint PetersburgPetrograd went on strike. 19 September Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: German EmpireGerman forces captured Vilnius. 28 July World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Kingdom of SerbiaSerbia. Bolshevik leaders were released from prison. demanding the end of the Russian autocracy and the end of Russian participation in World War I. 1 November The Third State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma began. 10 May The Rumcherod. 9 June The Third State Duma of the Russian EmpireDuma ended. 3 July July Days: A spontaneous pro-soviet (council)soviet demonstration occurred on the streets of Saint PetersburgPetrograd. ending the power of the Russian Provisional Government. the capital of Lithuania. 30 March The Russian Provisional GovernmentProvisional Government established the autonomous province of Estonia and scheduled elections to an Estonian legislative body. 1914 28 June Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of the Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian separatist group Young Bosnia. 23 October Estonian Bolsheviks under Jaan Anvelt captured the capital. 26 October The Second Congress of SovietsAll-Russian Congress of Soviets issued the Decree on Peace. II All-Russia Congress of SovietsProclamation of Soviet Russia (unofficial name). and the Decree on Land. 17 March A legislative council. 1916 25 June Basmachi Revolt: Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas issued a decree ordering the conscription of Central Asians. 23 July World War I: Austria-Hungary issued the July Ultimatum to Kingdom of SerbiaSerbia. 6 July July Days: The rebellion was put down. 2 March February Revolution: Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas abdicated the throne. 5 November By the Act of 5 November. 1 August World War I: German EmpireGermany declared war on Russia in defense of Austria-Hungary. was established. promising an end to Russian participation in World War I. killing 150.

). the Alash Orda. 23 February Mass conscription to the Red Army began in Moscow and Saint PetersburgPetrograd. relinquishing Finland. 17 November Two Latvian political parties founded a provisional legislature. was established in Samara. founded the Hungarian Communist Party. under which all industry and food distribution was nationalized. 3 March Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk." 23 September Russian Civil War: A meeting in Ufa established a unified anti-Bolshevik government. 26 May Russian Civil War: The Czechoslovak LegionsCzech Legion began its revolt against the Bolshevik government. Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)Poland. the economic policy of the Soviet state. Lithuania. held its first meeting. 15 January A decree of the Sovnarkom established the Red Army.Democratic Republic of GeorgiaGeorgia seceded from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative RepublicTDFR. established an autonomous government in Kazakhstan. Local Bolsheviks reestablished the Jaan AnveltAnvelt government as the Commune of the Working People of Estonia. a friend of Vladimir LeninLenin. The legislative power was transferred from the Sovnarkom to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet UnionCentral Executive Committee. 8 June Russian Civil War: An anti-Bolshevik government. 12 December A IslamMuslim republic. 7 December The Cheka was established. April The Idel-Ural State was occupied and dissolved by the Red Army. 14 January The Rumcherod declared itself the supreme power in Bessarabia. 24 February The Red Army retreated from Estonia in the face of the German armed forces. 30 August After giving a speech at a Moscow factory. After 31 January (O.Timeline of Russian history Sfatul Ţării. the Bolsheviks adopted the Gregorian calendar. The South CaucasusTranscaucasian parliament announced the independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative RepublicTranscaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR). 16 January The Greater RomaniaRomanian army occupied ChişinăuKishinev and evicted the Rumcherod. 25 March The Belarusian National Republic was established by its German EmpireGerman occupiers. December The Idel-Ural State was 13 . which also received the power to pass constitutional amendments. 30 April The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicTurkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established on the territory of the defunct Russian Turkestan. Belarusian National RepublicBelarus. 24 January The Moldavian Democratic Republic declared its independence from Russia. Aleksandr Kolchak. as dictator. 18 February The Red Army conquered Kiev. All dates hereafter are given in the Old Style and New Style datesNew Style. but survived. 19 November The Maapäev returned to power in Estonia. 28 January The South CaucasusTranscaucasian parliament held its first meeting. the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly. 6 December The Parliament of FinlandFinnish parliament issued a Finland's declaration of independencedeclaration of independence. 29 June Russian Civil War: The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia was established in Vladivostok. 28 May Democratic Republic of ArmeniaArmenia and Azerbaijan Democratic RepublicAzerbaijan declared their mutual independence. 22 November Estonian War of Independence: The Russian Red Army invaded Estonia. the Idel-Ural State. and Ukrainian People's RepublicUkraine. 10 July The Russian Constitution of 1918Constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic (first official name) was adopted by the Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets. the Ufa Directorate.S. ending the war. 1918 12 January The Tsentralna Rada declared the independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic. 29 November Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army captured the Estonian town of Narva. 11 November World War I: An Armistice with Germany (Compiègne)armistice treaty was signed. and ceding to the Ottoman Empire all territory captured in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)Russo-Turkish War. 3 September Red Terror: Izvestia called on the Russian people to "crush the hydra of counterrevolution with massive terror. RussiaSamara under the protection of the Czechoslovak LegionsCzech Legion 28 June A decree by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet UnionCentral Executive Committee made war communism. the Tautas Padome. 27 December Russian Civil War: The counterrevolutionary Volunteer Army was established. 18 July Nicholas II and the rest of the royal family are executed on direct orders from Lenin. 18 November A military coup overthrew the Ufa Directorate and established its war minister. ending its participation in World War I. Latvia. Vladimir LeninLenin was shot twice by Socialist-Revolutionary PartySR Fanny Kaplan. Estonia. 24 November Béla Kun. was established in central Russia. 6 March Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War: Two hundred British marines arrived at Murmansk. 25 December UkraineUkrainian Bolsheviks established the Ukrainian SSRSoviet Ukrainian Republic in Kharkiv. July The Idel-Ural State was restored by the Czechoslovak LegionsCzech Legion. 5 December A local nationalist group.

21 April Polish-Soviet War: The Second Polish RepublicPolish army consolidated its control of Vilnius. 13 August Battle of Warsaw (1920)Battle of Warsaw: The battle began with a Russian attack across the Vistula. The Red Army captured Minsk and pronounced it the capital of the Byelorussian SSR. 16 April The Greater RomaniaRomanian army invaded Hungary. 11 August Latvian War of Independence: The Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace TreatyTreaty of Riga was signed. 8 July Polish-Soviet War: The Galician Soviet Socialist RepublicGalician Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was established in Ternopil. the economic planning committee of the Soviet 14 . Soviet Russia renounced all claims on Latvian territory. 16 January The Orgburo was established to oversee the membership and organization of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunist Party. 5 January The Red Army occupied Vilnius. 31 August Battle of Warsaw: The total defeat of the Russian Fourth. 16 June Hungarian occupiers established the Slovak Soviet Republic. 3 January Latvian War of Independence: The Red Army invaded Latvia. 8 October The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was established. 14 November Russian Civil War: Pyotr Nikolayevich WrangelWrangel fled Russia. 26 March Russian Civil War: The Volunteer Army evacuated to the Crimea to join the army of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel. 2 September The Red Army attacked Bukhara.Timeline of Russian history again occupied and dissolved by the Red Army. 7 February Russian Civil War: Aleksandr KolchakKolchak was executed by a Bolshevik military tribunal. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Armies marked the end of the battle. the Lithuanian capital. 8 December The Communist Party of Lithuania established a revolutionary government in Vilnius. the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist RepublicLithuanian-Byelorussian SSR was dissolved. Budapest. 1 December The Democratic Republic of ArmeniaArmenian Prime Minister of ArmeniaPrime Minister ceded control of the country to the invading CommunismCommunists. 26 August The Bolsheviks defeated the government of the Alash Orda and established the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKyrgyz ASSR#kyrgyz† (1). Admiral Miklós Horthy stepped into the power vacuum with the army of the Gyula KárolyiKárolyi government. released Béla KunKun from prison and appointed him Commissar for Foreign Affairs. 1919 1 January Local Bolsheviks established the Byelorussian SSRByelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). 14 February Polish-Soviet War: The Second Polish RepublicPolish army attacked Soviet forces occupying the town of Biaroza. Béla KunKun dismissed the president and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. the capital of the Emirate of Bukhara. 30 May An anti-CommunismCommunist Hungarian government headed by Gyula Károlyi was established in Szeged. 25 August Polish-Soviet War: After its total occupation by Second Polish RepublicPolish forces. Béla KunKun fled to Austria. 21 September Polish-Soviet War: The Second Polish RepublicPolish army occupied Galicia (Central Europe)Galicia and ended the rule of the Galician Soviet Socialist RepublicGalician SSR. 1 August Threatened by the approach of the Greater RomaniaRomanian army. the parliament agreed to transfer power to the CommunismCommunist government of the Azerbaijan SSR. 12 June The Soviet Union recognized Lithuanian independence. 22 February Gosplan. 28 April With the Azerbaijani capital Baku under Eleventh Army (Soviet Union)Eleventh Army occupation. 25 March The Eighth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionParty Congress reinstituted the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPolitburo as the central governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunist Party. 4 March The First Congress of the Comintern began in Moscow. in support of the local CommunismCommunist government. 7 July The CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak army reoccupied its territory and dissolved the Slovak Soviet Republic. 29 November The Eleventh Army (Soviet Union)Eleventh Army entered Democratic Republic of ArmeniaArmenia. 14 August The Greater RomaniaRomanian army left the Hungarian capital. 1920 2 February Estonian War of Independence: Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)Treaty of Tartu. An insurgency in the Khanate of Khiva forced the abdication of the Khan. 25 April The Russian Eleventh Army (Soviet Union)Eleventh Army invaded the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. 26 April The Khorezm SSRKhorezm People's Soviet Republic was established on the territory of the defunct Khanate of Khiva. 1921 16 February Red Army invasion of Georgia: The Eleventh Army (Soviet Union)Eleventh Army crossed into Democratic Republic of GeorgiaGeorgia. 21 March Seeking a military alliance with Russia against the French. renouncing all claims on Estonian territory. 27 February Lithuania was absorbed into the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. the Hungarian Social Democrats merged with the Hungarian Communist PartyCommunist Party.

Timeline of Russian history Union. 27 October The Uzbek SSR was spun out of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicTurkestan ASSR. 19 February The lands of the Karakalpaks became the Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast. 28 February Kronstadt rebellion: The crews of the battleships Battleship Petropavlovsk (1914)Petropavlovsk and Russian battleship Sevastopol (1911)Sevastopol. 18 February The Thirteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionParty Congress. 27 November The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was incorporated into the Uzbek SSR. Patriarch Sergius I of MoscowSergius of Nizhny Novgorod. the Russian SFSRRussian and Transcaucasian SFSRTranscaucasian SFSRs and the Byelorussian SSRByelorussian and Ukrainian SSRUkrainian SSRs. 31 January The 1924 Soviet Constitution came into effect. 10 October The territory of the Khorezm SSR was incorporated into the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicTurkestan ASSR. The Communist government would not allow elections to the patriarchate to be held. 13 July Russian famine of 1921: The writer Maxim Gorky brought world attention to the looming famine. The disputed territories were divided between Poland. led by Joseph StalinStalin. 18 March Polish-Soviet War: Second Polish RepublicPoland and Soviet Russia signed the Peace of Riga. Comintern chairman Grigory Zinoviev and Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPolitburo chairman Lev Kamenev. 14 October The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was spun off of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicTurkestan ASSR and incorporated into the Russian SFSR. the Mongolian capital. 30 December The Declaration of the Creation of the USSRDeclaration and Treaty of Creation of the USSR were First All-Union Congress of Sovietsratified (confirmed) and signed by USSR. 1923 3 May A council of the pro-government Living Church declared Tikhon of MoscowTikhon an apostasyapostate and abolished the Patriarchate. 1922 23 February Russian famine of 1921: A decree published in Izvestia authorized the seizure of church valuables for famine relief. 13 May The Uzbek SSR joined the Soviet Union. 4 August Basmachi Revolt: Enver Pasha was killed in Turkestan. 12 October The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicMoldavian ASSR was established in the Ukrainian SSR. 25 February Red Army invasion of Georgia: The Eleventh Army (Soviet Union)Eleventh Army captured Tbilisi and announced the formation of the Georgian SSR. 1925 6 January Leon TrotskyTrotsky was forced to resign his military offices. took the title of Deputy Patriarchal locum tenens. Loss of independence of Russia. 3 April The Eleventh Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunist Party Congress established the office of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party and appointed Joseph Stalin to fill it. 10 December Peter of Krutitsy was arrested. denounced Leon TrotskyTrotsky and his faction. 15 October The The Declaration of 46Declaration of 46 was written. 25 November The Mongolian People's Republic was established. the Patriarch of Moscow. 19 April The Kyrgyz ASSR (1) was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKazakh ASSR. The remainder of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicTurkestan ASSR became the Turkmen SSR. The Declaration of the Creation of the USSRDeclaration and Treaty of Creation of the USSR were adopted (approved) by RSFSR. an oblast of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKyrgyz ASSR (1). July The Red Army captured Ulan Bator. ending the war. 12 March The Georgian SSRGeorgian. Metropolitan bishopMetropolitan Peter of Krutitsy became the Patriarchal locum tenens according to his will. was created by a decree of the Sovnarkom. Armenian SSRArmenian and Azerbaijan SSRAzerbaijani SSRs were merged into the Transcaucasian SFSRTranscaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (SFSR). 16 May Tikhon of MoscowTikhon. 1924 21 January Vladimir LeninLenin died. whom he had named to succeed him. the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council. harbored at Kronstadt. 23 December The Fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionParty Congress endorsed the leadership of Joseph StalinStalin and his 15 . was put under house arrest. 7 April Tikhon of MoscowTikhon died. The Declaration echoed earlier concerns expressed by Leon Trotsky. government troops pacified Kronstadt. that the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunist Party was insufficiently democratic. under the power of the Soviet UnionUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics. 17 March Kronstadt rebellion: After over a week of fighting. 29 December The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR united its signatories. Russia and the newly reestablished Ukrainian SSRUkrainian and Byelorussian SSRByelorussian SSRs. published a list of demands on the government. the Left Opposition. 21 March A decree of the 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (b)Tenth Party Congress replaced war communism with the more liberal New Economic Policy.

1928 7 March Shakhty Trial: Police arrested a group of engineers in the town of Shakhty and accused them of conspiring to sabotage the Soviet economy. 23 October Trotsky was expelled from the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPolitburo. 5 December The 1936 Soviet ConstitutionStalin Constitution came into effect. a Marshal of the Soviet Union and hero of the Russian Civil War. 1932 20 March The Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast became the Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKarakalpak ASSR. and set nationwide quotas for the execution and enslavement of "anti-Soviet elements. The Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKazakh ASSR became the Kazakh SSR. Lazar Kaganovich. 25 August Moscow Trials: The defendants in the Trial of the Sixteen were executed. 22 May Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization: Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Collectivisation in the USSR: A Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCentral Committee resolution began the collectivisation of Agriculture in the Soviet UnionSoviet agriculture. 1 October First Five Year Plan: Joseph StalinStalin announced the beginning of state industrialisation of the Soviet economy. The Central Executive Committee was renamed the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The order established a new judicial method. began." 11 August Polish operation of the NKVD: The NKVD chief signed NKVD Order № 00485Order № 00485. 2 December The Fifteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionParty Congress expelled the remainder of the United Opposition from the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionParty. demanding the subjection of the Ukrainian SSR. 27 December A decree by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet UnionCentral Executive Committee and the Sovnarkom established a passport system in the Soviet Union. 12 November Leon TrotskyTrotsky and Grigory ZinovievZinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunist Party. 1937 21 January Russian Constitution of 1937Renaming of Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic to Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. 11 September Holodomor: Joseph StalinStalin sent a letter to a Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPolitburo ally. 30 July Great Purge: NKVD Order № 00447 was issued. sowing the seeds of the Stakhanovite movement. 1934 8 February Elections to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCentral Committee at the Seventeenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionParty Congress revealed Sergey Kirov.Timeline of Russian history rightist ally Nikolai Bukharin. classifying all potential Second Polish 16 . 1933 22 January Holodomor: Police were instructed to prevent Ukrainian SSRUkrainian peasants from leaving their homes in search of food. 29 July Patriarch Sergius I of MoscowSergius affirmed the loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet government. 1930 15 April The Gulag was officially established. 1929 17 November Nikolai BukharinBukharin was expelled from the Politburo. 23 January Moscow Trials: The Second Trial began. possibly at the behest of Joseph StalinStalin. 1926 11 February The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was reorganized into the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKyrgyz ASSR (2). 5 December The Tajik ASSR of the Uzbek SSR became the Tajik SSR. was arrested. 1 December Sergey KirovKirov was murdered by Leonid Nikolaev. with eight other military leaders. to be the most popular member. 1927 25 February Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code)Article 58 of the RFSR Penal Code revised the penalties for counterrevolutionary activity. 7 August Collectivisation in the USSR: The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet UnionCentral Executive Committee and the Sovnarkom issued the Law of SpikeletsDecree about the Protection of Socialist Property. 31 December First Five-Year Plan: It was announced that the plan had been fulfilled. 1935 31 August Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov was reported to have mined over one hundred tons of coal in a single shift. 10 July The Main Directorate of State Security (USSR)Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB) was established under the NKVD as a successor to the OGPU. under which any theft of public property was punishable by death. 30 January Moscow Trials: The Second Trial ended. 1936 19 August Moscow Trials: The Trial of the Sixteen. The territory of the Karakalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKarakalpak ASSR was incorporated into the Uzbek SSR. the chief of the Saint PetersburgLeningrad Party. 12 June Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization: Mikhail TukhachevskyTukhachevsky was executed. in which Lev KamenevKamenev and Grigory Zinoviev were the primary defendants. Of seventeen defendants. the NKVD troika. 20 July The Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast was transferred to the Russian SFSR. soundly defeating the New Opposition faction of Lev KamenevKamenev and Grigory ZinovievZinoviev. The Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKyrgyz ASSR (2) became a Union-level republic. all but four were sentenced to death. the Kyrgyz SSR.

2 February Battle of Stalingrad: The Nazi GermanyGerman Sixth Army (Germany)Sixth Army surrendered. Latvia became the Latvian SSR. 2 October Battle of Moscow: Three Nazi GermanyGerman armies began an advance on Moscow. 22 June Operation Barbarossa: Three million Axis powers of World War IIAxis soldiers invaded the Soviet Union.500 imprisoned Polish areas annexed by the Soviet UnionPolish nationalists. Saint PetersburgTerijoki. ending the war at great cost to Finland and anticipating the evacuation of Finnish Karelia. 2 August The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicMoldavian ASSR became the Moldavian SSR. 17 June The Red Army occupied Estonia and Latvia. 1943 12 January Operation Spark (1943): The Soviet army launched a military offensive to break the Siege of Leningrad. 15 August Great Purge: NKVD Order № 00486 made relatives of accused traitors subject to imprisonment in labor camps. 2 March Trial of the Twenty One: The third Moscow TrialsMoscow Trial. 21 August Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: Three Soviet armies invaded Iran from the north. 1940 5 March Katyn massacre: The Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPolitburo signed an order to execute 27. The old territory of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicMoldavian ASSR remained in the Ukrainian SSR. 5 December Battle of Moscow: The Soviet army launched a counterattack from TverKalinin. 8 September Siege of Leningrad: The Nazi GermanyGerman army cut the last land tie to Saint PetersburgLeningrad. promising mutual non-aggression between Nazi GermanyGermany and the Soviet Union and agreeing to a division of much of Europe between those two countries. 22 November Operation Uranus: The Nazi GermanyGerman Sixth Army (Germany)Sixth Army was surrounded. 19 September Operation Barbarossa: Kiev fell to the Nazi GermanyGermans. 20 November Siege of Leningrad: The first food was carried into Saint PetersburgLeningrad across the Road of Life on the frozen Lake Ladoga. 28 June Operation Barbarossa: The Nazi GermanyGermans captured Minsk. 15 June The Red Army occupied Lithuania. 21 August Battle of Stalingrad: The Nazi GermanyGerman Luftwaffe began a bombing raid against VolgogradStalingrad. 6 August Estonia became the Estonian SSR and was incorporated into the Soviet Union. 8 17 . 1941 13 April Soviet-Japanese Border Wars: A Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact was signed. 15 May The Comintern was dissolved. 18 January Operation Spark (1943): The meeting of the Leningrad Military DistrictLeningrad and Volkhov Front units opened a land corridor to Leningrad. 3 August The Lithuanian SSR was accepted into the Soviet Union. 10 October Peter of Krutitsy was executed in solitary confinement. 27 July Operation Barbarossa: The Nazi GermanyGerman and Greater RomaniaRomanian armies entered ChişinăuKishinev.Timeline of Russian history RepublicPolish nationalists as enemies of the state. 17 September Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: The Soviet and British armed forces met in Tehran. 22 October Elections were held to the Supreme Soviets of the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. with much of its territory on the former Bessarabia and Bukovina. 1942 7 January Battle of Moscow: The Soviet counteroffensive ended between sixty and one-hundred fifty miles from Moscow. 25 June Continuation War: The Soviet Union launched a major air offensive against Finnish targets. 31 August Battle of Lake Khasan: The battle ended in a Japanese defeat. 31 March The Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicKarelian ASSR merged with the Finnish Democratic Republic into the Karelo-Finnish SSR. 24 June Lithuanian 1941 independence: The Lithuanian Activist FrontLAF government took power in Lithuania. 21 July Lithuania became the Lithuanian SSR. 29 July Battle of Lake Khasan: The armed forces of Japanese Manchukuo attacked the Soviet military at Lake Khasan. 1939 23 August The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed. 1938 A new decree required the teaching of Russian in all non-Russian schools. 12 March Winter War: The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed. 28 June Soviet occupation of Bessarabia: Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union. 1 December Winter War: The Soviet Union established the Finnish Democratic Republic in the border town of Zelenogorsk. 15 March Trial of the Twenty One: The defendants were executed. 26 November Shelling of Mainila: The Red Army shelled the Russian village of Mainila and blamed the FinlandFinns for invented casualties. at which Nikolai BukharinBukharin was the primary defendant. 5 August The Latvian SSR was annexed by the Soviet Union. 30 November Winter War: The Soviet army attacked Finland.Lithuanian 1941 independence: The Lithuanian Activist FrontLithuanian Activist Front (LAF) began an uprising against the Soviet government. 19 November Operation Uranus: The Soviet army began a pincer movement against the Nazi GermanyGerman forces besieging VolgogradStalingrad. 17 September Soviet invasion of Poland (1939): The Red Army invaded Second Polish RepublicPoland. began.

2 February Patriarch Alexius IAlexius I was elected Patriarch of Moscow. 31 August The Hungarian Communist Party 18 . 6 November The Russians recaptured Kiev. enabling their takeover of the information and interior ministries. 1944 6 January The Red Army crossed into Polish areas annexed by Nazi GermanyPoland. 1 August Warsaw Uprising: The Polish Secret StatePolish Armia KrajowaHome Army began an attack on German forces in Warsaw. 31 August Soviet occupation of Romania: The Red Army captured Bucharest. 1946: The Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaCommunist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) won a plurality of votes. 11 December Iran regained control over the territory of the Azerbaijan People's Government. 5 July The United States recognized the Provisional Government of National UnityTRJN. 23 August Michael I of Romania led a coup against the military dictatorship of Ion Antonescu. 10 March The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church was united with the Russian Orthodox Church. 21 July The CommunismCommunist Polish Committee of National LiberationLublin Government of Polish areas annexed by Nazi GermanyPoland was established. 14 November The Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia was established in Prague. placing itself under the command of an Allied Commission led by Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky. 2 October Warsaw Uprising: The leader of the Uprising signed a surrender agreement. 2 May Battle of Berlin: The defenders of Berlin surrendered to the Soviet Union. 15 May Patriarch Sergius I of MoscowSergius died.Timeline of Russian history September Joseph StalinStalin allowed a Russian Orthodox Churchchurch council. 20 August Invasion of Manchuria: The Soviet Union captured Changchun.(Mahabad)Kurdish Republic of Mahabad declared its independence from Iran. 9 May Iran crisis: The Soviet Union withdrew from Iran. 27 January Siege of Leningrad: The last Nazi GermanyGerman forces were expelled from the city. 28 June The coalition Provisional Government of National UnityProvisional Government of National Unity (TRJN) was established in Poland. 15 December Iran conquered Mahabad. 21 June Trial of the Sixteen: The defendants were sentenced. 12 September Greater RomaniaRomania signed an armistice with the Allies. 20 March László Rajk of the Hungarian Communist Party became Minister of the Interior. 18 January The Soviet Union captured Budapest. 2 March Iran crisis: British troops withdrew from Iran. 1945 17 January The Soviet Union captured Warsaw. 26 May Czechoslovak parliamentary election. November The Soviet Union established the Azerbaijan People's Government in Azerbaijan (Iran)Iranian Azerbaijan. 22 August Warsaw Uprising: Joseph StalinStalin denied the Allies of World War IIAllies use of his landing strips to supply aid to the insurgents. 21 September Soviet and CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak partisan armed forces entered Nazi GermanyGerman-occupied Czechoslovakia. 18 June Trial of the Sixteen: Leaders of the Polish Secret State were tried in the Soviet Union for Non-German cooperation with Nazis during World War IIcollaboration. 25 August Invasion of Manchuria: The Soviet Union captured Sakhalin's capital. The Soviet Union violated its prior agreement and remained. 20 April Battle of Berlin: The Soviet army began shelling Berlin. 21 April The Provisional Government of the Republic of PolandRTRP ceded control of Poland's internal security apparatus to the Soviet government for forty years. the capital of Manchukuo. 19 November Romanian general election. 2 August The Potsdam Agreement moved People's Republic of PolandPoland's borders to the west and established the shape of Allied Occupation Zones in Germanyoccupied Germany. 4 April The government of the Czechoslovakia: 1945-1948Third Czechoslovakian Republic was established in Košice. 1946 22 January The Soviet-backed Republic of Kurdistan . 19 September Continuation War: The Moscow Armistice was signed. 18 August Invasion of Manchuria: Soviet amphibious forces landed in Korea under Japanese ruleKorea. 16 August Soviet invasion of ManchuriaInvasion of Manchuria: Soviet armed forces landed on Sakhalin. was established. 9 May The Soviet army captured Prague. ending the war at roughly the prewar borders. 1947 19 January Polish legislative election. 1946: Rigged elections gave a vast majority of seats in the Greater RomaniaRomanian legislature to the Romanian Communist Party and its allies. 1947: Rigged elections gave the CommunismCommunist bloc 80 percent of the vote. which incorporated token non-CommunismCommunists into the preexisting Polish Committee of National LiberationLublin Government. 31 December The Provisional Government of the Republic of PolandProvisional Government of the Republic of Poland (RTRP). which unanimously elected Patriarch Sergius I of MoscowSergius to the Patriarchate of Moscow. 11 February The Soviet Union gained the right to Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands at the Yalta Conference 6 March Greater RomaniaRomanian Prime Minister of RomaniaPrime Minister Nicolae Rădescu was forced to resign his office to Petru Groza of the Ploughmen's Front.

27 July Korean War: An armistice was signed. 17 June Uprising of 1953 in East Germany: 100. At noon German police trapped many of the demonstrators in an open square. 25 June Kengir Uprising: The prison camp at Kengir was invaded and subdued by Soviet troops and tanks. 1953 13 January An article in Pravda accused some of the nation's most prominent doctors – particularly Jews – of participating in a vast Doctors' plotconspiracy to poison top Soviet leaders. 1949 11 May Berlin Blockade: The Soviets lifted the blockade. 5 March Joseph StalinStalin died. 1948 20 February Non-CommunismCommunist ministers resigned from the Czechoslovakia: 1945-1948Czechoslovakian parliament in order to force an election.Timeline of Russian history won a plurality of seats in elections to the Hungarian legislature. 8 April First Indochina War: Viet Minh and Pathet Lao forces invaded Laos and attacked French Fourth RepublicFrench bases there. Joseph StalinStalin suffered a paralyzing stroke. between 60 and 80 construction workers went on strike in East Berlin. Soviet tanks fired on the crowd. 28 June Socialist Federal Republic of YugoslaviaYugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform. 1950 30 January Korean War: Regarding a mass invasion of the South KoreaSouth. 25 June Berlin Blockade: The commander of the American Allied Occupation Zones in Germanyoccupation zone ordered an airlift of supplies into West Berlin. the resignation of the East GermanyEast German government. 30 December King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate. Joseph StalinStalin wrote to his ambassador to North Korea: "Tell him [Kim Il-sungKim] that I am ready to help him in this matter. 25 February Czechoslovakian president Edvard Beneš accepted the resignations of the non-CommunismCommunist ministers and replaced them according to the demands of the Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaKSČ. ending the conflict. Their numbers quickly swelled and a general strike and protests were called for the next day. 21 February The Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaKSČ established the People's Militias (Czechoslovakia)Workers' Militia. killing hundreds and ending the protest. 7 May Battle of Dien Bien Phu: The battle ended in a French Fourth RepublicFrench defeat. 16 June Uprising of 1953 in East Germany: In response to a 10 percent increase in work quotas. 18 August A new CommunismCommunist constitution came into force in People's Republic of HungaryHungary. 27 November A speech to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaKSČ by Chairman Klement Gottwald denounced "reactionary forces" and triggered the purge of non-CommunismCommunists from the Czechoslovakia: 1945-1948Czechoslovakian security forces. 3 April The Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPresidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party officially acquitted those arrested in connection with the so-called "doctors' plot".000 man surprise assault across the 38th parallel north38th parallel. 24 June Berlin Blockade: The Soviet Union blocked rail and road access to West Berlin. 13 April A new Communist RomaniaRomanian constitution declared that country a People's Republic. 1 March After an all-night dinner with party members Lavrenty Beria. Nikolai Bulganin.000 protestors gathered at dawn. 9 September The North KoreaDemocratic People's Republic of Korea was established. 1 November Korean War: Soviet-piloted MiG-15s first crossed the Yalu River and attacked American planes. 1954 13 March Battle of Dien Bien Phu: Viet Minh forces loosed a massive artillery barrage against the surrounded French Fourth RepublicFrench airbase at Dien Bien Phu. demanding the reinstatement of old work quotas and. 6 March Georgy MalenkovMalenkov succeeded Joseph StalinStalin as Premier of the Soviet UnionPremier and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionFirst Secretary of the Communist Party. 21 July Geneva Conference (1954): The signing of the Geneva Accords promised a complete French Fourth RepublicFrench 19 . later. 5 October The Cominform was established in order to coordinate Communist partyCommunist parties under Soviet control. 7 September Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev was confirmed as head of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCentral Committee. 16 May Kengir Uprising: Prisoners at a Gulag adjacent to the Kazakh SSRKazakh village of Kengir occupied the camp's service yard. 29 August Joe 1: The Soviet atomic bomb project culminated in a successful test detonation. 26 June Lavrenty BeriaBeria was arrested at a special meeting of the Presidium of the Supreme SovietPresidium. Nikita Khrushchev and Georgy Malenkov." 25 June Korean War: The North Korean army launched a 135. and occupied the non-Communist ministries. 14 March Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionFirst Secretary. 1952 20 November Prague Trials: A series of show trials purged the CzechoslovakiaCzech Communist Party of Jews and insufficiently orthodox Stalinists. banned non-CommunismCommunists from television broadcasts.

Timeline of Russian history withdrawal, partitioned Vietnam into a CommunismCommunist North VietnamNorth and a monarchymonarchist South VietnamSouth, and scheduled unifying elections for July 1956. 1955 2 June Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev and Josip Broz TitoTito issued the Belgrade declaration, which declared that "different forms of Socialist development are solely the concern of the individual countries." July Ho Chi Minh visited Moscow and agreed to accept Soviet aid. 1956 25 February At a closed session of the 20th Congress of the CPSU20th Party Congress, Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev read the "Secret Speech," On the Personality Cult and its Consequences, denouncing the actions of his predecessor Joseph StalinStalin. The speech weakened the hand of the Stalinists in the Soviet government. 17 April The Cominform was officially dissolved. 28 June Poznań 1956 protests: People's Republic of PolandPoles upset with the slow pace of destalinization turned to protests, and then to violent riots. 29 June Poznań 1956 protests: Konstantin Rokossovsky, the People's Republic of PolandPolish minister of defense, ordered the military in to end the riots. At least 74 civilians were killed. 16 July The Karelo-Finnish SSR became the Karelian ASSR of the Russian SFSR. 19 October The liberal Władysław Gomułka was elected leader of the Polish United Workers' PartyPolish Communist party. 23 October 1956 Hungarian Revolution: A small pro-Władysław GomułkaGomułka demonstration in Budapest expanded into a 100,000 head protest. The protestors marched on Parliament; when they were fired on by the Államvédelmi HatóságHungarian Security Police, they turned violent and began to arm themselves. An emergency meeting of the Central Committee appointed the reformist Imre Nagy Prime Minister. 31 October 1956 Hungarian Revolution: People's Republic of HungaryHungary under Imre NagyNagy withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. 4 November 1956 Hungarian Revolution: A Soviet invasion, involving infantry, artillery, airstrikes, and some 6,000 tanks entered Budapest. 2,500 People's Republic of HungaryHungarians were killed in the ensuing battle. 8 November 1956 Hungarian Revolution: Pro-Soviet János Kádár announced the formation of a new "Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government," with himself as Prime Minister and leader of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' PartyCommunist Party. 2 December Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and his followers in the 26 July Movement landed in Cuba. 10 December Angolan War of Independence: Two Angolan independence movements united to form the MarxismMarxist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola. 1957 18 June Led by the Stalinist Anti-Party Group, the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPresidium voted to depose Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionFirst Secretary. The Presidium reversed its vote under pressure from Khrushchev and the defense minister and deferred the decision to a later meeting of the full Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCentral Committee. 29 June A Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCentral Committee vote affirmed Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionFirst Secretary and deposed Anti-Party Group members Vyacheslav MolotovMolotov, Lazar KaganovichKaganovich, and Georgy MalenkovMalenkov from the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee. 1958 27 March Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev replaced Nikolai BulganinBulganin as Premier of the Soviet Union. 1959 1 January Cuban Revolution: Cuban president Fulgencio Batista fled Cuba for the Dominican Republic. 1960 16 April Sino-Soviet Split: A Chinese Communist Party of ChinaCommunist Party newspaper accused the Soviet leadership of "revisionism." 16 July Sino-Soviet Split: Moscow recalled thousands of Soviet advisers from China and ended economic and military aid. 20 December Vietnam War: The Viet CongNational Front for the Liberation of Vietnam was formed, with the intent to overthrow the government of South Vietnam. 1961 17 April Bay of Pigs Invasion: After a U.S. bombing run against the Cuban air force, a group of 1,500 armed exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs on the southern coast. As the invasion faltered, President John F. Kennedy called off the airstrikes. 20 April Bay of Pigs Invasion: Fidel CastroCastro announced that all the invaders had been defeated. 13 August Construction began on the Berlin Wall. 2 December In a nationally broadcast speech, Fidel CastroCastro declared he was a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba was going to adopt Communism. 10 December Sino-Albanian split: The Soviet Union severed diplomatic ties with Albania. 1962 2 June Novocherkassk massacre: Soviet workers gathered in the town square of Novocherkassk to protest an increase in food prices and work quotas. The government fired on the rioters, killing nearly a hundred. 25 June Mozambican War of Independence: The Mozambican Liberation FrontMozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) was founded. 16 October Cuban Missile Crisis: President John F. KennedyKennedy


Timeline of Russian history was shown Lockheed U-2U-2 surveillance images of R-12 DvinaSS-4 launch sites in Cuba. 22 October Cuban Missile Crisis: John F. KennedyKennedy announced that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union, and that the island would be placed under "Blockadequarantine" to prevent further weapons shipments. 26 October Cuban Missile Crisis: The Soviet Union offered to withdraw the missiles in return for a U.S. guarantee not to invade Cuba or support any invasion. 28 October Cuban Missile Crisis: Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev announced that he had ordered the removal of the Soviet missiles in Cuba. 1964 14 October Nikita KhrushchevKhrushchev's rivals in the party deposed him at a Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionCentral Committee meeting. Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin assumed power as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionFirst Secretary and Premier of the Soviet UnionPremier, respectively. 1965 1 January The Marxist People's Democratic Party of AfghanistanPeople's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) held its first congress. 1967 7 February Sino-Soviet split: The Chinese government announced that it could no longer guarantee the safety of Soviet diplomats outside the embassy building. 10 June The Soviet Union severed diplomatic relations with Israel. see Soviet Union and the Arab-Israeli conflict 1968 5 January Prague Spring: The liberal Alexander Dubček was appointed to succeed Antonín Novotný as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. 5 April Prague Spring: The Czech Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaCommunist Party published their Action Programme (1968)Action Programme. This document guaranteed a number of new freedoms including free freedom of speechspeech, freedom of movementtravel, debate and freedom of associationassociation. 20 August Prague Spring: Between 200,000 and 600,000 Warsaw Pact troops crossed the Czechoslovakian border. 21 August Prague Spring: Leading Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaKSČ liberals – including Alexander DubčekDubček – were arrested, flown to Moscow and forced to repeal the reforms of the Prague Spring. They agreed to the presence of Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia. 1969 2 March Sino-Soviet border conflict: A Soviet patrol came into armed conflict with Chinese forces on Zhenbao Island. June Qahtan al-Shabi, president of the People's Democratic Republic of YemenPeople's Republic of South Yemen, was overthrown and replaced by Salim Rubayi Ali of the MarxismMarxist National Liberation Front. 21 October SomaliaSomali military and police occupied the capital of Mogadishu. The Supreme Revolutionary Council was established as the new government, with the Marxist revolutionary Siad Barre at its head. 1973 27 January Vietnam War: The Paris Peace Accords pledged the signatory parties to "respect the independence, sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity of Vietnam as recognized by the 1954 Geneva Agreements on Vietnam," and promised a complete withdrawal of United States forces from Vietnam and Laos. 1974 11 July The Soviet Union signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation with the SomaliaSomali government. 12 September Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I of EthiopiaHaile Selassie was overthrown by a council of military officers, the Derg. 20 December The Derg declared that socialism was the new ideology of the Ethiopian state. 1975 31 January Angolan War of Independence: A transitional unity government, consisting of the National Liberation Front of Angola, the Soviet-backed Popular Movement for the Liberation of AngolaMPLA, and the MaoismMaoist UNITA, took office under the terms of the Alvor Agreement. 11 March Vietnam War: A large-scale North Vietnamese offensive began with the conquest of Buon Ma Thuot. 27 March The Pathet Lao began a military offensive against the LaosLaotian government. 30 April Fall of Saigon: The South Vietnamese capital of Saigon was captured by the Vietnam People's Army. 25 June Mozambican War of Independence: The Mozambican Liberation FrontFRELIMO government received independence from Portugal. Party leader Samora Machel, a MarxismMarxist, became the nation's first president. 11 November Angolan Civil War: Portugal accepted a declaration of independence from the Popular Movement for the Liberation of AngolaMPLA, which controlled the Angolan capital of Luanda. 2 December The king of Laos abdicated the throne, leaving leadership of the country to the CommunismCommunist Pathet Lao. 1977 23 July Ogaden War: The Military of SomaliaSomali National Army invaded the Ogaden region in eastern Ethiopia. 7 September Ogaden War: The Soviet Union ended its arms shipments to the SomaliaSomali government. 13 November Ogaden War: Siad BarreBarre cancelled the SomaliaSomali-Soviet treaty of friendship. 1978 28 April Saur Revolution: Military units loyal to the People's Democratic Party of AfghanistanPDPA assaulted the Daoud's Republic of AfghanistanAfghan Presidential palace, killing President Mohammed Daoud Khan. 1 May Saur


Timeline of Russian history Revolution: The People's Democratic Party of AfghanistanPDPA installed its leader, Nur Muhammad Taraki, as President of Democratic Republic of AfghanistanAfghanistan. July A rebellion against the new Democratic Republic of AfghanistanAfghan government began with an uprising in Nuristan. 5 December A treaty was signed which permitted deployment of the Soviet military at the Democratic Republic of AfghanistanAfghan government's request. 25 December Cambodian-Vietnamese War: The Vietnamese army invaded Cambodia. 1979 7 January Cambodian-Vietnamese War: The Vietnamese army captured Phnom Penh, ending the reign of the Khmer Rouge. 10 January Cambodian-Vietnamese War: The People's Republic of Kampuchea was established. 19 July The armed forces of the MarxismMarxist Sandinista National Liberation FrontSandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) entered Managua. 14 September Nur Muhammad TarakiTaraki was murdered by supporters of Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin. 24 December Soviet war in Afghanistan: Fearing the collapse of the Hafizullah AminAmin regime, the Soviet army invaded Democratic Republic of AfghanistanAfghanistan. 27 December Operation Storm-333: Soviet troops occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including the Tajbeg PalaceTajbeg Presidential Palace, and executed Prime Minister Hafizullah AminAmin. 1980 17 September The trade union Solidarity (Polish trade union)Solidarity was founded in People's Republic of PolandPoland. 10 October The Farabundo Martí National Liberation FrontFarabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) was founded from an assortment of Left-wing politicsleftist and CommunismCommunist El SalvadorSalvadoran revolutionary organizations. 1981 13 December In response to the growing influence of Solidarity (Polish trade union)Solidarity, Wojciech Jaruzelski, the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' PartyCommunist Party, declared martial law in Poland. 1982 25 January Mikhail SuslovSuslov died after a severe stroke. 10 November Leonid BrezhnevBrezhnev died of a heart attack. 12 November Yuri Andropov was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionGeneral Secretary of the CPSU. 1983 19 October The GrenadaGrenadian military overthrew the government of Maurice Bishop and installed the pro-Soviet StalinismStalinist Bernard Coard to lead the nation. 25 October Invasion of Grenada: The United States and her Caribbean allies toppled the Bernard CoardCoard government. 1984 9 February Yuri AndropovAndropov died after long kidney disease and was succeeded as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionGeneral Secretary by Konstantin Chernenko. 1985 10 March Konstantin ChernenkoChernenko died of Emphysema. 11 March The Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPolitburo unanimously supported Mikhail Gorbachev as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party. 1988 14 April Soviet war in Afghanistan: The Soviet government signed the Geneva Accords (1988)Geneva Accords, which included a timetable for withdrawing their armed forces. 27 April A strike at the V.I. Lenin Steel Mill in Nowa Huta touched off months of striking across Poland. 13 April Singing Revolution: The Popular Front of Estonia was founded. 3 June Singing Revolution: The liberalization movement Sąjūdis was founded in Lithuania. 9 October Singing Revolution: The Popular Front of Latvia was founded. 1989 15 February Soviet war in Afghanistan: The last Soviet troops left the country. 4 April The Polish Round Table Agreement legalized independent trade unions and reinstated the Senate of PolandSenate. 4 June Free elections were held to the People's Republic of PolandPolish National Assembly of Polandparliament, resulting in a landslide Solidarity (Polish trade union)Solidarity victory. 23 August Singing Revolution: Two million people joined hands to form the Baltic Way across Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to demonstrate for independence. 23 October The People's Republic of HungaryHungarian parliament declared their country a republic. 9 November The East GermanyEast German government loosened restrictions on travel into the West GermanyWest, effecting the end of the Berlin Wall. 11 November El Salvador Civil War: The Farabundo Martí National Liberation FrontFMLN launched an offensive which would capture part of San Salvador. 17 November Velvet Revolution: An anti-CommunismCommunist protest in Czechoslovakia was ended violently by the police. 28 November Velvet Revolution: The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced the end of its monopoly on political power. 7 December Singing Revolution: The Lithuanian parliament ended the political monopoly of the Communist Party of Lithuania. 16 December Romanian Revolution of 1989: A protest broke out in Timişoara in response to an attempt by the government to evict a dissident MagyarsHungarian Reformed churchesReformed pastor, László Tőkés. 25 December Romanian Revolution of 1989: Communist


Timeline of Russian history RomaniaRomanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu was captured in the countryside and executed. 1990 15 January The Bulgarian Communist Party repealed its constitutional supremacy. 23 February Singing Revolution: Elections in Lithuania gave Sąjūdis an absolute majority in the legislature. 11 March Singing Revolution: The Lithuanian government declared its independence from the Soviet Union. 18 March Singing Revolution: Elections to the Latvian Supreme Soviet gave the majority of seats to a pro-independence coalition, led by the Popular Front of Latvia. 8 April The Hungarian Socialist Party received only 8% of the seats in elections to National Assembly of Hungaryparliament. 9 June Velvet Revolution: Czech legislative election, 1990Elections in Czechoslovakia reduced the Communist Party of CzechoslovakiaCommunist Party to a minority. 12 June First Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSRAdoption of Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist RepublicDeclaration of State Sovereignty 21 August Conflict in Transnistria and Gagauzia: The Gagauz peopleGagauz declared a new soviet republic on Moldovian SSRMoldavian soil. 1991 11 January January Events: Soviet troops violently seized important buildings in cities throughout Lithuania. 23 May The Moldavian SSR became the MoldovaRepublic of Moldova. 12 June Russian presidential election, 1991: Boris Yeltsin was elected to the presidency of the Russian SFSR. 19 August Soviet coup attempt of 1991: A group of high-ranking officials calling themselves the State Emergency Committee announced that Gennady Yanayev was to replace Mikhail GorbachevGorbachev as President of the Soviet Union. 20 August Singing Revolution: The Estonian government declared its independence. 21 August Singing Revolution: The government of Latvia declared its independence.Soviet coup attempt of 1991: The military refused State Emergency Committee orders to take the capital. The leaders of the coup were arrested. 24 August The Verkhovna RadaUkrainian parliament adopted the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine. 27 August Moldova declared independence. 30 August The Kyrgyz SSR became the KyrgyzstanRepublic of Kyrgyzstan. 31 August The KyrgyzstanRepublic of Kyrgyzstan declared independence. 6 September Singing Revolution: The Soviet Union recognized the independence of the Baltic states. Militants belonging to the separatist All-National Congress of the Chechen PeopleAll-National Congress of the Chechen People (NCChP) stormed a session of the Supreme Soviet of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist RepublicChechen-Ingush ASSR. NCChP leader Dzhokhar Dudaev was appointed to the presidency. 27 October A national referendum confirmed the Dzhokhar DudaevDudaev presidency. Dudaev unilaterally declared the independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. 8 December The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed Belavezha Accords. 12 December Belavezha Accords Congress of People's Deputieswere ratified and entered into force. Congress of People's DeputiesDenunciation of Treaty on the Creation of the USSRcreation of the USSR 25 December Renaming RSFSR to Russian Federation (Russia). 26 December The Soviet Union was officially self-dissolved. De jure Russian independence from dissolution of the Soviet Unionself-dissolved USSR 1993 21 September Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: Boris YeltsinYeltsin announced the dissolution of the Russian legislature. The legislature, in turn, responded by impeaching Yeltsin and declaring Aleksandr Rutskoy the new President of the Russian Federation. 4 October Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: The army occupied the White House, Moscowparliament building and arrested a number of its leaders. 12 December Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: A new Constitution of Russia5th Russian constitution was approved by referendum, vastly increasing the power of the President of the Russian Federationpresidency. 25 December 5th Constitution of Russia was published and entered into force. 1994 2 August First Chechen War: The leader of the Russian-backed Provisional Council of the Chechen Republic announced his intention to overthrow the Dzhokhar DudaevDudaev government. 11 December First Chechen War: Russian troops invaded Chechnya. 1996 3 July Russian presidential election, 1996: Boris YeltsinYeltsin narrowly defeated his CommunismCommunist challenger, Gennady Zyuganov. 30 August First Chechen War: The Khasav-Yurt Accord was signed, signaling the end of the war. 1999 7 August Dagestan War: A Chechnya-based militia invaded the Russian republic of Dagestan in support of local separatists. 16 August The State Duma confirmed the appointment of Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister of Russia. 23 August Dagestan War: The militias began their retreat back into Chechnya. 26 August Second Chechen War: The militia that had invaded Dagestan was bombed inside Chechnya. 4 September Russian apartment bombings: A car bomb outside of an apartment building in Buynaksk killed sixty-four people. 2 October Second Chechen War: Russian ground troops


fought to inherit the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. The ensuing battle left 344 civilians and 31 of 32 hostage-takers dead. Moscow came to dominate the former cultural center. The subsequent gunfight left 42 terrorists and 120 hostages dead. Prime minister Vladimir Putin becomes acting president.[1] Kievan Rus'. After the 13th century. By afternoon Russian soldiers surrounded and entered the city. During that time a number of regional magnates. following the sound of explosions. 2004: Vladimir PutinPutin won re-election to a second term. The state of Garðaríki ( "the realm of towns"). the first united East Slavic state. 2000 26 March Russian presidential election. 2008 2 March Russian presidential election. 1 September Beslan school hostage crisis: A group of ChechnyaChechen terrorists took 1300 adults and children hostage at School Number One in Beslan. the Grand Duchy of Moscow had become the huge Russian Empire. was established by the Varangian chieftain Rurik in 862 (the traditional beginning of Russian history). which was centered in Novgorod and included the entire areas inhabited by Ilmen Slavs. 3 September Beslan school hostage crisis: At one in the afternoon. and demanded an immediate Russian withdrawal from Chechnya.[3] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. earning 70.[2] The state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988. in particular Novgorod and Pskov. 2005 13 October October 2005 Nalchik attack: A large group of terrorists assaulted and captured buildings throughout the city of Nalchik.5 percent of the vote. then stormed it from every entrance. 26 October Moscow theater hostage crisis: The police pumped anesthetic into the building. was founded by Rurik's successor Oleg of Novgorod in 882.Timeline of Russian history invaded Chechnya. Some 136 people were killed. forcing their enemies to retreat. Expansion in the western direction sharpened Russia's awareness of its separation from much of the rest of Europe and shattered the isolation The Millennium of Russia monument on a postage stamp dedicated to the 1140th anniversary of the Russian statehood in 2002 . 8–16 August Russia defeated Georgia (country)Georgia in the 2008 South Ossetia WarSouth Ossetian war and recognized South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states 2009 8 April Russian President Dimitry Medvedev signs a deal with American President Barack Obama cutting nuclear weapons by a third 24 History of Russia The history of Russia begins with that of the Eastern Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. 31 December Boris Yeltsin abdicated as President of the Russian Federation. 8 December The treaty of creation of the Union of Russia and Belarus was signed.[4] Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of the Mongol invasion of Rus' in 1237–1240. stretching from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth eastward to the Pacific Ocean. earning 71 percent of the vote. Russian police and soldiers stormed the school. 2004 14 March Russian presidential election. taking approximately 700 theatergoers hostage. Veps and Votes. 2008: Dmitry Medvedev won.21st centuryYear Date Event 2002 23 October Moscow theater hostage crisis: ChechnyaChechen rebels seized the House of Culture theater in Moscow.[4] By the 18th century. 12 August Russian submarine Kursk explosion: An explosion disabled the Russian submarine K-141 Kursk. 2000: Putin was elected president with 53 percent of the vote.

the Bosporan Kingdom. starting from the late 1991. however. government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists.[8] Even today Russia shares many continuities of political culture and social structure with its tsarist and Soviet past. Russia attempted to build an economy with elements of market capitalism. Between 1922 and 1991. and discontent with the autocratic system of government. but its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD. the Communist leaders embarked on major reforms. Between the abolition of serfdom and the beginning of World War I in 1914. Russia was recognized as the legal successor to the Soviet Union on the international stage. from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. beginning in March 1918.[13] In the latter part of the 8th century BC. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the Soviet era.[10] Remnants of these long-gone steppe civilizations were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo.[19] They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire. as was the case with the Huns and Turkish Avars. the history of Russia is essentially the history of the Soviet Union. effectively an ideologically based state which was roughly conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. tolerance. ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through to the 8th century.[12] and Pazyryk.and wood-fortified grad inhabited around 500 BC by Heloni and Budini. varied over different periods in Soviet history. a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies.[5] but the tsars were still not willing to relinquish autocratic rule.[18] the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad. the Khazars.[14] of Indo-European peoples Gelonus was described by Herodotos as a huge (Europe's biggest) earth.[6] The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown. or share their power. and cosmopolitanism.[20] and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates.[10] Sintashta. 25 Early history Pre-Slavic inhabitants During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. which led to the fall of the Soviet Union. A Turkic people.[16] led by warlike tribes which would often move on to Europe.[11] Arkaim. with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute.[17] Noted for their laws.[21] .[17] [21] In the 8th century. as the Bolsheviks called themselves. with often painful results. but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the Communist Bolsheviks on October 25. The approach to the building of socialism. In classical antiquity.[7] However. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861. by the late 1980s. Greek merchants brought classical Kurgan hypothesis: South Russia as the urheimat civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. war weariness. the Stolypin reforms. Russia has lost its superpower status as it faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a new post-Soviet political and economic system. the constitution of 1906 and State Duma introduced notable changes to the economy and politics of Russia.[8] The history of the Russian Federation is brief. the Khazars embraced Judaism. From its first years. Successive regimes of the 19th century responded to such pressures with a combination of halfhearted reform and repression.[9] However. and it first brought a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists to power.History of Russia in which the initial stages of expansion had occurred.[15] was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions. the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia.

[4] A coordinated group of Kievan Rus' in the 11th century princely states with a common interest in maintaining trade along the river routes. its culture would have a continuous influence on the development of Russia in its formative centuries. the Norse minority had merged with the Slavic population. Kievan Rus' is important for its introduction of a Slavic variant of the Eastern Orthodox religion.[4] dramatically deepening a synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next thousand years. whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes.[4] before his successors moved south and extended their authority to Kiev. Kievan Rus' controlled the trade route for furs.[4] The name "Russia". despite its later decline.[31] The etymology of Rus and its derivatives are debated. Svyatoslav I. emerged in the 9th century along the Dnieper River valley.[28] According to the earliest Russian chronicle. they began to venture along the waterways from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. and other schools of thought connect the name with Slavic or Iranic roots. such as the Merya.[35] At the time.[32] By the end of the 10th century.[26] A general map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians Kievan Rus' Scandinavian Norsemen. wax.[24] the Muromians. a Varangian named Rurik was elected ruler (knyaz) of Novgorod in about 860. the Byzantine Empire was experiencing a major military and cultural revival. together with the Finnish Ruotsi (which means "Sweden") and Estonian Rootsi (which means "Sweden"). are found by some scholars to be related to Roslagen. Russkaya Pravda. the first East Slavic state.[37] From the onset the Kievan princes .[29] which had been previously dominated by the Khazars. called "Vikings" in Western Europe and "Varangians"[27] in the East.[34] One such campaign claimed the life of the foremost Slavic druzhina leader.[23] From the 7th century onwards. and slaves between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire along the Volkhov and Dnieper Rivers.[25] and the Meshchera. who was renowned for having crushed the power of the Khazars on the Volga.History of Russia 26 Early East Slavs The ancestors of the Russians were the Slavic tribes.[22] The Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towards Novgorod and Rostov.[30] Thus. the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia[23] and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes. Kievan Rus'. was introduced.[36] Some years later the first code of laws. The region adopted Christianity in 988 by the official act of public baptism of Kiev inhabitants by Prince Vladimir I. In the mid-9th century.[33] which also absorbed Greek Christian influences in the course of the multiple campaigns to loot Tsargrad. combined piracy and trade in their roamings over much of Northern Europe. or Constantinople.

1238: a miniature from the 16th century chronicle .[40] A nomadic Turkic people. particularly to the area known as Zalesye. The advanced city culture was almost completely destroyed. and Halych-Volhynia in the south-west.[48] Tver[48] and Nizhny Novgorod[49] began to compete for hegemony in the Mongol-dominated Russia.[4] while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and independent Novgorod Republic. would establish the basis for the modern Russian nation. two regions on the periphery of Kiev.[41] Halych-Volhynia would eventually be absorbed into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. even for its revenues. 1238)[43] and other major cities of northeast Russia. Although a Russian army defeated the Golden Horde at Kulikovo in 1380.[42] In 1237–1238 the Mongols burnt down the city of Vladimir (February 4.[45] By then they had conquered most of the Russian principalities.[4] This was due to the fact that Church Slavonic was used directly in liturgy instead. The nomadic incursions caused a massive influx of Slavs to the safer. Novgorod in the north. the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans). replaced the earlier Pechenegs as the dominant force in the south steppe regions neighbouring to Rus' at the end of 11th century and founded a nomadic state in the steppes along the Black Sea (Desht-e-Kipchak). Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of in-fighting between members of the princely family that ruled it collectively. routed the Russians at the Sit' River.[48] Sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in February. Conquest by the Mongol Golden Horde in the 13th century was the final blow.History of Russia followed the Byzantine example and kept the Church dependent on them. especially on Kiev. In 1223. heavily forested regions of the north. the disunited southern princes faced a Mongol raiding party at the Kalka River and were soundly defeated.[47] The impact of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven. continued until about 1480.[4] 27 Mongol invasion The invading Mongols accelerated the fragmentation of the Rus'. to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east. the Russian language was little influenced by the Greek and Latin of early Christian writings. which was just one day's ride from the steppe. Kievan Rus' displayed an economy and achievements in architecture and literature superior to those that then existed in the western part of the continent.[44] and then moved west into Poland and Hungary.[38] so that the Russian Church and state were always closely linked. particularly during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise. By the 11th century.[50] Mongol domination of the Russian-inhabited territories. was a heavy burden for the southern areas of Rus'.[41] the new cities of Moscow.[46] Only the Novgorod Republic escaped occupation and continued to flourish in the orbit of the Hanseatic League. Kiev's dominance waned. As older centers such as Kiev and Vladimir never recovered from the devastation of the initial attack. Repelling their regular attacks.[39] Compared with the languages of European Christendom. along with demands of tribute from Russian princes. Kiev was destroyed.

The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai. commonly called Tatars. Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes. the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky. Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who. census. tried to grab territory and convert the Russians to Roman Catholicism. but soon it absorbed its parent state.[48] which eventually expelled the Tatars from Russia. In the mid-13th century. A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords. the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgaria. founded the principality of Moscow (known as Muscovy). The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde. fiscal system. In the wake of the Mongol invasions of the 1230s. Under Mongol occupation. hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions. fled from Kiev to Vladimir in 1299 and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Kiev Metropolitan. . During the reign of Daniel. acquired heroic status as the result of major victories over the Teutonic Knights and the Swedes. Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir. Grand Duchy of Moscow The rise of Moscow Daniil Aleksandrovich. Volga Bulgaria was absorbed by the Golden Horde and its population evolved into the modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars. which facilitated its trade with the Middle East and Central Asia. Alexander Nevsky. when Russian rulers made a conscious effort to modernize their country. and is referred to as the Tataro-Mongol Yoke. In general. the Metropolitan. this period left a very unpleasant impression. the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way of life than the Mongols. The Mongols left their impact on the Russians in such areas as military tactics and transportation. In popular memory. Moscow was little The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the more than a small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Russia. the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished.[51] one of the largest cities of the medieval world. Russia also developed its postal road network.[51] while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexander Nevsky in the Horde Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh. Its head. To the Orthodox Church and most princes. elected prince of Novgorod. In the 10th century the Turkic population of Volga Bulgaria converted to Islam. center of the Russian Orthodox Church. who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities.[51] but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans. and military organization.History of Russia 28 Russo-Tatar relations After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century. the last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria.[4] Eastern influence remained strong well until the 17th century.

the Great In the 15th century.[56] To achieve this aim. who were obliged to serve in the military. the Grand Duchy of Moscow tripled in size under his rule. Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Horde. the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. an emerging horse army. On the right stands Marfa Boretskaya. In 1380. autocratic ruler. border skirmishes. In this way. the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property.[55] The Fall of Constantinople and the death of the last Greek Orthodox Christian emperor contributed to this new idea of Moscow as 'New Rome' and the seat of Orthodox Christianity. at Kulikovo on the Don River. a monk named Filofei (Philotheus of Pskov) composed a letter to Ivan III. Moscow's leadership in Russia was now firmly based and by the middle of the 14th century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase.[48] demanding the tribute in front of Khan's mission During his conflict with Pskov. they sponsored the construction of the Great Abatis Belt and granted manors to nobles. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III[48] who laid the foundations for a Russian national state. for control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins. Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories.[54] As a Ivan III tears off the Khan's missive letter result. it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy. Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival. By the 16th century. 29 Ivan III. Gradually. now divided into several Khanates and hordes. with the prophecy that the latter's kingdom will be the Third Rome. and foreign affairs. The manor system provided a basis for Fall of Novgorod Republic in 1478. the Mongols were defeated. a tsar.[50] and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia. the grand princes of Moscow went on gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. judicial.[53] but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military. Refusing further tribute to the Tatars. and a long war with the Novgorod Republic.[52] [53] Through the defections of some princes.[48] A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe. The first Russian ruler to officially crown himself "Tsar" was Ivan IV. war.[48] . and marriage. Ivan III was able to annex Novgorod and Tver. Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles. the Russian ruler emerged as a powerful. the power of the Mongols was declining. and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke. Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes.History of Russia By the middle of the 14th century.

the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold at the Urals and recruited Russian Cossacks to colonize Siberia.History of Russia 30 Tsardom of Russia Ivan IV. Astrakhan.[57] established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor).[63] In 1572 Ivan abandoned the oprichnina. curbed the influence of clergy. epidemics. Ivan is often seen a farsighted statesman who reformed Russia as he promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550). Through these conquests. Also around this period.[48] Nevertheless.[64] [65] At the end of Ivan IV's reign the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies carried out a powerful intervention in Russia. exiling or executing many on the slightest provocation.[59] Although his long Livonian War for the control of the Baltic coast and the access to sea trade ultimately proved a costly failure. He strengthened the position of the monarch to an unprecedented degree. This combined with the military losses. poor harvests so weakened Russia that the Crimean Tatars were able to sack central Russian regions and burn down Moscow (1571). Russia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. culminating in the Massacre of Novgorod (1570). devastating its northern and northwest regions. Ivan's followers carried out a series of bloody purges of the feudal aristocracy (which he suspected of treachery after the betrayal of prince Kurbsky).[58] and introduced the local self-management in rural regions. as he ruthlessly subordinated the nobles to his will. and Siberia.[62] In the later part of his reign. Ivan divided his realm in two. the Terrible The development of the Tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign (1547–1584) of Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible").[66] . In the zone known as the oprichnina.[61] These conquests complicated the migration of the aggressive nomadic hordes from Asia to Europe through Volga and Ural.[60] Ivan Ivan IV managed to annex the Khanates of Kazan.

[69] During the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618). civil war combined with foreign intrusion. Boris Godunov's(Борис Годунов) reign ended in chaos.History of Russia 31 Time of Troubles The death of Ivan's childless son Feodor was followed by a period of civil wars and foreign intervention known as the "Time of Troubles" (1606–13). the young son of Patriarch Filaret. Finally. . with the chaos ended and the Poles expelled from Moscow. The decisive moment came when a combined Russian-Swedish army was routed by the Polish forces under hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski at the Battle of Klushino on 4 July Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny [O. The accession of Romanovs and early rule In February.[70] [71] The Poles entered Moscow on 21 September [O. the "Time of Troubles" provoked by the dynastic crisis resulted in the loss of much territory to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Russo-Polish war.[48] However.S. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.S. devastation of many cities and depopulation of the rural regions. 22 October] 1612. its major enemies. 24 June] 1610.[48] Extremely cold summers (1601–1603) wrecked crops. expelled the foreign forces from the capital on 4 November [O. were engaged in a bitter conflict with Election of 16-year old Mikhail Romanov. a group Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the [67] Poles. 11 The crisis provoked a patriotic national uprising against the invasion. which provided Russia the opportunity to make peace with first Tsar of the Romanov dynasty Sweden in 1617 and to sign a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1619. The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore peace. deposed the tsar Vasily Shuysky on 27 July [O.[67] [75] [76] The Russian statehood survived the "Time of Troubles" and the rule of weak or corrupt Tsars because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. The country rocked by internal chaos also attracted several waves of interventions by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1613. 27 August] 1610. Fortunately for Moscow. of Russian nobles.[68] which led to the Russian famine of 1601–1603 and increased the social disorganization. Government functionaries continued to serve. a volunteer army. Recovery of lost territories started in the mid-17th century. to the throne. [72] [73] [74] September] 1610. regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the faction controlling the throne. then supported False Dmitry II in 1607.S. composed of representatives from fifty cities and even some peasants.S. elected Michael Romanov. as well as to the Swedish Empire in the Ingrian War. Moscow revolted but riots there were brutally suppressed and the city was set on fire. The Romanov dynasty ruled Russia until 1917. and recognized the Polish prince Władysław IV Vasa as the Tsar of Russia on 6 September [O. As the result of the battle. when the Khmelnitsky Uprising in Ukraine against Polish rule brought about the Treaty of Pereyaslav concluded between Russia and the Ukrainian Cossacks. both in 1611 and 1612.S. led by the merchant Kuzma Minin and prince Dmitry Pozharsky. the each other. a national assembly. the Seven Boyars. Polish-Lithuanian forces reached Moscow and installed the impostor False Dmitriy I in 1605. 17 July] 1610.

the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another. peasant disorders were endemic. the Cossacks. the state required service from both the old and the new nobility. Yet. reacted against the growing centralization of the state. where Poland accepted the loss of Left-bank Ukraine. serfs escaped from their landlords and joined the rebels. like the serfs.[48] Rather than risk their estates in more civil war. Russia granted protection to the Cossacks state in the Left-bank Ukraine.[48] The tsar's army finally crushed his forces in 1670. . a year later Stenka was captured and beheaded. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes. they were forbidden to change residence. less than half a century later.[78] and the Moscow Uprising (1682). In return the tsars allowed the boyars to complete the process of enserfing the peasants. primarily in the military. the strains of military expeditions produced another revolt in Astrakhan. middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes.[77] Patriarch Nikon's reform of the Church Service caused schism in the Russian Orthodox Church and appearance of Old Believers Under such circumstances.History of Russia 32 According to the treaty.[78] Copper Riot (1662). the great nobles or boyars cooperated with the first Romanovs. Kiev and Smolensk. even the citizens of Moscow revolted against the Romanovs during the Salt Riot (1648). In the preceding century. Together the state and the nobles placed the overwhelming burden of taxation on the peasants. whose rate was 100 times greater in the mid-17th century than it had been a century earlier. formerly under Polish control. As the free settlers of South Russia. Thus. This triggered a prolonged Russo-Polish War which ended with the Treaty of Andrusovo (1667). runaway peasants became state fugitives.[79] By far the greatest peasant uprising in 17th century Europe erupted in 1667. inciting peasant uprisings and replacing local governments with Cossack rule. and the power of the landlords over the peasants "attached" to their land had become almost complete. and. ultimately subdued. In addition. enabling them to finish the Stenka Razin Sailing in the Caspian work of bureaucratic centralization. The Cossack leader Stenka Razin led his followers up the Volga River. With the state now fully sanctioning serfdom.

The countryside was also divided into new provinces and districts. he had already founded the city that was to become Russia's new capital. molding Russia into an absolutist state. The war ended in 1721 when an exhausted Sweden sued for peace with Russia.[82] His attention then turned to the north. and Russian Tzardom officially became the Russian Empire in 1721.History of Russia 33 Imperial Russia Peter the Great Peter the Great (1672–1725) brought autocracy into Russia and played a major role in bringing his country into the European state system. Peter continued and intensified his predecessors' requirement of state service for all nobles. Peter assumed the title of emperor as well as tsar. the reconquest of Kiev. and the pacification of the Siberian tribes. Peter reorganized his government on the latest Western models. to replace the old governmental departments. whose harbor was frozen nine months a year. . In celebration of his conquests. it spanned the Eurasian landmass from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Administrative Collegia were established in St. Petersburg. in 1703. Only a small fraction of the population lived in the towns. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland. Russia remained isolated from the sea trade. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport except at Archangel on the White Sea. Russian intervention in the Commonwealth marked. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. in particular long cold winters and short vegetative period[80] ) compelling almost the entire population to farm. From its modest beginnings in the 14th century principality of Moscow. Peter told the senate that its mission was to collect tax revenues. Russia had become the largest state in the world by Peter's reign. the Peter the Great leading the Russian army in the Battle of Poltava Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure. this vast land had a population of only 14 million. However. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him in 1699 to make a secret alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden resulting in the Great Northern War. as a "window opened upon Europe" to replace Moscow. in effect making it a tool of the state. led by a lay government official. In 1722 Peter promulgated his famous Table of ranks. Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body. As part of the government reform. He replaced the old boyar Duma (council of nobles) with a nine-member senate. There. Grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West (that can be partly explained by the more challenging climatic conditions. Saint Petersburg. culminating in the first Russian settlement of the Pacific in the mid-17th century. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. whose territory enclosed it on three sides. Much of its expansion had taken place in the 17th century. in effect a supreme council of state. the beginning of a 200-year domination of that region by the Russian Empire. In turn tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. its internal trade communications and many manufactures were dependent on the seasonal changes. Three times the size of continental Europe. with the Silent Sejm.[81] Peter I of Russia. long Russia's cultural center. thus securing his coveted access to the sea. the Holy Synod.

assisted by the Preobrazhensky Regiment. In 1741 Elizabeth. She reigned for twenty years. on top of the oppressive social system that required lords' serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on the lords' land. daughter of Tsar Ivan V.History of Russia Russia. by the end of Peter's reign. except in cases of high treason. . Inspired by another Cossack named Pugachev. daughter of Peter. the Great. It was announced that he had died of "apoplexy". although the cost of her campaigns. Peter the Great died in 1725. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. had become a great power. Nearly forty years were to pass before a comparably ambitious ruler appeared on the Russian throne. then by his minor grandson (Peter II. 1725-1728) who was merely a figure-head for a powerful group of high officials. and abolishing mandatory state service.[83] but the specter of revolution continued to haunt her and her successors. provoked a major peasant uprising in 1773. then by his niece. with the emphatic cry of "Hang all the landlords!" the rebels threatened to take Moscow before they were ruthlessly suppressed. leaving an unsettled succession. and in 1762 she became ruler. after Catherine legalized the selling of serfs separate from land. The monument to Catherine II in Saint Petersburg Catherine the Great extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with actions including the support of the Targowica Confederation. a period marked by the establishment of Moscow University and the abolition of capital punishment. Catherine tacitly consented to his murder. Catherine patronized arts. 1728-1730). Anna. science and learning. 34 Ruling the Empire (1725–1825) Peter I was succeded by his second wife (Catherine I. Catherine had Pugachev drawn and quartered in Red Square. seized the throne. Finding him incompetent. Catherine II. Catherine promulgated Charter to the Gentry reaffirming rights and freedoms of the Russian nobility. was a German princess who married the German heir to the Russian crown.

Unable to decisively engage and defeat the standing Russian armies. the work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch. and its economic backwardness. As West European economic growth accelerated during the Industrial Revolution. when a number of well-educated Russian officers traveled in Europe in the course of the military campaigns. The campaign was a catastrophe. Nicholas I and the Decembrist Revolt Russia's great power status obscured the inefficiency of its government. thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by peasant guerrilla fighters. by allying with the rulers of Austria and Prussia. Napoleon attempted to force the Tsar to terms by capturing Moscow at the onset of winter. the isolation of its people. and though a few were introduced.[87] The tsar was succeeded by his younger brother. Catherine's expansionist policy had made Russia into a major European power. The Decembrists at the Senate Square. Napoleon made a major misstep when he declared war on Russia after a dispute with Tsar Alexander I and launched an invasion of Russia in 1812. The background of this revolt lay in the Napoleonic Wars. The expectation proved futile. Russia began to lag ever farther behind. Russian troops pursued them into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris. where their exposure to the liberalism of Western Europe encouraged them to seek change on their return to autocratic Russia. no thoroughgoing changes were attempted. Nicholas I (1825–1855). secured by its defeat of Napoleonic France. she incorporated the territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Russian troops under Generalissimo Suvorov crossing the Alps in 1799 Although the Russian Empire would play a leading political role in the next century. creating new problems for the empire as a great power. which made Alexander the monarch of Congress Poland. Alexander became known as the 'savior of Europe. who at the onset of his reign was confronted with an uprising. its retention Napoleon's retreat from Moscow of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. Unprepared for winter warfare in the cold Russian weather.History of Russia 35 Catherine successfully waged war against the decaying Ottoman Empire[84] and advanced Russia's southern boundary to the Black Sea. Alexander I was willing to discuss constitutional reforms. By the time of her death in 1796. This continued with Alexander I's wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812.' and he presided over the redrawing of the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna (1815). As Napoleon's forces retreated. sea trade and colonialism which had begun in the second half of the 18th century. Then. leading Nicholas to turn . But the revolt was easily crushed. where after a century of Russian rule non-Catholic mainly Orthodox population prevailed)[85] during the Partitions of Poland.[86] Following the defeat of Napoleon. The result was the Decembrist Revolt (December 1825). After Russia and its allies defeated Napoleon.

but. There he practically joined forces with Karl Marx. but eventually escaped and made his way back to Europe. Alexander II made up his own mind to abolish serfdom from above rather than wait for it to be abolished from below through revolution. who heaped scorn on the "decadent" West.[90] 36 Ideological schisms and reaction In this setting Michael Bakunin would emerge as the father of anarchism. The latter path was championed by Slavophiles. desire for reform was widespread.[88] In the early decades of the 19th century. After participating in the May Uprising in Dresden of 1849. In 1859. All the land turned over to the peasants was owned collectively by the mir. the reverses it suffered on land and sea exposed the weakness of Tsar Nicholas' regime. and Nationality".[89] In 1831 Nicholas crushed a major uprising in Congress Poland. called redemption payments.History of Russia away from the Westernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the doctrine "Orthodoxy. Some favored imitating Europe while others renounced the West and called for a return of the traditions of the past. The freed peasants had to buy land. from the landowners with the state assistance. to the individualism of the West. allotted to them. The Slavophiles were opponents of bureaucracy. preferred the collectivism of the medieval Russian mir. Russia had become involved in the Crimean War. where he became active in the socialist movement. which divided the land among the peasants and supervised the various holdings. The question of Russia's direction had been gaining steam ever since Peter the Great's program of Westernization. he was imprisoned and shipped to Siberia. He left Russia in 1842 to Western Europe. The emancipation of the serfs in 1861 was the single most important event in 19th century Russian history. It was the beginning of the end for the landed aristocracy's monopoly of power. the village community. When Alexander II came to the throne in 1855. and the middle class grew in number and influence. Alternative social doctrines were elaborated by such Russian radicals as Alexander Herzen and Peter Kropotkin. The most pressing problem which confronted the Government was that of serfdom. . The manifesto of the abolition of serfdom is being read to people. industry was stimulated. One year earlier. despite significant ideological and tactical differences. Russia expanded into South Caucasus and the highlands of the North Caucasus. The Government issued special bonds to the landowners for the land that they had lost. Autocracy. Emancipation brought a supply of free labor to the cities. Russia had been regarded as militarily invincible. a conflict fought primarily in the Crimean peninsula. once pitted against a coalition of the great powers of Europe. there were 23 million serfs [92] (total population of Russia 67. and collected a special tax from the peasants. Mikhail Bakunin Alexander II and the abolition of serfdom Tsar Nicholas died with his philosophy in dispute. it would be followed by another large-scale Polish and Lithuanian revolt in 1863.[91] Since playing a major role in the defeat of Napoleon. or village community. at a rate of 5% of the total cost of allotted land yearly.1 Million) .

Their path was facilitated by the previous actions of the Decembrists. the war increased tension with Austria-Hungary. The Nihilists first attempted to convert the aristocracy to the cause of reform.[94] 37 Nihilism In the 1860s a movement known as Nihilism developed in Russia. or value. who supported the independence of their fellow Orthodox Slavs. Russian nihilism was characterized by the belief that the world lacks comprehensible meaning.[100] Russian field gun during the Battle of Mukden.[97] A committed Slavophile. This represented the ascendancy of anarchism in Russia as a powerful revolutionary force.History of Russia Alexander's other important reforms included introduction of local self-government (Zemstvo) for the rural districts and towns. the government quickly moved to extirpate it.[96] One after another. In response to the growing reaction of the government. Alexander III believed that Russia could be saved from chaos only by shutting itself off from the subversive influences of Western Europe. The Russo-Turkish War was popular among Russians. and of the military service. which was rich in raw materials. objective truth. after several attempts. and the financial and political hardship caused by the Crimean War. In the late 1870s Russia and the Ottoman Empire again clashed in the Balkans.[95] They moved beyond being purely philosophical to becoming major political forces after becoming involved in the cause of reform. Autocracy and reaction under Alexander III Unlike his father. He taught his royal pupils to fear freedom of speech and press and to hate democracy. and the parliamentary system. Finally. tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas.[96] While the Narodnik movement was gaining momentum. based on the idea that such institutions and laws are artificial and corrupt. conquering the khanates of Kokand. prominent officials were shot or killed by bombs. the new tsar Alexander III (1881–1894) was throughout his reign a staunch reactionary who revived the maxim of "Orthodoxy. . Their campaign. and National Character". At its core. on the very day he had approved a proposal to call a representative assembly to consider new reforms in addition to the abolition of serfdom designed to ameliorate revolutionary demands. which targeted the people instead of the aristocracy or the landed gentry. and exacted important territorial and commercial concessions from China. and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. Bokhara and Khiva. The Nihilists questioned all old values and shocked the Russian establishment. It was based upon the belief that the common people possessed the wisdom and peaceful ability to lead the nation. the Serbs and the Bulgarians. A term originally coined by Ivan Turgenev in his 1862 novel Fathers and Sons. who revolted in 1825. However. completed the conquest of Central Asia.[98] Under Pobedonostsev. In his reign Russia concluded the union with republican France to contain the growing power of Germany. they turned to the peasants. became known as the Populist movement. Autocracy. For some time many Russian liberals had been dissatisfied by what they regarded as the empty discussions of the intelligentsia. as well as the Trans-Caspian region. The tsar's most influential adviser was Konstantin Pobedonostsev. constitutions. which also had ambitions in the region. Alexander II was assassinated by anarchists in 1881. Nihilists favoured the destruction of human institutions and laws. revolutionaries were hunted down[99] and a policy of Russification was carried out throughout the empire. which caused large numbers of Russian people to lose faith in political institutions. a radical branch of the Narodniks advocated and practiced terrorism. Failing there. reform of the judiciary.[93] During this period Russia expanded its empire into Central Asia.

[101] The October Manifesto granting civil liberties and establishing first parliament. subject to strong party discipline. and the relatively moderate Mensheviks. founded the Constitutional Democratic party or Kadets in 1905. Gathering their support from the radical intellectuals and the urban working class. economic and political revolution. they advocated complete social. In 1903 the RDSLP split into two wings: the radical Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks. When the procession reached the palace.[102] The Russian masses were so aroused over the massacre that a general strike was declared demanding a democratic republic. was meanwhile creating forces that would finally overthrow the tsar. which began to exert a significant influence in Russia. this party was the primary exponent of Marxism in Russia. Socialist-Revolutionary Party or Esers in 1901.History of Russia 38 Ethnic map of European Russia before the First World War Nicholas II and a new revolutionary movement Alexander was succeeded by his son Nicholas II (1894–1917). an incident known as "Bloody Sunday" occurred when Father Gapon led an enormous crowd to the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. led by Lenin's former friend Yuli Martov. killing hundreds. The disastrous performance of the Russian armed forces in the Russo-Japanese War was a major blow to the Russian State and increased the potential for unrest. under Vladimir Lenin. to act as the vanguard of the proletariat in order to seize power by force. This . Cossacks opened fire on the crowd. A third and more radical group founded the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party or RDSLP in 1898. these opposition forces organized into three competing parties: The liberal elements among the industrial capitalists and nobility. who believed in peaceful social reform and a constitutional monarchy.[102] In January 1905. The Industrial Revolution. advocating the distribution of land among those who actually worked it—the peasants. advocated the formation of a small elite of professional revolutionists. Politically. The Mensheviks believed that Russian socialism would grow gradually and peacefully and that the tsar’s regime should be succeeded by a democratic republic in which the socialists would cooperate with the liberal bourgeois parties. led by Lenin. Followers of the Narodnik tradition established the Hall of the Sessions of the State Duma.

.[102] but the socialists rejected the concessions as insufficient and tried to organize new strikes. His assassination in late 1916 ended the scandal but did not restore the autocracy's lost prestige. Meanwhile. On March 2 (15).[102] By the middle of 1915 the impact of the war was demoralizing. had great political influence within the government. there was disunity among the reformers. On February 23 (March 8) 1917. Nicholas II abdicated. and street fighting broke out. who wanted land reforms. were restless. International Women's Day. his orders triggered the February Revolution. the socialist-led soviet in Petrograd joined with soviets that formed throughout the country to create a national movement. the Duma declared a Provisional Government.History of Russia marked the beginning of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Nicholas reluctantly issued the famous October Manifesto.[104] Later. the head of the Provisional Government resigned and was succeeded by Alexander Kerensky.[102] The right to vote was extended. ordered strikers to return to work. the socialists in Petrograd organized elections among workers and soldiers to form a soviet (council) of workers' and soldiers' deputies. 39 Russian Revolution Bound by treaty. the soviets seized control of the government in November 1917. Tsar Nicholas II and his subjects entered World War I at the defense of Serbia. the Russians took the offensive against both Germany and Austria-Hungary in support of her French ally. and of the Black Sea by combined German and Ottoman forces prevented Russia from importing supplies and exporting goods. which hoped that widespread strife would cause Russia to withdraw from the war. a strike occurred in a factory in the capital Petrograd (formerly Saint Petersburg). public distrust of the regime was deepened by reports that a semiliterate mystic. following a series of crises that undermined their authority with the public. casualties kept occurring. thousands of women textile workers in Petrograd walked out of their factories protesting the lack of food and calling on other workers to join them. The moderate groups were satisfied. Food and fuel were in short supply.[102] Vladimir Lenin speaking to Red Army troops before their departure to the Polish front (the left [103] half of the original picture) On March 3. and the tsar's position was strengthened for the time being. who was more progressive than his predecessor but not radical enough for the Bolsheviks or many Russians discontented with the deepening economic crisis and the continuation of the war. nearly all the workers in the city were idle. Soviets (councils of workers) appeared in most cities to direct revolutionary activity. and the peasants. By the end of 1905. At the opening of hostilities in August 1914.[105] Meanwhile. and no law was to go into force without confirmation by the Duma. When the tsar ordered the Duma to disband. and drove Kerensky and his moderate provisional government into exile. After many behind-the-scenes maneuvers.[102] Control of the Baltic Sea by the German fleet. 1917. military failures and bureaucratic ineptitude soon turned large segments of the population against the government. which conceded the creation of a national Duma (legislature) to be called without delay. While Kerensky's government marked time. Strikes increased among low-paid factory workers. in the events that would become known as the October Revolution. as an organ of popular power that could pressure the "bourgeois" Provisional Government. Grigory Rasputin. Lenin returned to Russia from exile in Switzerland with the help of Germany. especially when soldiers openly sided with the strikers. and inflation was mounting. headed by Prince Lvov. and ordered troops to shoot at demonstrators in the streets. Within days. To fill the vacuum of authority.[105] In July. In October 1905.

Neman-r. With the handicap of the moderate opposition removed. Lithuania. At that time. Estonia. they had defeated their internal enemies and brought most of the newly independent states under their control. the Moldavian Democratic Republic (which joined Romania). the capital of the Soviet Union. At the same time the Allied powers sent several expeditionary armies to support the anti-Communist forces in an attempt to force Russia to rejoin the world war. factories. This pyramid of soviets in each constituent republic culminated in the All-Union Congress of Soviets. the Baltic States. the Ukrainian SSR. right-wing "Whites" and large numbers of peasants. Lenin was able to free his regime from the war problem by the harsh Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) with Germany. established a federal system of government based on a succession of soviets set up in villages. The Bolsheviks fought against these forces and against national independence movements in the former Russian Empire. Soviet Union Creation of the Soviet Union The history of Russia between 1922 and 1991 is essentially the history of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Soviet Union. Belarusian SSR. Soviet Russia and allied Soviet republics conceded the parts of its territory to Estonia (Petseri County and Estonian Ingria). adopted in 1924. By 1921. Lenin and Stalin (This photo is suspected to be fake).[106] On November 13. the former parts of the Russian Empire (except Galicia) east to Curzon Line. This ideologically based union. the new nation included four constituent republics: the Russian SFSR. and cities in larger regions. it was dissolved by Lenin's troops. and the Transcaucasian SFSR. refused to become a rubber-stamp of the Bolsheviks. just as it had been under the tsars before Peter the Great. who included the Socialist Revolutionaries. With the dissolution of the constituent assembly. .[107] 40 Russian Civil War The Bolshevik grip on power was by no means secure and a lengthy struggle broke out between the new regime and its opponents. Poland incorporated the contested territories of Western Belarus and Western Ukraine. 1918 the Soviet government cancelled the Treaty of Brest. with the exception of Finland. and the territories captured from the Ottoman Empire during World War I. this body was actually governed by the Communist Party.Yelvyanka-Pruzhany-Vidoml). which in turn was controlled by the Politburo from Moscow.History of Russia When the national Constituent Assembly. in which Russia lost the territories of Finland.[108] Finland also annexed the region Pechenga of the Russian Kola peninsula. elected in December 1917 and meeting in January 1918. Latvia (Pytalovo) and Turkey (Kars). all vestiges of bourgeois democracy were removed. established in December 1922 by the leaders of the Russian Communist Party. But while it appeared that the congress exercised sovereign power.[109] was roughly coterminous with Russia before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.[110] The constitution. the parts of the territories of Latvia and Belarus (line Riga-Dvinsk-Druia-Drisvyaty-Mikhalishki-Dzevalishki-Dokudova-r. Poland. and Poland (with whom they had fought the Polish-Soviet War).

heavy industry. The text reads: "8th of March is the day of the rebellion of the working women against the kitchen slavery". the soviet clubs. Confronted with peasant opposition. Commerce was stimulated by permitting private retail trading.[111] The peasants wanted cash payments for their products and resented having to surrender their surplus grain to the government as a part of its civil war policies. the emancipation of the women increased the labor market.[111] The peasants were freed from wholesale levies of grain and allowed to sell their surplus produce in the open market.[113] As a side effect. The state continued to be responsible for banking. . The government also promoted atheism and materialism. transportation. Many religious leaders were sent to internal exile camps. Members of the party were forbidden to attend religious services and the education system was separated from the Church. Another feature of the regime was the extension of medical services. and malaria.History of Russia 41 War Communism and the New Economic Policy The period from the consolidation of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 until 1921 is known as the period of war communism. Girls were encouraged to secure an education and pursue a career in the factory or the office. From the beginning of the revolution.[111] The NEP would later come under increasing opposition from within the party following Lenin's death in early 1924. cholera. the social life of the people underwent equally drastic changes. the government attempted to weaken patriarchal domination of the family. all industry and small businesses were nationalized and the money economy was restricted. Communal nurseries were set up for the care of small children and efforts were made to shift the center of people's social life from the home to educational and recreational groups. Although the left opposition among the Communists criticized the rich peasants or kulaks who benefited from the NEP. abortion was made legal as early as 1920. and infant mortality rates rapidly decreased while life expectancy rapidly increased. "Say NO to the oppression and Babbittry of the household work!". Lenin began a strategic retreat from war communism known as the New Economic Policy (NEP).[112] and to make women completely free of the responsibilities of childbearing.[111] Land. It opposed organized religion. The 1932 Soviet poster symbolizing the reform of "old ways of life" is dedicated to liberation of women from traditional role of the oppressed housekeeper. the number of doctors was increased as rapidly as facilities and training would permit. Campaigns were carried out against typhus. Divorce no longer required court procedure. and public utilities. Strong opposition soon developed. a former pillar of the old tsarist regime and a major barrier to social change. the program proved highly beneficial and the economy revived. Religious teaching was prohibited except in the home and atheist instruction was stressed in the schools.[111] Changes in Russian society While the Russian economy was being transformed. The regime abandoned the tsarist policy of discriminating against national minorities in favor of a policy of incorporating the more than two hundred minority groups into Soviet life. especially to break the power of the Russian Orthodox Church. which formed the basis of Marxist theory.

often slaughtering their herds when faced with the loss of their land.[115] By a decree of February 1930. While the Five-Year Plans were forging ahead. and countless peasants deemed "kulaks" by the authorities were executed.[126] [127] In 1938 Germany annexed Austria and. with the Trotskyists either exiled or rendered powerless. mostly in Ukraine and parts of southwestern Russia. The NKVD gathered in tens of thousands of Soviet citizens to face arrest. As a part of the plan.[115] The deteriorating conditions in the countryside drove millions of desperate peasants to the rapidly growing cities. especially in Siberia. and massive confiscation of grain precipitated a serious famine. Following Lenin's death Stalin wrestled to gain control of the Soviet Union with rival factions in the Politburo. wielding virtually unrestrained power. which led to the Soviet-Japanese neutrality and the tense border peace that lasted until August 1945. fueling industrialization. immediately prior to the WWII. German plans for further eastward expansion as well as the lack of resolve from the Western powers to oppose it became . deficiencies of the hastily established collective farms. in many measures the poorest nation in Europe at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution. far surpassing Germany's pace of industrialization in the 19th century and Japan's earlier in the 20th century. especially Leon Trotsky's. The plans received remarkable results in areas aside from agriculture. Russia.[116] The combination of bad weather.[111] For the first time in history a government controlled all economic activity. In some sections they revolted. and the restricted manufacture of consumer goods.[115] and several million peasants died of starvation. Stalin was ready to put a radical program of industrialization into action.[111] Abolishing the NEP. deportation.[117] Purges in other Soviet republics also helped centralize control in the USSR. signed the Munich Agreement following which Germany. Old Bolsheviks who had been loyal comrades of Lenin. Of the six original members of the 1920 Politburo who survived Lenin. high officers in the Red Army. together with major Western European powers. the collectivization of agriculture. By 1928.[121] [122] The Soviet Union on the international stage The Soviet Union viewed the 1933 accession of fervently anti-Communist Hitler's government to power in Germany with the great alarm from the onset. or execution. of considerably greater dimensions than those set up in the past by the tsars.[123] The Soviets supported the republicans of Spain who struggled against the fascist German and Italian troops in the Spanish Civil War[124] [125] In 1938–1939.[119] [120] An estimated 18 million people passed through the Gulag system. The labor provided by convicts working in the labor camps of the Gulag system became an important component of the industrialization effort. the government took control of agriculture through the state and collective farms (kolkhozes). Stalin was establishing his personal power. Stalin's repressions led to the creation of a vast system of internal exile. especially since Hitler proclaimed the Drang nach Osten as one of the major objectives in his vision of the German strategy of Lebensraum. Many peasants strongly opposed regimentation by the state. all were purged by Stalin. and directors of industry were liquidated in the Great Purges. about one million individual peasants (kulaks) were forced off their land. it was the first of a number of plans aimed at swift accumulation of capital resources through the buildup of heavy industry. and vastly increasing Russia's urban population in the space of just a few years.[118] Draconian penalties were introduced and many citizens were prosecuted for fictitious crimes of sabotage and espionage. the Soviet Union successfully fought against Imperial Japan in the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars in the Russian Far East.History of Russia 42 Industrialization and Collectivization The years from 1929 to 1939 comprised a tumultuous decade in Russian history—a period of massive industrialization and internal struggles as Joseph Stalin established near total control over Russian society. Hungary and Poland divided the Czech territory between themselves. now industrialized at a phenomenal rate.[114] In 1928 Stalin proposed the First Five-Year Plan. and perhaps another 15 million had experience of some other form of forced labor.

capturing Berlin in May 1945. 1941. 1939. 1939 the USSR started a campaign against Finland. about half of all World War II the autumn the German army had seized Ukraine. as both sides were preparing for the military conflict. At the same time. The peace with Germany was tense. the front had moved beyond the 1939 Soviet frontiers into eastern Europe. Leningrad. reaching the Volga and the Caucasus. the Soviet Union also occupied the three formerly independent Baltic states (Estonia.[129] 43 World War II On September 17.[128] Following the agreement.[145] The war with Germany thus ended triumphantly for the Soviet Union. laid a siege of [130] casualties. In the meantime the negotiations with Finland about the Soviet-proposed land swap that would redraw the Soviet-Finnish border further away from Leningrad failed.[135] [136] [137] Katyusha rocket launcher at the Battle for Moscow. known as the Winter War (1939–40).[143] By the end of 1943. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people led by Germany swept across the Soviet border on June 22. and threatened to capture the capital. However. two major German defeats in Stalingrad and Kursk proved decisive and reversed the course of the entire World War as Germans never regained the strength to sustain their offensive operations and the Soviet Union recaptured the initiative for the rest of the conflict. much of Western Russia and moved into Belarus. the Germans retained the strategic initiative for approximately another year and held a deep offensive in the south-eastern direction. .[138] [139] and abruptly ended when the Axis forces Soviet POW's starving in a Nazi camp. the USSR normalized the relations with Nazi Germany and resumed the Soviet-German trade.History of Russia more apparent. Moscow.[131] [132] As a result. the Western Betrayal of Czechoslovakia reached over the Soviet opposition further increased fears in the Soviet Union of a coming German attack. which led the Soviet Union to rush the modernization of Soviet military industry and carry its own diplomatic maneuvers. the Red Army had broken through the German siege of Leningrad and liberated much of Ukraine. the Belarusian and Ukrainian Soviet republics' western borders were moved westward and the new Soviet western border was drawn close to the original Curzon line. and in December. By during the war.[140] [141] [142] Despite the fact that in December 1941 the Red Army threw off the German forces from Moscow in a successful counterattack. seventeen days after the start of World War II and victorious German advance deep into the Polish territory. Despite Soviet Union strongly opposed the Munich deal and repeatedly reaffirmed its readiness to militarily back the Soviet commitments given earlier to Czechoslovakia. The war took a heavy death toll on the Red Army but forced Finland to sign a Moscow Peace Treaty and cede the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia. In 1939 the Soviet Union signed the Non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany dividing spheres of influence between themselves in Eastern Europe. Latvia and Lithuania). Soviet forces drove into eastern Germany.[133] [134] In summer 1940 the USSR issued an ultimatum to Romania forcing it to cede the territories of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. itself. the Red Army invaded eastern portions of Poland stating the protection of Ukrainians and Belarusians as their operation's primary goal and Poland's "seizure to exist" as the justification of the action.[144] By the end of 1944.

came to dominate the international stage in the postwar period. Russia's Leningrad.. the high water mark of detente In April 1949 the United States sponsored the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). nuclear monopoly ended with the testing of a Soviet bomb and the Communist takeover in China. the war resulted in around 26–27 million Soviet deaths (estimates vary)[147] and had devastated the Soviet economy in the struggle. when the U. The Soviet Union opposed the United States in a number of proxy conflicts all over the world.S.6 million Soviet prisoners of war (of 5. . Some 1. However.[150] [151] [152] [153] The Nazi Genocide of the Jews carried by German Einsatzgruppen.[161] [162] Chairman Leonid Brezhnev talks to president Richard Nixon on his visit to USA. the First World War.[154] [155] [156]. the last Soviet battle of World War II.710 towns and 70 thousand settlements were destroyed.[166] suppressing the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia in 1968. 3. and supporting the suppression of the Solidarity movement in Poland in the early 1980s.S.[156] [157] [158] Cold War Collaboration among the major Allies had won the war and was supposed to serve as the basis for postwar reconstruction and security. a mutual defense pact in which most Western nations pledged to treat an armed attack against one nation as an assault on all. absence of elementary medical aid and slave labor. The Soviet Union established an Eastern counterpart to NATO in 1955. national interests. the conflict between Soviet and U.[148] The occupied territories suffered from the ravages of German occupation and deportations of slave labor in Germany. defeating the Japanese troops in neighboring Manchuria. where people died because of mass murders.[159] Russia had suffered three devastating Western onslaughts in the previous 150 years during the Napoleonic Wars. now Saint Petersburg. dubbed the Warsaw Pact. The foremost objectives of Soviet foreign policy were the maintenance and enhancement of national security and the maintenance of hegemony over Eastern Europe. [157]. including Korean War and Vietnam War. The Cold War emerged out of a conflict between Stalin and U. especially after 1949. President Harry Truman over the future of Eastern Europe during the Potsdam Conference in the summer of 1945. famine.S. and the Second World War.[149] Thirteen million Soviet citizens became victims of a repressive policy of Germans and their allies on an occupied territory.[160] Truman charged that Stalin had betrayed the Yalta agreement. and Stalin's goal was to establish a buffer zone of states between Germany and the Soviet Union.5 million) died in German camps. The Soviet Union maintained its dominance over the Warsaw Pact through crushing the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.[163] [164] [165] The division of Europe into Western and Soviet blocks later took on a more global character. During occupation. along the local collaborators resulted in almost Soviet wartime poster by Kukryniksy complete annihilation of the Jewish population over the entire territory temporary occupied by Germany and its allies.History of Russia 44 As agreed at the Yalta Conference. three months after the Victory Day in Europe the USSR launched the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.[146] Although the Soviet Union was victorious in World War II. With Eastern Europe under Red Army occupation. known as the Cold War. region lost around a quarter of its population. Stalin was also biding his time.[153] Soviet Belarus lost from a quarter to a third of its population. as his own atomic bomb project was steadily and secretly progressing.

Many constituent republics. 1957 Soviet Union launched the first space satellite Sputnik. charging him with a host of errors that included Soviet setbacks such as the Cuban Missile Crisis.-Soviet relations deteriorated following the beginning of the nine-year Soviet War in Afghanistan in 1979 and the 1980 election of Ronald Reagan. and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Less powerful countries had more room to assert their independence.[167] In 1964 Khrushchev was impeached by the Communist Party's Central Committee. The Soviet space program.[171] Other achievements of Russian space program include: the first photo of the far side of the Moon. Leonid Brezhnev. However. sought greater autonomy. In the revolutions of 1989 the USSR lost its satellites in Eastern Europe. Russia lost the superpower status that it had won in the Second World War.[169] and also attempted to ease relationships with the United States. and the two superpowers were partially able to recognize their common interest in trying to check the further spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons in treaties such as SALT I. his closest followers lost out. Mikhail Gorbachev announced perestroika in an attempt to modernize Soviet communism. Salyut which in 1986 was replaced by Mir. Gorbachev's social reforms led to unintended consequences. which Moscow was unwilling to provide. On October 4. After the rapid succession of former KGB Chief Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko.[168] Brezhnev followed Stalin's emphasis on heavy industry. founded by Sergey Korolev. the Soviet Union produced the world's first space station. social problems received wider public attention. exploration of Venus. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. the first spacewalk by Alexey Leonov.History of Russia As the Soviet Union continued to maintain tight control over its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. U. which facilitated public access to information after decades of government repression. 45 The Khrushchev and Brezhnev years In the power struggle that erupted after Stalin's death in 1953. 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into space in the Soviet spaceship Vostok 1. that served from 1986 to 2001. a staunch anti-communist. undermining the Communist Party's authority.[170] On April 12.[167] After a brief period of collective leadership. Nikita Khrushchev solidified his position in a speech before the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party in 1956 detailing Stalin's atrocities. Because of his policy of glasnost. the first consistently inhabited long-term space station. and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process. Glasnost allowed ethnic and nationalist disaffection to reach the surface. The world's first nuclear power plant was established in 1954 in Obninsk. took Khrushchev's place. was especially successful.[169] In the 1960s the USSR became a leading producer and exporter of petroleum and natural gas. especially the Baltic republics. but improved as the Soviet bloc started to unravel in the late 1980s. first female spaceflight by Valentina Tereshkova. More recently. Yury Gagarin. a veteran bureaucrat. Breakup of the Union Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures. Baikal Amur Mainline was built. Gorbachev's attempts .S. the first human in space Khruschev and Brezhnev years were time when Soviet science and industry peaked. the Cold War gave way to Détente and a more complicated pattern of international relations in the 1970s in which the world was no longer clearly split into two clearly opposed blocs. and made significant changes in the party leadership. Georgian SSR and Moldavian SSR. SALT II. transitional figures with deep roots in Brezhnevite tradition.

In the Soviet Union. which was approved by referendum in December 1993. although no lustration has ever taken place. and the Soviet government left intact most of the fundamental elements of communist economy.History of Russia at economic reform were not sufficient. but disintegration of the Union became imminent. in some ways. blasting out his opponents. only Russian SFSR lacked even the paltry instruments of statehood that the other republics possessed. Suffering from low pricing of petroleum and natural gas. the profusion of small parties and their aversion to coherent alliances left the legislature chaotic. The coup faced wide popular opposition and collapsed in three days. when Yeltsin chose a radical solution to settle his dispute with parliament: he called up tanks to shell the Russian White House. After the Belavezha Accords. The reforms immediately devastated the living standards of much of the population. was attempted. The crisis climaxed on October 3. 46 Russian Federation Although Yeltsin came to power on a wave of optimism. outdated industry and pervasive corruption. 1991. 1991. . The Russian government took over most of the Soviet Union government institutions on its territory. but shortages disappeared. more severe than the United States or Germany had undergone six decades earlier in the Great Depression. due to monetary overhang from the days of the planned economy. In a remarkable reversal of fortunes. In the first Russian presidential election in 1991 Yeltsin became president of the Russian SFSR. he secured legislation giving Russian laws priority over Soviet laws and withholding two-thirds of the budget. ongoing war in Afghanistan. Control over the constituent republics was also relaxed. Yeltsin. Russia came close to a serious civil conflict. and many of its members became top Russian officials. a coup against Gorbachev. there were shortages of almost all products. and they began to assert their national sovereignty over Moscow. leading to the First and Second Chechen Wars. Prices rose dramatically. Due to price control. as the Soviet government was still opposed to market reforms.[175] and the Russian Federation (formerly the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic)[176] took power on December 26.[174] The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was banned in Russia in 1991–1992. he never recovered his popularity after endorsing Yegor Gaidar's "shock therapy" of ending Soviet-era price controls. presented a significant opposition to Gorbachev authority. In the 1990s Russia suffered an economic downturn that was. drastic cuts in state spending. At last Gorbachev attempted to restructure the Soviet Union into a less centralized state. Yeltsin was then free to impose the current Russian constitution with strong presidential powers. and the like. on August 19. However. most gave little thought to any distinction between Russia and the Soviet Union before the late 1980s. By December 1991. Meanwhile. However.[173] The following month. such as its own republic-level Communist Party branch. the Soviet planned economy proved to be ineffective. conspired by senior Soviet officials. the Supreme Soviet of Russia withdrew Russia from the Soviet Union on December 12. when people had to stand in long lines and to be lucky enough to buy even the essentials. the economic situation continued to deteriorate.[175] The Russian government lifted price control on January 1992. and an open foreign trade regime in early 1992 (see Russian economic reform in the 1990s). The tension between Soviet Union and Russian SFSR authorities came to be personified in the bitter power struggle between Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin. he gained election as chairman of the Russian republic's new Supreme Soviet in May 1990. Because of the dominant position of Russians in the Soviet Union. and by 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions. The cohesion of the Russian Federation was also threatened when the republic of Chechnya attempted to break away. trade union councils. Academy of Sciences. who represented himself as a committed democrat. During 1993. reaching their peak in the end of 1991. Russia received humanitarian food aid from abroad.[177] Hyperinflation hit the ruble.[172] Squeezed out of Union politics by Gorbachev in 1987. As Yeltsin was taking the unconstitutional step of dissolving the legislature. Yeltsin's rift with the parliamentary leadership led to the September–October 1993 constitutional crisis. The Soviet Union officially ended on December 25. the shortages had resulted in the introduction of food rationing in Moscow and Saint Petersburg for the first time since World War II.

a former Gazprom chairman and Putin's head of staff. leaving the government in the hands of the little-known Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. services. Härke (March/April 1999). Retrieved 2007-07-20. Curtis (ed. Praeger. Cambridge University Press. net/ ~archaeol/ 9903/ newsbriefs/ ipatovo. edu/ ~his_ncp/ Kievan. and small industry was in private hands. Sam Houston State University. Early Riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe. shsu. Country Profile for the Russian Federation (http:/ / www. and the International Monetary Fund. ISBN 0-16-061212-8.History of Russia Economic reforms also consolidated a semi-criminal oligarchy with roots in the old Soviet system. Department of the Army. html). science. gov. [11] Drews. investment have played a significant role. By mid-decade. 1962. . [9] See. by the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. [8] See Donald A. the central government had lost control of the localities. 1994. Still in deep depression by the mid-1990s. Koninklijke Brill NV. org/ atlas/ countries/ ru_data_loc. the World Bank. p. New York: Routledge. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 317574/ Kievan-Rus) [3] "Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods" (http:/ / www. britannica.[184] 47 References [1] Duczko. The Rise of Democracy in Pre-Revolutionary Russia: Political and Social Institutions under the Last Three Czars. Viking Rus: Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe. Just hours before the first day of 2000. ISBN 0415326249. Russia's economy was hit further by the financial crash of 1998.).[180] In 2000. for instance. [5] See Jacob Walkin. ciaonet. 1985–1991. Although high oil prices and a relatively cheap ruble initially drove this growth. he. Most big enterprises were acquired by their old managers. trade. Curtis (ed. ISBN 0-521-45292-9. and industry. [6] CIAO – Atlas – Russia (http:/ / www. Nevertheless.[182] In 2008 Dmitri Medvedev. a former KGB official and head of the KGB's Dmitri Medvedev with Vladimir Putin post-Soviet successor agency FSB. Andrej. Wladyslaw (2004). us/ russia/ 8. Filzer. tax revenues had collapsed. excerpted from Glenn E. ISBN 90-04-13874-9 [2] Encyclopædia Britannica: Kievan Rus (http:/ / www. Department of the Army. Advised by Western governments. htm). Russia embarked on the largest and fastest privatization that the world had ever seen in order to reform the fully nationalized Soviet economy.7% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. 50. Yeltsin made a surprise announcement of his resignation. with a long tradition of education. Soviet Workers and the Collapse of Perestroika: The Soviet Labour Process and Gorbachev's Reforms.[179] But it was harder to establish a representative government because of two structural problems—the struggle between president and parliament and the anarchic party system. reversion to a socialist command economy seemed almost impossible. Leiden. the new acting president defeated his opponents in the presidential election on March 26. retail. By the mid-1990s Russia had a system of multiparty electoral politics. and economic fiefdoms. H. more recently. [4] Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods (http:/ / www. . was elected new President of Russia. Russia: A Country Study.[183] Russia is well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development. Robert (2004). Archeology 52 (2). shsu. and won a landslide 4 years later. The Netherlands. civil society. uk/ servlet/ Front?pagename=OpenMarket/ Xcelerate/ ShowPage& c=Page& cid=1007029394365& a=KCountryProfile& aid=1019744935436). averaging 6. html). 1998.[178] That being said.). 1998. Retrieved 21 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-26. ISBN 0-16-061212-8.[181] International observers were alarmed by late 2004 moves to further tighten the presidency's control over parliament. . "The 'Princess' of Ipatovo" (http:/ / cat. fco. html). Meanwhile. bureaucracy. Yeltsin was at the end of his political career. and regional officeholders. since 2003 consumer demand and. edu/ ~his_ncp/ Kievan. [10] Belinskij. meeting widespread relief in the West. html#a0) [7] Revolutions and Civil War (http:/ / countrystudies. engendering a new rich (Russian tycoons) in league with criminal mafias or Western investors. After the 1998 financial crisis. Russia ended 2006 with its eighth straight year of growth. excerpted from Glenn E. there were corporate raiders such as Andrei Volgin engaged in hostile takeovers of corrupt corporations by the mid-1990s. Russia: A Country Study.

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ISBN 0-8014-1775-9. indeed. Budapest: Central European University Press. CO:. Rethinking Cold War History. Martinus Nijhoff. The Baltic States: The Years of Dependence. [142] Clark. Изд. [143] Beevor. war/ kbank/ profiles/ brezhnev/ ). факты. 2003. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.. . he saw to it that the Soviet Union's military-industrial complex was greatly expanded and modernized. ISBN 0-582-21504-8. Cardboard Castle?: An Inside History Of The Warsaw Pact. Alan. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Reform. "History changed on October 4. 176. В. org/ web/ 20080613043811/ http:/ / www. London: Hurst & Co.). cnn. [168] "Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev" (http:/ / web.Пресс". 1941–1945. Antony. Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict. London – New York: Longman. when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. gendercide. David M. CNN. Gendercide Watch. Мельтюхов Упущенный шанс Сталина: Советский Союз и борьба за Европу 1939–1941 гг. he was criticized for a gradual slide in living standards." [170] Steve Garber (2007-01-19). 3rd ed. cnn. [164] Holloway. Hamburg. CNN. the Soviet Union. Gyorgy. ISBN 3-8012-5016-4 [159] "The Cold War" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080613043927/ http:/ / www. 1996. p. Retrieved 2007-07-22. com/ SPECIALS/ cold. — М. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-688-04268-6. The Warsaw Pact: Soviet Security and Bloc Politics. Greenhill Books. archive. com/ SPECIALS/ cold. Janos M. Norris & Oleg Bukharin. [141] Thurston. At the same time. ISBN 5-699-07634-4 [139] Mikhail Meltyukhov. The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria: ‘August Storm’. ISBN 963-7326-08-1. gumer. George. М. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. See Ginsburg. 1995.. un. org/ case_soviet. [145] Beevor. & Jonathan M. И. Oxford: Blackwell. php [154] http:/ / www. dw-world.00. 291 (ISBN 0-521-78503-0). war/ kbank/ profiles/ brezhnev/ ) on 2008-06-13. rkrp-rpk. The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison. 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Library of Congress. and Mark D. David & Michael W. 2004. com/ 1999/ WORLD/ europe/ 12/ 31/ yeltsin. [178] See Fairbanks. "April 12. DC: Federal Research Division. BBC. Eng: Cambridge University Press. htm). bbc. History of Russia from the Earliest Times. Russia: A History. Washington.. 2001 is the fortieth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight into space. "Boris on a Pedestal" (http:/ / article. . Published December 31. [181] "Putin's hold on the Russians" (http:/ / news. The Crisis of the Old Order in Russia: Gentry and Government. (ed. CNN. nationalreview. Moscow. com/ Russian+ Soviet+ Federal+ Socialist+ Republic). David. 1995. Freeze. four years later. 368 pages.com 52 Further reading Overall histories • • • • • Sergey Solovyov. [179] "Russian president praises 1990s as cradle of democracy" (http:/ / www. DK510. guardian. 800 pages. co.." [175] "Timeline: Soviet Union" (http:/ / news. "Yuri Gagarin" (http:/ / www. US recognises independence of remaining Soviet republics" [176] "Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic" (http:/ / encyclopedia. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 1112551. MA: Blackwell Publishers. CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Johnson's Russia List. 04/ ). Retrieved 2007-07-22. • Riasanovsky. Retrieved 2007-07-22. 2002. com/ SPECIALS/ cold. html). BBC. htm) businessweek. cnn." [173] "Boris Yeltsin" (http:/ / web. "In the process he engaged in a power struggle with Mikhail Gorbachev. BBC. 1999. the first time a human left the planet" [172] David Pryce-Jones (2000-03-20). 2006-03-03. Nicholas V. ISBN 0-534-58698-8. businessweek. co. "Because of the Russians' dominance in the affairs of the union. 1999. . Retrieved 2007-07-22. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 667749. ISBN 0-679-77253-7 • Manning. resigns. . . ISBN 5-17-002142-9 Nikolay Karamzin. • McKenzie. .00. edited by Glenn E. farlex. Written by Jim Morris. 3 volumes. 1998." [174] "Government" (http:/ / countrystudies. Library of Congress. 2007-06-28. "In the 2000 election. cdi. org/ russia/ johnson/ 9176-3. bbc. . The Free Dictionary.R883 1998 • Hobsbawm..History of Russia [171] Neil Perry (2001-04-12). cnn. [180] CNN Apologetic Yeltsin resigns. A History of Russia. Jr. Princeton University Press. Cambridge. ISBN 0-631-20814-3. co." [182] "Putin's hold on the Russians" (http:/ / news. Retrieved 2007-07-22. "The first-ever popularly elected leader of Russia. 1789–1848 Vintage. "1991 25 December – Gorbachev resigns as Soviet president. and Russian branches of trade unions. 7th ed. was re-elected with a landslide majority of 71%. ISBN 0-19-860511-0. uk/ netnotes/ article/ 0. cnn. war/ kbank/ profiles/ yeltsin/ ) on 2008-06-13.470879. 1: Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire. Roberta. Curtis. 2006. Guardian Unlimited (London). Putin becomes acting president (http:/ / archives. Belmont. stm). New York: Oxford University Press. Central Asia and Mongolia. Vol. . China's Rise. 1996. Retrieved 2007-07-22. he took 53% of the vote in the first round and. Malden. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 667749. Curran. Country Studies.2001. a Russian academy of sciences. Journal of Democracy 10(2):47–53. Retrieved 2007-07-22. com/ ?q=NmZjYmUzZmQ1ZmFlMTc5NjA1ZWZiZTgwMTM1ZDVkOTk=). . bbc. Eric. Retrieved 2007-07-22. co. Russia's Fall. 17–18. the RSFSR failed to develop some of the institutions of governance and administration that were typical of public life in the other republics: a republic-level communist party. archive. stm). com/ SPECIALS/ cold. Steinberg. Charles H.". the Soviet Union. A History of Russia. "2003: General election gives Putin allies control over parliament"" [183] CIA World Fact Book – Russia [184] Russia: How Long Can The Fun Last? (http:/ / www. Gregory L. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. National Review Online. org/ web/ 20080613043952/ http:/ / www. "The Feudalization of the State".. "But his critics believe that it has come at the cost of some post-communist democratic freedoms. 1982. New York: Oxford University Press. Macmillan Press. • Russia : a country study / Federal Research Division. us/ russia/ 68. cfm).1998. The Cambridge History of Russia. and Beyond. pp. Retrieved 2007-07-22. .). stm). war/ kbank/ profiles/ yeltsin/ ). "The largest republic of the former Soviet Union. it became independent as the Russian Federation in 1991" [177] Peter Nolan.23. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was a protégé of Mikhail Gorbachev's. 2007-06-28. History of the Russian State. Retrieved 2007-07-20. ISBN 5-02-009550-8 Full Collection of Russian Annals. 2nd ed. 6th ed. com/ globalbiz/ content/ dec2006/ gb20061207_520461_page_2. A History of Russia. The Age of Revolution. for example. . ISBN 5-94457-011-3. ISBN 0-19-515394-4 Pre-revolutionary Russia • Christian. 2001.

2005. Vol. Thomas. 208 pages. 1982. A History of Russia. ISBN 0-14-015774-3. Tragedy of Russian Church. Vol. • McCauley. London: Longman. Walter G. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2d ed. 1917–1953. MA: Harvard University Press. Cambridge U Press. Russian Peasants and Soviet Power.soviethistory. 3rd ed. Stephen. 448 pages ISBN 0-521-29499-1 Soviet era • Seventeen Moments in Soviet History (http://www. ed. 2d ed. Addison-Wesley.org/) (An on-line archive of primary source materials on Soviet history. Anthem Press. Historiography of Imperial Russia: The Profession and Writing of History in a Multinational State (1999). • Fitzpatrick. New York: W. Stuart. New York: Oxford University Press. A History of Russia. Terry. 2d ed.0027 in Project MUSE • Cox. • Service. Rethinking the Soviet Experience: Politics and History since 1917.W. and China. 1988. 2: Since 1855. Walter G. A History of Twentieth-Century Russia. Alec. Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist Russia. • Nove. Russian and Soviet Economic Performance and Structure. 2002. 2nd ed. "The New Russian Historiography and the Old—Some Considerations. no. Martin. 394 pages. and Robert C. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France." Journal of Agrarian Change 2. 1993.) • Cohen. Theda. ISBN 0-674-40348-7. Seventh Edition. Sheila. Vol. 2001. Russian and Soviet Economic Performance and Structure. Historiography • Confino. 1985. ISBN 0-393-32226-2 • Paul R. no. "The New History of the Russian Peasantry. "The New Soviet History. An Economic History of the USSR. Moshe. Walter G. • Lewin." Journal of Modern History 62. The Soviet Union 1917–1991. 2d ed. Cambridge. A History of Russia. Gregory and Robert C. 2004) • Orlovsky. 2002. 2001. Paul R. London: Penguin Books. • Skocpol.1353/ham. Seventh Edition. 2005. Columbia University Press. • Regelson. Anthem Press. Lev. Chapter 22. http://www. ISBN 0-582-01323-2 • Moss. 2000.htm Post-Soviet era • Cohen. 1968. • Remington. The Russian Revolution. Stuart. Michael. After the Fall: Essays in Russian and Soviet Historiography (Bloomington: Slavica Publishers. 320 pages. Daniel. eds.0. 53 . Post-Soviet Russia A Journey Through the Yeltsin Era." History & Memory Vol. 1984. 1999.org/Russian-Church. 1917–1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Anthem Press. • David-Fox. ISBN 0-19-280204-6 • Gregory. Thomas. 440 pages. ISBN 0-231-10607-6 • Moss. • Sanders. Norton.regels. 21#2 Fall/Winter 2009 DOI: 10.History of Russia • Moss. Addison-Wesley. • Medvedev. Robert. 1: To 1917. Russia. 2: Since 1855. 1993. Michael et al. Building Socialism in Bolshevik Russia. 4 (December 1990): 831–50. 4 (October 2002): 570–86. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Roy. Stephen F.

Though Mongols burnt down Moscow in the winter of 1238 and pillaged it in 1293. the Orthodox Metropolitan Peter transferred his residence from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow. The Grand Duchy of Moscow was the successor to the Principality of Moscow and the predecessor of the Tsardom of Russia. . Yuriy's successor.htm) Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Russian: Великое Княжество Московское. The uprising was subdued by the joint forces of Mongols and Muscovites. Ivan was reputed to be the richest person in Russia. Daniel's son Yuriy (also known as Georgiy) controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by capturing Mozhaisk. as the state is known in Russian records. Moscow was little more than a principalities. was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal. Origin When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus'.History of Russia 54 External links • Guides to Sources on Russian History and Historiography (http://www.library. managed to retain the title of Grand Duke by cooperating closely with the Mongols and collecting tribute and taxes from other Russian principalities on their behalf. However. More important to Moscow's development into what became the state of Moscow however. The first ruler of the principality of Moscow. forested location offered some security from Mongol attacks and occupation. this term is also sometimes applied to the Tsardom of Russia. Ivan I (r. has been referred to by many Western sources as Muscovy. which rebelled against the Horde in 1327. Daniel I (d. He used his treasures to purchase land in other principalities and to finance construction of stone churches in the Kremlin. a position which allowed him to interfere into the affairs of the Novgorod Republic to the north-west. Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye) was a medieval Russian polity centered on Moscow between 1283 and till the Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and proclamation of Muscovite Tsardom (Russian: Московское Царство. He was allowed by the khan to claim the title of Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal. This relationship enabled Ivan to gain regional ascendancy. The Grand Duchy of Moscow. the outpost's remote. In 1327. and married small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Russia the khan's sister. He then forged an alliance with the overlord of the Russian During the reign of Daniel. He started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family.edu/spx/webct/ SubjectResources/SubSourRus/rushistbib2. 1325–40). 1303). as his moniker "Kalita" (literally. Moscow was an insignificant trading outpost in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. particularly over Moscow's chief rival. and a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region. Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde. the northern city of Tver. Moskovskoye Tsarstvo). was its rule by a series of princes who collaborated with Mongols and provide their policy.illinois. further enhancing the prestige of the new principality. the "moneybag")(Moss 2005) testifies.

. The peaceful years of his long reign were marked by the continuing expansion to the east (annexation of Nizhny Novgorod and Suzdal. In the 1350s. these Andrei Rublev's famous icon of the Trinity. Vasily I and Vasily II Vasily I (r. their interests clashed with the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania. 1372) but was unable to take it. due to the monastic reform of St.000 people. when his parents died and the title of Grand Duke slipped into the hands of his distant relative. even when the latter annexed Smolensk. exemplified by the icons and frescoes of the monk Andrei Rublev. he passed the throne to his son Vasily I without bothering to obtain the Khan's sanction. 1389–1425) continued the policies of his father. Dmitri successfully overcame the stigma of collaborating with the Tatars which had been attached to Moscow for decades. sacked Moscow hoping to reassert his vested authority over his vassal. the ruler of Moscow cultivated an alliance with the Russian Orthodox Church. the country and the royal family were hit by the Black Death. Sergius's disciples in distant and inhospitable locations. Sergius triggered a cultural revival. the memory of Kulikovo Pole made the Russians start believing in their ability to end Tatar domination and become a free people. whose subjects were predominantly East Slavic and Orthodox. The reforms of St. Apart from their cultural function. and Perm of Vychegda. killing 24. 1370. Tokhtamysh in 1382. He challenged the Khan's authority and defeated his commander Mamai in the epic Battle of Kulikovo (1380). he desisted from paying tribute to the Khan. Veliky Ustyug. the victory did not bring any short-term benefits. However. Dmitry of Suzdal. Married to the only daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. Dmitry Ivanovich was aged nine. which experienced a resurgence in influence. but was forced to pursue a more conciliatory policy after Edigu's incursion on Moscow in 1408. After the Horde was attacked by Tamerlane. Grand Duke Algirdas of Lithuania allied himself by marriage with Tver and undertook three expeditions against Moscow (1368. and his own Mongol hegemony. Surrounded by pagan Lithuanians and Muslim nomads. 1392) and to the north (annexation of Vologda. Hundreds of monasteries were founded by St. Nevertheless.Grand Duchy of Moscow 55 Dmitri Donskoi Ivan's successors continued gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. The main bone of contention between Moscow and Vilnius was the large city of Smolensk. In the process. Dmitri posed as a champion of Orthodoxy and managed to unite the warring principalities of Russia in his struggle against the Horde. including Beloozero and Solovki. Dmitri became a national hero. 1398). Sergius of Radonezh. Dmitry Donskoi in the Battle of Kulikovo Educated by Metropolitan Alexis. In 1389. the Grand Prince. he attempted to avoid open conflicts with his powerful father-in-law.

Before long his uncle. Vasily II eventually managed to triumph over his enemies and pass the throne to his son. a native bishop was elected as Metropolitan of Moscow. his claims were taken up by his sons. represented by Vladimir of Serpukhov and his descendants. judicial. they served as outposts of Moscow influence in the neighboring principalities and republics. but Ivan III (the Great. and foreign affairs. 1462–1505) forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military. At his urging. A bitter fratricidal conflict erupted and rocked the country during the whole reign. The situation changed with the ascension of Vasily I's successor. r. Vasily II (r. Another factor responsible for the expansion of Grand Duchy of Moscow was its favorable dynastic situation. Vasily Kosoy and Dmitry Shemyaka. The Dormition Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin . By the 15th century. 56 Ivan III Outward expansion of the Grand Duchy in the 14th and 15th centuries was accompanied by internal consolidation. Yuri of Zvenigorod. Various semi-independent princes of Rurikid stock still claimed specific territories. In effect. who could control economy of the adjacent region. Although he was ousted from Moscow on several occasions.Grand Duchy of Moscow monasteries were major landowners. and blinded in 1446. 1425–62). who pursued the Great Feudal War well into the 1450s. the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. was firmly anchored into Moscow Duchy. started to advance his claims to the throne and Monomakh's Cap. taken prisoner by Olug Moxammat of Kazan. which was tantamount to declaration of independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Patriarch of Constantinople (1448). when each sovereign was succeeded by his son. After Yuri's death in 1432. while rival principalities were plagued by dynastic strife and splintered into ever smaller polities. The only lateral branch of the House of Moscow.

Grand Duchy of Moscow 57 Moscow gained full sovereignty over a significant part of the ethnically Russian lands by 1480. A new elaborate system of court precedence. Repnin. Romanov.e. Vasili III (r. who completed centralization of the state (traditionally known as the gathering of the Russian lands) at the same time as Louis XI did the same in France. i.e. Galitzine. • Foreign princes from Lithuania and Golden Horde. During such conflicts. and some later monarchs felt the necessity to counterbalance the boyardom by creating a new kind of nobility. . but in practice it started with Ivan III. The Court. and by the beginning of the 16th century virtually all those lands were united. border skirmishes. were gradually abolished in order to consolidate power in the hands of the ruling prince. inconclusive war with Lithuania that ended only in 1503. later conquered it. to be called to (serve) The Court.g. whose fathers and grandfathers were independent princelings..g. They fell into three categories: • Rurikid princes of Upper Oka towns. and a long. boyardom constituted an internal force which was a permanent threat to the throne. etc. 1505–33).. Some traditional Russian offices. Through inheritance. that lived in Moscow after their hereditary principalities had been incorporated into Duchy of Moscow (e. and Moscow state tripled in size under his rule. Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival Lithuania for control over some of the semi-independent former principalities of Kievan Rus' in the upper Dnieper and Donets river basins. Yaroslavl. • Ancient families of Moscow nobility that have been recorded in the service of Grand Dukes from the 14th century (e. Suzdal. Boris Godunov. The reign of the tsars started officially with Ivan IV of Russia (Ivan the Terrible). During the times of dynastic troubles (such as the years of Ivan IV's minority). claiming descent either from Grand Duke Gediminas or from Genghis Khan (e. Godunov. based on personal devotion to tsar and merits earned by faithful service. but Ivan's son. 1480 princes. Ivan III became the first Moscow ruler to adopt the titles of tsar and "Ruler of all Rus'". Romodanovsky). Through the defections of some Great standing on the Ugra river. including the Novgorod Republic (annexation of 1478) and the Grand Duchy of Tver (annexation of 1485). felt that they were kin to the grand prince and hence almost equal to him.g. or mestnichestvo. Rurikid and Gediminid boyars. Later these new nobles were called dvoryans (singular: dvoryanin).. Vorotynsky. The northwestern city of Pskov consisting of city and few lands surrounding it remained independent in this period. Ivan III was able to push westward. and the princes of Rostov and Yaroslavl' subordinated themselves to him. Mstislavsky. Rostov. Court The court of the Moscow princes combined ceremonies and customs inherited from Kievan Rus with those imported from the Byzantine Empire and Golden Horde. An early form of the monarch's conflict with boyarstvo was the oprichnina policy of Ivan the Terrible.. Shuisky. Sheremetev). Ivan was able to control the important Principality of Ryazan. predicated the nobleman's rank and function on the rank and function of his ancestors and other members of his family. Hence the expression pozhalovat ko dvoru. rather than by heredity.. i. Having consolidated the core of Russia under his rule. The name comes from the Russian word dvor in the meaning of tsar's dvor. when the Tatars' Golden Horde overlordship ended officially after the Great standing on the Ugra river. The highest echelon of hereditary nobles was composed of boyars. Ivan. the first monarch to be crowned Tsar of Russia. like that of tysyatsky and veche. Belsky. Trubetskoy).

The term is not without controversy: some Russian historians consider the correct name to be the "Tsardom of Muscovy". doi:10. 1995. Moscow political traditions. Anthem Press.1080/00905990600842049. King of Sweden (1731). "Ethnicity as social rank: Governance. the Russian Empire. . law. ISBN 0-89357-262-4 • Moss. and empire in Muscovite Russia".Volume 1: To 1917". "History of Russia . and created a highly centralized and autocratic political system. the White Sea. Further reading • Chester Dunning .Russia [2] • Marshall Poe. Moscow Duchy drew people and wealth to the northeastern part of Kievan Rus'. therefore. Tsarstvo Russkoye.The Russian Empire and the Grand Duchy of Muscovy: A Seventeenth Century French Account • Romaniello. established trade links to the Baltic Sea. and then. Slavica Publishers. or "Muscovite Tsardom": this view is supported by such authors as Voltaire in his works such as History of Charles XII. Matthew (September 2006). from original "Царьство Руское"[1] ) was the official[2] type of government and name for the Russian state between Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. Nationalities Papers 34 (4): 447–469. Foreign Descriptions of Muscovy: An Analytic Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources.Grand Duchy of Moscow 58 Assessment The development of the Russian state can be traced from Kievan Rus' through Vladimir-Suzdal and Moscow Duchy to Tsardom of Russia. as well as other Russian historians[3] and is considered by them to be authentically Russian. References •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents [1] of the Library of Congress Country Studies. and the Caspian Sea and to Siberia. exerted a powerful influence on Russian society. p. . Walter G (2005). 80 Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Rus (Russian: Царство Русское.[2] Others claim that "Muscovite Tsardom" was propagated as a result of political influences of Poland.

the Byzantine term autokrator expressed only the literal meaning of an independent ruler. Ivan strengthened the position of the Tsar to an exceptional degree. after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina. autocratic figure. and emblems such as the double-headed eagle. Ivan IV was crowned Tsar and thus was recognized. Philotheus of Pskov had claimed that. revamped the military. once Constantinople had fallen to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. That concept was to resonate in the self-image of Russians in future centuries. means "foreboding"). Ivan IV became Grand Prince of Moscow in 1533 at the age of three. Early reign of Ivan IV The development of the tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign of Ivan IV. a Tsar. demonstrating the risks of unrestrained power in the hands of a mentally unstable individual. the Russian ruler had emerged as a powerful. the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms. The Shuysky and Belsky factions of the boyars competed for control of the regency until Ivan assumed the throne in 1547.Tsardom of Russia 59 Byzantine heritage By the 16th century. titles. and his rule was disrupted by acts of intense violence. In the 1550s. and reorganized local government. By assuming that title. Ivan's coronation as Tsar was a ritual modeled after those of the Byzantine emperors. . 1533-1584) it came to mean unlimited rule. Reflecting Moscow's new imperial claims. groznyi. Indeed. and he became known as the Terrible (his Russian epithet. at least by the Russian Orthodox Church. Ivan began his reign with a series of useful reforms. With the continuing assistance of a group of boyars. the niece of the last Byzantine emperor. as emperor. Ivan suffered from breakdowns of paranoia and depression. These reforms undoubtedly were intended to strengthen the state in the face of continuous warfare. which survives as the coat of arms of Russia. but in the reign of Ivan IV (r. because it was the final successor to Rome and Constantinople. the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on a par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Although apparently intelligent and energetic. he declared a new law code. the centers of Christianity in earlier periods. At first. rituals. the Russian Tsar was the only legitimate Orthodox ruler and that Moscow was the Third Rome Ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible.

and several London merchants. the southern borderland was annually pillaged by the Nogai Horde and the Crimean Khanate. 20th middle Volga in 1552 and later the Astrakhan Khanate. the Russian Tsardom was visited by Adam Olearius. until the Battle of Molodi put a stop to such northward incursions. Sebastian Cabot. century depiction. sailed to the White Sea in 1553 and continued overland to Moscow. eventually involving himself in a twenty-five-year war against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. repeatedly devastated the Moscow region. Ivan the Terrible used these merchants to exchange letters with Elizabeth I. Expanding to the northwest toward the Baltic Sea proved to be much more difficult. Devlet I Giray of Crimea. The tsar now controlled the entire Volga River and gained access to Central Asia. This provided a broad view of what had been a rarely visited and poorly reported state. whose lively and well-informed writings were soon translated into all the major languages of Europe.000 horsemen. and the nation failed to secure a coveted position on the Baltic Sea.Tsardom of Russia 60 Foreign policies of Ivan IV Russia remained a fairly unknown society in western Europe until Baron Sigismund von Herberstein published his Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) in 1549. One of them. Richard Chancellor. In 1558 Ivan invaded Livonia. Russia continued to wage wars and to expand. where the Volga meets the Caspian Sea. Ivan's army was pushed back. These wars drained Russia. and Denmark. Sir Hugh Willoughby. These victories transformed Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state which it continues to be today. Despite occasional successes. . Arrival of heralds to the Kremlin. accompanied by as many as 120. Further information about Russia was circulated by English and Dutch merchants. Ivan defeated and annexed the Khanate of Kazan on the Apollinary Vasnetsov. Hoping to make profit from Russia's concentration on Livonian affairs. who took local inhabitants with them as slaves. Tens of thousands of soldiers protected the Great Abatis Belt — a burden for a state whose social and economic development was stagnating. Despite the domestic turmoil of 1530s and 1540s. In the 1630s. the Muscovy Company was formed by himself. But for decades to come. Sweden. Upon his return to England.

summarily executing some and confiscating land and possessions. Ivan the Great Bell Tower. Trade diminished. the so-called Time of Troubles (Smutnoye vremya. and the boyars. the oprichnina was started by Ivan in order to mobilize resources for the wars and to quell opposition to it. Efforts to curtail the mobility of the peasants by tying them to their land brought Russia closer to legal serfdom. As a result of the policies of the oprichnina. merchants. Historians have not determined whether policy differences. For his private domain. Ivan's agents attacked boyars. began to leave Russia. In 1565 he divided Russia into two parts: his private domain (or oprichnina) and the public realm (or zemshchina). Ivan broke the economic and political power of the leading boyar families. In these areas. In 1572 Ivan finally abandoned the practices of the oprichnina. Regardless of the reason. or mental imbalance caused his wrath. and they led to a period of social struggle and civil war. raised to the present height during the reign of Boris Godunov According to a popular theory. the government.Tsardom of Russia 61 Oprichnina During the late 1550s. Ivan chose some of the most prosperous and important districts of Russia. Ivan's domestic and foreign policies had a devastating effect on Russia. thereby destroying precisely those persons who had built up Russia and were the most capable of administering it. faced with mounting taxes and threats of violence. Thus began a decade of terror in Russia which culminated in the Massacre of Novgorod (1570). personal animosities. and peasants. . 1598-1613). Ivan developed a hostility toward his advisers. and even common people.

The boyars fought among themselves. recognising Ladislaus IV of Poland. In 1609 Poland intervened into Russian affairs officially. Polish surrender in the Moscow Kremlin. The Polish presence led to a . In 1598 Fedor died without an heir. and the gradual enserfment of the peasantry. Despite the tsar's persecution of the boyars. False Dmitriy I entered Moscow and was crowned tsar that year. Ernest Lissner. which proclaimed him tsar. Perhaps the most important event of Fedor's reign was the proclamation of the Patriarchate of Moscow in 1589. ending the Rurik Dynasty. the only time of the year when serfs were free to move from one landowner to another). False Dmitry II. the intervention of regional powers Poland and Sweden. False Dmitry III appeared in the Swedish-occupied territories. Vasily Shuysky. known as The Time of Troubles (Смутное Время). Subsequently. and occupied the Kremlin. unleashing the Ingrian War with Sweden. discontented Russians rallied behind various pretenders to the throne. gathering followers among the boyars and other elements as he went. gained support in Poland and marched to Moscow. The Time of Troubles included a civil war in which a struggle over the throne was complicated by the machinations of rival boyar factions. although incorrect between 1514 and 1611 various boyar factions refused to recognize the decision. In 1611. Godunov's son. Finding no institutional alternative to the autocracy. efforts at restricting the power of the tsar were only halfhearted. Note that the belonging of Smolensk to Lithuania is and commoners. a man emerged who claimed to be Tsarevich Demetrius. Ivan IV's son who had died in 1591. who came to be known as False Dmitriy I. who was mentally deficient. the lower classes revolted blindly. Historians speculate[4] that Godunov would have weathered this crisis had he not died in 1605. but was soon apprehended and executed. Russia entered a period of continuous chaos. following the murder of Tsar Fedor II. and foreign armies occupied the Kremlin in Moscow. Actual power went to Fedor's brother-in-law. son of Polish king Sigismund III Vasa. As a result. church officials. False Dmitriy I and his Polish garrison were overthrown. During that period. prompting many to accept Tsarist autocracy as a necessary means to restoring order and unity in Russia. a national assembly of boyars. the boyar Boris Godunov (who is credited with abolishing Yuri's Day. and during the ensuing discontent. as tsar. A group of Russian boyars signed in 1610 a treaty of peace. allied with the Poles. Shuysky allied himself with the Swedes. Widespread crop failures caused the Russian famine of 1601–1603. The creation of the patriarchate climaxed the evolution of a separate and totally independent Russian Orthodox Church. led by Ivan Bolotnikov. This pretender to the throne. Ortelius in 1575. In his attempt to retain the throne. Boris Godunov then convened a Zemsky Map of Russia (Rvssia) and adjacent lands drawn by Abraham Sobor. appeared under the walls of Moscow and set up a mock court in the village of Tushino. the townspeople's dissatisfaction. captured Shuisky.Tsardom of Russia 62 Time of Troubles Ivan IV was succeeded by his son Fedor. and a boyar. the goal of political activity was to gain influence over the sitting autocrat or to place one's own candidate on the throne. was proclaimed tsar in 1606. and intense popular discontent.

and a volunteer army. Andrei Ryabushkin. Mikhail's son Aleksey (r. 63 Romanovs The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore order. financed by the Stroganov merchants and blessed by the Orthodox Church.. whose father and predecessor Sigismund III Vasa had been elected by Russian boyars as tsar of Russia during the Time of Troubles. was formed in Nizhny Novgorod and. and even the Orthodox Church. The number of government departments (prikazy . led by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin. regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the boyar faction controlling the throne. who were obligatory servitors of the state. lost by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1509. was able to control and regulate all social groups. Legal code of 1649 The autocracy survived the Time of Troubles and the rule of weak or corrupt tsars because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. through provincial governors. In the 17th century. Fortunately for Russia. Tsar Michael at the Session of the Boyar Duma. Sergei Ivanov. state affairs were in the hands of the tsar's father. The early Romanovs were weak rulers. which provided Russia the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in 1617. drove the Poles out of the Kremlin. The Sobornoye Ulozheniye. Poland and Sweden. Boris Morozov. Russia made peace with Poland in 1634. as well as trade. Filaret. a comprehensive legal code introduced in 1649. and in 1648 Aleksey dismissed him in the wake of the Salt Riot in Moscow. who in 1619 became Patriarch of Moscow. including Smolensk. to form a new nobility. the boyars had largely merged with the new elite. renounced all claims to the title as a condition of the peace treaty. The state required service from both the old and the new . Although the departments often had overlapping and conflicting jurisdictions. Government functionaries continued to serve. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain Smolensk from Poland in 1632. sing. the central government. By that time. prikaz ) increased from twenty-two in 1613 to eighty by mid-century. manufacturing. to run his government. were engaged in a conflict with each other. Under Mikhail. beginning the 300-year reign of the Romanov family. 1645-1676) relied on a boyar. Polish king Władysław IV Vasa. illustrates the extent of state control over Russian society. In 1613 a zemsky Sobor proclaimed the boyar Mikhail Romanov as tsar.Tsardom of Russia patriotic revival among the Russians. its major enemies. The Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618) was ended with the Truce of Deulino in 1618. the bureaucracy expanded dramatically. The Voyevoda Arrives in a Provincial Town. the dvoryanstvo. Morozov abused his position by exploiting the populace. restoring temporarily Polish and Lithuanian rule over some territories. Later.

self-governing under the sovereignty of the tsar. . which had helped them to throw off Polish rule. Initially.Tsardom of Russia nobility. domain of the Don Cossacks. A major uprising occurred in the Volga region in 1670 and 1671. the self-government did not last long and Eastern Ukraine was eventually fully incorporated into the Russian Empire. the legal code of 1649 curtailed movement and subordinated the people to the interests of the state. Like serfs. Tsarist troops finally defeated the rebels after they had occupied major cities along the Volga in an operation whose panache captured the imaginations of later generations of Russians. In the 1650s and 1660s. Kremlin Armoury The Truce of Andrusovo. however. like the serfs. the number of peasant escapes increased dramatically. In 1654 the Ukrainian leader. led to a protracted war between Poland and Russia. which was ratified in the Treaty of конница) during the Russo-Polish War 1654–1667. and Russia. However. warriors organized in military formations. a Cossack who was from the Don River region. and runaway peasants became state fugitives. which had been under Polish-Lithuanian rule. By chaining much of Russian society to specific domiciles. Once the Poles convinced the Tartars to switch sides. which were responsible for taxes and other obligations. were not considered serfs. Razin was publicly tortured and executed. Middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes. The drawing is based on the pieces preserved in the Pereyaslav. led a revolt that drew together wealthy Cossacks who were well established in the region and escaped serfs seeking free land. primarily in the military because of permanent warfare on southern and western borders and attacks of nomads. In the preceding century. Stenka Razin. the nobility received land and peasants. A favourite refuge was the Don River region. Peasants living on state-owned land. state peasants were attached to the land they farmed. it acquired eastern Ukraine. which ended the war in 1667. Aleksey I. Although they had served in the Polish army as registered mercenaries. and. Landlords had complete power over their peasants . Bohdan Khmelnytsky. lived in the frontier areas bordering Poland. Under this code. 64 Acquisition of Ukraine Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century. reuniting the western sector (or Right-bank Ukraine) with Poland and leaving the eastern sector (Left-bank Ukraine) as the Cossack Hetmanate. In the south-west. They were organized into communes. the 1649 code officially attached peasants to their domicile. The Zaporozhian Cossacks. they were forbidden to change residence. In return. the Ukrainians needed military help to maintain their position. The unexpected uprising swept up the Volga River valley and even threatened Moscow. the Cossacks of the Zaporozhian Host remained fiercely independent and staged a number of rebellions against the Poles. increased state taxes and regulations altered the social discontent that had been simmering since the Time of Troubles. however. offered to ally Ukraine with the Russian tsar. split Ukraine along the Dnieper River. because of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule. The state fully sanctioned serfdom. the peasants of Ukraine joined the Cossacks in rebellion during the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Ukrainians were allied with Crimean Tatars. Aleksey's A warrior of the Russian noble cavalry (поместная acceptance of this offer. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes. the Crimean Tatar lands. In 1648. the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another.

had unintended consequences. Conquest of Siberia . The chief opposition figure.Tsardom of Russia 65 Raskol Russia's southwestern expansion. Through the Ukrainian Academy in Kiev. Russia gained links to Polish and Central European influences and to the wider Orthodox world. The tsar's court also felt the impact of Ukraine and the West. the protopope Avvakum. Ukrainian. The tsar's court was interested in the West's more advanced technology. The Russian Orthodox Church discovered that its isolation from Constantinople had caused variations to appear between their liturgical books and practices. By the end of the 17th century. The split afterwards became permanent. Other more direct channels to the West opened as international trade increased and more foreigners came to Russia. they were officially pronounced heretics and were persecuted by the church and the state. Kiev was a major transmitter of new ideas and insight through the famed scholarly academy that Metropolitan Mohyla founded there in 1631. but their close contact with the Roman Catholic and the Polish Counter-Reformation also brought them Western intellectual currents. a schism resulted in 1667. it also weakened traditional Russian religious practices and culture. When the Orthodox Church forced Nikon's reforms. particularly its incorporation of eastern Ukraine. was burned at the stake. Those who did not accept the reforms came to be called the Old Believers. Most Ukrainians were Orthodox. Although the Ukrainian link induced creativity in many areas. Nikon. Polish. The Russian Orthodox patriarch. and many merchants and peasants joined the Old Believers. and West European penetration had weakened the Russian cultural synthesis—at least among the elite—and had prepared the way for an even more radical transformation. But Nikon encountered opposition among the many Russians who viewed the corrections as improper Patriarch Nikon and Tsar Alexis in the Cathedral of the Archangel foreign intrusions. particularly when military applications were involved. was determined to bring the Russian texts back into conformity with the Greek texts and practices of the time.

State flags There was no single "Flag of Russia.[5] • Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy: white field with a blue saltire.[5] • Civil Flag: The early Romanov Tsars instituted the two-headed eagle Imperial flag of the Tsar. then to the Lena River and to the coast of the Pacific Ocean. interested in fur trade. Peace with China strengthened the initial breakthrough to the Pacific that had been made in the middle of the century. hired a Cossack leader. 1705 by decree of Peter I.[5] Replaced by the Imperial standard in 1700 (see below). Vasily Surikov. In 1581 the Stroganov merchant family. Yermak defeated the Khanate of Sibir and claimed the territories west of the Ob and Irtysh rivers for Russia. it remained the civil flag of Russia until replaced during the Empire in 1858. adopted in 1700 instead of Ilya Repin. In 1648 Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the passage between America and Asia. the naval ensign of Russia was white-blue-red tricolor. From such bases as Mangazeya." Instead. Yermak's Conquest of Siberia. Russians had reached the Amur River and the outskirts of the Chinese Empire. on a golden rectangular field. but it gained access to the region east of Lake Baikal and the trade route to Beijing. that was adopted on 20 January. traders. adopted in 1712. By the Treaty of Nerchinsk. as a civil flag. the older white-blue-red Standard of the Tsar of Moscow. Two Tsars: Peter I and Ivan V.[7] Before that.Tsardom of Russia 66 Russia's eastward expansion encountered little resistance.[5] • Imperial Standard of the Tsar of Russia: black double-headed eagle carrying St Vladimir red coat of arms. Russia made peace with China in 1689.[7] . Yermak Timofeyevich. By the middle of the 17th century. to lead an expedition into western Siberia. Russia ceded its claims to the Amur Valley. merchants. there were multiple flags: • Standards used by the Tsar:[5] • Standard of the Tsar of Moscow (1693–1700): white-blue-red tricolor with golden double-headed eagle in the center. After a period of conflict with the Qing Dynasty.[6] • Civil Ensign of Russia: the white-blue-red tricolor. which origin dates back to 1472. and explorers pushed eastward from the Ob River to the Yenisei River.

References [1] (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-415-30751-1 . Marshall Poe (ed.gov/frd/ cs/) of the Library of Congress Country Studies. ru/ russia/ EmpirFlt. Modernizing Muscovy: Reform and Social Change in Seventeenth Century Russia. 1983.Russia (http://lcweb2." Sigurd Shmidt. vexillographia. Doctor of history sciences. academician of [[Russian Academy of Sciences|RAN (http:/ / istrodina. net/ VGV/ vgv5. Key texts • Grigory Kotoshikhin's Russia during the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich (1665) is the indispensable source for those studying administration of the Russian tsardom • Domostroy is a 16th-century set of rules regulating everyday behaviour in the Russian boyar families. Moscow: Agraph. htm) •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents (http://lcweb2. Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy [7] (from 1712).). htm) [2] "В некотором царстве. ru/ gos-simv/ gos-flag/ istoriya/ kr-ocherk/ ) (in Russian) [6] Yenne. a transitional variant between the (1697–1699) ensign (tricolor) and the Andreevsky flag of 1712.gov/frd/cs/rutoc. ISBN 5-17-010892-3. Muscovite Tsardom. Bill. Journal "Rodina".. Boris Godunov. Moscow: Nauka. ru/ books/ b61. russiancity. Nr. [5] History of the Russian Flag (http:/ / www. 2001 (http:/ / gumilevica. Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy [7] (1699–1700).html) • Jarmo Kotilane. com/ rodina_articul. in 2 v. Reprinted 2003.ru (http:/ / www. 12/2004] [3] Vernadsky V. php3?id=1423& n=79)].Tsardom of Russia 67 Standard the of Tsar of Moscow (1693–1700). htm) (Russian) [4] Ruslan Skrynnikov. Imperial Standard of the Tsar (from 1700). 1993. . Chartwell Books. pg32 [7] vexillographia.loc. Flags of the World. Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy [7] (1697–1699).. в некотором государстве. Routledge. Civil Ensign of Russia [5] (from 1705). rossimvolika. kulichki. 2004.loc.

[1] Widespread hunger led to mass starvation. The oligarchical faction. Russia was occupied by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Dymytriads. wrecking crops. headed by the Romanovs. large bands of armed brigands roamed the country committing all manner of atrocities. was still alive and in hiding. usurpers and impostors. In 1601-1603. . the Don Cossacks on the frontier were restless. Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Poles Extremely poor harvests were encountered in 1601–1603. He attracted support both in Russia and outside its borders. about two million.Time of Troubles 68 Time of Troubles The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время. Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar Feodor Ivanovich of the Rurik Dynasty in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. allegedly by Godunov's order. the general discontent was expressed as hostility to him as an usurper. but that only led to refugees' flocking to the capital and increasing the economic disorganization. particularly in the Polish Commonwealth and the Papal States. At the time. appeared in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. and suffered from civil uprisings. see Russian famine of 1601–1603. Causes After Feodor's death. considered it a disgrace to obey a boyar. Factions in the Polish Commonwealth saw him as a tool to extend their influence over Russia. was elected his successor by a Great National Assembly (Zemsky Sobor). and the government demonstrated it could not keep order. or at least gain wealth in return for their support. with nighttime temperatures in all summer months often below freezing. the rural districts were desolated by famine and plague. Under the influence of the great nobles who had unsuccessfully opposed the election of Godunov. Dmitri had been stabbed to death before his brother Feodor's death. False Dmitri In 1603 a man calling himself Dmitri — first of the so-called False Dmitris — and professing to be the rightful heir to the throne. supposed to be dead. Rumours circulated that the late tsar's younger brother Dmitri. boyar Boris Godunov. the Papacy saw it as an opportunity to increase the hold of Roman Catholicism over the Eastern Orthodox Russians. who had already acted as regent for the mentally-challenged Feodor. his brother-in-law and closest adviser. Godunov's short reign (1598–1605) was not as successful as his administration under the weak Feodor. Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third of the population. the government distributed money and foodstuffs for poor people in Moscow. but the mysterious individual who was impersonating him was regarded as the rightful heir by many of the population. conspiracies were frequent.

in what marked the beginning of the Polish Commonwealth's intervention in Russia.000 Poles. Sigismund III Vasa. or the Dymitriad wars. His forces murdered False Dimitri soon after his marriage in the Moscow Kremlin. Polish forces crossed the frontier with a small force of 4. German mercenaries and Cossacks from the Dnieper and the Don. Sigismund III.[2] Shuisky seized power and was elected tsar by an assembly composed of his faction. Cossacks. False Dmitri was married per procura to Marina Mniszech. an ambitious Rurikid prince (knyaz). who were brutally massacred. he made his triumphal entry into Moscow. resolved to intervene and began the Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618).Time of Troubles 69 A few months later in 1603. After Shuisky signed an alliance with Sweden. son and heir of Ivan the Terrible. seeing the Russian–Swedish alliance as a threat. money. Russian exiles. Although the Polish Commonwealth had not officially declared war on Russia (as its king. and soon a new impostor. or the German mercenaries. Vasily Shuisky. Commonwealth magnates.000 Poles. the king of the Commonwealth. he enjoyed the protection and support of the Polish–Lithuanian magnates. likewise calling himself Dmitri. Before a year had passed. together with many of his supporters. . The reaction to the massacre in Poland was strong. Lithuanians. but the change did not satisfy the Russian boyars. formed a conspiracy against him. some powerful magnates decided to support False Dmitri with their own forces and In the Time of Troubles by Sergey Ivanov.[2] Shuisky and his men were estimated to have killed 2. came forward as the rightful heir. Shuisky's reign The reign of False Dimitri was short. in the expectation of rich rewards afterward. but the government decided to postpone revenge against those responsible. and immediately after Boris's death in 1605. Like his predecessor. was opposed to the intervention).

put forward a rival candidate: Sigismund's son. Tens of thousands died in battles and riots. The throne was vacant. voivod. 1611. both nations forced Russia to make some territorial concessions. continuing Tatar raids left the south borderlands of Russia completely depopulated and devastated. Ivan Susanin. They declared war on Russia. the Protestant Swedes occupied Novgorod. He was connected by marriage with the late dynasty and. The Ingrian Wars against Sweden lasted until the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617. For example. Pozharsky and Minin monument (1804–16) in Russia was in a critical condition. Władysław. deciding to take the throne for himself and to convert Russia to Roman Catholicism. After the battle for Moscow on October 22 [what year?] Old Style[4] (November 1 New Style). Annually on November 4. a Nizhny Novgorod merchant. While gaining peace through the treaties. On this understanding. After the combined Russo–Swedish forces were destroyed at the Battle of Klushino.Time of Troubles 70 Second occupation Polish–Lithuanian troops crossed the Russian borders and laid siege to the fortress of Smolensk. the great front of Saint Basil's Cathedral nobles (boyars) quarrelled among themselves. and magnate Stanisław Żółkiewski.[4] Many other cities were also devastated or weakened. on September 22.[4] Struggle for independence The nation rose together under the leadership of Kuzma Minin. the Poles and German mercenaries suppressed riots in Moscow. 1612. Shuisky was forced to abdicate. had been saved from the enemies by a heroic peasant. Before False Dmitrii II could gain the throne.[5] (November 3–6 N. Some people in Moscow swore allegiance to him on condition of his maintaining Orthodoxy and granting certain privileges to them. The contending factions were opposed and his plan aroused the anti-Catholic and anti-Polish feelings in Russia. and had Dimitri's wife Maryna strangled. the crisis was instrumental in unifying all classes of the Russian society around the Romanov tsars and laid foundations for the powerful Russian Empire. and on October 24–27 O. the Poles and Lithuanians exterminated the population and clergy of Vologda. Russia's Dymitriad wars against the Commonwealth would last until the Peace of Deulino in 1619.000 Muscovites and set the city on fire.S.) the nearby Polish army was forced to retreat. on March 17–19. The Polish king opposed the compromise. After taking power. The garrison in the Kremlin surrendered to the triumphant Pozharsky. though they regained the majority of them over the coming centuries. according to the legend. they massacred 7. they allowed Polish troops to enter the city and occupy the Kremlin. . Most importantly. A Grand National Assembly elected as tsar Michael Romanov. and Prince Pozharsky. Orthodox Patriarch Hermogenes was imprisoned. supporting a false Dmitri of their choice in Ivangorod. The Swedes disapproved as they were rivals of the Poles on the Baltic coast. the young son of the metropolitan Philaret. the new Tsar ordered the 3-year-old son of the False Dymitri II to be hanged. the invaders retreated to the Kremlin. Russia officially celebrates the anniversary of this event as a Day of National Unity. Catholic Poles occupied the Moscow Kremlin and Smolensk.[3] and enormous bands of brigands swarmed everywhere.S. the Polish commander.

allempires. a play by Alexander Pushkin • Boris Godunov. gutenberg. as well. a peasant who was said to sacrifice himself to lead Poles away from Mikhail Romanov. The thousand-year annals of the extreme meteorological phenomena. The three most popular topics are the Pozharsky/Minin liberation of Moscow.[6] Notes [1] Borisenkov E. his work was a History Book Club selection published by the Pennsylvania State University Press. an opera based on Pushkin's play. The Empire of Russia (http:/ / www. info/ article/ index. com/ inkwell/ text/ special/ history/ kostom/ kostom30. allempires. google. Pennsylvania State University Press. 8 (http:/ / lib. and the story of Ivan Susanin. Twelve years in the research and writing. ISBN 5-244-00212-0. com/ books?id=9NUYtSJaO8cC& printsec=frontcover& dq=''Russia's+ First+ Civil+ War:+ The+ Time+ of+ Troubles+ and+ the+ Founding+ of+ the+ Romanov+ Dynasty''& source=bl& ots=ZUx-ZXDZAm& sig=CL73FqpISwCLPeI6jfmGc24x468& hl=en& ei=5bm5TIGcIMX7lwfJ5cCSDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false). Vol. ISBN: 0271-02074-1." [3] The Tatar Khanate of Crimea (http:/ / www. on the Moscow Red Square • Minin and Pozharsky. 190. htm). "The murderers ransacked the palace. 30 (http:/ / www. In 2001. . . htm). [6] "Russia's First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty" (http:/ / books. php?q=The_Crimean_Khanate). txt). Pasetski V. composed by Modest Mussorgsky • Monument to Minin and Pozharsky. • Ivan Susanin. [2] John Stevens Cabot Abbott. Dunning's thesis is that modern Russia begins in 1613 with the founding of the Romanov dynasty. kulichki. Numerous histories have been written. an opera by Mikhail Glinka • Boris Godunov. 2001. a film by Vsevolod Pudovkin • 1612. ru/ HISTORY/ SOLOVIEV/ solv8. killing every Polish man and treating the Polish ladies with the utmost brutality. p. Chap. Google Books. Chester Feodor Shalyapin as Ivan Susanin in the Dunning. a specialist in Russian history at Texas A&M University eponymous opera published the nearly 700-page Russia's First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty. History of Russia from the Earliest Times. 2010. Russian History in Biographies of its main figures. Retrieved October 16. a 2007 historical fantasy film Russian and Polish artists have painted numerous works based on these events. penetrating every room.Time of Troubles 71 In popular culture This period of the "Time of Troubles" has inspired many artists and playwrights in Russia and outside.net [4] Sergey Solovyov. He covers the Time of Troubles and their contribution to the founding. org/ files/ 15269/ 15269-h/ 15269-h. the struggle between Boris Godunov and False Dmitry. [5] Nikolay Kostomarov.

It was one of the largest empires in world history.Time of Troubles 72 References  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. Grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West. . It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union.). Russia's First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty (http://www. after Qing China and the British Empire.edu/books/titles/0-271-02465-8. However. was one of the last absolute monarchies in Europe. Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.html). Prior to the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 Russia was one of the five major Great Powers of Europe. this vast land had a population of only 14 million. Its government. some historians would argue that it was truly born when Peter acceded to the throne in early 1682.psu. compelling nearly the entire population to Peter the Great officially proclaimed the existence of the Russian Empire in 1721. Much of its expansion had taken place in the 17th century. integrated autocracy in Russia and played a major role in bringing his country into the European state system. extending from the Arctic Ocean to the north to the Black Sea on the south. translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. ed (1911). Cambridge University Press. Hugh. from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east. Chester S.psupress.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census. and the pacification of the Siberian tribes. the Great (1672–1725). Further reading • Dunning. It represented a large disparity in economic. Russia was the largest country in the world. Penn State Press. History The Russian Empire was a natural successor to the Tsardom of Russia. The eighteenth century Peter I. culminating in the first Russian settlement of the Pacific in the mid-17th century. the reconquest of Kiev. Though the empire was only officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad (1721). surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongolian empires: at one point in 1866. From its beginnings in the 14th-century principality of Moscow. it stretched from eastern Europe across Asia and into North America. and religious positions.L. ruled by the Emperor. Russia had become the largest state in the world by Peter's time. It spanned the Eurasian landmass from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. 2001 ISBN 0-271-02074-1 Russian Empire The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія. With 125. Modern Russian: Российская Империя. At the beginning of the 19th century. ethnic. it had the third largest population of the world at the time.

in effect a supreme council of state. he became the first Russian prince to ever visit the West. he had laid the foundations of a modern state in Russia. His reign raised questions about Russia's backwardness. thus securing his coveted access to the sea. close to the one of slavery. and statecraft of the West. effect making it a tool of the state. the Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure. His attention then turned to the north. He replaced the old boyar Duma (council of nobles) with a nine-member senate. In turn tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. led by a lay government official. As part of the government reform. In celebration of his conquests. The Strelets Troops were incorporated into the regular army. and Muscovite Russia officially became the Russian Empire late in 1721. The class of kholops. after Catherine legalised the selling of serfs separate from land. Peter reorganised his government on the latest modern models. He studied modern tactics and fortifications and built a strong army of 300. remained a major institution in Russia until 1723.000 made up of his own subjects. Only a small percentage of the population lived in the towns. although the cost of her campaigns. when Peter the Great converted the household kholops into house serfs including them into poll taxation. which had long been Russia's cultural center. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. and other fundamental problems that have confronted many of Russia's subsequent rulers. Instead of the traditional punishment of being drawn and quartered. whom he conscripted for life. and Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over most government functions in the provinces to them. Nevertheless. where he and his associates made a deep impression. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter died in 1725. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport except at Archangel on the White Sea. to replace Moscow. The countryside was also divided into new provinces and districts. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him in 1699 to make a secret alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. Saint Petersburg.Russian Empire farm. the Great. was a German princess who married Peter III. on top of the oppressive social system that required lords' serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on the lords' land. Inspired by another Cossack named Pugachev. whose harbor was frozen for nine months a year. as part of her effort to introduce a tone of compassion. Catherine the Great extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with actions including the support of the Targowica confederation.[1] Peter was impressed by the advanced technology. Peter accepted the title of emperor as well as tsar. in The capital of Imperial Russia was Saint Petersburg. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. She also ordered the public trial of Darya 73 . its relationship to the West. leaving an unsettled succession and an exhausted realm. with the emphatic cry of "Hang all the landlords!" the rebels threatened to take Moscow before they were ruthlessly suppressed. resulting in the Great Northern War. whose territory enclosed it on three sides. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland. all vestiges of local self-government were removed. the Holy Synod. Catherine II. the appropriateness of reform from above. and Peter continued and intensified his predecessors' requirement of state service for all nobles. molding Russia into an absolutist state. There he built Russia's new capital. the German heir to the Russian crown. provoked a major peasant uprising in 1773. Nearly forty years were to pass before a comparably ambitious ruler appeared on the Russian throne. Catherine issued secret instructions that the executioner should carry the sentence out quickly and with a minimum of suffering. The war ended in 1721 when an exhausted Sweden sued for peace with Russia. State service had been abolished. Meanwhile. Peter told the senate that its mission was to collect tax revenues. Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body. warcraft. In 1697–1698.

the isolation of its people. Catherine's expansionist policy had made Russia into a major European power. following a dispute with Tsar Alexander I. Catherine was obliged to strengthen their authority and power at the expense of the serfs and other lower orders. Although the Russian Empire would play a leading political role in the next century. by plotting with the rulers of Austria and Prussia. which had begun in the second half of the 18th century. In order to ensure continued support from the nobility. Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. Russia's status as a great power concealed the inefficiency of its government. but though a few were introduced. Catherine realized that serfdom must be ended. Alexander became known as the 'savior of Europe.Russian Empire Nikolayevna Saltykova. Alexander I had been ready to discuss constitutional reforms. This continued with Alexander I's wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of 74 Russian-French wars. its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. As Napoleon's forces retreated. In the bitterly cold Russian weather. Following the defeat of Napoleon. going so far in her "Nakaz" ("Instrution") to say that serfs were "just as good as we are" . As West European economic growth accelerated during the Industrial Revolution. creating new problems for the empire as a great power. Documents were also found after Catherine's death that showed she hoped to introduce a form of parliamentary democracy in Russia. but . Catherine successfully waged war against the Ottoman Empire and advanced Russia's southern boundary to the Black Sea. Then. By the time of her death in 1796. pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe.a comment the nobility received with disgust. no changes were attempted. thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by peasant guerrilla fighters.realized the empire was not yet ready for such a move. secured by its defeat of Napoleonic France. on charges of torture and murder. and its economic backwardness. Russia began to lag ever farther behind. she incorporated territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Partitions of Poland. a member of the highest nobility. The campaign was a catastrophe. First half of the nineteenth century Napoleon made a major mistake when. After Russia and its allies defeated Napoleon. Although Napoleon's Grande Armée made its way to Moscow. which was essential to the survival of her government. the Russians' scorched-earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country. that ultimately made Alexander the monarch of Congress Poland. These gestures to compassion garnered Catherine much positive attention from Enlightenment Europe.' and he presided over the redrawing of the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna (1815).like the problem of serfdom . the Russian troops pursued them into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris. . but the specter of revolution and disorder continued to haunt her and her successors. he launched an invasion of the tsar's realm in 1812. Nevertheless.

and Peter Kropotkin. Nicholas I (1825–1855). in which students were provided with official textbooks. The Slavophiles were opponents of bureaucracy. including the constant surveillance of schools and universities. After the Russian armies occupied the allied Georgia in 1802. constitutional monarch. an early-19th-century outpost of the and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a Russian-American Company in Sonoma County. California. But the revolt was easily crushed. The result was the Decembrist Revolt (December 1825). under Nicholas I hundreds of thousands were sent to katorga there. they clashed with Persia over control of Azerbaijan and got involved into the Caucasian War against the Caucasian Imamate. who at the beginning of his reign was confronted with an uprising.Russian Empire 75 The liberal tsar was replaced by his younger brother. preferred the collectivism of the mediaeval Russian mir. The retaliation for the revolt made "December Fourteenth" a day long remembered by later revolutionary movements. Alternative social doctrines were elaborated by such Russian radicals as Alexander Herzen. and Nationality. Police spies were planted everywhere. Mikhail Bakunin. Russian tsars had also to deal with two uprisings in their newly acquired territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: the November Uprising in 1830 and the January Uprising in 1863. where their exposure to the liberalism of Western Europe encouraged them to seek change on their return to autocratic Russia. when a number of well-educated Russian officers traveled in Europe in the course of the military campaigns. censorship was intensified. Some favored imitating Western Europe while others were against and called for a return of the traditions of the past. who gathered contempt on the "decadent" West. The background of this revolt lay in the Napoleonic Wars. Would-be revolutionaries were sent off to Siberia. to the individualism of the West. the work of a small circle of liberal nobles Fort Ross. The question of Russia's direction had been gaining attention ever since Peter the Great's program of modernization. In order to repress further revolts. The latter path was advocated by Slavophiles. leading Nicholas to turn away from the modernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the doctrine of Orthodoxy. Autocracy. . or village community.

a conflict fought primarily in the Crimean peninsula. the reverses it suffered on land and sea exposed the decay and weakness of Tsar Nicholas' regime. In the XX century. it was not as popular as the white-blue-red civil ensign. Russia had been regarded as militarily invincible. Tsar Nicholas died with his philosophy in dispute. which was adopted in 1883 for land use.Russian Empire 76 Second half of the nineteenth century A panoramic view of Moscow in 1867. Click here to see image with notes. once opposed against a coalition of the great powers of Europe. The Imperial Standard of the Emperor. . Since playing a major role in the defeat of Napoleon. Flag of the Russian Empire for "Celebrations" [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] from 1858 to 1883. but. One year earlier. widespread myth that has its base incorrect statements of one of the leading Soviet historians. The white-blue-red tricolor was the official flag [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] of Russian Empire. that Russia has changed official flag in 1858. However. used from 1858 to 1917. It has been used from the time of Peter the Great until the Russian Revolution. Ivanov. K. Russia had become involved in the Crimean War.

Alexander II took Outer Manchuria from Chinese Empire between 1858–1860 and sold Russian America to USA in 1867. which the Ottoman Turks suppressed with what was seen as great cruelty in Russia. Russian troops were nearing Constantinople. turned over to the peasants was owned collectively by the mir. All the land Ottoman rule. the village community. there were more than 23 million serfs living under conditions worse than those of the peasants of western Europe on 16th-century manors. Pan-Slavists were left with a legacy of bitterness against Austria-Hungary and Germany for failing to back Russia. . the Balkan crisis intensified with rebellions against Ottoman rule by various Slavic nationalities. Russia's nationalist diplomats and generals persuaded Alexander II to force the Ottomans to sign the Treaty of San Stefano in March 1878. Emancipation brought a supply of free labor to the cities. Revolutionaries believed that the newly-freed serfs were merely being sold into wage slavery in the onset of the industrial revolution. attacked serfdom. industry was stimulated. In the late 1870s Russia and the Ottoman Empire again clashed in the Balkans. and that the bourgeoisie had effectively replaced landowners. Russia intervened on behalf of Serbian and Russian volunteer forces when it went to war with the Ottoman Empire. Alexander II made up his own mind to abolish serfdom from above rather than wait for it to be abolished from below through revolution. which in later years has been compared to that of the abolitionists in the United States before the American Civil War. desire for reform was widespread. however. As a result. Russia agreed to the creation of a smaller Bulgaria. The emancipation of the serfs in 1861 was the single most important event in 19th-century Russian history. despite Alexander II's intentions. In numerous instances Alexander II's decisive role in the Liberation of Bulgaria from the peasants wound up with the poorest land. and the Ottomans surrendered. A growing humanitarian movement. revolutionary tensions were not abated. since its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants. In early 1877. independent Bulgaria that stretched into the southwestern Balkans. which in turn paid the landlords a generous The Monument to the Tsar Liberator in Sofia commemorates price for the land that they had lost. From 1875 to 1877.Russian Empire 77 When Alexander II came to the throne in 1855. Within one year. When Britain threatened to declare war over the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano. Russian nationalist opinion became a major domestic factor in its support for liberating Balkan Christians from Ottoman rule and making Bulgaria and Serbia independent. Although serfdom was abolished. an exhausted Russia backed down. The disappointment as a result of war stimulated revolutionary tensions in the country. creating an enlarged. In 1859. and the middle class grew in number and influence. which divided the land among the peasants and supervised the various holdings. the freed peasants had to pay a special tax for what amounted to their lifetime to the government. At the Congress of Berlin in July 1878. instead of receiving their lands as a gift. It was the beginning of the end for the landed aristocracy's monopoly of power. was depended as autonomous principality to Ottomans.

or Kadets. under Vladimir Lenin. and the government was desperate. Romania and Montenegro's independence from Ottomans and their enlargement against Ottomans. Russia was paralyzed. when the procession reached the palace. Under Pobedonostsev. The tsar's most influential adviser was Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev. advocated the formation of a small elite of professional revolutionists. killing hundreds. constitutions. exponents of Marxism in Russia. he helped Serbia. The Industrial Revolution began to put forth a significant influence in Russia. tutor to Alexander III and his son Nicholas. completed the conquest of Central Asia and demanded important territorial and commercial concessions from China. Cossacks opened fire on the crowd. Another radical group was the Social Democrats. According to revolutionary propaganda. However. This marked the beginning of the Russian Revolution of 1905. a reactionary who revived the maxim of "Autocracy. painting by Boris Kustodiyev republican France to contain the growing power of Germany. not the peasantry. It replaced the black-orange-white tricolor. They thus tended to ally themselves with the forces of bourgeois liberalism. and procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1895. Soviets (councils of workers) appeared in most cities to direct revolutionary activity.Russian Empire 78 . The Socialist-Revolutionaries (SRs) combined the Narodnik tradition and advocated the distribution of land among those who actually worked it—the peasants. the throne passed to his son Alexander III (1881–1894). In 1903 in London the party split into two wings — the gradualist Mensheviks. an incident known as "Bloody Sunday" occurred when Father Gapon led an enormous crowd to the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. revolutionaries were persecuted and a policy of Russification was carried out throughout the empire. and Respect to the People" of Nicholas I. Orthodoxy. The Mensheviks believed that the Russian working class was insufficiently developed and that socialism could be achieved only after a period of bourgeois democratic rule. The Bolsheviks. The Russian masses were so furious over the massacre that a general strike was declared demanding a democratic republic. which had been the civil flag since 1858. subject to strong party discipline. Following Alexander's assassination by the Narodnaya Volya. The Social Democrats differed from the SRs in that they believed a revolution must rely on urban workers. Alexander III believed that Russia could be saved from turmoil only by shutting itself off from the subversive influences of Western Europe. in 1881. A committed Slavophile. and also the plain [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] white-blue-red tricolor.[7] Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a major blow to the Tsarist regime and increased the potential for unrest. In his reign Russia concluded the union with A provincial Russian town in winter. the white-blue-red tricolor with a canton of the imperial arms was introduced by imperial decree on 19 November 1914. to act as the vanguard of the proletariat in order to seize power by force. a Nihilist terrorist organization. and the parliamentary system. forming the Constitutional Democrats. In January 1905. He taught his royal pupils to fear freedom of speech and press and to dislike democracy. The liberal elements among the industrial capitalists and nobility believed in peaceful social reform and a constitutional monarchy. In 1914. and the more radical Bolsheviks. . Early twentieth century Alexander was succeeded by his son Nicholas II (1894–1917).

the islands of Novaya Zemlya. Alexandra. as the main battle cry. and the army openly sided with the workers. When the tsar dismissed the Duma and ordered strikers to return to work. apart from Finland and its portion of Poland. coincided approximately with the natural limits of the East-European plains. By the end of 1905. To the East it had the Asiatic territories of the empire. The Duma refused to disband. Meanwhile. Military reversals and shortages among the civilian population. leaving the Tsarina. and street fighting broke out. and inflation was mounting. Tsar Nicholas II and his subjects entered World War I with enthusiasm and patriotism. Food and fuel were in short supply. soon soured much of the population. The West boundary was purely conventional: it crossed the peninsula of Kola from the Varangerfjord to the Gulf of . To the South it had the Black Sea and Caucasus. Strikes increased among low-paid factory workers. With his authority destroyed. Rasputin's assassination in late 1916 by a clique of nobles ended the scandal but did not restore the autocracy's lost prestige. which conceded the creation of a national Duma (legislature) to be called without delay. but the Kara Sea was reckoned to Siberia. The right to vote was extended and no law was to go into force without confirmation by the Duma. forming an uneasy alliance with the Provisional Government. Alexandra was influenced by a semiliterate mystic. within a week nearly all the workers in the city were idle. the Gregorian date was 15 March). and the tsar's position was strengthened for the time being. On March 3. 1917. Kolguyev and Vaigach also belonged to it. Grigory Rasputin. being separated from the latter by the Manych depression. a strike was organized on a factory in the capital Saint Petersburg. but the socialists rejected the concessions as insufficient and tried to organise new strikes. Territory Boundaries The administrative boundaries of European Russia. the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary. who wanted land reforms. In August 1914. partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. with the defence of Russia's fellow Orthodox Slavs. and there were reports that peasants. however. The moderate groups were satisfied. from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains.Russian Empire In October 1905. foreign supplies and potential markets. which in Post-Pliocene times connected the Sea of Azov with the Caspian. the strikers held mass meetings in defiance of the regime. Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes. Nicholas II directed the war effort personally. casualties were increasing. the Serbs. the socialists in Saint Petersburg had formed a Soviet (council) of workers and soldier's deputies. Nicholas abdicated on 2 March 1917 (Julian Calendar. to act as regent at home. by Ilya Repin. his orders triggered the February Revolution. A few days later a provisional government headed by Georgy Lvov was named by the Duma. there was disunity among the reformers. By the middle of 1915 the impact of the war was demoralizing. German control of the Baltic Sea and German-Ottoman control of the Black Sea severed Russia from most of its 79 A scene from the First Russian Revolution. In the North it met the Arctic Ocean. Nicholas reluctantly issued the famous October Manifesto. He and his family were subsequently murdered by Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. were restless. the Russian army entered Germany to support the French armies.

Tajikistan. most of Ethnic map of European Russia before the First World War Lithuania. The East coast of the Black Sea belonged to Transcaucasia. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Russian Turkestan). Artvin. Territory development In addition to almost the entire territory of modern Russia. the Bosphorus. Georgia (including Mengrelia). Kyrgyzstan. Austrian Galicia and Romania. Azerbaijan. Between 1742 and 1867 the Russian Empire administered Alaska as a colony. The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which was not inhabited by Slavs. Armenia. 1910.[8] prior to 1917 the Russian Empire included most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine and Crimea). and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians had taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva. Imperial external territories According to the 1st article of the Organic law. but by Baltic and Finnish peoples and by Germans. The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland were surrounded by what is ethnological Finnish territory. 80 Geography By the end of the 19th century the size of the empire was about 22400000 square kilometres ( sq mi) or almost 1/6 of the Earth's landmass. and thence to the mouth of the Danube. Iğdır. the only outlet of which. was in foreign hands. In 1744–1867 the empire also controlled the so-called Russian America. 1809. the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan. "The Grand Principality of Finland. a great chain of mountains separating it from Russia. Finland (Grand Principality of Finland). the 26th article stated that "With the Imperial Russian throne are indivisible the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Principality of Finland". taking a great circular sweep to the West to embrace Poland. thence it ran to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic. mostly bordered by deserts. while the Caspian. constituted an indivisible part of the Russian state. Kars and northeastern part of Erzurum from Turkey. With the exception of this territory (modern day Alaska). Moldova (Bessarabia). the majority of the population lived in European Russia. at this time. In this it differed from . the Russian Empire was a contiguous landmass spanning Europe and Asia. possessed more importance as a link between Russia and its Asiatic settlements than as a channel for intercourse with other countries. More than 100 different ethnic groups lived in the Russian Empire. and separating Russia from Prussia. In addition. Relations with the Grand Principality of Finland were also regulated by the 2nd article. Belarus. as well as a significant portion of Poland (Kingdom of Poland) and Ardahan. in its internal affairs governed by special regulations at the base of special laws" and the law of June 10. Estonia and Latvia (Baltic provinces). But even this sheet of water is an inland sea.Russian Empire Bothnia. its only rival in size at the time was the British Empire. with ethnic Russians comprising about 45% of the population. Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand principality. The Tsar ruled the Grand Principality of Finland as a constitutional monarch through his governor and a native Finnish Senate appointed by him. It is a special feature of Russia that it has few free outlets to the open sea other than on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean. Following the Swedish defeat in the Finnish War and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17. However. the Russian Empire was one indivisible state. an immense shallow lake.

then. In 1815. See for these periods of extraterritorial control the relations between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire. far less parliamentary. remaining a subject of heated controversy between conflicting parties in the state." This contradiction in terms well demonstrates the difficulty of defining in a single formula the system. the empire at times controlled concession territories. the word "unlimited" vanished.[9] 81 Government and administration Russia was described in the Almanach de Gotha for 1910 as "a constitutional monarchy under an autocratic tsar. Not that the regime in Russia had become in any true sense constitutional." whether permanently so limited. firstly as the Communist Soviet Union.Russian Empire contemporary. Schäffer. the Russian Empire kept a large proportion of its territory. vassal of King Kamehameha I of Hawaii. established in the Russian Empire since October 1905. went to Kauai and negotiated a treaty of protection with the island's governor Kaumualii. but the "unlimited autocracy" had given place to a "self-limited autocracy. Furthermore. The result of this was that while the British and French Empire declined in the 20th century. but the Russian Tsar refused to ratify the treaty. both conceded by imperial China. notably the port of Kwantung and the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone. and latterly as part of the present-day Russian Federation. while the name and principle of autocracy was enviously preserved. as well as a concession in Tianjin. Russian Empire in 1912 1906. colonial-style empires. Dr. or only at the discretion of the autocrat. essentially transitional and meanwhile sui generis." The imperial style is still "Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias". Before this date the fundamental laws of Russia described the power of the emperor as "autocratic and unlimited." . Provisionally. the Russian governmental system may perhaps be best defined as "a limited monarchy under an autocratic emperor. See also Orthodox Church in Hawaii and Russian Fort Elizabeth. a Russian entrepreneur. but in the fundamental laws as remodeled between the October Manifesto and the opening of the first Imperial Duma on April 27.

added to these were those returned by several large cities. when he was declared Emperor of all Russia. consisted (since the ukaz of June 2. it has seldom if ever initiated legislation. and 6 by Poland. a freely elected national assembly. Imperial Council By the law of the February 20. were ex officio members. 6 by the industrial councils. and he did exercise this right. the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma. were elected in assemblies of the three classes: landed proprietors. As a legislative body the powers of the Council were coordinate with those of the Duma.Russian Empire 82 The emperor Peter the Great changed his title from Tsar in 1721. 1906. 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities. the last Emperor of Russia. 16 by those having no zemstvos. 34 by the governments having zemstvos. or Imperial Council. consisted of 196 members. The Duma and electoral system The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma). The Council of the Empire. as reconstituted for this purpose. however. Of the elected members. In addition to mentioned moral liabilities appeared new juridical. and elected delegates directly to the college of the Governorates. The power of emperor before the October Manifesto was limited by one liabilities: the emperor and his consort must belong to the Russian Orthodox Church and to obey the laws of succession (Pauline Laws). While later rulers kept this title. The membership was manipulated as to secure an overwhelming majority of the wealthy (especially the landed classes) and also for the representatives of the Russian peoples at the expense of the subject nations. of whom 98 were nominated by the emperor. 1906. Workmen were treated in special manner with every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over . The urban population was divided into two categories according to taxable wealth. in practice. 6 by the chambers of commerce. At the same time the emperor had rights to disband Duma. while 98 were elective. 3 by the "white" clergy (seculars). 18 by the corporations of nobles. 1907) of 442 members. which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament. except Central Asia. and from this time the legislative power was exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers . Each province of the empire. The members of the Duma were chosen by electoral colleges and these. returned a certain number of members. established by Paul I. Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House. The ministers. the ruler of Russia was commonly known as Tsar or Tsaritsa until the fall of the Empire during the February Revolution of 1917. also nominated. On October 17. 1905. The peasants were represented by delegates selected by the regional subdivisions called volosts. the Council of the Nicholas II. In these assemblies the wealthiest proprietors sat in person while the lesser proprietors were represented by delegates. citizens and peasants. elected by an exceedingly complicated process. amplified with the Organic Law of April 28. 3 were returned by the "black" clergy (the monks). the situation changed. in their turn.

health. Ministry of National Enlightenment. Most Holy Synod The Most Holy Synod (established in 1721) was the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia. a function which theoretically gave it a power akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States. Ministry of Justice. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (created in 1905). originally established during the Government reform of Peter The Senate and Synod headquarters on Senate Square in Saint Petersburg. These elected their delegates to the Duma directly.Russian Empire electing one or more delegates to the electoral college. This council consists of all the ministers and of the heads of the principal administrations. In the college itself the voting for the Duma was by secret ballot and a simple majority carried the day. Senate The Senate (Pravitelstvuyushchi Senat. Saint Petersburg and Kiev. representing the emperor. The ministries were as follows: • Ministry of the Imperial Court • Ministry of Foreign Affairs. the archbishop of Georgia.e. I. Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Łódź. Since the majority consisted of conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates). a high court of justice for all political offences. Odessa. • Ministry of War. it promulgated new laws. consisted of members nominated by the emperor. Kiev. censorship and press. . an audit office. Lastly. • • • • • • • • Ministry of Navy Ministry of Finance. Ministry of Agriculture and State Assets. the progressives had little chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government was to be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college. 1905. under a minister president. and consisted of the three metropolitans of Moscow. posts and telegraphs. i. and though their votes were divided (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth. 83 Council of Ministers By the law of October 18. foreign religions. That the Duma had any radical elements was mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns — Saint Petersburg. notably differences between representatives of the central power and the elected organs of local self-government. directing or governing senate). Ministry of ways of Communications. Ministry of Internal affairs (including police. to assist the emperor in the supreme administration a Council of Ministers (Sovyet Ministrov) was created. It was the supreme court of cassation. Moscow. one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. It was presided over by a lay procurator. It also had supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the Empire. and a number of bishops sitting in rotation. the first appearance of a prime minister in Russia. of rejecting measures not in accordance with fundamental laws. each returned the same number of delegates. statistics). Its wide variety of functions were carried out by the different departments into which it was divided.

the second. are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges. 17 oblasts and 1 okrug (Sakhalin) belonged to Asian Russia. Kerch. the rest had each a governor and deputy-governor. and Riga. independent of the governorates. with jurisdiction over petty causes.Russian Empire 84 Administrative divisions For purposes of administration. by the statute of 20 November 1864 (Sudebny Ustav). Warsaw. whether civil or criminal. The first of these. the independence of the judges and courts. by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power. was established by the "tsar emancipator" Alexander II. Of the rest 8 Governorates were in Finland. generally placed over several governorates and armed with more extensive powers usually including the command of the troops within the limits of their jurisdiction. Kiev. existed from the mid-19th century. Moscow. and during the latter years of Alexander II and the reign of Alexander III there was a piecemeal taking back of what had been given. 20 oblasts. which. Odessa. Tuva (Uriankhai). based on the French model. in these the chief of police acted as governor. after 1914. are the courts of the elected justices of the peace. In addition there were governors-general. sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases. In 1906. The Don Oblast was under the direct jurisdiction of the ministry of war. Sevastopol. the Khanate of Khiva and. The establishment of a judicial system on these principles constituted a major change in the conception of the Russian state. Nikolayev. This system — based partly on English. Moscow. Of these 11 Governorates. a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and—so far as one order of tribunal was concerned—the election of judges. the publicity of trials and oral procedure. after the revolution. as the supreme court of cassation. European Russia thus embraced 59 governorates and 1 oblast (that of the Don). the equality of all classes before the law. . partly on French models — was built up on certain broad principles: the separation of the judicial and administrative functions. Vassals and protectorates of the Russian Empire included the Emirate of Bukhara. It was reserved for the third Duma. and 1 (okrug). 10 in Poland.[10] The system established by the law of 1864 was significant in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals. Vilna. ceased to be a despotism. Moreover. each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate. based on the English model. the latter presiding over the administrative council. This fact made the system especially obnoxious to the bureaucracy. Russia was divided (as of 1914) into 81 governorates (guberniyas). there were governors-general in Finland. The larger cities (Saint Petersburg. to begin the reversal of this process. Subdivisions of the Russian Empire in 1914 Residence of the Governor of Moscow (1778–82) Judicial system The judicial system of the Russian Empire. Rostov) had an administrative system of their own.

was one of the council of ministers and exercised very wide powers in ecclesiastical matters. based on the Russian Empire Census of 1897. adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows. the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos. In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs. the head of which. artisans and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth. Since about the same time a process of Russification was being carried out in the same provinces. Baltic provinces The formerly Swedish controlled Baltic provinces (Courland. Livonia and Estonia) were incorporated into the Russian Empire after the defeat of Sweden in the Great Northern War. • the zemstvos in the 34 Governorates of Russia.Russian Empire 85 Local administration Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: • the peasant assemblies in the mir and the volost. with still more restricted powers. Religions The state religion of the Russian Empire was that of the Russian Orthodox Christianity. were granted to several towns in Siberia. similar to those in the purely Russian governments. in the higher schools and in the university of Dorpat. in all departments of administration. who held the title of supreme defender of the Church. laws were declared in 1888 and 1889 where the rights of the police and manorial justice were transferred from Baltic German control to officials of the central government. Municipal dumas Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos. Under Alexander III. and tax-paying merchants. All religions were freely professed. each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma. The executive is in the hands of an The Moscow City Duma elective mayor and an uprava. police and the administration of local justice. After 167 years of German language administration and education. According to returns published in 1905. the Baltic German nobility retained considerable powers of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education. were introduced into this part of the empire. The principal ecclesiastical authority was the Holy Synod. which consists of several members elected by the duma. Although he made and annulled all appointments. by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894. In 1894 municipal institutions. . All owners of houses. • the municipal dumas. except that certain restrictions were laid upon the Jews. the name of which was altered to Yuriev. Its head was the tsar. however. the Over Procurator of the Holy Synod. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts. Under the Treaty of Nystad of 1721. and in 1895 to some in Caucasia. he did not determine the questions of dogma or church teaching. representing three groups of electors very unequal in number.

More than 88 million of the Russians were peasants.194.321 85. cossacks and peasants.596 1.1%.740 males the same year). These allotments were given over to the rural commune (mir). all drawn from the ranks of the monastic (celibate) clergy.6%.805 3. or social estates (classes) such as nobility (dvoryanstvo). The parochial clergy had to be married when appointed. was abolished in 1861.906. 81. clergy. The Crown paid the landlord and the peasants had to repay the Crown. clergy. non-ethnic Russian areas such as Tartarstan. Native people of the Caucasus.183 3.572. fourteen archbishops and fifty bishops. and military. the burghers and merchants.123. which was made responsible for the payment of taxes for the allotments. 9.564 38. For these allotments the peasants had to pay a fixed rent which could be fulfilled by personal labour. for forty-nine years at 6% interest.972 11. merchants. A part of them were formerly serfs (10.204.467.149 males in 1858) – the remainder being " state peasants " (9. 0.653 2.179. Society Subjects of the Russian Empire were segregated into sosloviyes. Bashkirstan. the others were: nobility. and then they were freed from all obligations to the landlord.1%.894 4. Moscow. and allotments of arable land. literally: "people of another origin").994 5.Russian Empire 86 Religion Russian Orthodox Muslims Roman Catholics Jews Lutherans [12] Count of believers [11] 87. belonged to the peasant order. this rule continues to apply today.[13] The household servants or dependents attached to the personal service were merely set free.447. and became enshrined by law in 1649. but if left widowers were not allowed to marry again.952 Old Believers Armenian Apostolics Buddhists and Lamaists Other non-Christian Religions Reformed Mennonites Armenian Catholics Baptists Karaite Jews Anglicans Other Christian Religions The ecclesiastical heads of the national Russian Orthodox Church consisted of three metropolitans (Saint Petersburg. exclusive of the Archangel Governorate) and " domain peasants " (842.6%. while the landed peasants received their houses and orchards. 0. The allotments could be redeemed by peasants with the help of the Crown.139 12.3%. Serfdom The serfdom which had developed in Russia in the 16th century. Siberia and Central Asia were officially registered as a category called inorodtsy (non-Slavic. 6. The financial .241 433.604 13. A majority of the people.863 285.840 38.891 males in 1858. Kiev).400 66.215.

on account of the high redemption taxes. or rather their descendants.000 km2).000. where the land was valued cheaper and the allotments somewhat increased after the Polish insurrection. have between 1883 and 1904 bought about 19500000 acres (78900 km2) from their former masters.9 to 5. Many proprietors contrived to curtail the allotments which the peasants had occupied under serfdom. but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs. where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants). It was only in the steppe governments that the situation was more hopeful. was not conducive to the growth of individual effort. The arrears increase every year. and only those landlords are prospering who exact rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments. the general situation was better. but still they were emigrating in masses.4 acres – the normal size of the allotment necessary to the subsistence of a family under the three-fields system being estimated at 28 to 42 acres ( m2). In November 1906. and frequently deprived them of precisely the parts of which they were most in need: pasture lands around their houses. cattle are disappearing. however. roads. 87 Peasants After the Emancipation reform one quarter of peasants have received allotments of only 2. There has been an increase of wealth among the few." whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments. chiefly levied from the peasants. or from 210.Russian Empire redemption to the landlord was not calculated on the value of the allotments. The average allotment in Kherson was only 0. During the years 1861 to 1892 the land owned by the nobles decreased 30%. Landowners The situation of the former serf-proprietors was also unsatisfactory. Many peasants took the "gratuitous allotments. Finally. and for allotments from 2. In Little Russia. The forests have been sold. and more especially since 1882. since 1861. Only one quarter of the peasants were farmers. they have failed to adapt to the new conditions. when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land. with hired laborers. in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belonged to the German landlords. Every Prokudin-Gorsky in 1909 year more than half the adult males (in some districts three-fourths of the men and one-third of the women) quit their homes and wander throughout Russia in search of labor. one-fifth of Peasants in Russia. the former serfs.000.000 acres (610. the remainder were mere laborers. The state peasants were better off. but along with this a general impoverishment of the mass of the people. framed on the principle of community of ownership and occupation of the land.000 to 150. and one-half less than 8. local administration and so on. Photograph taken by Sergey the inhabitants have left their houses.5 to 11. who either farmed the land themselves. On the other hand. and since then the sales have gone on at an accelerated rate. the state of affairs does not differ for the better. during the following four years an additional 2119500 acres (8577 km2) were sold.000 km2) passed out of their hands.8 acres (23000 m2) the peasants pay 5 to 10 rubles of redemption tax.9-acre (3600 m2). Land must thus of necessity be rented from the landlords at fabulous prices. and the peculiar institution of the mir. the emperor Nicholas II promulgated a provisional ukaz permitting the peasants to . The result was to compel the peasants to rent land from their former masters.000 acres (8. The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments. or let it in small farms. In the West provinces. the church. Accustomed to the use of compulsory labor. not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes.9 acres (12000 m2) per male. The millions of rubles of redemption money received from the crown have been spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been effected.000. until in 1903 alone close upon 2. In the governments of the Black Earth Area the state of matters is hardly better.

crwflags. [9] Hawaiiweb. Routledge. doi:10. Ronald. Archipelag. Photocopy of pages (http://elibrary. Распределение населения по вероисповеданиям. "Regional Diversity in the Later Russian Empire". ru/ ru_mir/ religio/ statistics/ said/ statistics-imp/ ) [12] The Lutheran Church was the dominant faith of the Baltic Provinces. 1995. David. In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace. Soviet hieroglyphics: visual culture in late twentieth-century Russia‎. all redemption dues being remitted. 2004. Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи. Hugh.gov/frd/cs/rutoc. In 1905. com/ kauai/ html/ sites/ russian_fort_elizabeth. as an ideal that could only gradually be realized. Thames & Hudson. This measure. The ukaz of November 1906 had provided that the various strips of land held by each peasant should be merged into a single holding. . hawaiiweb. Victoria E. which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the December 21. Princeton University Press. произведенной 28 января 1897 года. p92 Condee. • Saunders. except in certain large towns and some outlying parts of the empire. [11] Results of the Russian Empire Census of 1897. html) [10] An ukaz of 1879 gave the governors the right to report secretly on the qualifications of candidates for the office of justice of the peace.ru/book. Nancy. • (Russian) Грибовский В. but in 1914 Russian protectorate over Tuva was established. Material history review‎. Macmillan. Sharpe. Под ред.). and greatly restricted the right of trial by jury. memory and the First World War‎.com (http:/ / www.karelia. 1982. Russia at the barricades: eyewitness accounts of the August 1991 coup. 1968. com/ blackhistory/ article-24160) Bonnell. on the advice of the government. Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed. Общий свод по Империи результатов разработки данных Первой Всеобщей переписи населения. 1908. archipelag. com/ FOTW/ flags/ ru_1914. 1533–1917. The Crisis of the Old Order in Russia: Gentry and Government. ISSN 0080-4401. • Warnes. is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects on the rural economy of Russia. С. Southern Sakhalin was lost to Japan. and Tuva. Russian Empire included all territories of the present-day Russian Federation.1017/S0080440100000074. Н. html) For an analysis of the reaction of the elites to the revolutionaries see Manning. [8] From 1860 to 1905. Indiana University Press.Тройницкого. 1999. with the exception of the present-day Kaliningrad Oblast. 2000. Chronicle of the Russian Tsars: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Russia. т. 1912. 88 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History (http:/ / www. Table XII (Religions) (http:/ / www. Cambridge University Press. Kuril Islands. it was not until 1904 that landed proprietors were forbidden by law to inflict corporal punishment upon peasants. britannica.М. the Duma. p49 Saunders.ru/ru_mir/religio/statistics/said/statistics-imp/) •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm.E. and of the Grand Duchy of Finland [13] However. Roberta. however. of Ingria. Matters of conflict: material culture. left this to the future. 1994.archipelag.html) • Hingley. References and further reading • Library of Congress Country Studies: Russia (http://lcweb2.shtml?levelID=012003&id=318&cType=1) • (Russian) Первая Всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. In 1889 Alexander III abolished the election of justices of the peace. p129 National Museum of Science and Technology (Canada). M. Nicholas J. 1905. ed (1911).I. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 10: 143–163.com (http:/ / www. p46 CRWflags. The confusion of the judicial and administrative functions was introduced again by the appointment of officials as judges. The Tsars. Thirteen years previously the government had endeavored to secure greater fixity and permanence of tenure by providing that at least twelve years must elapse between every two redistributions of the land belonging to a mir amongst those entitled to share in it.ru (http://www.А.-Петербург. Таблица XII.loc. Canada Science and Technology Museum. David (December 2000).Russian Empire become freeholders of allotments made at the time of emancipation.

S. It included terrorism.rusempire.com/): All about Russian Empire and Russia. Russian socialists formed two major groups: the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. and the Russian Constitution of 1906. Rise of the opposition At the start of the 20th century.governingdynamo. and the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party.gov/exhibits/empire/): color photographs from Library of Congress • The New Student's Reference Work/Russia. peasant unrest. while some was undirected. . Tsar Nicholas II made a move to fulfill many of these demands. demanding establishment of an elected national legislature. worker strikes. On 25 December [O. following the Russian populist tradition.Russian Empire 89 External links • Russian Empire (http://www.com/a-level-resources/2009/9/11/ the-geography-of-the-russian-empire-1795-1914. the emancipation of Inorodtsy. and military mutinies. On 13 December [O. However. the State Duma of the Russian Empire.html) 1905 Russian Revolution The 1905 Russian Revolution was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. the crucial point of representative national legislature was missing in the manifesto. • The Empire that was Russia (http://www. and the abolition of censorship. Some of it was directed against the government. liberals started a series of banquets celebrating the 40th anniversary of the liberal court statutes and calling for political reforms and establishment of a constitution.S. and freedom of religion. insurance for industrial workers. appointing liberal Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirskii Minister of the Interior after the assassination of Vyacheslav von Plehve. the Moscow City Duma passed a resolution. 30 November] 1904.loc. 12 December] 1904. full freedom of the press. Similar resolutions and appeals from other city dumas and zemstvo councils followed. In the autumn of 1904. Empire of • Maps of the Russian Empire 1795-1914 (http://www. 1907 Constitutionalists (1903) and the Union of Liberation (1904) which called for a constitutional monarchy. the multi-party system. the Tsar issued a manifesto promising the broadening of the Zemstvo and local municipal councils' authority. Russian liberals formed the Union of Zemstvo Bombs found in explosives lab of revolutionaries. It led to the establishment of limited constitutional monarchy.

By February.S. over 2 million workers were on strike and there were almost no active railways in all of Russia.[2] The mutinies were disorganised and quickly crushed. which organised strike action in over 200 factories.1905 Russian Revolution 90 Start of the revolution In December 1904. peaking in June with the mutiny aboard the Battleship Potemkin — some sources claim over 2.[4] The number of prisoners throughout the Russian Empire. Certain groups took the opportunity to settle differences with each other rather than the government. Pyotr Sviatopolk-Mirskii. in the Urals and beyond. and is usually considered the start of the active phase of the revolution. according to Sergei Witte. and the Baltic provinces all sought autonomy. 5 September] 1905). in February 1905. opened fire on them. over 400. chiefs of government factories. which resulted in more than 200 (according to Witte) to 1000 deaths. which had peaked at 116. 1905 Port Arthur was lost. chiefly because of several mass amnesties granted by the Tsar.S. Growing inter-ethnic confrontation throughout the Caucasus resulted in Armenian-Tatar massacres. 13 October] 1905. if dissatisfied — and were widely used by the government to control the 1905 unrest. Sympathy strikes in other parts of the city raised the number of strikers to over 80. a largely Menshevik group led by Leon Trotsky. a member of the State Council. It was also meant to have included workers’ delegates elected according to a two-stage system. The Poles. losing almost 80.[5] Government response The Tsar dismissed the Minister of the Interior.S.S.[1] By 26 October [O. By the end of January 1905. and by April. The commission was headed by Senator NV Shidlovsky.000. 5 January] 1905 and appointed a government commission "to enquire without delay into the causes of discontent among the workers in the city of St Petersburg and its suburbs" in view of the strike movement. however.000 workers in Russian Poland were on strike (see Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905–1907)). The events in Saint Petersburg provoked public indignation and a series of massive strikes that spread quickly throughout the industrial centres of the Russian Empire. all higher academic institutions were forcibly closed for the remainder of the year.S. In 1905. Finns. Vladivostok. Despite these mutinies. the armed forces were largely apolitical and remained mostly loyal. the Russian army was defeated at Mukden. With the unsuccessful and bloody Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) there was unrest in army reserve units. and also freedom to use their national languages and promote their own culture. Controversial Orthodox priest George Gapon. Elections of the workers delegates were. on 18 January [O. The troops guarding the Winter Palace who had been ordered to tell the demonstrators not to pass a certain point. there were naval mutinies at Sevastopol (see Sevastopol Uprising). and the Russian Baltic Fleet mauled at Tsushima.000 men in the process. adding radical students to the striking workers. This prompted the setting up of the short-lived Saint Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies. 80 protesters were killed on 26 January [O. there were strikes in the Caucasus.[5] the historian S G Wheatcroft has wondered what role these released criminals played in the 1905–6 social unrest. 22 January [O. 13 January] 1905.[3] Muslim groups were also active — the First Congress of the Muslim Union took place in August 1905. In Riga. A strike by railway workers on 21 October [O. 9 January] 1905. and Kronstadt. fell by over a third to a record low of 75009 in January 1905. Polish socialists — both the PPS and the SDKPiL — called for a general strike. and in total over 3000 Jews were killed. negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (signed 18 September [O. Some nationalists undertook anti-Jewish pogroms. led a huge workers' procession to the Winter Palace to deliver a petition to the Tsar on Sunday. blocked by the socialists who wanted to divert the workers from . and in Warsaw a few days later over 100 strikers were shot on the streets. a strike occurred at the Putilov plant (a railway and artillery supplier) in Saint Petersburg. On January 2. who headed a police-sponsored workers' association. The event became known as Bloody Sunday.000 sailors died in the restoration of order. There were also strikes in Finland and the Baltic coast. In March. and private factory owners. and included officials. Nationalist groups had been angered by the Russification undertaken since Alexander II. heavily damaging the cities and the Baku oilfields.S. Witte was dispatched to make peace. possibly with government aid.376 in 1893. 8 October] 1905 quickly developed into a general strike in Saint Petersburg and Moscow.

freedom of speech (in the form of language rights for the Polish minority) and a reduction in the peasants' redemption payments. peasant unrest. Some of the November uprising of 1905 in Sevastopol.S. which passed a resolution. there were Ilya Repin. 24 May ] 1905. written by Sergei Witte and Alexis Obolenskii. He regretted signing the document. with right-wing attacks on strikers. The strikes in Saint Petersburg and elsewhere officially ended or quickly collapsed. On 18 February [O. 22 January] to the creation of a State Duma of the Russian Empire but with consultative powers only. action against the unrest. was presented to the Tsar on 14 October [O. saying that he felt "sick with shame at this betrayal of the dynasty. While the Russian liberals were satisfied by the October Manifesto and took preparations for upcoming Dumas elections.S.S. There was also a backlash from the conservative elements of society.. extending the franchise towards universal suffrage. The Trans-Baikal railroad fell into the hands of striker committees and demobilised soldiers returning from Manchuria after the Russo–Japanese War. On 24 and 25 May [O. It included terrorism. The October Manifesto. religious tolerance.[6] Disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland culminated in June 1905 in the Łódź insurrection. The Saint Petersburg Soviet was formed and called for a general strike in October. Following the assassination of his uncle. Nicholas II had received a Zemstvo deputation. and establishing the Duma as the central legislative body. the Tsar agreed to give new concessions. the betrayal was complete". On 6 June [O. 1 October] . and the withdrawal of bank deposits. 17 October] 1905. radical socialists and revolutionaries denounced the elections and called for an armed uprising to destroy the Empire. 4 February] 1905. 91 Height of the revolution Tsar Nicholas II agreed on 5 February [O.S. worker strikes. and a realisation that there was insufficient military force available to do otherwise. which promised the formation of a consultative assembly. and brutal. refusal to pay taxes. about 300 Zemstvo and municipal representatives held three meetings in Moscow. On 5 March [O.S.1905 Russian Revolution the elections to the armed struggle. left-wingers. owing to his desire to avoid a massacre.S. while some was undirected. and military mutinies and was only suppressed after a fierce battle. The concessions came hand-in-hand with renewed. asking for popular representation at the national level. allowing the formation of political parties. on 17 February [O.. the Tsar confirmed his promise to convene an assembly of people’s representatives. When its slight powers and limits on the electorate were revealed. In June and July 1905.S. headed by retired naval Lieutenant Pyotr Schmidt. The Tsar waited and argued for three days. unrest redoubled. 17 October 1905 many peasant uprisings in which peasants seized land and murdered their landlords. 5 February] 1905 he published the Bulygin Rescript. and Jews. was directed against the government. the Commission was dissolved without having started work. A political amnesty was also offered. The Tsar had . but finally signed the manifesto on 30 October [O. the Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich. 11 and 12 May] 1905. When the manifesto was proclaimed there were spontaneous demonstrations of support in all the major cities. It closely followed the demands of the Zemstvo Congress in September. 20 February] 1905. granting basic civil rights.S. Responding to speeches by Prince Sergei Trubetskoi and Mr Fyodrov.

were the liberal-intelligentsia Constitutional Democratic party (the Cadets). an assassination attempt on Pyotr Stolypin led to the establishment of field trials for terrorists. Witte was replaced by senior Ivan Goremykin. there was a general strike by Russian workers. 22 and 24 November] . and the Tsar to become law. In April 1906. the SRs and the Bolsheviks. On 19 May [O.000 deaths. The Duma was dispersed and the social democrat deputies were arrested.000 people had been executed and 75. the peasant leaders' Labour Group (Trudoviks). and notes the existence of one source that puts the figure at over 13. In the First Duma. However. A week later the Semenovskii Regiment was deployed. The Tsar was confirmed as absolute leader.S. Legislation had to be approved by the Duma. church. the First Duma was dissolved by the Tsar in July 1906. and in "exceptional conditions" the government could bypass the Duma.[4] 92 Duma and Stolypin Among the political parties formed. The electoral laws were promulgated in December 1905—franchise to male citizens over 25 years of age. and the reactionary Union of Land-Owners. electing through four electoral colleges. 6 May] 1906. For example. Despite the hopes of the Kadets and the fears of the government. This was a weighted electoral system where the votes of some sections of society were worth more than others. and over the next eight months more than a thousand people were hanged. On 18 December [O. The Coup of June 1907 was the end of the revolution. more than 14. the less liberal Union of 17 October (the Octobrists).1905 Russian Revolution to send a special detachment of loyal troops along the Trans-Siberian Railway to restore order. the vote of a landowner was worth more than the vote of a peasant or industrial worker. In April 1906. 5 December] . 90 Trudoviks. the government issued the Fundamental Laws. By April 1906. the uprisings ended in December 1905. Demanding further liberalisation and acting as a platform for "agitators". Later known as "late Imperial Russia's most outstanding politician".S. after having negotiated a loan of almost 900 million rubles to repair the Russian government's finances. The status of the Duma was changed. becoming a lower chamber below the half-elected. Goremykin was himself replaced by Pyotr Stolypin. Sergei Witte resigned. the workers surrendered. and a bitter street-by-street fight began. The autocracy was restored. The first elections to the Duma took place in March 1906 and were boycotted by the socialists. Between 5 and 7 December [O. the Council. Apparently the Tsar had lost confidence in him. . 100 non-aligned peasant representatives. and 16 Octobrists. and the armed forces. 63 nationalists of various hues. with around a thousand people dead and parts of the city in ruins. there were 170 Kadets. setting the limits of this new political order. and used artillery to break-up demonstrations and to shell workers' districts. half-appointed by the Tsar State Council. there was no widespread popular reaction to this. The government sent in troops on 7 December. or made legal.S.000 imprisoned. foreign policy. with complete control of the executive. The historian Brian Taylor states the number of deaths in the 1905 Revolution was in the "thousands". After a final spasm in Moscow.

Repression The years of revolution were marked by a dramatic rise in the numbers of death sentences and executions. 2 April] 1902 in Saint Petersburg. 1910. Killed 30 June [O.S. Nikolai Bobrikov – Governor-General of Finland. Different figures on the number of executions were compared by Senator Nikolai Tagantsev. especially in Siberia. 26 225 624 1349 2235 20 144 1139 825 2628 Year 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 Number of executions 537 129 352 123 25 These numbers reflect only executions of civilians. of whom 2. 4 February] 1905 in Moscow. 28 July] 1904 in Saint Petersburg. SR Combat Organization combat groups carried out numerous assassinations targeting civil servants and police. 6 February] 1905 in Helsinki.S. the Caucasus. Victor Sakharov – former war minister.[8] and are listed in the table.[11] Peter Kropotkin also notes that official statistics did not include executions during punitive expeditions.1905 Russian Revolution 93 Rise of terrorism The years 1904 and 1907 were a time of decline for the mass movements.[7] Notable victims of assassins included: • • • • • • • • Dmitry Sipyagin – Minister of Interior. at the International Prison Congress in Washington. Killed 24 July [O.S. Killed 15 April [O.061.S. and robberies.S. 11 July] 1906. revolutionaries killed 7. Year Number of executions by different accounts Report by Ministry of Internal Affairs Report by Ministry of Police Department to the State Duma on War Military Justice 19 February [O. Killed 5 December [O. 9 December] 1906. Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia – Killed 17 February [O.S.S. assistant head of Gruzenberg. and wounded 8.[10] . department 1905 10 1906 144 1907 456 1908 825 Total 1435 + 683[9] = 2118 19 236 627 1330 2212 Figures by Oscar Report by Mikhail Borovitinov. Ministry of Justice Chief Prison Administration. Eliel Soisalon-Soininen – Chancellor of Justice of Finland. Admiral Chukhnin – the Black Sea Fleet commander. but also a time of rising political terrorism. Killed 19 February [O. 22 November] 1905.640 were officials.S.[10] and do not include a large number of summary executions by punitive army detachments and executions of military personnel that mutineed. Vyacheslav von Plehve – Minister of Interior. such as strikes and political demonstrations. Aleksey Ignatyev – Killed 22 December [O. Between 1906 and 1909. 17 June] 1904 in Helsinki.S.293 people. and the Baltic provinces. 6 February] 1909. Killed 10 August [O.

The Congress of Parish Representatives was held in Riga in November. Special punitive expeditions were dispatched in mid-December to suppress the movement. and for national autonomy. the Social Democrats organised the general strike of 1905 (12–19 November [O. The Finnish Red Guards supported the rebellion with a general strike. the revolutionary movement gradually subsided. the Russian army opened fire in a meeting on a street market in Tallinn. The radical views were publicly welcomed and in December 1905. led by captain Johan Kock. universal suffrage. On 29 October [O. political freedoms. written by Finnish politician and journalist Yrjö Mäkelin. During the summer 1905. 13 January] . for universal suffrage. Russian army troops opened fire on demonstrators killing 73 and injuring 200 people. the peasants seized or surrounded several towns. On 26 January [O. Helsinki.S.[12] Martial law was declared in Courland in August 1905.1905 Russian Revolution 94 Finland In the Grand Duchy of Finland. but it was quelled by the Baltic Fleet in sixty days. Another. killing 94 and injuring over 200. the Red Declaration. was given in Tampere. During the general strike.S. armed conflict between the Baltic German nobility and the Latvian peasants begun in the rural areas of Livland and Courland. Russian sailors rose to rebellion in the fortress of Sveaborg (later called Suomenlinna). and abolition of censorship. It also resulted in a temporary halt to the Russification policy started in 1899. In Livland. martial law was declared in Tallinn. 30 July] 1906. The October Manifesto was supported in Estonia and the Estonian flag was displayed publicly for the first time. 470 new parish administrative bodies were elected in 94% of the parishes in Latvia.S. Estonia In the Governorate of Estonia. 400 workers and peasants being killed by the army. but the tense stability that prevailed between 1905 and 1917 allowed Estonians to advance the aspiration of national statehood.National Progress Party. Petersburg a wide-scale general strike began in Riga. In autumn 1905. 16 October] . and in Livland in late November. demanding dissolution of the Senate of Finland. They executed 1170 people without trial or investigation and burned 300 peasant homes. Leo Mechelin crafted the November Manifesto that led to the abolition of the Diet of Finland and of the four Estates. Latvia Following the shooting of demonstrators in St. In Courland. In 1906. and to the creation of the modern Parliament of Finland. A total of 160 manors were looted. Demonstrators in Jakobstad On 12 August [O. Estonian gains from the revolution were minimal.S. Estonians called for freedom of the press and assembly. the Estonian Social Democratic Workers' Union was founded as well. 30 October — 6 November] ). only that they both wanted to limit the rights of Baltic Germans and to end Russification. The Red Guards were formed. resulting in ca. . the fighters controlled the Rūjiena-Pärnu railway line. more radical political organisation. the focus of revolutionary events moved to the countryside with mass meetings and demonstrations. Jaan Tõnisson used the new political freedoms to widen the rights of Estonians by establishing the first Estonian political party . The moderate supporters of Tõnisson and the more radical supporters of Jaan Teemant could not reach a consensus about how to continue with the revolution. Leader of the constitutionalists.

R Paul Evans. Greenwood Press. Aivars Stranga. vol. Inesis Feldmanis (2006). asp?cntID=100066404) [12] Bleiere. 1994 • Abraham Ascher. p. 1894-1917. GCSE History for WJEC Specification A. com/ voline/ 89.edu/digitallibrary/ russiangraphic. Antonijs Zunda.marxists. Paris. Rawson. p. Heinemann. 42/3.org/details/russiareform00pareiala) by Bernard Pares • Russian Chronology 1904-1914. edu. html) [2] Bascomb. Carol Apollonio Flath and Donald J. (http:/ / www. Publications de la Sorbonne et Institut d'Études Slaves.texas. Winter 2005) .68 [7] Galina Mikhaĭlovna Ivanova.library. The Revolution of 1905. law. pp.132/ search?q=cache:SFJgJGksZiUJ:hansagymn.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.6 [8] Article Death penalty in Russia. Palgrave Macmillan. 1995 • François-Xavier Coquin. google.home. asp?cntID=100066404) [9] 683 executions by sentences of Field Courts Martial.htm) • Estonia during the Russian Revolution of 1905 (http://209. Mutiny amid Repression: Russian Soldiers in the Revolution of 1905-1906. acting from 1 September [O. p.34. Bloomington.com/anarcho/1905) An article on the events of 1905 from an anarchist perspective (Anarcho-Syndicalist Review. [6] Paul Barnes. Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia. 2004 • Donald C. ditext. Challenging traditional views of Russian history. [5] Wheatcroft.1905 Russian Revolution 95 References [1] Voline (2004). History of Latvia : the 20th century. 1988 • Abraham Ascher. Red Mutiny: Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin. Paris. net/Nat/Rus/Rus00. Ilgvars Butulis.yale. p.library. 1905.htm) by Leon Trotsky • Russia and reform (1907) (http://www. 1689–2000. law. Stanford University Press. Cambridge University Press. [10] http:/ / dwardmac. External links • Russian Graphic Art and the Revolution of 1905. Chapter 2: The Birth of the "Soviets" (http:/ / www. html [11] Death penalty in Russia. edu/ ANARCHIST_ARCHIVES/ kropotkin/ terror/ chapter3. The History of the Baltic States. vol. SG (2002). Daina. 20 April] 1907 were listed separately and not subdivided by year. Stanford University Press. (http://beinecke. 68. pitzer. ru/ script/ cntSource.pageabode. Labour camp socialism: the Gulag in the Soviet totalitarian system (2000). 2: Authority Restored. The Revolution of 1905: A Short History. (http:/ / www. 1985 • Anna Geifman. including the Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath (http://cnparm.S. Russian Rightists and the Revolution of 1905. Cambridge. Raleigh.html) From the collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University (http://www.129. 19 August] 1906.58 (http:/ / books. Politics and the Russian army: civil-military relations. no. com/ books?vid=ISBN0313323550& id=b3b5nU4bnw4C& pg=RA1-PA58& lpg=RA1-PA58& ots=6G43QFPPGJ& dq=Russification+ Poland-Lithuania& sig=Q1PZa4NiCDV_L6RESzPBop1_8AE) [4] Taylor. Riga: Jumava.yale.edu/beinecke/) • The Year 1905 (http://www. 1: Russia in Disarray. ru/ script/ cntSource.parnu. 1905 : La première révolution russe (Actes du colloque sur la révolution de 1905). Peris Jones-Evans (2003). Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies. Google Print. N (2007). [3] Kevin O'Connor. 1999 • François-Xavier Coquin and Céline Gervais-Francelle (Editors). Notes • Abraham Ascher.85. OCLC 70240317. Cambridge University Press. Unknown Revolution.69. The Revolution of 1905. Editions Complexe. BD (2003). ISBN 0313323550. La Révolution russe manquée. edu. 1986 • John Bushnell. ISBN 9984380386. Stanford University Press.archive. Stanford.org/archive/trotsky/1907/1905/index. The Pre-Revolutionary Period. Stanford. Cambridge Russian.S.ppt+1905+revolutsioon& hl=et&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=ee) (in Estonian) • 1905 (http://anarchism. Stanford.ee/LeaLips/10klass/loeng15. Indiana University Press. p. to 3 May [O.

A period of dual power ensued. In the chaos. and "White" (anti-Bolshevik) factions. which was to continue for several years. Civil war erupted between the "Red" (Bolshevik). and in the rural areas. initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule. during October. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. To end the war. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and St Petersburg. abdicated. The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside. overthrew the Provisional Government in St Petersburg.1917 Russian Revolution 96 1917 Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country. where peasants took over and redistributed land. the last Tsar of Russia. The Soviets (workers' councils). and the workers' Soviets. which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now St. during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets. with the Bolsheviks ultimately victorious. In the second revolution. led by Vladimir Lenin. which were led by more radical socialist factions. forming the Russian Provisional Government. Petersburg). the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). the Bolshevik leadership signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. which left much of the army in a state of mutiny. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany. but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. had the allegiance of the lower-class citizens and the political left.[1] In the October Revolution (November in the Gregorian calendar). the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government. the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions campaigned for the abandonment of the war effort. The Bolsheviks formed workers militias under their control into the Red Guards (later the Red Army) over which they exerted substantial control. there was also a broad-based movement in cities throughout the state. led by socialists. the Bolshevik party. . In this way the Revolution paved the way for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). among national minorities throughout the empire. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar.

1917 Russian Revolution


The Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor to the February Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered a line of protests. A council of workers called the St. Petersburg Soviet was created in all this chaos, and the beginning of a communist political protest had begun.[2] World War I prompted a Russian outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II. It was another major factor contribution to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against their Royal counterparts. After the entry of Turkey on Bolshevik forces marching on Red Square. the side of the Central Powers in October 1914, Russia was deprived of a major trade route through Turkey, which followed with a minor economic crisis, in which Russia became incapable of providing munitions to their army in the years leading to 1917. However, the problems were merely administrative, and not industrial as Germany was producing great amounts of munitions whilst constantly fighting on two major battlefronts.[3] The war also developed a weariness in the city, owing to a lack of food in response to the disruption of agriculture. Food had become a considerable problem in Russia, but the cause of this did not lie in any failure of the harvests, which had not been significantly altered during war-time. The indirect reason was that the government, in order to finance the war, had been printing off millions of rouble notes, and by 1917 inflation had sent prices up to four times what they had been in 1914. The peasantry were consequently faced with the higher cost of purchases, but made no corresponding gain in the sale of their own produce, since this was largely taken by the middlemen on whom they depended. As a result they tended to hoard their grain and to revert to subsistence farming. Thus the cities were constantly short of food; at the same time rising prices led to demands for higher wages in the factories, and in January and February 1916 revolutionary propaganda, aided by German funds, lead to widespread strikes. The outcome of all this, however, was a growing criticism of the government rather than any war-weariness. The original fever of the patriotic excitement, which had caused the name of St. Petersburg to be changed to the less German sounding Petrograd, may have subsided a little in the subsequent years, but it had not turned to defeatism and during the initial risings in Petrograd in February 1917, the crowds in the streets clearly objected to the banners proclaiming "down with the war". Heavy losses during the war also strengthened thought that Tsar Nicholas II was unfit to rule.[3] The Liberals were now better placed to voice their complaints, since they were participating more fully through a variety of voluntary organizations. Local industrial committees proliferated and in July 1915 a Central War Industries Committee, established under the chairmanship of a prominent Octobrist Guchkov, included ten workers' representatives- in which the Petrograd Mensheviks agreed to join despite the objections of their leaders abroad. All this activity gave renewed encouragement to political ambitions and in September 1915 a combination of Octobrists and Kadets in the Duma demanded the forming of a responsible government. The Tsar rejected these proposals. He had now taken over the position of commander-in-chief of the armed forces and during his absence at his headquarters at Mogilev, he had left most of the day-to-day government in the hands of the Empress who was intensely unpopular, owing to her German origin and the influence that Rasputin, an unsavoury monk, was thought to exercise over her.[4]

1917 Russian Revolution All these factors had given rise to a sharp loss of confidence in the regime by 1916. Early in that year, Guchkov had been taking soundings among senior army officers and members of the Central War Industries Committee about a possible coup to force the abdication of the Tsar. In November Pavel Milyukov in the Duma openly accused the government of contemplating peace negotiations with Germany. In December, a small group of nobles assassinated Rasputin and in January 1917 the Tsar's uncle, Grand Duke Nicholas, was asked indirectly by Prince Lvov whether he would be prepared to take over the throne from his nephew, Tsar Nicholas II. None of these incidents were in themselves the immediate cause of the February revolution, but they do help to explain why the monarchy survived only a few days after it had broken out.[4] Meanwhile, the Social Democrat leaders in exile, now mostly in Switzerland, had been the glum spectators of the collapse of International Socialist solidarity. French and German Social Democrats had voted in favour of their respective governments. Plekhanov in Paris had adopted a violently anti-German stand, while Helphand supported the German war effort as the best means of ensuring a revolution in Russia. The Mensheviks largely maintained that Russia had the right to defend herself against Germany, although Martov (a prominent Menshevik), now on the left of his group, demanded an end to the war and a settlement on the basis of national self-determination, with no annexations or indemnities.[4] It was these views of Martov that predominated in a manifesto drawn up by Leon Trotsky (a major Bolshevik revolutionary) at a conference in Zimmerwald, attended by thirty-five Socialist leaders in September 1915. Inevitably Lenin, supported by Zinoviev and Radek, strongly contested them. Their attitudes became known as the Zimmerwald Left. Lenin rejected both the defence of Russia and the cry for peace. Since the autumn of 1914 he had insisted that "from the standpoint of the working class and of the labouring masses from the lesser evil would be the defeat of the Tsarist Monarchy"; the war must be turned into a civil war of the proletarian soldiers against their own governments, and if a proletarian victory should emerge from this in Russia, then their duty would be to wage a revolutionary war for the liberation of the masses throughout Europe. Thus Lenin remained the enfant terrible of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, although in this point in the war his following in Russia was as little as 10 000 and he must have seemed no more than the leader of an extremist wing of a bankrupt organization. Lenin, however, then executed the protests of Petrograd which set off the 1917 Russian Revolution.[5]


Economic and social changes
An elementary theory of property, believed by many peasants, was that land should belong to those who work it. At the same time, peasant life and culture was changing constantly. Change was facilitated by the physical movement of growing numbers of peasant villagers who migrated to and from industrial and urban environments, but also by the migration of city culture into the village through material goods, the press, and word of mouth.[6] Workers also had good reasons for discontent: overcrowded housing with often deplorable sanitary conditions, long hours at work (on the eve of the war a 10-hour workday six days a week was the average and many were working 11–12 hours a day by 1916), constant risk of injury and death from very poor safety and sanitary conditions, harsh discipline (not only rules and fines, but foremen’s fists), and inadequate wages (made worse after 1914 by steep war-time increases in the cost of living). At the same time, urban industrial life was full of benefits, though these could be just as dangerous, from the point of view of social and political stability, as the hardships. There were many encouragements to expect more from life. Acquiring new skills gave many workers a sense of self-respect and confidence, heightening expectations and desires. Living in cities, workers encountered material goods such as they had never seen while in the village. Most important, living in cities, they were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order.[7] The social causes of the Russian Revolution mainly came from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime, and Nicholas's failures in World War I. While rural agrarian peasants had been emancipated from serfdom in 1861, they still resented paying redemption payments to the state, and demanded communal tender of the land they worked. The problem was further compounded by the failure of Sergei Witte's land reforms of the early

1917 Russian Revolution 1900s. Increasing peasant disturbances and sometimes full revolts occurred, with the goal of securing ownership of the land they worked. Russia consisted mainly of poor farming peasants, with 1.5% of the population owning 25% of the land. The rapid industrialization of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers (as mentioned above). Between 1890 and 1910, the population of the capital, Saint Petersburg, swelled from 1,033,600 to 1,905,600, with Moscow experiencing similar growth. This created a new 'proletariat' which, due to being crowded together in the cities, was much more likely to protest and go on strike than the peasantry had been in previous times. In one 1904 survey, it was found that an average of sixteen people shared each apartment in Saint Petersburg, with six people per room. There was also no running water, and piles of human waste were a threat to the health of the workers. The poor conditions only aggravated the situation, with the number of strikes and incidents of public disorder rapidly increasing in the years shortly before World War I. World War I only added to the chaos. Conscription swept up the unwilling in all parts of Russia. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many more labor riots and strikes. Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants, and then, when famine began to hit due to the poor railway system, workers abandoned the cities in droves to look for food. Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar. This was mainly because, as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, and were replaced by discontented conscripts from the major cities, who had little loyalty to the Tsar.


Political issues
Many sections of the crown had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocracy. Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. Individuals and society in general were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community, deference to the social hierarchy, and a sense of duty to country. Religious faith helped bind all of these tenets together as a source of comfort and reassurance in the face of difficult conditions and as a means of political authority exercised through the clergy. Perhaps more than any other modern monarch, Nicholas II attached his fate and the future of his dynasty to the notion of the ruler as a saintly and infallible father to his people.[8] This idealized vision of the Romanov monarchy blinded him to the actual state of his country. With a firm belief that his power to rule was granted by Divine Right, Nicholas assumed that the Russian people were devoted to him with unquestioning loyalty. This ironclad belief rendered Nicholas unwilling to allow the progressive reforms that might have alleviated the suffering of the Russian people. Even after the 1905 revolution spurred the Tsar to decree limited civil rights and democratic representation, he worked to limit even these liberties in order to preserve the ultimate authority of the crown.[8] Despite constant oppression, the desire of the people for democratic participation in government was strong. Since the Age of Enlightenment, Russian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and of the rectitude of democratic representation. These ideals were championed most vociferously by Russia’s liberals, although populists, Marxists, and anarchists also claimed to support democratic reforms. A growing opposition movement had begun to challenge the Romanov monarchy openly well before the turmoil of World War I. Dissatisfaction with Russian autocracy culminated in the huge national upheaval that followed the Bloody Sunday massacre of January 1905, in which hundreds of unarmed protesters were shot by the Tsar's troops. Workers responded to the massacre with a crippling general strike, forcing Nicholas to put forth the October Manifesto, which established a democratically elected parliament (the State Duma). The Tsar undermined this promise of reform but a year later with Article 87 of the 1906 Fundamental State Laws, and subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative. Unfulfilled hopes of democracy fueled revolutionary ideas and violent outbursts targeted at the monarchy.

1917 Russian Revolution One of the Tsar’s principal rationales for risking war in 1914 was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost amid the debacles of the Russo-Japanese war. Nicholas also sought to foster a greater sense of national unity with a war against a common and ancient enemy. The Russian Empire was an agglomeration of diverse ethnicities that had shown significant signs of disunity in the years before the First World War. Nicholas believed in part that the shared peril and tribulation of a foreign war would mitigate the social unrest over the persistent issues of poverty, inequality, and inhuman working conditions. Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I led to the horrifying slaughter of Russian troops and military defeats that undermined both the monarchy and society in general to the point of collapse.


World War I
The outbreak of war in August 1914 initially served to quiet the prevalent social and political protests, focusing hostilities against a common external enemy, but this patriotic unity did not last long. As the war dragged on inconclusively, war-weariness gradually took its toll. More important, though, was this deeper fragility: although many ordinary Russians joined anti-German demonstrations in the first few weeks of the war, the most widespread reaction appears to have been skepticism and fatalism. Hostility toward the Kaiser and the desire to defend their land and their lives did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for the Tsar or the government.[9] [10] [11] Russia's first major battle of the war was a disaster: in the 1914 Battle of Tannenberg, over 30,000 Russian troops were killed or wounded and 90,000 captured, while Germany suffered just 20,000 casualties. However, Austro-Hungarian forces allied to Germany were driven back deep into the Galicia region by the end of the year. In the autumn of 1915, Nicholas had taken direct command of the army, personally overseeing Russia's main theatre of war and leaving his ambitious but incapable wife Alexandra in charge of the government. Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented. In the eyes of Lynch, a revisionist historian who focuses on the role of the people, Rasputin was a "fatal disease" to the Tsarist regime. In 1915, things took a critical turn for the worse when Germany shifted its focus of attack to the Eastern front. The superior German army—better led, better trained and better supplied—was terrifyingly effective against the ill-equipped Russian forces, driving the Russians out of Galicia, as well as Russian Poland, during the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive campaign. By the end of October 1916, Russia had lost between 1,600,000 and 1,800,000 soldiers, with an additional 2,000,000 prisoners of war and 1,000,000 missing, all making up a total of nearly 5,000,000 men. These staggering losses played a definite role in the Mutinies that began to occur and, in 1916, reports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate. Soldiers went hungry, and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons. Rampant discontent lowered morale, which was further undermined by a series of military defeats. Casualty rates were the most vivid sign of this disaster. Already, by the end of 1914, only five months into the war, around 390,000 Russian men had lost their lives and nearly 1,000,000 were injured. Far sooner than expected, scarcely-trained recruits had to be called up for active duty, a process repeated throughout the war as staggering losses continued to mount. The officer class also saw remarkable turnover, especially within the lower echelons, which were quickly filled with soldiers rising up through the ranks. These men, usually of peasant or worker backgrounds, were to play a large role in the politicization of the troops in 1917. The huge losses on the battlefields were not limited to men. The army quickly ran short of rifles and ammunition (as well as uniforms and food), and, by mid-1915, men were being sent to the front bearing no arms. It was hoped that they could equip themselves with the arms that they recovered from fallen soldiers, of both sides, on the battlefields. With patently good reason, the soldiers did not feel that they were being treated as human beings, or even as valuable soldiers, but rather as raw materials to be squandered for the purposes of the rich and powerful. By the spring of 1915, the army was in steady retreat, which was not always orderly; desertion, plunder and chaotic flight were not uncommon. By 1916, however, the situation had improved in many respects. Russian troops stopped

and lines lengthened massively for what remained. By the end of 1915. These shortages were especially a problem in the capital. A report by the St. One year later. sugar. tearing down wooden fences to keep stoves heated for warmth. still draining away strength and lives from the country and its many individuals and families. scouring the city for food. and wondering when and how this would all come to an end. 101 . and shortages made it difficult to buy even what one could afford. inevitably. and there were even some modest successes in the offensives that were staged that year. and so did crime. Also. albeit at great loss of life.1917 Russian Revolution retreating. meat and other provisions. Nevertheless. strikes increased steadily from the middle of 1915. the State Duma issued a warning to Nicholas in November 1916. St."[12] The war devastated not only soldiers. The fortunes of war may have improved. where distance from supplies and poor transportation networks made matters particularly bad. a leading historian of the Russian army in war and revolution) "was rooted fundamentally in the feeling of utter despair that the slaughter would ever end and that anything resembling victory could be achieved. begging. Petersburg branch of the security police."[13] Nicholas was blamed for all of these crises. turning to prostitution or crime. a terrible disaster would grip the country unless a constitutional form of government was put in place. Nicholas's inept handling of his country and the War destroyed the Tsars and ended up costing him both his rule and his life. Nicholas ignored them. but. Petersburg reportedly spent about forty hours a week in food lines. In typical fashion. but the fact of the war. The crisis in morale (as was argued by Allan Wildman. in October 1916. It stated that. Government officials responsible for public order worried about how long the people's patience would last. morale among soldiers was even worse than it had been during the great retreat of 1915. It became increasingly difficult both to afford and actually buy food. the problem of shortages was largely solved by a major effort to increase domestic production. and what little support he had left began to crumble. by the end of 1916. and Russia's Tsarist regime collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of 1917. there were manifold signs that the economy was breaking down under the heightened strain of wartime demand. Not surprisingly. people suffered and endured. Inflation shoved real incomes down at an alarmingly rapid rate. The main problems were food shortages and rising prices. warned bluntly of "the possibility in the near future of riots by the lower classes of the empire enraged by the burdens of daily existence. Shops closed early or entirely for lack of bread. grumbling about the rich. the Tsar and his entire family were executed. Ultimately. As discontent grew. Petersburg. however. remained an oppressive inevitability. for the most part. Working-class women in St. the Okhrana.

meanwhile.[21] The socialists had formed their rival body. the socialist parties establish the Petrograd Soviet to represent workers and soldiers.[15] By March 10 [O. Students. He did so on March 15 [O. March 1]. Nicholas. the Petrograd Soviet (or workers' council) four days earlier. was reunited with his family at the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo. and governmental authority in the capital collapsed – not helped by the fact that Nicholas had prorogued the Duma that morning. The Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government competed for power over Russia. the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich. workers at Putilov.[19] He was placed under house arrest with his family by the Provisional Government.S. But the Grand Duke realised that he would have little support as ruler. so he declined the crown on March 16 [O. Petrograd workers began several strikes and demonstrations. shortly after the revolution or injured.[16] Nicholas nominated his brother. stating that he would take it only if that was the consensus of democratic action. Demonstrations were organised to demand bread.[16] having been instructed to divert by a group of disloyal troops. The immediate effect of the February Revolution was a widespread atmosphere of elation and excitement in Petrograd. March 2]. on March 11 [O. which was stopped on March 14 [O. March [16] 3].[14] The next day. a member of the Constitutional Democratic party (KD). February 22].S. the Army Chiefs and his remaining ministers (those who had not fled under pretense of a power-cut) suggested in unison that he abdicate the throne. March 1917.S. but even these proved reluctant to move in on the crowd. To quell the riots. The response of the Duma. but most were either untrained Nicholas II. no longer Tsar and addressed with contempt by the sentries as "Nicholas Romanov". February 26]. to succeed him. . the Tsar ordered the army to suppress the rioting by force. on behalf of himself.[16] Although few actively joined the rioting. announced a strike. It was for this reason that when. virtually every industrial enterprise in Petrograd had been shut down. symbols of the Tsarist were rapidly torn down around the city.[18] Six days later. together with many commercial and service enterprises. At least 180.000 troops were available in the capital. The remaining loyal units switched allegiance the next day. the ability of the garrison to hold back the protests was all but nullified. many officers were either shot or went into hiding. and then. the Tsar looked to the army.S. Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov. leaving it with no legal authority to act. troops began to mutiny. the Tsarevich.S. having taken advice.[17] The Tsar took a train back towards Petrograd. Petrograd's largest industrial plant. on behalf of his son. urged on by the liberal bloc. which gradually turned into economic and political gatherings. regarded as reliable.000 workers on strike.S. was to establish a Temporary Committee to restore law and order. 3 March]. white-collar workers and teachers joined the workers in the streets and at public meetings. a series of meetings and rallies were held for International Women's Day. Historian Ian Beckett suggests around 12. The women workers marched to nearby factories bringing out over 50. When the Tsar finally reached his destination.000 could be brought about his abdication. On March 7 [O.S.1917 Russian Revolution 102 February Revolution At the beginning of February. The center-left was well represented. a provisional government was announced. February 25]. since it included so many women. and these were supported by the industrial working force who considered them a reason for continuing the strikes.[20] On 16 March [O. and the government was initially chaired by a liberal aristocrat.

did his very best to continue the war effort and even organised another offensive (which. The model for the soviet were workers' councils that had been established in scores of Russian cities during the 1905 revolution. • Heavy military losses were being suffered on the front. Alexander Kerensky. As minister of war and later Prime Minister.[22] They met in the same building as the emerging Provisional Government not to compete with the Duma Committee for state power but to best exert pressure on the new government. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK)) undermined the authority of the Provisional Government but also of the moderate socialist leaders of the Soviet. The Petrograd Soviet met in the Tauride Palace. released thousands of political prisoners. was no more successful than its predecessors). who claimed that they had gained nothing by the revolution: • Other political groups were trying to undermine him. • There were great shortages of food and supplies. guaranteed civil rights. a young and popular lawyer and a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party (SRP). this was precisely what was being created. in fact. in factories and shops. On 27 February. however." which would create "an unacceptable situation of dual power. and in the villages. agreed to join the new cabinet. They also believed Russia was not ready for socialism.) • There was enormous discontent with Russia's involvement in the war. Nevertheless. in barracks and in Anarchist Russian sailors in Helsinki during summer 1917 the trenches. mobilize and control these groups during the early months of the revolution—the Petrograd Soviet [Council] of Workers' Deputies. Kerensky promoted freedom of speech. these soldiers were either imprisoned or sent straight back into the front. which was difficult to remedy because of the wartime economic conditions. preparation of elections to a constituent assembly.1917 Russian Revolution 103 Between February and throughout October: "Dual Power" (dvoevlastie) The effective power of the Provisional Government was challenged by the authority of an institution that claimed to represent the will of workers and soldiers and could. not the whole nation. • The soldiers were dissatisfied."[23] In fact. A series of political crises—see the chronology below—in the relationship between population and government and between the Provisional government and the soviets (which developed into a nationwide movement with a national leadership. Although the Soviet leadership initially refused to participate in the "bourgeois" Provisional Government. mainly Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. So they saw their role as limited to pressuring hesitant "bourgeoisie" to rule and to introduce extensive democratic reforms in Russia (the replacement of the monarchy by a republic. urban workers and peasants. to act. In February 1917. and became an increasingly central figure in the government. especially the ongoing social movement taking place on the streets of Russia’s cities. eventually taking leadership of the Provisional Government. socialist Duma deputies. highlighted by the soldiers. The representatives of the Provisional Government agreed to "take into account the opinions of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies." though they were also determined to prevent "interference in the actions of the government. demoralised and had started to defect. and so on). the same building where the new government was taking shape. . took the lead in organizing a citywide council. The leaders of the Petrograd Soviet believed that they represented particular classes of the population. though this "dual power" (dvoevlastie) was the result less of the actions or attitudes of the leaders of these two institutions than of actions outside their control. in other words. striking workers elected deputies to represent them and socialist activists began organizing a citywide council to unite these deputies with representatives of the socialist parties. (On arrival back in Russia. and many were calling for an end to it. as a popular democratic lobby. Kerensky still faced several great challenges. abolition of religious and ethnic discrimination. a democratic police and army. The relationship between these two major powers was complex from the beginning and would shape the politics of 1917.

he arrived in Petrograd in April 1917. due to democratization of politics after the February Revolution. Eventually. On 18 June. had to agree to travel to Russia in a sealed train: Germany would not take the chance that he would foment revolution in Germany. In August. the Petrograd Soviet freed all jailed Bolsheviks and Trotsky became chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. and would eventually overthrow him. buoyed by maxims that called most famously for "all power to the Soviets. Soon after. was arrested. The resolution was passed 10-2 (Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev prominently dissenting) and the October Revolution began. Lenin had worked on his book State and Revolution and continued to lead his party writing newspaper articles and policy decrees. aware that the increasingly radical city presented him no legal danger and a second opportunity for revolution." The revolt. By most historians' accounts. The sailors and soldiers. among other prominent Bolsheviks. would translate into real power in the summer of 1917. Lenin had been living in exile in neutral Switzerland and. Kerensky had to ask for Bolshevik assistance. or was in serious danger thereof. calling for the dissolution of the Provisional Government in favor of the Petrograd Soviet. whose influence over railroad and telegraph workers proved vital in stopping the movement of troops. the Provisional Government launched an attack against Germany that failed miserably. poor or misleading. the government ordered soldiers to go to the front. The Bolshevik Central Committee drafted a resolution. to believe that the Petrograd government had been captured by radicals. The arrival of radical Kronstadt sailors—who had tried and executed many officers. Growing numbers of socialists and lower-class Russians viewed the government less and less as a force in support of their needs and interests. public dissatisfaction with the Provisional Government and the war. the popularity of the Bolsheviks increased steadily. Over the course of the spring. led by Vladimir Lenin. The Bolsheviks benefited as the only major organized opposition party that had refused to compromise with the Provisional Government. With Lenin's arrival. whose policies were viewed as conservative. and they benefited from growing frustration and even disgust with other parties. With his coup failing. pushed these groups to radical parties. By October. In the aftermath. Despite growing support for the Bolsheviks. was the Bolshevik Party. The Bolshevik failure in the July Days proved temporary. which was viewed as subservient to the conservative government. In Finland. Kornilov surrendered and was relieved of his position. The Bolsheviks' role in stopping the attempted coup immensely strengthened their position. He also sought help from the Petrograd Soviet. The soldiers refused to follow the new orders. the war made it logistically difficult. communication led General Lavr Kornilov. along with Petrograd workers. such as the Mensheviks and SRs. The July Days confirmed the popularity of the anti-war. he ordered troops to Petrograd to pacify the city. Lenin and his followers were unprepared for how their groundswell of support." the party held very little real power in the moderate dominated Petrograd Soviet. Lenin fled to Finland under threat of arrest while Trotsky. he returned to Petrograd. who stubbornly refused to break with an idea of national unity across all classes. reneging on a promise." This Kornilov Affair failed largely due to the efforts of the Bolsheviks. 104 . was disowned by Lenin[24] and the Bolshevik leaders and dissipated within a few days. however. especially among influential worker and soldier groups. however. After passing through the front. In fact.1917 Russian Revolution The political group that proved most troublesome for Kerensky. but their unpreparedness at the moment of revolt was an embarrassing gaffe that lost them support among their main constituent groups: soldiers and workers. German officials arranged for Lenin to pass through their territory. In response. the recently appointed Supreme Commander of Russian military forces. Lenin and his associates. To secure his position. took to the streets in violent protest. including one admiral—further fueled the growing revolutionary atmosphere. which called upon armed Red Guards to "defend the revolution. he perceived the opportunity for his Marxist revolution. calling for "all power to the Soviets. historians such as Sheila Fitzpatrick have asserted that Lenin's exhortations for the Soviet Council to take power were intended to arouse indignation both with the Provisional Government. radical Bolsheviks. soldiers and peasants. which legalized formerly banned political parties. and the Soviet itself. Although return to Russia had become a possibility. In early September. in particular among workers. hoping that his activities would weaken Russia or even—if the Bolsheviks came to power—lead to Russia's withdrawal from the war.

1919–1921." The most notable instances were the Tambov rebellion. When it became clear that the Bolsheviks had little support outside of the industrialized areas of Saint Petersburg and Moscow. On 7 November 1917. which made a wide range of demands and lacked effective coordination. it has been argued that since Lenin was not present during the actual takeover of the Winter Palace. Though Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party. mainly in the Ukraine. France. a Bolshevik force under Mikhail Frunze destroyed the Makhnovist movement. and other leftists opposed the Bolsheviks through the soviets. were eventually defeated along with the White Army during the Civil War. Civil war The Russian Civil War. loosely organized into the White Army. which broke out in 1918 shortly after the revolution. Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his Vladimir Lenin leader of the Bolsheviks. It marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. leftist revolutionaries in a revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time. replacing Russia's short-lived provisional parliamentary government with government by soviets. liberals and moderate socialists who opposed the drastic restructuring championed by the Bolsheviks. In addition. it was really Trotsky's organization and direction that led the revolution. so period references show a 25 October date). Critics on the Right have long argued that the financial and logistical assistance of German intelligence via their key agent. they barred non-Bolsheviks from membership in the soviets. Soviet membership was initially freely elected. the so-called "Green Army" (peasants defending their property against the opposing forces) played a secondary role in the war. The October revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February. though historians are divided. and the "Whites"—the monarchists. USA and Japan. one of the powers ending the alliance each time. when the Makhnovists refused to merge into the Red Army. anarchists. the Black Army allied to the Bolsheviks thrice. Liberal and monarchist forces. spurred by the motivation Lenin instigated within his party. . immediately went to war against the Bolsheviks' Red Army. consisting of the uprising majority. These movements. but many members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. Also during the Civil War. The Whites had backing from nations such as Great Britain. conservatives. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. a political ideology often known as Marxism-Leninism. Other socialists revolted and called for "a third Russian revolution. Alexander Parvus was a key component as well. The war was fought mainly between the Red Army ("Reds"). brought death and suffering to millions of people regardless of their political orientation. Nestor Makhno led a Ukrainian anarchist movement. for the evidence is sparse. However.1917 Russian Revolution 105 October Revolution The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and was based upon Lenin's writing on the ideas of Karl Marx. and the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921. local councils elected by bodies of workers and peasants.

Second Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. It was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar during the 19th century and thirteen days behind it during the 20th century. During the early morning of 16 July. allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution during the Red Terror. . which was used in Russia until 1918. Indeed. successfully used Lenin's argument—the argument that socialism's success needs the workers of other countries in order to happen—to defeat his competitors within the party by accusing them of betraying Lenin and. stating that socialism was possible in one country. First Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). no other Marxist movement succeeded in keeping power in its hands. The confusion regarding Stalin's position on the issue stems from the fact that he. in the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic and others like it. their children. Radzinsky noted that Lenin's bodyguard personally delivered the telegram ordering the execution and that he was ordered to destroy the evidence. Emancipation of the serfs. leading to full-scale civil war by the summer. or that it was an option approved in Moscow should White troops approach Yekaterinburg. Alexandra. their physician. succeeded by Alexander III. Joseph Stalin later rejected this idea. Beginning of split between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. After the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917. after Lenin's death in 1924. therefore. the order came directly from Vladimir Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov in Moscow. Chronologies Chronology of events leading to the Revolution of 1917 Dates are correct for the Julian calendar. at approximately 01:30. 1881 1883 1894 1898 1900 1903 Alexander II assassinated by revolutionaries. the ideals of the October Revolution.[25] [26] The Russian revolution and the world Leon Trotsky said that the goal of socialism in Russia would not be realized without the success of the world revolution. Start of reign of Nicholas II. Despite initial hopes for success in the German Revolution. In August 1917 the Kerensky government evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk in the Urals. a revolutionary wave caused by the Russian Revolution lasted until 1923. This issue is subject to conflicting views on the communist history by various Marxist groups and parties. although there is a lack of hard evidence. the Romanovs were moved during April and May 1918 to Yekaterinburg. Nicholas. First Russian Marxist group formed. a militant Bolshevik stronghold. Foundation of Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR). As the counter revolutionary White movement gathered force. Event(s) 1874–81 Growing anti-government terrorist movement and government reaction. Date(s) 1855 1861 Start of reign of Tsar Alexander II. That the order came from the top has long been believed.1917 Russian Revolution 106 Death of the imperial family In early March. 15 miles (24 km) south of Petrograd. It has been argued that the execution was carried out on the initiative of local Bolshevik officials. the Provisional Government placed Nicholas and his family under house arrest in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo. According to Edvard Radzinsky and Dmitrii Volkogonov. the conditions of their imprisonment grew stricter and talk of putting Nicholas on trial increased. and several servants were taken into the basement and killed.

• 3 August: Germany declares war on Russia. Stolypin assassinated. but holds onto Austrian Galicia. Fourth State Duma. • 9 August: The Duma's bourgeois parties form the 'Progressive bloc' to push for better government and reform. Progressive Bloc formed. Strikes. prorogues the Duma and moves to military headquarters at Mogilev. until 1917. Nicholas II declares himself Commander in Chief. causing a brief sense of patriotic union amongst the Russian nation and a downturn in striking. casualties. June: Battleship Potemkin uprising at Odessa on the Black Sea (see movie The Battleship Potemkin). • August-November: Russia suffers heavy defeats and a large shortage of supplies. the Russian war effort is still characterised by shortages. includes the Kadets. Bolshevik/Menshevik split final. • 17 August-19th: Strikers in Petrograd protest at the deaths in Ivánovo-Voznesénsk. until 1912. • 23 August: Reacting to war failures and a hostile Duma. inflation and a torrent of refugees. Germany declares war on Russia. the conflict causes starvation. Both soldiers and civilians blame the incompetence of the Tsar and his government. October: general strike. Prime Minister: Petr Stolypin. • 6 February: Duma reconvened. and hence more patriotic. • • • January: Bloody Sunday in Saint Petersburg. poor command. Away from the front. the Tsar takes over as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. they are later tried and exiled to Siberia. Food and fuel shortages and high prices. • 18 August: St. 1916 • January-December: Despite successes in the Brusilov offensive. 1906 1907 1907 1911 1912 1914 1915 1916 1917 First State Duma. casualties. street demonstrations lead to the fall of autocracy. mutinies. Russian Revolution of 1905. Timeline 1914-1916 1914 • 30 July: The All Russian Zemstvo Union for the Relief of Sick and Wounded Soldiers is created with Lvov as president. February–June. Petersburg is renamed Petrograd as 'Germanic' names are changed to sound more Russian. • 5 November: Bolshevik members of the Duma are arrested. • 10 August: Strikers shot at in Ivánovo-Voznesénsk. including food and munitions. as Russian forces pull back out of Galicia and Russian Poland into Russia proper. • 9 July: The Great Retreat begins. Third State Duma. 1915 • 19 February: Great Britain and France accept Russia's claims to Istanbul and other Turkish lands. death and desertion. Russia loses war. Octobrist groups and Nationalists.1917 Russian Revolution 107 1904–5 1905 Russo-Japanese War. October Manifesto: Imperial agreement on elections to the State Duma. Agrarian reforms begin. Second State Duma. • 5 June: Strikers shot at in Kostromá. Saint Petersburg Soviet formed. Serious defeats. . Central government begins to seize up.

the only socialist already in the government. Kerensky orders offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces. 18th May 16th June 3rd June 23rd June 29th June 1st July 15th July 16th July–17th 19th July 20th July 10th June 16th June 18th June 2nd July 3rd July–4th 6th July 7th July . which was interpreted as affirming commitment to the war policies of the old government. courts. Russians retreat in panic. "All Power to the Soviets". Formation of Provisional Committee of the Duma by liberals from Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets). mass armed demonstrations in Petrograd. Protest strikes follow. Nicholas II abdicates. made minister of war and navy. • 1 November: Miliukov gives his 'Is this stupidity or treason?' speech in reconvened Duma. February Revolution. • 29 December: Rasputin is killed by Prince Yusupov.1 of the Petrograd Soviet. "April Days": mass demonstrations by workers. German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. The "July Days". First Coalition Government forms when socialists. demanding "All Power to the Soviets". Return of Lenin to Russia. He publishes his April Theses. Established 25 Julyth. representatives of the Soviet leadership. Alexander Kerensky. • 30 December: The Tsar is warned that his army won't support him against a revolution. Initial success only. Petrograd Soviet formed. Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered. Lvov resigns and asks Kerensky to become Prime Minister and form a new government. deserters.1917 Russian Revolution • 29 February: After a month of strikes at the Putílov Factory. International Women's Day: strikes and demonstrations in Petrograd. * Troops refuse to fire on demonstrators. Prisons. the government conscripts the workers and takes charge of production. growing over the next few days. First All-Russian Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies opens in Petrograd. headed by Mensheviks and SRs. Closed on 24th. First Provisional Government falls. Planned Bolshevik demonstration in Petrograd banned by the Soviet. 11th March 50 demonstrators killed in Znamenskaya Square Tsar Nicholas II prorogues the State Duma and orders commander of Petrograd military district to suppress disorders with force. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks. 12th March 14th March 15th March 16th April 3rd May–4th 1st March 2nd March 3rd April 20th April–21st 5th May Order No. Garrison joins revolutionaries. and others in the streets of Petrograd and Moscow triggered by the publication of the Foreign Minister Miliukov's note to the allies. • 20 June: Duma prorogued. Elects Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK). Russian offensive ends. soldiers. sacking the town of Tarnopol. Provisional Government formed under Prime Minister Prince Lvov. agree to enter the cabinet of the Provisional Government. 108 Expanded chronology of events during the Revolution of 1917 Gregorian Date Julian Date Event January February 8th March 23rd February 26th February 27th February Strikes and unrest in Petrograd. • • • Okhrana buildings set on fire. Official Soviet demonstration in Petrograd for unity is unexpectedly dominated by Bolshevik slogans: "Down with the Ten Capitalist Ministers". encouraged by the Bolsheviks. and police bumbs attacked and looted by angry crowds. • October: Troops from 181st Regiment help striking Russkii Renault workers fight against the Police.

• Arsenal ' (IMDB profile) [27]. 1981. Kerensky flees Petrograd. directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin. First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet. Bolshevik majority in Petrograd Soviet elects Bolshevik Presidium and Trotsky as chairman. 2nd October Moscow Soviet elects executive committee and new presidium. Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region. Begins when the commander-in-chief of the Russian army. General Lavr Kornilov. 1927. and approves the formation of an all-Bolshevik government. USSR. Russia declared a republic. Silent. USA:95 min. and peasants' deputies. the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom). • October: Ten Days That Shook the World (IMDB profile) [30]. 1927. 4th August 8th September 8th September–12th 13th September 14th September 22nd July 26th August 26th August–30th 31st August 1st September 4th September 5th September 19th September 25th September 10th October 11th October 20th October 25th October 17th September Trotsky and others freed. • Lenin v 1918 godu AKA Lenin in 1918 (IMDB profile) [29]. 8th October 23rd October 24th October 2nd November 7th November 8th November 26th October Cultural portrayal The Russian Revolution has been portrayed in several films. until 13 Octoberth. • Reds (IMDB profile) [31]. Directed by Mikhail Romm and E. • Anastasia (IMDB profile) [32]. and loosely based on the famous novel of the same name by Boris Pasternak. Directed by Warren Beatty. Second Congress of Soviets: Mensheviks and right SR delegates walk out in protest against the previous day's events. Runtimes: Sweden:104 min. 18th September Bolshevik resolution on the government wins majority vote in Moscow Soviet. demands (or is believed by Kerensky to demand) that the government give him all civil and military authority and moves troops against Petrograd. with Bolshevik majorities. It is based on the book Ten Days that Shook the World.1917 Russian Revolution 109 Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested. soldiers'. Majority of deputies of the Petrograd Soviet approve a Bolshevik resolution for an all-socialist government excluding the bourgeoisie. Second coalition government ends. • The End of Saint Petersburg. Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising. Black and White. Congress approves transfer of state authority into its own hands and local power into the hands of local soviets of workers'. Country: Soviet Union. Third coalition government formed. with Lenin as chairman. . an American animated feature. and the Bolshevik Viktor Nogin as chairman. • Konets Sankt-Peterburga AKA The End of Saint Petersburg (IMDB profile) [28]. Winter Palace attacked at 9:40pm and captured at 2am. "Kornilov mutiny". abolishes capital punishment. 1997. Zhivago. directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman. Aron (co-director). issues Decree on Peace and Decree on Land. an American drama-romance-war film directed by David Lean. • Dr. Written and directed by Aleksandr Dovzhenko. Opening of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets. 1965. October Revolution is launched as MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buildings in Petrograd. Directed by Sergei Eisenstein and Grigori Aleksandrov.

25. Lenin: A New Biography (New York: Free Press. 40–43. The End of the Russian Imperial Army. 1] Soveta Ministrov Vremennogo Pravitel'stva. 2103. Patriotic Culture in Russia During World War I (Ithaca. pp. 116. 32. Crime. p. One of the Fundamental Questions of the Revolution. Major recent works that examine themes discussed above (and can serve as a guide to older scholarship) Christine Worobec. 24 Wood. [25] Dmitrii Volkogonov. Mikhail Bulgakov. Moscow: Progress Publishers. Frank and Steinberg. f. [22] N. Andrew Verner. Cultural Conflict and Justice in Rural Russia. Jim Riordan (4th ed. p. p. The Crisis of the Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution (Princeton. 110 Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Orlando Figes. 1926. Sukhanov. see especially Reginald Zelnik. 85–89. [7] Among the many scholarly works on Russian workers. p. 1955. 1998). pp. 1861–1914 (Cambridge. [20] Malone. 1961. 1979. 1994). N. A People’s Tragedy. GARF (State Archive of the Russian Federation). Also. 2005.. Cultures in Flux (Princeton. . 25 Wood. and Family in Russia. [13] "Doklad petrogradskogo okhrannogo otdeleniia osobomu otdelu departamenta politsii" ["Report of the Petrograd Okhrana to the Special Department of the Department of the Police"]. 2005. 1855–1870 (Stanford. Mark Steinberg and Vladimir Khrustalev. Roots of Rebellion: Workers’ Politics and Organizations in St. p. Barbara Alpern Engel. 1856–1914 (Berkeley. 106 (quotation). [15] When women set Russia ablaze (http:/ / www. 1983). Peasant Russia: Family and Community in the Post Emancipation Period (Princeton. Richard Wortman. eds. 1994). 1976 . ed (in Russian). Stephen. 1990). especially. 101–8. 1993). [8] See.film based on the novel. 523. Krasnyi arkhiv 17 (1926). Partially autobiographical novel. p. 1971). Dni Turbinykh (IMDB profile) [33]. [16] Beckett. Scenarios of Power. 1995). [21] Service. fifthinternational. 1995) [11] Figes. 4–35 (quotation 4). Nicholas II: Emperor of all the Russias (London. Peasant Dreams and Market Politics (Pittsburgh. 1. 1955). 26 The scholarly literature on peasants is now very large. 370–77. op. Petersburg and Moscow. originally published in Russian in 1922). Petersburg. d. p. 1 (Princeton." 2 March 1917. 601. 2004. 1979. 1999). 1 [24] Lenin. l. org/ content/ when-women-set-russia-ablaze). 2000). 18 Wood. The Russian Revolution: A Personal Record.). A Peoples Tragedy. Vladimir (27) [1917]. 99–105. p. Stephen Frank. Joel Carmichael (Oxford. Part One. [14] Service. vol. Orlando Figes. [9] Allan Wildman. [17] Wade. 1900–1914 (Berkeley. Labor and Society in Tsarist Russia: The Factory Workers of St. 2 (Princeton. Apresyan.1917 Russian Revolution • The White Guard. The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution (New Haven. Victoria Bonnell. ed. 257–258. [18] Browder and Kerensky. [23] "Zhurnal [No. p370 Wood. [12] Wildman: The End of the Russian Imperial Army (I). [19] Tames. 1980): 76–80 [10] Hubertus Jahn. p. Between the Fields and the City: Women. 1994). vol. [26] Edvard Radzinsky. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924. p. portraying the life of one family torn apart by uncertainty of the Civil War times. October 1916. 2007. 1979. 1979. Work. 1972. The Last Tsar: The Life And Death Of Nicholas II (New York: Knopf. 2005. Dominic Lieven. 91. 1993). Fifth International 11th July 2007. and trans. 34. Jeffrey Burds.

Passage Through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution. • Beckett.com/books?id=CMYbKgcAW88C) (2 ed. (New York. 1st edition. A history of modern Russia from Nicholas II to Vladimir Putin (http://books. Rex A. L'An l de la revolution russe. Year One of the Russian Revolution. eds. • Wade. (2007). 1 December 2001. London: Pan Books Ltd.htm). The Great war (http://books.marxists.htm). 1st Edition.marxists. ISBN 0-86316-150-2.org/archive/trotsky/works/ 1930-hrr/index. Cambridge University Press. 1 June 1980. Bruce. The Russian Provisional Government.com/books?id=uBfnjdxFUkUC). Analysing the Russian Revolution.org/archive/serge/1930/year-one/ index. 1930.org/archive/reed/works/ index. 1917: documents (http://books. The Russian Revolution. Edward.google. editor's Introduction. 1919.google. 2001 • Tames. Orlando. • Cambridge History of Russia. Mark. Inc. • Trotsky. A Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution. ISBN 0-14-018293-4. ISBN 1405812524. 3). ISBN 0-521-81529-0 (vol. Retrieved 14 May 2005. 1990) • Robert Service (2005). Alphanos Pangas (Greece) and David Walters (United States). ISBN 9780804700238. ISBN 0-19-280204-6. Retrieved 14 May 2005. 67.google.org/archive/reed/1919/10days/10days/ index. Reinhart. Penguin Books. Ten Days that Shook the World (http://www. Rosenberg. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. Oxford University Press. vol. 199 pages. 1914–1921 (Bloomington. Further reading Participants' accounts • Reed. and notes © 1972 by Peter Sedgwick.). 1932. 1 June 1980. Harvard University Press.htm).marxists. Translation. Voices of Revolution. • Serge.htm). 2–3. Victor. Retrieved 1 September 2010. Longman. Yale University Press. and William G. The Russian Revolution. 1917. for International Publishers.W. ISBN 9780330029025. Reprinted on Victor Serge Internet Archive by permission.com/books?id=LzWsAAAAIAAJ). • Robert Paul Browder. Australia: Cambridge University Press. The History of the Russian Revolution (http://www. ISBN 9780521841559. 2) ISBN 0-521-81144-9 (vol. Richard (1972). pp. ISBN 0-913460-83-4. and Winston. Translated by Max Eastman. 1917 (http://books. 1986). published by BONI & Liveright. Richard. The Russian Revolution (New York. Leon. 1997). • Figes. Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky (June 1961). • Steinberg. • Lincoln.google.1917 Russian Revolution 111 Notes References • Acton. ISBN 9780674018013. Pathfinder Press edition. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 8083994. (2005). ISBN 0-521-54141-7. Retrieved 30 August 2010. John. • Malone. com/books?id=eseDgCQK9UkC). Holt.marxists. 2nd Reissue edition. 1914–1918. Year One of the Russian Revolution (http://www. Transcribed for the World Wide Web by John Gowland (Australia). Transcribed and marked by David Walters for John Reed Internet Archive (http://www. Sheila. Ian F. Richard (2004). Retrieved 14 May 2005. • Pipes. ISBN 0-87348-829-6. . W. Last of the Tsars. Vladimir Cherniaev. Retrieved 1 September 2010. : ISBN 0-14-024364-X (trade paperback) ISBN 0-670-85916-8 (hardcover) • Fitzpatrick. England: Cambridge University Press. Stanford University Press.

co. 1956. .ditext.htm) from the Victor Serge Internet Archive on Marxists Internet Archive (http://www.php4?id=364&issue=116).marxists.st-petersburg-life.marxists. Paul.htm) Other books • Goldston.org/archive/serge/1930/year-one/index.marxists. editor's Introduction. H.org/history/ussr/index. 1917–1918: Documents and Materials (Stanford.org (http://www. Robert. Mark D. In the series “Annals of Communism. 1976).yale. Retrieved 5 April 2005.edu/annals/Steinberg/golosa. 1917 g. The Anarchists in the Russian Revolution (Ithaca. ed. Robert Paul and Alexander F. Kerensky. 1917: Documents. Abraham. eds. • Browder. • Avrich.htm) • Russian Revolution archive at www.com/ yarmolinsky/yarframe.timesonline.com/st-petersburg/1917-russian-revolution) A summary of the key events and factors of the 1917 Russian Revolution. 1973). • Kevin Murphy's Isaac and Tamara Deutscher Memorial Prize lecture Can we Write the History of the Russian Revolution (http://www. The Mensheviks in the Russian Revolution (Ithaca. On-line publication of these texts in the Russian original: Golosa revoliutsii. 1934). • Précis of Russian Revolution (http://www.1917 Russian Revolution 112 Primary documents • Ascher. ed.org. Road to Revolution: A Century of Russian Radicalism.isj. External links • Chronology of the Russian Revolution World History Database (http://www. The Russian Revolution. eds.org/history/russian-revolution) • Year One of the Russian Revolution (http://www.org (http://libcom. 1917. first ed.uk/tol/system/topicRoot/Russian_revolution_1917/) Original reports from The Times • Avrahm Yarmolinsky. 2001.info/history/ Revolution-of-Russia-Russia. Translation. Voices of Revolution. (http://www.html) • Soviet history archive at www.html) • Russian Revolution 1917 (http://www. (Yale University Press.general. 1961). and notes © 1972 by Peter Sedgwick. which examines historical accounts of 1917 in the light of newly accessible archive material.. The Russian Provisional Government. • Bunyan. Fisher. 1966. 2002) (http://www.org).uk/index. • Steinberg.” Yale University Press.libcom. 3 volumes (Stanford. 1961.badley. The Bolshevik Revolution.marxists. James and H.

on 18 February 1918. the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire to the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire. previously held by the Provisional Priamur Government. German Emperor. In the following October Revolution. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty. greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives. and many volunteer foreigners fought on both sides of the Russian Civil War. because the Russian army was demobilized and the newly formed Red Guard were incapable of stopping the advance. the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. but the war's skirmishes actually stretched from 1917 to 1923. which created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence in Finland (the "Kingdom of Finland"). Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd (St. The Polish–Soviet War is often viewed as a theatre of the conflict. The most intense fighting took place from 1918 to 1920. Major military operations ended on 25 October 1922 when the Red Army occupied Vladivostok. which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. The Soviets viewed the treaty as merely a necessary and expedient means to end the war. Poland (the "Kingdom of Poland"). under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Lithuania (the . seized control of Saint Petersburg (then known as Petrograd) and began an immediate armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. In Soviet historiography the period of the Civil War has traditionally been defined as 1918–1921. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty and the formal agreement. Petersburg) and subsequently gained control throughout Russia. the Russian Provisional Government was established during the February Revolution of 1917. and the forces of the White Army. the loosely-allied anti-Bolshevik forces. The Bolsheviks decided to make peace immediately with the German Empire and the Central Powers. where General Anatoly Pepelyayev did not capitulate until 17 June 1923. encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign that lasted eleven days. offered by the latter in hopes that with a revolution. This suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd. representing the Bolsheviks.[2] On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began. the Bolsheviks had the Russian Constituent Assembly dissolved. following the policy of "No war.[3] As a condition for peace. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army.Russian Civil War 113 Russian Civil War The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets. The last enclave of the White Forces was the Ayano-Maysky District on the Pacific coast. Russia would withdraw from World War I. In January 1918. no peace". Therefore they ceded large amounts of territory to the German Empire. Leon Trotsky. proclaiming the Soviets as the new government of Russia. was ratified on 6 March 1918. Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed this decision to his sponsorship by the foreign office of Wilhelm II. the Red Guard. Other nationalist and regional political groups also participated in the war. notably the Allied Forces. the Germans began an all-out advance on the Eastern Front. refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease fire. In view of this. including the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army. armed groups of workers and deserting soldiers directed by the Bolshevik Party. Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks.[1] Overview After the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army and Black Guards. and warlords such as Ungern von Sternberg. as they had promised the Russian people prior to the Revolution. often in temporary alliance with other leftist pro-revolutionary groups. The principal fighting occurred between the Bolshevik Red Army.

[10] The majority of the fighting ended in 1920 with the defeat of General Pyotr Wrangel in the Crimea. In general. (1) upset at the withdrawal of Russia from the war effort. the Bolshevik state security apparatus. Basmachi Revolt. and they controlled significant parts of the former Russian empire for most of the war. the Brest-Litovsk treaty and the political ban became a catalyst[9] for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia. many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites. the Soviets eventually recovered some of the territories they gave up. republicans. (2) worried about a possible Russo-German alliance. that the socialist revolutionary ideas would spread to the West. voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule.[6] sometimes taking their families hostage in order to ensure loyalty. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very next day after the Bolshevik uprising.[4] Opposition of rural Russians to Red Army conscription units was overcome by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance. the volunteer-based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks' main military force. Tambov Rebellion. middle-class citizens. when it became apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would be far too small.[7] By its end. or were occupied by other nations until the onset of World War II. 114 . though several of these countries remained independent. there was a concern. Latvia and Estonia (the "Duchy of Courland and Semigallia").[7] At the start of the war. non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists. Political commissars were appointed to each unit of the army to maintain morale and ensure loyalty. including land-owners. The Western Allies also expressed their dismay at the Bolsheviks. Hence. Kronstadt Uprising. in order to create a more professional fighting force. A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government. A Ukrainian nationalist movement known as the Green Army was active in Ukraine in the early part of the war. pushing them into action against the new regime. the Bolsheviks constituted a minority of the vote and dissolved it. Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin. reactionaries.[8] In the elections to the Constituent Assembly. In June 1918. shared by many Central Powers as well. Armenia. Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. Following the defeat of Germany in World War I. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. Ukraine (the "Hetmanate"). played a key part in halting General Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919.[5] Former Tsarist officers were utilized as "military specialists" (voenspetsy). Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks. pro-monarchists. liberals. The Black Army. Belarus (the "Belarusian People’s Republic"). augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka. three quarters of the Red Army officer corps was composed of former Tsarist officers. Imperial Russia's massive foreign loans. but a notable resistance in certain areas continued until 1923 (e. and perhaps most importantly (3) galvanised by the prospect of the Bolsheviks making good their threats to assume no responsibility for. after significant reverses in combat. later ejecting Cossack forces from the Crimea. and Azerbaijan (the "Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic"). the old Russian Imperial Army had been demobilized. 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers. bolstered by foreign influence and led by General Yudenich. In addition. they had support primarily in the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets and some other industrial regions. became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army"). War Commissar Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guard into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. In January. and Georgia.g. Their military forces. including the provision of troops and supplies. and so default on. army generals.Russian Civil War "Kingdom of Lithuania"). In the wake of the October Revolution. the legal notion of odious debt had not yet been formulated. and the final resistance of the White movement in the Far East). conservatives.

which had commenced in 1918. November 1918                      Maximum advances of 'White' forces                      Frontiers. the east (under Admiral Kolchak) and the northwest (under General Yudenich) were successful. known as the Czechoslovak Legion or "White Czechs". Already on the date of the Revolution. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under General Denikin). In July 1919. involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly shifting strategic scene. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovaks. The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. forcing the Red Army and its leftist allies back on all three fronts.Russian Civil War 115 Geography and chronology In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts. but were fueled by the disbandment of local self-government in Ukraine and the demobilization of the Red Army. The last period of 1921–1923 was characterized by three main events. enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine. the Red Army suffered another reverse after a mass defection of Red Army units in the Crimea to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno. Wrangel had gathered the remnants of the Denikin's armies. After a series of engagements.[11] where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. In June. 1921 European theatre of the Russian Civil War The second period of the war lasted from January to November 1919. the Red Army first checked Kolchak's advance. assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines. Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops. Bolshevik control. Leon Trotsky soon reformed the Red Army. It can also be roughly split into the following periods. Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated to Constantinople in November 1920. fearing a confrontation with them was impending as well. An attempted invasion of the southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the anarchist Black Army under the command of Nestor Makhno. After an abortive move north against the Red Army. The last was the continued resistance . Most of the fighting in this first period was sporadic. concluding the first of two military alliances with the anarchists. together with various other allied dissident leftist movements in Russia. Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. the eastern. The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks. the southern and the north-western. Wrangel's troops were forced south by Red Army and Black Army forces. occupying much of the Crimea. The second was the escalation of peasant uprisings. Cossack General Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region. the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November.[12] the Poles of the Polish 5th Rifle Division and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen. The first was the defeat and liquidation of Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army.

I. and autonomous nationalist forces against Bolshevik rule in Eastern Siberia (Transbaikalia. Prominent among them were Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks. and the Russian Far East. Central Asia. the Tsar's Chief-of-Staff during the First world war. Denikin and other Tsarist officers who had escaped from the jail where they had been imprisoned following the abortive Kornilov affair just before the Revolution. Islamic (Basmachi). 116 1917 The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October.[13] At the beginning of December 1917. though armed hostilities in the far provinces against Bolshevist rule continued into 1923. Yakutia). began to organize a Volunteer Army in Novocherkassk. In Soviet historiography the end of the Civil War is dated by the fall of Vladivostok on 25 October 1922. but quickly put down by the Red Guards. groups of volunteers and Cossacks captured Rostov. Vatsetis. 1923 The initial groups that fought against the Communists were local Cossack armies that had declared their loyalty to the Provisional Government. 1917. General Alekseev. . In December 1917 Alekseev was joined by Kornilov. notably the Latvian rifle Division under I. Volunteers of this small army were mostly officers of the old Russian army. military cadets and students. The leading Tsarist officers of the old regime also started to resist. In November.Russian Civil War of White Army. It was supported by the Junker mutiny in Petrograd.

Their military council elected general Pyotr Krasnov as their Ataman. this came as a shock to the Allies. Despite mass recruitment of new conscripts. Then in mid-April the Cheka made mass arrests of anarchists in a night raid in Petrograd. the Bolshevik government decided to replace the provisional Red Guard with a permanent Communist army: the Red Army. This permitted the redeployment of German soldiers to the Western Front. as peace negotiations between the Bolshevik government and the Germans broke down.[17] The day before.[14] As Civil War became a reality. There were violent confrontations with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks. The Baku Commune was established on 13 April and lasted until 25 July 1918.[19] However the Dashanaks. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Germans formally ended the war on the Eastern Front. encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign which lasted eleven days. the Volunteer Army embarked on the epic Ice March to the Kuban. .[15] initially basing its organization on that of the Red Guard. This was followed up with simultaneous raids against anarchists in Petrograd and Moscow at the end of April. and was obliged to retreat to Baku. Following Kornilov's death. Fighting off its pursuers without respite. With the help of a revolt by workers in the Arsenal plant within Kiev. the army succeeded in breaking its way through back towards the Don. before the annexation of the Austro-Hungarian lands of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Under this pretext began allied intervention in the Russian Civil War with the United Kingdom and France sending troops into Russian ports. The massive uprising of the Don Cossacks against the Bolsheviks took place in the beginning of April 1918. After the treaty. the city was captured by the Bolsheviks on 26 January. Right SRs and February 1918 article from The New York Times showing a map of the Russian Imperial territories claimed by Ukraine People's Republic at the time.Russian Civil War 117 1918 South Russia and Ukraine In January Soviet forces under Lieutenant Colonel Muravyov invaded Ukraine and invested Kiev. General Denikin took over the command. On 18 February. where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Ekaterinodar.[18] General Kornilov was killed in the fighting on 13 April. the newly formed Red Army proved incapable of stopping the advance and the Soviets acceded to a punitive peace treaty.[16] Rostov was recaptured by the Soviets from the Don Cossacks on 23 February 1918. The Baku Red Army successfully resisted the Ottoman Army of Islam. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (3 March 1918) which pulled Russia out of the war and gave Germany control over vast stretches of western Russia. the Germans began an all out advance into the interior of Russia. it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. The Council of People's Commissars formed the new army by decree on 28 January 1918. where the Cossack uprising against Bolsheviks had started. where the Central Rada of the Ukrainian People's Republic held power. The British and the French had supported Russia on a massive scale with war materials. Don Army was formed.

which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. In May 1918. Instead their soldiers disarmed the Bolshevik forces in June 1918 at Cheliabinsk. The Armed Forces of South Russia were created. the whole Northern Caucasus was free from bolsheviks. they took Samara and Saratov. the prerequisitive conditions for creating a White Army already existed when the Czech corps uprising started. or mutinies in the Red Army.N. the former Tsar and his family were executed by the Ural Soviet. 1918. During the summer. heavy fighting took place at Armavir and Stavropol.000 troops by October 1917. The Komuch pursued an ambivalent social policy. the dreaded Cheka special investigations forces. such as the institution of an eight-hour working day. 118 Eastern Russia and Siberia In the East. head of the Volunteer Army. Russian officers' organizations owerthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk and Omsk. combining democratic and even socialist measures. started its second Kuban campaign. In Moscow Left SR uprising was put down by Bolsheviks. Count Mirbach. Ekaterinodar was encircled on August 1 and fell on the 3rd. General Alekseev. desertions. At the same time as the Czechs moved in. And P. using military detachments from the Cheka. the leader for the White armies in Southern Russia. general Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. By the end of July Whites had extended their gains. such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. After a series of reverses at the front. the Whites set up organizations in various centres in this huge territory. with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion. The Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries supported peasant fighting against Soviet control of food supplies. An agreement with the new Bolshevik government to pass by sea through Vladivostok (so they could unite with the Czechoslovak legions in France) collapsed over an attempt to disarm the Corps. On December 26. Krasnov.Russian Civil War Mensheviks started negotiations with General Dunsterville. Lenin personally apologised to the Germans for the assassination. agreement was reached between A. ostensibly to prevent them falling into the hands of the Whites. In October. establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly. two left Socialist-Revolutionaries and Cheka employees. In the field.I. Denikin. The Baku Commune ended its existence and was replaced by the Central Caspian Dictatorship. numbering some 9000 men. uniting Volunteer Army and Cossack forces. Provisional Siberian Government was formed in Omsk. This time red forces had no escape and by the beginning of 1919. War Commissar Trotsky instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorized withdrawals. Ataman of the Don Cossacks. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. Since there were clandestine officers' organisations in the main cities of the Volga. the Urals and Siberia. Blyumkin and Andreyev. Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed. Shortly before the fall of Ekaterinburg (on 17 July 1918).[20] The Czech Legion had been part of the Russian army and numbered around 30. termed the Special Punitive Department of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for . "white" Volunteer army. From the Volga to the Pacific Ocean. the Bolshevik power in Siberia was totally wiped out. being remote from the capitals and main Bolshevik centers created relatively favourable conditions for those opposing the Soviet power. capturing Ekaterinburg on 26 July 1918. Within a month the Whites controlled most of the Trans-Siberian Railroad from Lake Baikal to the Ural Mountains regions. with "restorative" actions. On October 13. In July. died of a heart attack and was replaced by General Denikin. General Kazanovich's division took Armavir and on November 1. By July the authority of Komuch extended over much of the area controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion. the commander of the British troops in Persia. assassinated the German ambassador. At the end of May a marked escalation of the conflict was signalled by the unexpected intervention of the Czechoslovak Legion. In September–October. In June 1918.

Rear-Admiral Kolchak. Commander-in-Chief. Baikal. Boldyrev.[23] In September 1918. In August. withdrew their troops on 8 April 1919. Perm was taken on December 24.G.Russian Civil War Combat of Counter-Revolution and Sabotage. or Special Punitive Brigades followed the Red Army. Vinogradov and P. In the Caucasus. from Petrograd through Moscow and south to Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd). the Russian Provisional Government quickly came under the influence of the new War Minister. conducting field tribunals and summary executions of soldiers and officers who either deserted. A. The Whites fell back to Ufa and Orenburg. but after having done almost no fighting. Admiral Kolchak had a small army and had some control over the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The British occupied Murmansk. On the Volga Kazan was captured by the colonel Kappel detachement on August 7. The Bolshevik government was firmly in control of the core of Russia. . Ural. nominally under the orders of general V. General Denikin had established a new White army. Kars and Riga Arkhangelsk and the Japanese occupied Vladivostok. On 18 November. Trotsky authorized the formation of anti-retreat detachments stationed behind unreliable Red Army units. V. 119 1919 The stage was now set for the key year of the Civil War. the Siberian Army (of the Siberian Provisional Government) and insurgent Cossack units of Orenburg. By the fall of 1918 Anti-Bolshevik White Forces in the East included the People's Army (Komuch). a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. By mid-December 1918 White armies in the East had to leave Ufa but this failure was balanced by the successful drive towards Perm. Komuch. on October 8. In Omsk. The members of the Directory were arrested and Kolchak proclaimed the "Supreme Ruler of Russia". Amur and Ussuri Cossacks. but was recaptured by the Reds on September 8. following the Red counter-offensive. Simbirsk fell. In the south the White Armies controlled much of the Don and Ukraine. Siberia. French forces landed in Odessa. appointed by the Ufa Directorate. Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government in Omsk. Semirechye. with orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorization. Samara. Vologodskii). The London Geographical Institute’s 1919 map of Europe after the treaties of Brest-Litovsk British and the United States occupied and Batum and before the treaties of Tartu. frustrated at continued reports of Red Army troops breaking under fire. headed by a Directory of five: three Socialist-Revolutionaries (Nikolai Avksentiev.[21] [22] The use of the death penalty was extended by Trotsky to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. retreated from their positions. (V. Boldyrev and Vladimir Zenzinov) and two Kadets. Against this government in the east. On the 11. or who failed to display sufficient offensive zeal.

But on October 14. On 14 November 1919. led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky. Admiral Kolchack reviewing the troops. and by mid-April. Red army. Following the abortive offensive at Chelyabinsk. Reds started their counter-offensive against Kolchak's forces at the end of April. the White armies withdrew beyond Tobol. and continued to push forward. reached the Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov forces. Sarapul on June 2 and Izevsk on the 7. Retreat of the Eastern front White armies lasted 3 months.Russian Civil War 120 Siberia At the beginning of March 1919 the general offensive of the Whites on the Eastern front began. when the survivors. the Reds counterattacked and then began the uninterrupted retreat of the Whites to the East. Ufa was retaken on March 13. Both sides had victories and losses. until mid-February 1920.[24] Admiral Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat. after crossing the Baikal. With the retreat of Kolchak's White Army. captured Elabuga on May 26. Great Britain and the United States pulled their troops out of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk before the onset of winter trapped their forces in port. 1919. the last attempt to change the course of events. White Army forces in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. but by the middle of summer the Red army was larger than the White army and had managed to recapture territory previously lost. the Red Army captured Omsk. In September 1919 White offensive was launched against Tobol. . the white army stopped at the Glazov-Chistopol-Bugulma-Buguruslan-Sharlyk line.

especially to General Yudenich. Kursk and Orel were taken. against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops. After capture of Tsaritsyn. artillery. Wrangel pushed towards Saratov. the AFSR attacked on all fronts from the Dnepr to the Volga and at the beginning of the summer they had won numerous battles. By 1919. Denikin's forces constituted a real threat. The high tide of the White movement against the Soviets had been reached in September 1919. ordering all AFSR units to get ready for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. During the several months in winter and spring of 1919. At the end of April and beginning of May. Despite large quantities of aid given to White commanders by Allied nations. when the Soviet counter-offensive began in January 1919 under the Bolshevik leader Antonov-Ovseenko. It had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly adwancing troops without reserves. 1919 Denikin issued his famous "Moscow directive". When the Kolchack's army in the East began the retreat in June and July. ammunition. they were beginning to run short of supplies. 1918. hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place in the Donetz basin where the attacking Bolsheviks met White forces. . By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. Lacking ammunition. Tukhachevsky's army then turned towards yet another threat. Consequently. By mid-June the Reds were chased from Crimea and from Odessa area. but Trotsky seeing the danger of the union with Kolchack. White propaganda poster representing the Bolsheviks as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight. repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. weapons. stretched thin by fighting on all fronts. Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the counter-revolutionary dragon. The cities of Kharkov and Belgorod were liberated. and some military advisors) to the White armies during 1919. At the same time White troops under command of General Wrangel took Tsaritsyn on 17 June 1919. Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. many White commanders were unsatisfied with the amount of aid that was given. and fresh reinforcements. Cossack Don Army under the command of General Mamontov continued north towards Voronezh but there they were defeated by Tukhachevsky's army on 24 October. White front had no depth or stability. the rebuilt Volunteer Army of General Denikin.Russian Civil War 121 South Russia The Cossacks had been unable to organize and capitalize on their successes at the end of 1918. it continued to give significant military aid (money. was forced out of Kiev on 30 August 1919. was directed against Denikin. The Red Army captured Kiev on 3 February 1919. At the same time the AFSR completed the elimination of red forces in the Northern Caucasus and advanced towards Tsaritsyn. free now from any serious danger from Siberia. On June 20. the bulk of the Red army. The Red army. and for a time threatened to reach Moscow. Although Great Britain had withdrawn its own troops from the theater. Yudenich in particular complained that he was receiving insufficient support. food. the Cossack forces rapidly fell apart. Denikin's army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919.

He did not. under the persisting threat that general Mannerheim. Trotsky declared that "It is impossible for a little army of 15. Within a few weeks the Red army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. which turned out to be well-founded. fearful of reprisals by Moscow and its Red Army War Commissar. Some members of Bolshevik central committee in Moscow were willing to give up Petrograd. ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army. who had spent the spring and summer organizing a small army in Estonia. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20. Despite this setback. using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red army. and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. men and women. By 19 October 1919 Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of Petrograd. which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919-1920. proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave". the effects could have been decisive. Had the Finns intervened. that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of Petrograd". short of supplies.[25] Nikolai Yudenich. However. the Bolshevik forces pursuing Yudenich's forces (Yudenich based himself in Helsinki) were beaten back by the Estonian army." He settled on a strategy of urban defense. or someone else decides to take Petrograd from us. This one came from White Army General Yudenich. At this point Yudenich. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) was withdrawing to the Odessa and Crimea. they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. withdrawing his army across the border to Estonia. to Rostov. The attack was well-executed. Lenin considered it "completely certain. decided to call off the siege of the city.000 ex-officers to master a working class capital of 700.Russian Civil War The Red Army recaptured Kiev on 17 December and the defeated Cossacks fled back towards the Black Sea. While the White Armies were being routed in the center and the east. In Finland the whites had recently won their own civil war against the reds. The main body of White forces."[26] .000 men.000 inhabitants. Upon his return. his army was disarmed by order of the Estonian government. Trotsky anticipated the events leading to the Winter War by saying "We cannot live. but Trotsky refused to accept the loss of the city and personally organized its defenses. The Finnish general Mannerheim planned a Finnish intervention to help the whites in Russia capture Petrograd. 122 Northwest Russia : Yudenich's campaign In the meantime. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers went into exile. Trotsky armed all available workers. Yudenich also had six British tanks that caused panic whenever they appeared. gain the necessary support for the endeavor. the Volunteers and the Don Army pulled back towards the Don. year after year. however. with British support. the Red Army turned to deal with a new threat.

Following disastrous Novorossiysk evacuation. He was able to restore order with dispirited troops and reshape the army which could again fight as a regular force. 1921–1923 After the defeat of Wrangel. . to Rostov. Denikin hoped to hold the crossings of the Don. forcing Wrangel to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest. With the support of Japanese army it was able hold Chita. On 6–7 February. As War Commissar of Red Army forces. About 40 000 men were evacuated by Russian and Allied ships from Novorossiysk to Crimea. and Siberia. Angered by continued repression by the Bolshevik Communist government and its liberal use of the Cheka to put down peasant and anarchist elements. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. General Wrangel then attacked north in an attempt to take advantage of recent Red Army defeats at the close of the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920. Thus ended the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia. General Denikin stepped down. and Wrangel and his troops were forced to retreat to Crimea in November 1920.[27] Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia and joined Grigory Semyonov's troops. followed by peasant revolts in Ukraine.Russian Civil War 123 1920 Siberia In Siberia. just before the arrival of the White Army in the area. the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by agents of the Cheka. South Russia By the beginning of 1920 main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. the Red Army immediately repudiated its 1920 treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno and attacked the anarchist Black Army. But White Army was not able to hold the Don area and at the end of February 1920 started a retreat across Kuban towards Novorossiysk. while about 20 000 men were left behind and either dispersed or captured by Reds. Slipshod evacuation of Novorossiysk proved to be one of the darkest and saddest events in the history of white struggle. After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists. Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated from Crimea to Constantinople on 14 November 1920.[28] Stymied in his efforts to consolidate his hold in Ukraine. the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine. Leon Trotsky instituted mass executions of peasants in Ukraine and other areas sympathetic to Makhno and the anarchists. rest and reform his troops. but after withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. and General Pyotr Wrangel was elected new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army by military council. without horses or any heavy equipment. a naval mutiny erupted at Kronstadt. This offensive was eventually halted by the Red Army. pursued by both Red and Black cavalry and infantry. Red Army attacks on anarchist forces and their sympathizers increased in ferocity throughout 1921. Tambov. Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. forming Far Eastern army. His army remained an organized force in the Crimea throughout the 1920. Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies thrown through the ice of a frozen river. Semenov's position become untenable and in November 1920 he was repulsed by the Red Army from Transbaikalia and took refuge in China.

but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. with 3.000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone.000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization. Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923.000. mostly by the White Army. Millions more were also killed by widespread starvation.000 (125.000.500 .000 Jews were killed in Ukraine. and machines damaged. These émigrés included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300.000 dying of typhus alone in 1920. By 1921.[34] Kolchak's Government shot 25. fled Russia—many with General Wrangel. The industrial production value descended to Refugees on flatcars. some through the Far East. where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. For example. The regions of Kamchatka and Northern Sakhalin remained under Japanese occupation until their treaty with Soviet Union in 1925. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War. The towns are full of refuse. mines flooded. and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. known as the White emigres. By 1922 there were at least 7. who had plans to annex the Amur Krai of Eastern Siberia. 124 Aftermath The results of the civil war were momentous.000 .000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I and the civil war. the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. when their forces were finally withdrawn.[29] During the Red Terror.[32] An estimated 100. and agriculture to one third. "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. and cattle from 58 to 37 million. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. cultivated land had shrunk to 62 percent of the pre-war area.[36] Another one to two million people. commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment to fight against the Basmachis." It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20 percent of the pre-World War level.[33] Punitive organs of the "All Great Don Host" sentenced 25. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. The railways barely crawl. The Russian economy was devastated by the war. The exchange rate with the . as well as the 1921 famine.in the Red Army. cattle and raw materials pillaged. In central Asia. with factories and bridges destroyed. The Soviets used non Russian peoples in central asia like Magaza Masanchi. and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. the Cheka carried out an estimated 250. 175. General Anatoly Pepelyayev continued armed resistance in the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923. finally pulled their troops out as the Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over all of Siberia. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished.Russian Civil War The Japanese. and iron to two percent of pre-war levels. worsened the disaster still further. others fled west into the newly independent Baltic countries. The houses are crumbling. wholesale massacres by both sides. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920. out of a population of around three million. Disease had reached pandemic proportions. one seventh of the value of 1913.000 to 500. According to Pravda.000 people to death between May 1918 to January 1919.000 summary executions of "enemies of the people".[35] At the end of the Civil War. and the harvest yield was only about 37 percent of normal.[30] [31] Some 300. The droughts of 1920 and 1921.000. cotton production fell to five percent.White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450.

Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s. However.Russian Civil War U. directed by Yefim Dzigan Knight Without Armour (1937) The Year 1919 (1938). With the end of the war. The Iron Flood (1924) by Alexander Serafimovich Red Cavalry (1926) by Isaac Babel The Rout (1927) by Alexander Fadeyev How the Steel Was Tempered (1934) by Nikolai Ostrovsky Optimistic Tragedy (1934) by Vsevolod Vishnevsky The Don Flows Home to the Sea (1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov. and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society.Naumov Doctor Zhivago (1965) The Elusive Avengers (1966) The Red and the White (1967) Reds (1981) Corto Maltese in Siberia (2002) Admiral (2008) . Byzantium Endures (1981) by Michael Moorcock. The White Guard (1966) by Mikhail Bulgakov. Film • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arsenal (1928) Storm Over Asia (1928) Chapaev (1934) Thirteen (1936). directed by A. directed by Mikhail Romm We Are From Kronstadt.Faintsimmer Shchors (1939).[37] 125 In fiction Literature • • • • • • • • • • • The Road to Calvary (1922–41) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy. most notably the German Revolution. combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1. the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar in Russian society.200 in 1920. directed by Ilya Trauberg The Baltic Marines (1939).Alov and V. the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power.S. the perceived threat of another intervention. Doctor Zhivago (1957) by Boris Pasternak. Chapaev (1923) by Dmitri Furmanov. directed by A. directed by A. Alov and V.Naumov The Wind (1958). directed by Dovzhenko Pavel Korchagin (1956).

Retrieved 10 September 2010. Birlinn: 28 [18] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War. Andrew and Mitrokhin. ru/ fulltext/ 1/ 001/ 008/ 063/ 073. book/ ) Knopf. Basic books. Russian Review 50 (3): 345–351. [7] Williams. htm) . 77% of the Red Army's enlisted ranks were composed of peasant conscripts. 446: [9] John M.. Richard. 70–71. Edinburgh. [6] Overy. Алексей Максимович. [27] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War: 319-21 [28] Berland. Thompson. A vision unfulfilled. ISBN 9780631150831 0631150838 [8] Overy. Big Soviet Encyclopedia. cultinfo.It is absolutely essential that we have at least an embryonic network of blocking units and that we work out a procedure for bringing them up to strength and deploying them. Norton & Company (2004). (http:/ / www. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (http:/ / www. third edition (30 volumes). gov/ lccn/ sn83030214/ 1919-11-15/ ed-1/ seq-4/ ). p.W. Lenin. 1969-1978 (http:/ / slovari. co. as an example to the others. ru/ dict/ bse/ article/ 00020/ 15500. [23] Dmitri Volkogonov. a successful seizure of the 1920 Ukrainian grain harvest would have had a devastating effect on food supplies to Bolshevik-held cities. fsu. [35] Колчаковщина (http:/ / www. Co. 1999. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany. org/ stable/ 131078). Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis.2307/131078. [29] Urlanis B. Peter (2002). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. Library of Congress (Washington. [31] page 180. 1971. Edinburgh. Stalin. p.. transl. men of conscriptible age (17-40) in a village would vanish when Red Army draft units approached. google. 9780874516166. loc. Mhakno. ISBN 067400907X. Russia and the Soviet Union in the twentieth century (Lexington. Eastview Press. The taking of hostages and a few exemplary executions usually brought the men back. doi:10. Beryl. 4. winstonchurchill. Pipes. Beryl. TV program. 237: By 1920. W. ISBN 0874516161.7. Edinburgh. Edinburgh. (1957). 1996) 159.J. (1987). Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary. (1987). A biography of Kaledin (in Russian) (http:/ / www.S. UPNE (1993). p.. [32] Robert Gellately. Birlinn: 62-8 [21] Chamberlain. 2004. 131: Frequently the deserters' families were taken hostage to force a surrender. Making War. Wars and Population. paperback edition. [34] Holquist. HarperCollins Publishers. Edinburgh. 446: By the end of the civil war. Birlinn: 27 [14] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War." [24] "Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd" (http:/ / chroniclingamerica. Richard (1991).000& ei=kPDrRvKoB5imoALvyaS5Dw& ie=ISO-8859-1& sig=GSLukXFh7KRQx6oQTEkNvvlC77E). Pipe. htm) [3] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War: 42 [4] Read. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. New York Tribune. Overy. 70: The Cheka special investigations forces were also charged with the detection of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity by Red Army soldiers and commanders. org/ i4a/ pages/ index. schoolnet. one-third of all Red Army officers were ex-Tsarist voenspetsy. The Soviet Army (Moscow:Progress Publishers. Stalin's Russia. ISBN 0393020304. & edited by Harold Shukman. 19:00.W. A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev. 9780393020304. From Tsar to Soviets. proadcast on 13. 1914-1921. edu/ news/ 2007/ 09/ 11/ gellately. [5] Williams. 1971). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. Beryl. William Henry. bbc. htm) (Russian) [2] Lenin (http:/ / www. pjsymes. R. .. 1st American Ed edition. ISBN 9780631150831 0631150838: Typically. The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union. cited in Scott and Scott. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. The Russian Revolution 1917-1921. W. (1987). 164. Le Temps. ISBN 0393020304. p. Progress publishers. hrono. while depriving both Red Army and Ukrainian Black Army troops of their usual bread rations. DC): p.J. info/ biograf/ kaledina. 180: By December 1918 Trotsky had ordered the formation of special detachments to serve as blocking units throughout the Red Army. ISBN 9780631150831 0631150838 [26] YLE: Mennyttä etsimässä: Mannerheim ja Pietari. Moscow. uk/ RUSlenin. cfm?pageid=282) Interview with Jeffrey Wallin. The Russian Revolution: 1917-1921. 28 August 1934: In addition to supplying White Army forces and their sympathizers with food. 15 November 1919. . The Russian Revolution 1917-1921. Pierre. com/ books?id=9TWUAQ7Xof8C& pg=PA28& dq=kgb+ cheka+ executions+ probably+ numbered+ as+ many+ as+ 250. htm [20] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War. yandex. Norton & Company. New York: Macmillan Co. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. co. MA.3. Birlinn: 35 [15] 15 January 1918 (Old Style) [16] S. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (The Churchill Centre) [11] Каледин. [33] Kenez. spartacus. p. On 18 December he cabled: "How do things stand with the blocking units?. Robert V.2010.Russian Civil War 126 References [1] article "Civil War and military intervention in Russia 1918-20".. Peter. London (1996). au/ articles/ az-baku. W. R. [10] Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness. [30] page 28 (http:/ / books. 9780393020304. a portion were customarily executed. Birlinn: 29 [19] http:/ / www. p.25. p. [22] Daniels. W. 1979. p. Boulder. The Sword and the Shield. Christopher.. Norton & Company (2004). uk/ dna/ h2g2/ A4241062) [13] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War. [25] Williams. Oxford University Press (1996). 2007 ISBN 1400040051 pp. com. The Russian Revolution 1917-1921. html) [12] The Czech Legion (http:/ / www. Lototskiy. [17] Evan Mawdsley (2008) The Russian Civil War. "The Prosecution of Soviet History: A Critique of Richard Pipes' The Russian Revolution" (http:/ / jstor.

" in The Military History of the Soviet Union. "The Russian Civil War. 1994. External links • Russian Revolution and Civil War archive at libcom.shtml) (3 February 2007) • "Russian Civil War" (http://www. • Peter Kenez. 1918-1922. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3763/ is_/ ai_n8801575).org/library/russian-revolution) • "BBC History of the Russian Revolution" (http://www. The Origins of the Russian Civil War. • Ewan Mawdsley.onwar. • Geoffrey Swain. Canadian Slavonic Papers [37] (http:/ / www.htm) (Spartacus History.1922 at Encyclopedia of Russian History (http://www. • David R.worldstatesmen. Bruce Lincoln.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/ eastern_front_01.Russian Civil War [36] And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia. Civil War in South Russia.N. Stone. Civil War in South Russia. Behind the Front Lines of the Civil War: Political Parties and Social Movements in Russia. Brovkin. 1971. 1918: The First Year of the Volunteer Army.co. Princeton University Press.org. Dupuy.com/topic/ civil-war-of-1917-1922) (3 February 2007) • "Russian Civil War Polities" (http://www.org/library (http://libcom. By Thomas J. University of California Press.answers. The Russian Civil War. 1977.co. downloaded 16 February 2007) . downloaded 4 January 2006) • "Civil War of 1917 . The Encyclopedia of Military History (many editions) Harper & Row Publishers.spartacus.uk/RUScivilwar.bbc.html) (World Statesmen. • Peter Kenez. University of California Press. 1918-1930 (http:/ / findarticles.org/Russia_war. ISBN 0691032785 • T. 1919-1920: The Defeat of the Whites. downloaded 3 January 2006) • "Russian Civil War 1918-1920" (http://www.com/aced/data/romeo/russia1918.htm) (On War website. com/ russian-civil-war/ aftermath. spiritus-temporis. Red Victory. 1917-1921. Hegarty. Berkeley.schoolnet. • W. html) 127 Further reading • Vladimir N. Berkeley. The White Armies of Russia: A Chronicle of Counter-Revolution and Allied Intervention. • George Stewart.

for while the Provisional Government held nominal power. but it maintained its commitment to the war being part of Entente. Within the military. The Soviet chose not to force further changes in government due to their belief that the February Revolution was Russia's bourgeois democratic revolution which would be tasked with implementing democratic reforms and would lead in turn to a proletarian revolution. Belarusian. However. Rather than forcing a peace however. Failed military offensives in summer 1917 and protests in the capital led to troops being called into cities in late August to restore order. Leon Trotsky was elected chair of the Petrograd Soviet. they still remained a hugely powerful body. the intelligentsia was dissatisfied over the slow pace of reforms. The Russian Revolutions of 1917 During World War I. The provisional government also was postponing to approve land reforms demanded by the peasantry. and their Red Army eventually won the Civil War. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917 following widespread rioting in Petrograd. emerged as the main political force in the capital of the former Russian Empire. Tsarist Russia experienced famine and economic collapse. despite widespread calls of some Left to right: Leon Trotsky. Dissatisfaction with the monarchy and its policy of continuing the war grew. . and Lev Kamenev. The Bolsheviks. A system of 'dual power' emerged. the city's military forces. The demoralized Russian Army suffered severe military setbacks. Deserting soldiers returned to the cities and gave their weapons to angry socialist factory workers. along with the Ukrainian. political forces for Russia to seek a peaceful settlement. support for the Bolshevik party was growing and one of its leading figures. led first by Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov. both democratic socialist parties politically to the right of the Bolsheviks. and many soldiers deserted the front lines. and income disparities and inequality were growing while the provisional government grew more and more autocratic and appeared on the verge of succumbing to a military junta. and therefore.Early history of the Soviet Union 128 Early history of the Soviet Union The history of the Soviet Union has roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917. From the territories of the former Russian Empire emerged the Russian Soviet Republic. they were increasingly opposed by the Petrograd Soviet. led by Vladimir Lenin. controlled by the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. The Bolsheviks became known as the Russian Communist Party. and Transcaucasian republics which were eventually to unite to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. who accounted for over 80% of the population. though they had to fight a long and brutal civil war against the Whites. then by Aleksandr Kerensky. Conditions in urban areas were fertile ground for revolution. who was also directly responsible for the defense of the city. Between February and October 1917. poverty was worsening. Vladimir Lenin. mutiny and desertion were pervasive among conscripts. A provisional government was installed at that time. During this time. they joined the rioters and the government and military were further disgraced. the power of the provisional government was consistently questioned.

Said Felix Dzerzhinsky. It was also argued that the party should be an elite body of professional revolutionaries dedicating their lives to the cause and carrying out their decisions with iron discipline. taking control on 25 October. party cadres would grow increasingly careerist and professional. OGPU. Later it changed names to GPU. and the composition of lower bodies largely determined by the members of higher ones. Party membership required exams. by January 6. on September 5." . and food suppliers. the Bolshevik doctrine of democratic centralism argued that only a tightly knit and secretive organization could successfully overthrow the government." In theory. opposing parties of the left such as the Social Revolutionaries and other anti-Bolshevik groups such as the Cossacks. they argued that only such an organization could prevail against foreign and domestic enemies. universities. the policy of Red Terror. In December 1917. June. factories. thus moving toward putting loyal party activists in charge of new and old political institutions. The Bolsheviks were able to portray this as an attack against the People's Soviet and marched on the Provisional Government. In practice. 1919 poster. after the revolution. this system was to be democratic since all leading party organs would be elected from below. The Mensheviks and the right-wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries. On the October 25. New Life: "We represent in ourselves organized terror . 129 The Russian Civil War Prior to the revolution. with decisions of higher organs binding on lower ones. "democratic centralism" was centralist. the Tenth Party Congress banned factions within the party. leaving it in the control of the Bolsheviks and remaining Left Socialist Revolutionaries. and a central control organ. Over time. which was intended to establish non-Bolshevik Russian Democratic Federative Republic as the permanent form of government established at its Petrograd session held from January 5 to January 6. and nominations by three existing members. 1918 in the newspaper. NKVD and finally KGB. 1917 the Sovnarkom was established to be later formalized by the Russian Constitution of 1918 as the administrative arm of the Congress of Soviets of Russia. workers and peasants! The Red Cavalry is the pledge of victory. but also centralized since lower bodies would be accountable to higher organizations. Fighting the civil war would actually force the party to put these principles into practice.this must be said very clearly . left the body.such terror is now very necessary in the conditions we are living through in a time of revolution. Against this backdrop. the nomenklatura system would evolve and become standard practice. 1918 the VTsIK had ratified the dissolution by the Bolsheviks of the Russian Constituent Assembly.Early history of the Soviet Union On October 24. 1917. During the Civil War. 1918 the Cheka was given responsibility for targeting remnants of the Tsarist regime. hospitals. army units. "Mount your horses. the Cheka was founded as the Bolshevik's first internal security force following the failed assassination attempt on Lenin's life. special camps. MVD. a vanguard of activists. outraged at the acts carried out in the name of the Soviet. the Provisional Government moved against the Bolsheviks. arresting activists and destroying propaganda materials. initially intending it only to be a temporary measure after the shock of the Kronstadt Rebellion. special courses. schools. Arguing that the revolution needed not a mere parliamentary organization but a party of action which would function as a scientific body of direction. first head of the Cheka.

and the former Tsarist empire. this sign of growing discontent forced the party to foster a broad alliance of the working class and peasantry (80% of the population). forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. the Transcaucasian SFSR. primarily peasants who initially had been stalwart supporters of the Bolsheviks under the provisional government. which had established an unstable independent government following World War I. while the RSFSR considered carrying the revolution westward by force. Aleksandr Chervyakov[2] respectively on December 30. at the end of the civil war. These two documents were confirmed by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by heads of delegations[1] . The "commanding heights" employed the majority of the workers in the urban areas. At the Tenth Party Congress it was decided to end War Communism and institute the New Economic Policy (NEP). Small private businesses were allowed and restrictions on political activity were somewhat eased. Rather than simply requisitioning agricultural surpluses in order to feed the urban population (the hallmark of War Communism). Piłsudski halted the Soviet advance at the Battle of Warsaw and resumed the offensive. the state still maintained state ownership of what Lenin deemed the "commanding heights" of the economy: heavy industry such as the coal. Mikha Tskhakaya. When Piłsudski carried out a military thrust into Ukraine in 1920. The Kronstadt rebellion signaled the growing unpopularity of War Communism in the countryside: in March 1921. Creation of the USSR On December 29. iron. disillusioned sailors. Silver Rubel 1924 . Poland's Józef Piłsudski envisioned a new federation (Międzymorze). 1922 a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian SFSR. he was met by a Red Army offensive that drove into Polish territory almost to Warsaw. 1922. crossed the ice over the frozen Baltic Sea to quickly crush the rebellion. which entailed the breakup of the landed estates and the forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses. the Bolsheviks adopted War Communism. revolted against the new regime. However. despite left factions of the party which favored a regime solely representative of the interests of the revolutionary proletariat. and metallurgical sectors along with the banking and financial components of the economy. such state industries would be largely free to make their own economic decisions. However. in which the state allowed a limited market to exist. Under the NEP. Although the Red Army. forming a Polish-led East European bloc to form a bulwark against Russia and Germany.Mikhail Kalinin. commanded by Trotsky. Mikhail Frunze and Grigory Petrovsky. Meanwhile.Early history of the Soviet Union 130 The Polish-Soviet War The frontiers between Poland. The "Peace of Riga" signed in early 1921 split the territory of Belarus and Ukraine between Poland and Soviet Russia. The New Economic Policy During the Civil War (1917–1921). were rendered chaotic by the repercussions of the Russian revolutions and civil war. the key shift involved the status of agricultural surpluses. the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR. the NEP allowed peasants to sell their surplus yields on the open market.

would recover from civil war more rapidly than heavy industry. The outcome of this was what Trotsky deemed the "scissors crisis" because of the scissors-like shape of the graph representing shifts in relative price indexes. Stalin was aware of Lenin's Testament and acted to keep Lenin in isolation for health reasons and increase his control over the party apparatus. Factories. the troika of Stalin. Due to the lack of incentives brought by market competition. but greatly improved. Trotsky and Zinoviev were added to the body. Following Lenin's third stroke a troika made up of Stalin. attempting to bring down prices for manufactured goods and stabilize inflation. the position of general secretary became more important than had originally been envisioned and Stalin's power grew.Early history of the Soviet Union 131 The Soviet NEP (1921–29) was essentially a period of "market socialism" similar to the Dengist reforms in Communist China after 1978 in that both foresaw a role for private entrepreneurs and limited markets based on trade and pricing rather than fully centralized planning. Gold Chervonetz (1979) During the NEP period. however. This. by imposing price controls on essential industrial goods and breaking-up the trusts in order to increase economic efficiency. a U. badly damaged by civil war and capital depreciation. Now able to sell their surpluses on the open market. In addition. Due to growing political differences with Trotsky and his Left Opposition in the fall of 1923. As a result of the NEP. Stalin reacted furiously and the Orgburo was retained but Bukharin. The death of Lenin and the fate of the NEP As a result of Lenin's illness. thus contributing to mild shortages in the cities. peasant spending gave a boost to the manufacturing sectors in the urban areas. The slower recovery of industry would pose some problems for the peasantry. which was frowned upon by many Communist Party cadres. were far less productive. Simply put. The break-up of the quasi-feudal landed estates of the Tsarist-era countryside gave peasants their greatest incentives ever to maximize production. agricultural yields not only recovered to the levels attained before the Bolshevik Revolution. In the meantime the party took constructive steps to offset the crisis.S. . following his December 1922 stroke dictated a letter to the party criticising him and urging his removal as general secretary. Lenin. some peasants withheld agricultural surpluses in anticipation of higher prices. industrialist and prominent investor in Lenin's Soviet Union. Zinoviev and Kamenev emerged to take day to day leadership of the party and the country and try to block Trotsky from taking power. As an interesting aside. and with little or no state controls on their internal policies. As a result. had become increasingly anxious about Stalin and. the Soviet Union became the world's greatest producer of grain. Agriculture. who considered it to be exploitative of urban consumers. Since agriculture was relatively more productive. the organization of enterprises into trusts or syndicates representing one particular sector of the economy would contribute to imbalances between supply and demand associated with monopolies. relative price indexes for industrial goods were higher than those of agricultural products. peasants would have to produce more grain to purchase consumer goods from the urban areas. Zinoviev and Kamenev reunited. however. At the Twelfth Party Congress in 1923. of course. and the break-up of the landed estates while the Communist Party was strengthening power between 1917–1921. Trotsky failed to use Lenin's Testament as a tool against Stalin for fear of endangering the stability of the party. Deng pressed Hammer for as much information on the NEP as possible. trusts were likely to sell their products at higher prices. during the first meeting in the early 1980s between Deng Xiaoping and Armand Hammer. Zinoviev and Bukharin became concerned about Stalin's increasing power and proposed that the Orgburo which Stalin headed be abolished and that Zinoviev and Trotsky be added to the party secretariat thus diminishing Stalin's role as general secretary. is speculative market behavior. who accounted for 80% of the population.

Trotsky was also denounced for his theory of permanent revolution which contradicted Stalin's position that socialism could be built in one country. As the prospects for a revolution in Europe. Stalin now moved against Bukharin by appropriating Trotsky's criticisms of his right wing policies and he promoted a new general line favouring collectivization of the peasantry and rapid industrialization of industry forcing Bukharin and his supporters into a Right Opposition. Trotsky. Bukharin and his supporters argued that Stalin's new policies would cause a breach with the peasantry. In November. particularly Germany. Trotsky was dropped from the politburo entirely in 1926. With the resignation of Trotsky as War Commissar the unity of the troika began to unravel. Trotsky's theoretical position began to look increasingly pessimistic as far as the success of Russian socialism was concerned. The Fourteenth Congress also saw the first developments of the Stalin personality cult with Stalin being referred to as "leader" for the first time and becoming the subject of effusive praise from delegates. Voroshilov and Mikhail Kalinin. Stalin moved to form an alliance with Bukharin and his allies on the right of the party who supported the New Economic Policy and encouraged a slowdown in industrialisation efforts and a move towards encouraging the peasants to increase production via market incentives. By the time the Congress finally convened in December 1927 Zinoviev had capitulated to Stalin and denounced his previous adherence to the opposition as "anti-Leninist" and the few remaining members still loyal to the opposition were subjected to insults and humiliations.Early history of the Soviet Union Lenin died in January 1924 and in May his Testament was read aloud at the Central Committee but Zinoviev and Kamenev argued that Lenin's objections had proven groundless and that Stalin should remain General Secretary. Meanwhile the campaign against Trotsky intensified and he was removed from the position of People's Commissar of War before the end of the year. prior to the Fifteenth Party Congress Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party itself as Stalin sought to deny the Opposition any opportunity to make their struggle public. Zinoviev and Kamenev formed a United Opposition against the policies of Stalin and Bukharin but they had lost influence as a result of the inner party disputes and in October 1927 Trotsky. Bukharin also alluded to Lenin's Testament. Zinoviev and Kamenev criticized this policy as a return to capitalism. The Right Opposition was defeated and Bukharin attempted to form an alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev but it was too late. In 1925. While Bukharin had support from the party organization in Moscow and the leadership of several commissariats Stalin's control of the secretariat was decisive in that it allowed Stalin to manipulate elections to party posts throughout the country giving him control over a large section of the Central Committee. Zinoviev and Kamenev were expelled from the Central Committee. At the Central Committee meeting held in July 1928. Stalin now used Trotsky's previous criticisms of Zinoviev and Kamenev to defeat and demote them and bring in allies like Molotov. The conflict erupted at the Fourteenth Party Congress held in December 1925 with Zinoviev and Kamenev now protesting against the dictatorial policies of Stalin and trying to revive the issue of Lenin's Testament which they had previously buried. The Central Committee decided not to publish the testament. By early 1928 Trotsky and other leading members of the Left Opposition had been sentenced to internal exile. Russia. 132 . became increasingly dim through the 1920s. Trotsky was denounced for his essay Lessons of October which criticised Zinoviev and Kamenev for initially opposing Lenin's plans for an insurrection in 1917. without a worldwide revolution. Zinoviev and Kamenev again began to fear Stalin's power and felt that their positions were threatened.

hronos.Early history of the Soviet Union 133 References [1] (Russian) Voted Unanimously for the Union (http:/ / region. nov. along with their respective allies. and immense loss of life variously due to combat. the Stalin era • History of the Soviet Union (1953–1982). and massacres. It was known by many different names depending on the nation. ru/ sobyt/ cccp. Of the estimated 70 million deaths attributed to World War II. the United Kingdom and the United States both provided large amounts of financial and material aid to the Soviet Union during the later phases of the conflict. ended by its dissolution See also: Soviet historiography World War II: The Eastern Front The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis States and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union. was central to the Holocaust.[4] [5] [6] It resulted in the destruction of the Third Reich. over 30 million. wholesale destruction. The Soviet-Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. notably the Great Patriotic War (Russian: Великая Отечественная Война) in the former Soviet Union and Russia. and the majority of pogroms. as the site of nearly all extermination camps. the joint German-Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish-Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are also considered part of the Eastern Front. from destalinization to Era of Magnificent Funerals • History of the Soviet Union (1982–1991).[3] many of them civilians. and some other Allies which encompassed Northern. death marches. The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. eventually serving as the main reason for Germany's defeat. from the October Revolution to Stalin's consolidation of power • History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953). while known in Germany as the Eastern Front (German: die Ostfront[1] ). ru/ pressa. from the Era of Magnificent Funerals to the failed attempts to preserve the Soviet Union. disease. Poland. The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome of World War II.ru History of the Soviet Union History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union is covered in the following series of articles. died on the Eastern Front. mass deportations. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front. html) at Khronos. Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. ghettos. adm. the Eastern Campaign (German: der Ostfeldzug) or the Russian Campaign (German: der Rußlandfeldzug)[2] The battles on the Eastern Front constituted the largest military confrontation in history. nsf/ 0c7534916fcf6028c3256b3700243eac/ 4302e4941fb6a6bfc3256c99004faea5!OpenDocument) [2] (Russian) Creation of the USSR (http:/ / www. In addition. • History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1927). . The Eastern Front. starvation. km. They were characterised by unprecedented ferocity. the partition of Germany and the rise of the Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower.

and of the Aryan race against Slavic Untermenschen (subhumans). beat the West and then after their defeat turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. he announced. These regions were then divided between the Ukrainian and Moldavian Soviet republics. acquiring new territory for German settlement in Eastern Europe.[8] To hard-line Nazis in Berlin (like Himmler[9] ). following the decisive Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad and the resulting dire German military situation. In June 1940. In a plan called Generalplan Ost. I need the Ukraine so that they can't starve us out. League of Nations Commissioner by saying 'Everything I undertake is directed against the Russians. Ideologies German ideology Adolf Hitler had argued in his autobiography Mein Kampf for the necessity of Lebensraum. On October 3. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Non-Aggression Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that contained a secret protocol that aimed to return Eastern Europe to the pre-World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and Russia.[13] After Germany's initial success at the Battle of Kiev. partially enslaved and eventually exterminated. the war against the Soviet Union was a struggle of National Socialism against Communism. Germany expected another short Blitzkrieg and made no serious preparations for prolonged warfare. and Finland. to which the newly formed Soviet government was not invited. Adolf Hitler saw the Soviet Union as militarily weak and ripe for immediate conquest.[7] The pact allowed for the Soviet occupation of the north and northeastern regions of Romania (Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia). both Germany and the Soviet Union shared a mutual dislike for the outcome of the World War I. Subsequently when Germany in its turn surrendered to the Allies these territories were liberated under the terms of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. through threats of force and other diplomatic pressure. Estonia. According to Andrew Nagorski (2007. However. Estonia. If the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this. while Poland and Romania would be divided between them. while exterminating or deporting most of the inhabitants to Siberia and using the remainder as slave labour. calling it a "war of annihilation". among others to the "Central Powers"."[14] Thus. as happened in the last war. Latvia. This step was illegal under the international law and was not recognized by majority of Western states. the Nazis also sought to wipe out the large Jewish population of Eastern Europe[12] as part of the Nazi program aimed to exterminate all European Jews. the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union was to be partially deported to West Siberia.[11] In addition. the conquered territories were to be colonized by German or "Germanized" settlers.' The two powers invaded and partitioned Poland in 1939. as a result of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. then I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians. He envisaged settling Germans there as a master race. 1941. "We have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down.[10] Hitler referred to it in unique terms. The Soviet Union had lost substantial territory in Eastern Europe. the three Baltic states were occupied and illegally incorporated into the Soviet Union. The Greatest Battle) Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to hit the USSR on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt. where it gave into German demands and ceded control of Poland. Finland. . Latvia and Lithuania would return to Russian control. In November 1939 the Soviet Union invaded Finland in what became known as the Winter War – a bitter conflict that only resulted in partial victory for the Soviet Union. Lithuania.World War II: The Eastern Front 134 Background Despite their ideological antipathy. Hitler and Nazi propaganda proclaimed the war to be a German defence of Western civilization against destruction by the vast "Bolshevik hordes" that were pouring into Europe.

The conflict began on 22 June 1941 with the Operation Barbarossa Offensive. and the media of the Soviet Union portrayed the Germans as neutrals. while the Soviets supported the predominantly socialist and communist-led[19] Second Spanish Republic. sent by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco to keep his ties to the Axis intact. which had fought two conflicts with the Soviet Union. The Free French forces also contributed to the Red Army by formation of GC3 (Groupe de Chasse 3 or 3rd Fighter Group) unit to fulfill the commitment of Charles de Gaulle.[23] lead to signing a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany in late August. supporting Spanish Nationalists.[24] Signing of the Nazi-Soviet pact led to a sharp turn of Soviet propaganda. and Croatia. blaming Poland. who thought that it was important for French servicemen to serve on all fronts. In reality. The ideological tensions had transformed into the proxy war between Nazi Germany and the USSR.World War II: The Eastern Front 135 Soviet ideology The Soviet regime. 1939. a strategic operation executed by the Red Army. as well as in provision of early materiel and intelligence support. Nazi Germany. and later Crimean Tatars. In addition the Polish Armed Forces in the East. British and Commonwealth forces contributed directly to the fighting on the Eastern Front through their service in the convoys and training Red Air Force pilots. Germany and Fascist Italy interfered in the Spanish Civil War. also joined the Offensive.[16] [17] was a direct ideological antipode of the Communist Soviet Union. also known as the Battle of Berlin. planned the expansion of their ideology (Marxist-Leninism) and lent lip service to the advancement of world revolution. The anti-Soviet Finland.[21] [22] This.[18] when. Hungary. in 1936. when Germany's armed forces surrendered unconditionally following the Berlin Offensive. thereby invading the Soviet Union.[16] German Anschluss of Austria in 1938 and dismemberment of Czechoslovakia demonstrated impossibility to establish the collective security system in Europe. after the German attack the position of the Soviet government shifted completely to encourage the beating back of the Nazi hordes. The Wehrmacht forces were also assisted by anti-Communist partisans in places like Western Ukraine. . However. leader of the Free French. United Kingdom and France for the start of the war. were armed and trained. against the Soviet Union. notably those in Slovakia. The Nazis were not portrayed as sworn enemies any more. Italy. The states that provided forces and other resources for the German war effort included the Axis Powers — foremost Romania. led by Joseph Stalin.[20] a policy advocated by the Soviet ministry of foreign affairs Maxim Litvinov. The later massive materiel support of the Lend-Lease by the United States and Canada played a significant part particularly in the logistics of the war. pro-Nazi Slovakia. the Baltic states. who positioned itself as a consistently anti-Communist regime. Forces The war was fought between Nazi Germany. The Soviet Union offered support to the partisans in many Wehrmacht-occupied countries in Eastern Europe. particularly the First and Second Polish armies. and who formalised this position by signing the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan[15] and Italy. its allies and Finland. Among the most prominent volunteer army formations was the Spanish Blue Division. Stalin adhered to the Socialism in one country doctrine and used it to justify the massive industrialization of the USSR during the 1930s. when Axis forces crossed the borders described in the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. and would eventually fight alongside the Red Army. as well as inability of the Soviet leadership to sign a full scale anti-German political and military alliance with Britain and France. The war ended on 9 May 1945. Poland and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

that ordered (as demanded by Stalin): "do not answer to any provocations" and "do not undertake any (offensive) actions without specific orders" .[27] Germany had been assembling very large numbers of troops in eastern Poland and making repeated reconnaissance flights over the border. and the Balkans.) (1 May – 18 November 1942) 2. Soviet intelligence was fooled by German disinformation and sent false alarms to Moscow about a German invasion in April.) (1 July – 31 December 1943) 3. Some say Joseph Stalin was fearful of war with Germany or just did not expect Germany to start a two-front war. although Germany's own resources were sufficient for 1940 victories in the West. The German invasion therefore caught the Soviet military and civilian leadership largely by surprise. moreover. Second period of World War II (Russian: Второй период Великой Отечественной войны) (19 November 1942 – 31 December 1943) • Winter Campaign of 1942–43 (Russian: Зимняя кампания 1942–1943 гг.[29] Like in the Sino-Soviet conflict on Chinese Eastern Railway or Soviet-Japanese border conflicts Soviet troops on western border received a directive. Another viewpoint is that Stalin expected war in 1942 (the time when all his preparations would be complete) and stubbornly refused to believe its early arrival. First period of World War II (Russian: Первый период Великой Отечественной войны) (22 June 1941 – 18 November 1942) • Summer-Autumn Campaign (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1941 г.) (22 June – 4 December 1941) • Winter Campaign of 1941–42 (Russian: Зимняя кампания 1941/42 г. Norway.) (5 December 1941 – 30 April 1942) • Summer-Autumn Campaign (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1942 г. Third period of World War II (Russian: Третий период Великой Отечественной войны) (1 January 1944 – 9 May 1945) . Others say that Stalin was eager for Germany to be at war with other capitalist countries. massive Soviet shipments obtained during a short period of Nazi-Soviet economic collaboration were critical for Germany to launch Operation Barbarossa. France. and the Soviet Union responded by assembling its divisions on the western border. Despite the popular myth there was no warning "Germany will attack on 22 June without declaration of war". Hitler had always intended to renege on his pact with the Soviet Union.[26] According to Edward Ericson.World War II: The Eastern Front 136 Decision for war For nearly two years the border was quiet while Germany conquered Denmark. eventually making the decision to invade in the spring of 1941.) (19 November 1942 – 3 March 1943) • Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943 (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1943 г. signed by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and General of the Army Georgy Zhukov.which meant that Soviet troops could open fire only on their soil and forbade counter-attack on German soil.[25] British historians Alan S. For Soviet preparations. The Low Countries. Milward and M. which are further subdivided into the major Campaigns of the Theatre of war: 1. and was reluctant to do anything to provoke Hitler. see Operation Barbarossa: Soviet preparations. all Soviet and Russian historians divide the war against Germany and its allies into three periods. Hitler believed that the Soviets would quickly capitulate after an overwhelming German offensive and that the war could largely end before the onset of the fierce Russian winter. Conduct of operations While German historians do not apply any specific periodisation to the conduct of operations on the Eastern Front. May and the beginning of June. Medlicott show that Nazi Germany—unlike Imperial Germany—was prepared for only a short-term war (Blitzkrieg). Soviet intelligence reported that Germany would rather invade the USSR after the fall of the British Empire[28] or after an unacceptable ultimatum demanding German occupation of Ukraine during the German invasion of Britain. although Soviet assembling was slower than the German due to its less dense road network.

to cover the northern flank for Army Group South advancing into Ukraine. liberating almost the whole of Lithuania. northern Latvia and southern Estonia prior to the arrival of the German forces. nine Romanian and four Hungarian brigades. Western and Operation Barbarossa: the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In Lithuania. following the Blitzkrieg doctrine. but Hitler overruled them. 4th. citing the importance of Ukrainian agricultural and mining resources. The next objective was to cross the Dnieper river. and the Russian Pskov and Novgorod regions. 21 June 1941 to 5 Southwestern Fronts respectively.[36] .[35] is believed to have had a severe impact on the Battle of Moscow's outcome.) (1 June – 31 December 1944) • Campaign in Europe during 1945 (Russian: Кампания в Европе 1945 г. 650 km (400 miles) from their start lines. followed by the 2nd.[33] [34] Army Group Centre's two panzer groups (2nd and 3rd) advanced to the north and south of Brest-Litovsk and converged east of Minsk.[32] Army Group North's objective was Leningrad via the Baltic States. Latvia and Estonia. they were supported by the local insurgents. They were accompanied by ten Romanian divisions. Latvia.[35] This decision caused a severe leadership crisis. and heavy industry if under German possession. The combined panzer force reached the Beresina River in just six days.) (1 January – 9 May 1945) 137 Operation Barbarossa: Summer 1941 Operation Barbarossa began just before dawn on 22 June 1941. Following that. and the Guderian's Panzer Group 2 was to move south.) (1 January – 31 May 1944) • Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1944 (Russian: Летне-осенняя кампания 1944 г. but the fierce Soviet resistance in the Smolensk area and retardation of Wehrmacht advance in North and South forced Hitler to halt a center thrust at Moscow and to divert Panzer Group 3 north. this formation advanced through Lithuania. Hitler's "summer pause". The Germans wrecked the wire network in all Soviet western military districts to undermine Soviet communications. and 9th armies. destroying much of the forward-deployed Soviet Air Force airfield fleets consisting of largely obsolescent types before their pilots had a chance to leave the ground.World War II: The Eastern Front • Winter-Spring Campaign (Russian: Зимне-весенняя кампания 1944 г. Comprising the 16th and 18th armies and the 4th Panzer Group. not to mention the massing of Soviet reserves in the Gomel area between Army Group Centre's southern flank and the bogged-down Army Group South's northern flank. which was accomplished by 11 July. whereas the Army Group Centre's infantry divisions were to continue their slow advance to Moscow.[30] For a December 1941:   to 9 July 1941  to 1 September 1941  to 9 September 1941  to 5 December 1941 month the offensive conducted on three axes was completely unstoppable as the panzer forces encircled hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in huge pockets that were then reduced by slower-moving infantry armies while the panzers continued the offensive. German generals argued for an immediate offensive towards Moscow. As part of this high tempo campaign the German air force began immediate attacks on Soviet airfields. which fell on 16 July.[30] At 03:15 on 22 June 1941 ninety-nine (including fourteen panzer divisions and ten motorized) of 190 German divisions deployed against the Soviet Union began the offensive from the Baltic to the Black seas. Estonia. their next target was Smolensk. Western and Kiev Special military districts were renamed to Northwestern. This decision.[31] On the same day the Baltic.

the first significant German withdrawal of the war. the 11th Army. the gateway to the Caucasus. To carry out that order.[35] As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers. and took heavy casualties in a major tank battle. When it joined up with the southern elements of Army Group South at Uman. with 1st Panzer Group. The destruction battalions started burning down villages.World War II: The Eastern Front Army Group South. Advancing armored divisions of the Army Group South met with the Guderian's Panzer Group 2 near Lokhvytsa in mid September. having authority to summarily execute any suspicious person. away from the front line. On 21 November. failed to take Tula. it was decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better. the Germans took Rostov.000 Soviet prisoners in a huge encirclement. Field Marshal Fedor von Bock. which was set in motion on 30 September. while the 2nd Panzer Army. and Stalino. . saw 2nd Panzer Army rush along the paved road from Orel (captured 5 October) to the Oka river at Plavskoye. forcing them to pull out of the city and behind the Mius River. Most civilians were left to make their own way East as only the industry-related workers could be evacuated with the equipment. advancing into the Dnieper bend (western Dnipropetrovsk Oblast). After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the Army General Staff. and much of the population was left behind to the mercy of the invading forces. The 1st Panzer Group turned away from Kiev for the moment. was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine. Joseph Stalin ordered the Red Army to initiate a scorched earth policy to deny Germans and their allies basic supplies as they moved eastward. the Group captured about 100. As withdrawing. Kursk. General Soviet gun crew in action at Odessa in 1941 Franz Halder.[37] As a part of this policy.000 Soviet prisoners were captured as Kiev was surrendered on 19 September. was rather slow. aided by two Romanian armies. while the 4th Panzer Army (transferred from Army Group North to Centre) and 3rd Panzer armies surrounded the Soviet forces in two huge pockets at Vyazma and Bryansk. NKVD started committing prisoner massacres where thousands of anti-Soviet prisoners were executed. 6th. This began the 900-day Siege of Leningrad. the last Soviet city that stood in its way of the capital. also advancing through Kharkov. however. which held out until 3 July 1942).[35] 400. as argued by head of Army Group Center. schools and public buildings. the Soviet Stavka turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could. cutting off large number of Red Army troops in the pocket east of Kiev. However. On 27 November the 4th Panzer Army got within 30 km (19 miles) of the Kremlin when it reached the last tramstop of the Moscow line at Khimki. the destruction battalions were formed in front line area. Army Group South pushed down from the Dnieper to the Sea of Azov coast. for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength. despite its best efforts. One last lunge on 15 November saw the Germans attempting to throw a ring around Moscow. 11th and 17th armies. and the heads of three Army groups and armies. the German lines were over-extended and the Soviet defenders counterattacked the 1st Panzer Army's spearhead from the north. fought its way through Bessarabia towards Odessa. dismantled and packed onto flatcars. where they settled down. Army Group North positioned itself in front of Leningrad and attempted to cut the rail link at Mga to the east. Operation Typhoon. The 11th Army moved into the Crimea and had taken control of all of the peninsula by autumn (except Sevastopol. a German-Finnish force set out for Murmansk but could get no further than the Zapadnaya Litsa River. re-designating the panzer groups as panzer armies for the occasion. North of the Arctic Circle.[38] 138 Moscow and Rostov: Autumn 1941 Hitler then decided to resume the advance to Moscow. Central Asia and south-eastern Siberia. Caucasus. re-establishing it in more remote areas of the Urals. Their progress. With the corridor towards Kiev secured by mid-July.

The intent was to pin Army Group South against the Sea of Azov. employing freshly mobilized reserves. Stalin had been transferring fresh and well-equipped Soviet forces from Siberia and the Far East to Moscow. the Second Shock Army was unleashed on the Volkhov River. Velizh. the Soviets surrounded a German garrison in Demyansk. Further north still. Marshal Shaposhnikov thus began his counter-attack. . supported by new T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers. which held out with air supply for four months. Lieutenant General Andrey Vlasov later became known for defecting to the Germans and forming the ROA or Russian Liberation Army. initially this made some progress. and Velikie Luki. focusing on the junction between The Soviet winter counter-offensive. 5 December 1941 to 7 May 1942:  Soviet Army groups North and Centre between gains  German gains Lake Seliger and Rzhev. The new Soviet troops were prepared for winter warfare. however it was unsupported and by June a German counterattack cut off and destroyed the army. it was intended that the two offensives converge on Smolensk. these reinforcements attacked the German lines around Moscow. 139 Soviet counter-offensive: Winter 1941 During the autumn.[39] as well as some well-trained Far-Eastern divisions transferred from the east following the guarantee of neutrality from Japan. The exhausted and freezing Germans were driven away from Moscow on 7 January 1942. To the north. but as the winter eased the Germans were able to counter-attack and cut off the over-extended Soviet troops in the Second Battle of Kharkov.World War II: The Eastern Front However. On 5 December 1941. A further Soviet attack was mounted in late January. by 6 December it became clear that the Wehrmacht was too weak to capture Moscow and the attack was put on hold. and established themselves in front of Kholm. and those paratroopers who survived had to escape to the partisan-held areas beginning to swell behind German lines. and they included several ski battalions. but the Germans rallied and managed to hold them apart. and drove a gap between the two German army groups. retaining a salient at Rzhev. In concert with the advance from Kaluga to the south-west of Moscow. A Soviet parachute drop on German-held Dorogobuzh was spectacularly unsuccessful. In the south the Red Army crashed over the Donets River at Izyum and drove a 100-km (60-mile) deep salient. The Soviet commander.

Meanwhile. on 28 June 1942. 6th Army was driving towards Stalingrad. for a long period unsupported by 4th Panzer Army. The offensive into Russia was over. the 13th Panzer Division's spearhead was snipped off and the panzer troops had to fall back. Soviet resistance (comprising the 62nd Army under Vasily Chuikov) had stiffened. Instead they switched the direction of their advance to approach it from the south. crossing the Malka at the end of October and entering North Ossetia. the offensive re-opened in a different direction. Mindful of the continuing antagonism between Axis allies Romania and Hungary over Transylvania. As part of this. They took up position on either side of Stalingrad to free German troops for the proper fighting. A leap across the Don brought German troops to the Volga on 23 August but for the next three months the Wehrmacht would be fighting the Battle of Stalingrad street-by-street. The advance into the Caucasus bogged down. . on the outskirts of Ordzhonikidze. which had been diverted to help 1st Panzer Army cross the Don. At the end of August Romanian mountain troops joined the Caucasian spearhead. and Caucasus: Summer 1942 Although plans were made to attack Moscow again. Towards the south 1st Panzer Army had reached the Caucasian foothills and the Malka River. Operation Blue: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942:   to 7 Operation Shamil was executed. Thus all of Hitler's allies were involved — including a Slovakian contingent with 1st Panzer Army and a Croatian regiment attached to 6th Army. Rostov was recaptured on 24 July when 1st Panzer Army joined in.World War II: The Eastern Front 140 Don. a plan July 1942  to 22 July 1942  to 1 August 1942  to 18 November 1942 whereby a group of Brandenburger commandos dressed up as Soviet NKVD troops to destabilise Maikop's defenses and allow the 1st Panzer Army to enter the oil town with little opposition. Army Group South took the initiative. In the first week of November. anchoring the front with the Battle of Voronezh and then following the Don river southeastwards. Volga. The grand plan was to secure the Don and Volga first and then drive into the Caucasus towards the oilfields. the Romanian army in the Don bend was separated from the Hungarian 2nd army by the Italian 8th Army. September 1942. but operational considerations and Hitler's vanity made him order both objectives to be attempted simultaneously. By the time 4th Panzer Army had rejoined the Stalingrad offensive. while the Romanian 3rd and 4th armies were redeployed from their successful task of clearing the Azov littoral. and then that group drove south towards Maikop. with the Germans unable to fight their way past Malgobek and to the main prize of Grozny. German infantry and a supporting StuG III assault gun during the advance towards the city of Stalingrad.

Operation SaturnSaturn and Operation MarsMars: Soviet advances on the Eastern Front. In order to save the position in the south. with German tactical flair winning the day. This had left a glaring bulge in the front centered on Kursk. but the offensive could not get going until 12 December. The fairly limited scope of the Soviet offensive.[41] On 31 January 1943. Soviet armies had congregated on either side of the city. By that time the Hungarian 2nd Army had also been wiped out. trapping 300. two Soviet fronts punched through the Romanian lines and converged at Kalach on 23 November. with three transferred panzer divisions. .000-man 6th Army surrendered. specifically into the Don bridgeheads that the Romanians did not reduce. freeing enough troops to make a successful riposte in eastern Ukraine. Manstein's counteroffensive. What it did accomplish was to destroy many of the aircraft that had been transporting relief supplies to Stalingrad. 18 November 1942 to March 1943:   to 12 December 1942  to 18 February 1943  to March 1943 (Soviet gains only) The Germans rushed to transfer troops to Russia for a desperate attempt to relieve Stalingrad.World War II: The Eastern Front 141 Stalingrad: Winter 1942 While the German 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army had been fighting their way into Stalingrad. February 1943 Stalingrad. opened on 20 February 1943. marching through Kursk (retaken on 8 February 1943) and Kharkov (retaken 16 February 1943). also allowed Hitler time to see sense and pull Army Group A out of the Caucasus and back over the Don. but was a failure. got going briskly from Kotelnikovo towards the Aksai river but became bogged down 65 km (40 miles) short of its goal. that operation starting on 16 December. and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March.000 survivors of the 300.[40] A simultaneous offensive on the Rzhev sector known as Operation Mars was supposed to advance to Smolensk. Operations Operation UranusUranus. Operation Winter Storm. upon which the spring thaw intervened. strengthened by a specially trained SS panzer corps equipped with Tiger tanks. The Soviets advanced from the Don 500 km (300 miles) to the west of Soldiers of the 1st SS Panzer Division near Kharkov. To divert the rescue attempt the Soviets decided to smash the Italians and come down behind the relief attempt if they could. the Germans decided to abandon the Rzhev salient in February. although still eventually targeted on Rostov. and it was from these that they struck on 19 November 1942. by which time the 6th Army in Stalingrad was starving and too weak to break out towards it.000 Axis troops behind them. the 90. In Operation Uranus.

But its forces could not even get past the first objective at Olkhovatka. with three Tank Corps made more headway. Hitler agreed to the attack on Kursk. The direction of advance was then switched to Ponyri. just maybe the Soviets would ease off and 19 February 1943 to 1 August 1943:   to 18 March 1943  to 1 August 1943 attention could then be turned to the Allied threat to the Western Front. frustratingly so considering that the high ground there was the only natural barrier between them and flat tank country all the way to Kursk.Panzer-Armee. if one last great blitzkrieg offensive could be mounted. When the Germans began the operation. the SS Panzer Corps and the Großdeutschland Panzergrenadier divisions battled their way through minefields and over comparatively high ground towards Oboyan. but the 9th Army could not break through here sector of the Battle of Kursk. Advancing on either side of the upper Donets on a narrow corridor. The southern offensive. The Soviets soaked up the German punishment and then struck back. barbed wire. pillboxes. In the north. right behind them and behind Orel. tank traps. Col. Although the Germans knew that the Red Army's reserves of manpower had been bled dry in the summer of 1941 and 1942. simply by drafting the men from the regions taken back. by which time the Soviets had reinforced the Kursk salient with more anti-tank firepower than has ever been assembled in one place before or since. the entire German Ninth Army had been redeployed from the Rzhev salient into the Orel salient and was to advance from Maloarkhangelsk to Kursk. but the tanks got . artillery and mortars. led by Gen. spearheaded by 4. and by that means restore the lines of Army Group South to the exact points that it held over the winter of 1941–1942. just 8 km (5 miles) into the advance. it was after months of delays waiting for new tanks and equipment.World War II: The Eastern Front 142 Kursk: Summer 1943 After the failure of the attempt to capture Stalingrad. this time as Inspector of Panzer Troops. However. either and went over to the defensive. On 12 July the Red Army battled through the demarcation line between the 211th and 293rd divisions on the Zhizdra River and steamed towards Karachev. He knew that in the intervening six months the Soviet position at Kursk had been reinforced heavily with anti-tank guns. Hoth. The 9th Army blunted its spearhead against the Soviet minefields. Under pressure from his generals. landmines. Debate among the General Staff was polarised. to the Tiger I tanks spearhead the assault in the northern west of Olkhovatka. Both wings would converge on the area east of Kursk. with even Hitler nervous about any attempt to pinch off the Kursk salient. Stiff resistance caused a change of direction from east to west of the front. the Soviets were still re-equipping. Hitler had deferred planning authority for the upcoming campaign season to the German Army High Command and reinstated Guderian to a prominent role. The advance would be executed from the Orel salient to the north of Kursk and from Belgorod to the south. little realising that the Abwehr's intelligence on the Soviet position there had been undermined by a concerted Stavka misinformation and counter-intelligence campaign mounted by the Lucy spy ring in Switzerland. German advances at Third Battle of KharkovKharkov and Battle of KurskKursk. trenches.

and a strategic decision was made to abandon Orel (retaken by the Red Army on 5 August 1943) and fall back to the Hagen line in front of Bryansk. the German advance was halted. To the south. A detailed analysis of this campaign is available in the Battle of Kursk article. and by the time Army Group South had evacuated eastern Ukraine and begun withdrawing across the Dnieper during . The German forces on the Mius. and when the Soviets hit them they had to fall back all the way through the Donbass industrial region to "Katyusha" – a notable Soviet rocket launcher the Dnieper. Under the impression of the successful counter-attack operations in the south the Red Army started the strong offensive operation in the northern Orel salient and achieved a breakthrough on the flank of the German 9th Army. with about one thousand tanks doing battle. albeit at heavy cost. Battle was joined on 12 July. Although the 5th Guards Tank Army did not attain their terrain objectives. Following the defeat. and Kharkov had to be evacuated for the final time on 22 August. The Germans' final strategic offensive in the Soviet Union ended with their defense against a major Soviet counteroffensive that lasted into August. were by August too weak to repulse a Soviet attack on their own front. but regardless of the standstill in the north Manstein intended to continue the attack with the 4th Panzer Army. The main problem for the Germans was that these defences had not yet been built. now comprising the 1st Panzer Army and a reconstituted 6th Army. 143 Autumn and Winter 1943–44 The Soviet juggernaut got rolling in earnest with the advance into the Germans' Orel salient. and German strategic advance Operation Citadel had been halted. The Soviet 5th Guards Tank Army.000 troopers and 1. the battle near Prochorovka was idealized by the Soviet historians as the biggest tank battle of all time. Also worried by the Allies' landing in Sicily on 10 July. attacked elements of the II SS Panzer Corps. The Battle of Kursk cost Hitler over 500. forever dispelling the last hope of the German Army for victory or even stalemate in the East. with about 800 light and medium tanks. losing the industrial resources and half the farmland that Germany had invaded the Soviet Union to exploit.World War II: The Eastern Front 25 km (15 miles) before encountering the reserves of the Soviet 5th Guards Tank Army outside Prokhorovka. they were soon outflanked on another line to the west as the Soviets advanced down the Psel. Tank losses on both sides have been the source of controversy ever since. and the quality of German strategic decision fell correspondingly.000 tanks. The Kursk offensive was the last on the scale of 1940 and 1941 the Wehrmacht was able to launch. After the war. a line of defence similar to the Westwall of fortifications along the German frontier in the west. At the end of the day both sides had fought each other to a standstill. The meeting engagement at Prochorovka was a Soviet defensive success. Hitler made the decision to halve the offensive even as the German 9th Army was rapidly giving ground in the north. along which was meant to be the Ostwall. the Soviets blasted through Army Group South's Belgorod positions and headed for Kharkov once again. The diversion of the well-equipped Grossdeutschland Division from Belgorod to Karachev could not stop it. But the Soviets could absorb the attack. Hitler would not trust his generals to the same extent again. and subsequent offensives would represent only a shadow of previous German offensive might. At this time Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line. Though intense battles of movement throughout late July and into August 1943 saw the Tigers blunting Soviet tanks on one axis.

Having already isolated the Crimea by severing the Perekop isthmus. As September ended and October started. on 25 September cost the Wehrmacht the keystone of the entire German defensive system. early in November the Soviets broke out of their bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and captured the Ukrainian capital. and important Dnieper towns started to fall. Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line. the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew. losing half their number and all their equipment. After two weeks' hard fighting. To the south. mounted at Kanev on 24 September. One final move in the south completed the 1943–44 campaigning season. the 1st Panzer managed to escape the pocket. Manstein included. Eighty miles west of Kiev. even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat. At this point. was able to mount a successful riposte at Zhytomyr during the middle of November. but the loss of Bryansk. followed by 4th Ukrainian Front's campaign to restore control over the Crimea. fought their way across the river to safety. however. among whom were the SS Division Wiking. was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev. Tenaciously. Under shellfire and pursued by Soviet tanks. with panzers separated from the contracting Cherkassy pocket only by the swollen Gniloy Tikich river. but on 3 March the Soviet Ukrainian Front went over to the offensive. Finally. and the paratroopers were soon repelled — but not until still more Red Army troops had used the cover they provided to get themselves over the Dnieper and securely dug in. with Zaporozhye the first to go. the Soviets were hard behind them. In the second week of January 1944 they swung north. west of Cherkasy. small units paddled their way across the 3-km (2-mile) wide river and established bridgeheads.World War II: The Eastern Front September. followed by Dnepropetrovsk. In March. at that time the third largest city in the Soviet Union. Malinovsky's forces advanced across the mud to the Romanian border. and more importantly Smolensk. By 16 February the first stage was complete. ceding comparatively little territory. proved as luckless as at Dorogobuzh eighteen months previously. the surrounded German troops. the Red Army took back Odessa. not stopping on the river Prut. In April. still convinced that the Red Army was a spent force. The 4th and 9th armies and 3rd Panzer Army still . Second Ukrainian Front (ex Steppe Front) had crossed the Dnieper at Kremenchug and continued westwards. Hitler sacked several prominent generals. They assumed the Soviets would not attack again. which had wrapped up an advance of over 500 miles. meeting Vatutin's tank forces which had swung south from their penetration into Poland and surrounding ten German divisions at Korsun-Shevenkovsky. but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to break out. 20 German divisions of Generaloberst Hans-Valentin Hube's 1st Panzer Army were encircled in what was to be known as Hube's Pocket near Kamenets-Podolskiy. weakening the Soviet bridgehead by a daring outflanking strike mounted by the SS Panzer Corps along the river Teterev. August 1943 saw this force pushed back from the Hagen line slowly. This battle also enabled Army Group South to recapture Korosten and gain some time to rest. suffering only light to moderate casualties. with the spring approaching. The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the 1939 Polish-Soviet border was reached on 3 January 1944. which culminated in the capture of Sevastopol on 10 May. 144 Soviet advances from 1 August 1943 to 31 December 1944:   to 1 December 1943  to 30 April 1944  to 19 August 1944  to 31 December 1944 Along Army Group Centre's front. the 4th Panzer Army. on Christmas Eve the retreat began anew when the First Ukrainian Front (renamed from Voronezh Front) struck them in the same place. A second attempt by the Soviets to gain land using parachutists.

was a massive Soviet attack. the Soviet Leningrad Front failed to break through the defence of the smaller.000 Germans. the VT-line. The Soviet attack was supported by a heavy artillery barrage.World War II: The Eastern Front held their own east of the upper Dnieper. The Baltic Sea seemed to Stalin the quickest way to take the battles to the German ground in East Prussia and seize control of Finland. In Moscow on 12 September. wounded and sick. In the operation.000 tanks and 57. The VT-line was breached . More than 2. whose front still protruded deep into the Soviet Union.000 dead and missing (765. The Soviet advance in the south continued into Romania and. The capital of Belarus. trapping 50. as well as 2. The Romanian surrender tore a hole in the southern German Eastern Front causing the inevitable loss of the whole of the Balkans.3 million Soviet troopers went into action against the German Army Group Centre. In a lightning campaign.000 dead. it had cost the Germans ~670. 100. By February the Red Army had reached the borders of Estonia after a 75-mile advance. the Soviets launched a massive attack against the Finnish lines on June 9. the Germans were pushed back from Leningrad and Novgorod was captured by Soviet forces. 1944.[45] as well as 2. air bombardments and armoured forces. among them several experienced guards rifle formations. By the end of August 1944. not Army Group North Ukraine as the Germans had originally expected. They focused their massive attacks on Army Group Centre. stifling Soviet attempts to reach Vitebsk. At the points of attack. from whom 160.000 other vehicles. a main Baltic port. well-fortified army detachment "Narwa" in terrain not suitable for large scale operations. The Belorussian Offensive (codenamed Operation Bagration). where the front was fifty miles from Lvov and offered the most direct route to Berlin. Accordingly they stripped troops from Army Group Centre.000 Soviet troopers.000 of them as dead. was taken on 3 July. consisting of four Soviet army groups totaling over 120 divisions that smashed into a thinly-held German line. The attack breached the Finnish front line of defence Hjalmar Mäe welcomes soldiers of the 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian).[43] [44] 145 Summer 1944 Wehrmacht planners were convinced that the Soviets would attack again in the south. The rapid progress of Operation Bagration threatened to cut off and isolate the German units of Army Group North bitterly resisting the Soviet advance towards Tallinn. following a coup against the Axis-allied government of Romania on 23 August. which boasted a strength of fewer than 800. there was barely any fighting at all until January 1944. Romania and the Soviet Union signed an armistice on terms Moscow virtually dictated.[48] [49] On the Karelian Isthmus. The German army group "Narwa" included Estonian conscripts defending the re-establishment of Estonian independence. the Red Army lost ~170. were stopped in February 1944. The offensive at Estonia claimed another 480. missing. Ten days later the Red Army reached the prewar Polish border. Minsk. The Germans crumbled.[42] The Leningrad Front's offensives towards Tallinn. including wounded and sick plus 5073 Poles).000 were captured. rapidly routing the German forces in Western Ukraine.[46] [47] The neighbouring Lvov-Sandomierz operation was launched on 17 July 1944. 1944 in Valkeasaari on June 10 and the Finnish forces retreated to their secondary defence line. In a ferocious attack at the Sinimäed Hills. (coordinated with the Allied Invasion of Normandy). Estonia. the Red Army occupied Bucharest on 31 August. The Germans had transferred some units to France to counter the invasion of Normandy two weeks before.815 totally. On Army Group North's front. Bagration was by any measure one of the largest single operations of the war. Three armies were pitted there against the Finns. when out of nowhere Volkhov and Second Baltic Fronts struck.957 tanks and assault guns. the numerical and quality advantages of the Soviets were overwhelming: the Red Army achieved a ratio of ten to one in tanks and seven to one in aircraft over the enemy. which began on 22 June 1944.000 men.

Slovaks and Czechs. Army Group North became Army Group Courland.267 tanks and assault guns. and the Soviets drove on to Pomerania and cleared the right bank of the Oder River. the German Army Group North were withdrawn to fight in the sieges of Saaremaa. In Poland. On 25 January 1945. Vienna Offensive (March–April) The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw in January 1945. East Prussian Offensive (January–April). In the south. six to one in May 1945 tanks and four to one in self-propelled artillery. Poznań. the Finnish defence had to be pulled back to the VKT-line. the Polish Home Army (AK) launched Operation Tempest. Under the pressure of the Soviet Baltic Offensive. plus several thousand Germans. A limited counter-attack (codenamed Operation Solstice) by the newly created Army Group Vistula. three German attempts to relieve the encircled Budapest . on a broad front incorporating four army fronts. wounded. East Prussia. January–March 1945 Main articles: Vistula-Oder Offensive (January–February) with the follow-up East Pomeranian Offensive and Silesian Offensives (February–April). the Soviets won the battle and entered Slovakia. Danzig. the Slovak National Uprising started as an armed struggle between German Wehrmacht forces and rebel Slovak troops in August to October 1944. Army Group Centre became Army Group North and Army Group A became Army Group Centre. Army Group North (old Army Group Centre) was driven into an ever smaller pocket around Königsberg in East Prussia. six to one in artillery. Two months later.000 total casualties (killed. During the full course of the Vistula-Oder operation (23 days). as the Red Army approached.000 Red Army soldiers lay dead. During the Warsaw Uprising. Over three days.World War II: The Eastern Front on June 14 and after a failed counterattack in Kuuterselkä by the Finnish armoured division. An attempt by the communist controlled 1st Polish Army to relieve the city was unsupported by the Red Army and was thrown back in September with heavy losses. Finnish troops finally managed to halt the Soviet attack. and drawing up on a line sixty kilometres east of Berlin along the River Oder. The Soviets outnumbered the Germans on average by five~six to one in Soviet advances from 1 January 1945 to 7 May 1945:   to 30 March 1945  to 11 troops. the Soviet Army halted at the Vistula River. After four days the Red Army broke out and started moving thirty to forty kilometres a day. It was centered at Banská Bystrica. 146 Autumn 1944 On 8 September 1944 the Red Army began an attack on the Dukla Pass on the Slovak-Polish border. under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Courland and Memel. after it was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans. the Red Army forces sustained 194. The toll was high: 20. Hitler renamed three army groups. had failed by 24 February. the Red Army began an offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw. taking the Baltic states. In Slovakia. After heavy fighting in the battles of Tali-Ihantala and Ilomantsi. unable or unwilling to come to the aid of the Polish resistance. and missing) and lost 1.

3.000 killed. although the shattered remnants of Army Group North continued to resist on the Heiligenbeil and Danzig beachheads until the end of the war in Europe. While this redeployment was in progress gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German 2nd Army. (nicknamed "Stalin Organs").788 casualties. General Georgy Zhukov concentrated his 1st Belorussian Front (1BF). The 2BF moved into the positions being vacated by the 1BF north of the Seelow Heights. though often overshadowed by the Vistula-Oder operation and the later battle for Berlin. 334. on the Eastern Front during January and February 1945. OKW claim German losses of 77.[52] 14. including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb program.000 Soviet and Soviet influence nations personnel were awarded the Medal for Victory over Germany from 9th May 1945. . Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets. 41. to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. it cost the Red Army 584. managed to escape across the Oder. into an area in front of the Seelow Heights. The Soviet offensive had two objectives.[51] 147 End of War: April–May 1945 Main articles: Battle of Berlin.000 missing. and 3. During the period it lasted (13 January – 25 April).255 truck-mounted Katyushas rockets.[51] The three Soviet fronts had altogether 2. To the south General Ivan Konev shifted the main weight of the 1st Ukrainian Front (1UF) out of Upper Silesia north-west to the Neisse River. During the first two weeks of April. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone of occupation. Prague Offensive All that was left for the Soviets to do was to launch an offensive to capture central Germany (which would eventually become East Germany after the war).500 aircraft. the Soviets performed their fastest front redeployment of the war. was in fact one of the largest and costliest operations fought by the Red army through the war. 7.[50] On 9 April 1945. with a total of 603. Königsberg finally fell to the Red Army.383 motor vehicles. many of which were manufactured in the USA. On 30 March they entered Austria and captured Vienna on 13 April.600 artillery pieces and mortars. and 95.556 soldiers of the 1st Polish Army). The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken. 6. By early April.5 million men (including 78. the Stavka freed up General Konstantin Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front (2BF) to move west to the east bank of the Oder. By 16 March the attack had failed and the Red Army counterattacked the same day.525 tanks and assault guns. which had been deployed along the Oder river from Frankfurt in the south to the Baltic. The East Prussian operation. Battle of Halbe.World War II: The Eastern Front failed and the city fell on 13 February to the Soviets. Again the Germans counter-attacked. the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west. which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin.000 men. Hitler insisting on the impossible task of regaining the Danube River.250 tanks.933. 000 wounded and 292.

[58] A small German garrison on the island of Bornholm (Denmark) refused to surrender until after being bombed and invaded by the Soviets. delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years. southern Sakhalin.[53] [54] On 30 April. Soviet Far East: August 1945 The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August 1945. While not a part of the Eastern Front operations. at the SHAEF headquarters. the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea. The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on 24 June. In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation. missing. came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there. On 25 April the 2BF broke through the German 3rd Panzer Army's line south of Stettin. elements of the 1BF and 1UF had completed the encirclement of Berlin A flag of Soviet 150th Rifle Division raised over the Reichstag (the Victory Banner).[57] In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be 9 May. it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army. with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang. the Berlin operation (16 April – 8 May) cost the Red Army 361.[59] . defence commandant of Berlin. This date is celebrated as a national holiday – Victory Day – in Russia (as part of a two-day May 8–9 holiday) and some other post-Soviet countries. Helmuth Weidling. The next day shortly before midnight. It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European time on 8 May 1945. Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel repeated the signing in Berlin at Zhukov's headquarters. when the surrender took effect Moscow time. it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe. as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin. German Chief-of-Staff General Alfred Jodl signed the unconditional surrender documents for all German forces to the Allies. The 58th Guards Rifle Division of the 5th Guards Army made contact with the US 69th Infantry Division of the First Army near Torgau. The war in Europe was over. and the Battle of Berlin entered its final stages. After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across central Germany. German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability. at the Yalta Conference.[55] Altogether. surrendered the city to the Soviets on 2 May. The island was returned to the Danish government four months later. By 24 April. Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself.997 tanks and assault guns. wounded and sick) and 1. They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund. German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.367 casualties (dead. It marked the initial and only military action of the Soviet Union against the Empire of Japan. and the Kuril Islands. Germany at the Elbe river.[56] At 02:41 on the morning of 7 May 1945.World War II: The Eastern Front 148 The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers.

The combined damage consisted of complete or partial destruction of 1."[60] The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries.710 cities and towns. the property damage in the Soviet Union inflicted by the Axis invasion was estimated to a value of 679 billion rubles. and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life as well as a tremendous material damage. 84. 70. Both sides practiced widespread scorched earth tactics. When the Red Army invaded Germany in 1944.[3] It involved more land combat than all other World War II theatres combined. Seven million horses. the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union. were responsible for a rabies epidemic which spread slowly westwards. following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies. Behind the front lines.[61] Wild fauna were also affected. the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion. The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality. atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine.2 million citizens dead during the Siege of Leningrad. Aside from the ideological conflict. in which at least 20 million civilians were killed. which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed ideologies. duration.000 public libraries. but the loss of civilian lives in the case of Germany was incomparably smaller than that of the Soviet Union. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone. massacring villages and routinely killing civilian hostages. presented by Lieutenant General Roman Rudenko at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. After the war. 31. and 17 million sheep and goats were also slaughtered or driven off. with over 30 million killed as a result.World War II: The Eastern Front 149 Results The Eastern Front was the largest and bloodiest theatre of World War II. This included terrorization of their own people. The Soviet Union came out of World War II militarily victorious but economically and structurally devastated. The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often willful disregard for human life by both sides. 2. Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. Hitler and Stalin respectively.850 industrial establishments.000 villages/hamlets. territorial reach and casualties. 40. the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder-Neisse Line. contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale.[62] . 4100 railroad stations. It is generally accepted as being the deadliest conflict in human history.000 miles of railroad. reaching the coast of the English Channel by 1968. 40. All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front. as well as mass deportation of entire populations. Much of the combat took place in or close by populated areas. in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history. many German civilians suffered from vengeance taken by Red Army soldiers (see Soviet war crimes). as the Soviet army advanced 1943–45.000 hospitals. According to Time: "By measure of manpower.000 schools. including the Holocaust. According to a summary. It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war.508 church buildings. and 43.

Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities. professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end. I had to send even my closest generals packing. at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and the OKW staff with rhetoric. Korsun and many other places — were the direct result of Hitler's orders. F. W. Frustration at Hitler's leadership of the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of 1944.World War II: The Eastern Front 150 Leadership The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states. in which the leader had near-absolute power.. for example . and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin). things started to go wrong. His many disastrous appointments included that of Heinrich Himmler to command Army Group Vistula in the defence of Berlin in 1945 — Himmler suffered a mental breakdown under the stress of the command. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad. and to sack generals who retreated without orders. which involved fortifying even the most unimportant or insignificant of cities and the holding of these "fortresses" at all costs.. At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation conferences. I had to act ruthlessly. In August 1941 when Walther von Brauchitsch (commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht) and Fedor von Bock were appealing for an attack on Moscow. or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres. I could only tell these gentlemen. He was quickly replaced by Gotthard Heinrici. Hitler's direction of the war was disastrous for the German Army." . dubbed "Heaven-bound Missions". though the skill. because Hitler would not sanction retreat or abandon voluntarily any of his conquests. and this was to be no exception. and natural resources of that country. This idea of holding territory led to another failed plan. two army generals. but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel and Nazi party members to prosecute the war. In part because of the unexpected success of the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military. Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge: "From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended. Some historians believe that this decision was a missed opportunity to win the war. loyalty. with a grasp of the total war effort that eluded his generals. Hitler believed himself a military genius. Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or fanatical Nazis. spending much of his time in his command bunkers (most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler exercised a tight control over the war. "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge. And the army is staying at the front. in order to acquire the farmland. Adolf Hitler led Germany during World War II. Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine. at Vinnitsa in Ukraine. In the winter of 1941–42 Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse. He later told Erhard Milch. and began ranting to his High Command about large numbers of (non-existent) "savior" divisions readying to counter-attack. industry." The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense. The character of the war was thus determined by the leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.

which was the first priority of Stalin's internal policy throughout the 1930s. since the foundation of the Red Army in 1918. the Baltic states and Bessarabia in 1939–40. This Joseph Stalin led the Soviet Union during opened up those places to the promotion of many younger officers that Stalin World War II. the offensive operational planning was not. However. thus few plans were made for strategic defensive operations. The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky. but can be equally praised for the subsequent success of the Soviet Army. As tension heightened in spring 1941. many of whom proved to be terribly inexperienced. battle of Kiev (1941)). Stalin was able to learn lessons and improve his conduct of the war. since they had been seen as a symbol of the old regime after the Russian Revolution of 1917. lined up on its airfields. fortifications were built. in which every commander was paired with a political commissar. in the event of a German invasion. in the first days of the war. units that had proved themselves by superior . Stalin's insistence on repeated counterattacks without adequate preparation led to the loss of almost the whole of the Red Army's tank corps in 1941 — many tanks simply ran out of fuel on their way to the battlefield through faulty planning or ignorance of the location of fuel dumps. many of whom were convicted and sentenced to death or imprisonment. Georgy Zhukov and others. to a system of "dual command". While some regard this offensive strategy as an argument for Soviet aggressive strategic plans. a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. and the NKVD thought were in line with Stalinist politics. Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik (who opposed the mechanization of the army and the production of tanks). Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland. This refusal to take the necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force. but some were later very successful. commissar and chief of staff. shoulderboards were introduced for all ranks. After the Battle of Stalingrad. this was a significant symbolic step. this move westward left troops far from their depots in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement. Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late 1930s consisted of the legal prosecution of many of the senior command. which would have been impossible without the unprecedentedly rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union. Stalin made many concessions to the army: unitary command was restored by removing the Commissars from the chain of command. Larger units had military councils consisting of the commander. Incompetent commanders were gradually but ruthlessly weeded out. Distrust of the military led. evidence of any aggressive foreign policy intent. by itself. Stalin was desperate not to give Hitler any provocation that could be used as an excuse for an attack.World War II: The Eastern Front 151 Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for some of the disasters at the beginning of the war (for example. in autumn 1942. and had experience. but on the other hand purged the older commanders who had had their positions since the Russian Civil War. There was an assumption that. but were deemed "politically unreliable". He gradually came to realise the dangers of inadequate preparation and built up a competent command and control organization — the Stavka — under Semyon Timoshenko. this caused him to refuse to allow the military to go onto the alert even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations. At the crisis of the war. Stalin insisted that every fold of the new territories should be occupied. Soviet tank output remained the largest in the world. the brilliant proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. Beginning in autumn 1941. the Red Army would take the strategic offensive and fight the war mostly outside the borders of the Soviet Union. Unlike Hitler. who ensured that the commanding officer was loyal and implemented Party orders.

World War II: The Eastern Front performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title. But these concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No. 227, issued on 28 July 1942, threatened commanders who retreated without orders with punishment by court-martial. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and penal companies, and the NKVD's barrier troops would shoot soldiers who fled. As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; the victorious generals were sidelined and never allowed to develop into political rivals. After the war the Red Army was once again purged (but not as brutally as in the 1930s): many successful officers were demoted to unimportant positions (including Zhukov, Malinovsky and Koniev).


Occupation and repression
The enormous territorial gains of 1941 presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. For the majority of people of the Soviet Union, the Nazi invasion was viewed as a brutal act of unprovoked aggression. While it is important to note that not all parts of Soviet society viewed German advance in this way, the majority of Soviet population indeed viewed German forces as occupiers - not liberators. The policies of Nazi Germany itself was the catalyst for such response from the people of the Soviet Union. While in Estonia, Latvia and Soviet partisans hanged by German forces in Lithuania, that the Soviet Union had conquered in 1940, the January 1943 Wehrmacht was greeted by most of the population and some Soviet citizens, especially in the recently occupied territories of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus greeted Germans as liberators from Soviet rule, the Soviet society as a whole was hostile to invading Nazis. The nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks, and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, (especially those from the Baltic States) were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed. None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the racist Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour. The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets, and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion. Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and attempt to conquer and enslave local population. Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as Baltic states annexed by USSR in 1940, Reichscommissariats were established. As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. In September 1941, Erich Koch was appointed to the Ukrainian Commissariat. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog … Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of ... I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population."

World War II: The Eastern Front


Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen (task groups) to round up Jews and shoot them. Local anti-semites were encouraged to carry out their own pogroms. In July 1941 Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski's SS unit began to carry out more systematic killings, including the massacre of over 34,777 Jews at Babi Yar. By the end of 1941 there were more than 50,000 troopers devoted to rounding up and killing Jews. The gradual industrialization of killing led to adoption of the Final Solution and the establishment of the Operation Reinhard extermination camps: the machinery of the Holocaust. In three years of occupation, between one and two million Soviet Jews were killed. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination, including the Roma and Sinti; see Porajmos.

Map from Stahlecker's report entitled "Jewish Executions Carried Out by Einsatzgruppe A". Estonia is marked as "judenfrei".

The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses. As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in 1943–44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.[63] In many towns, the battles were fought right within towns and cities with trapped civilians caught in the middle. Estimates of total civilian dead in the Soviet Union in the war range from seven million (Encyclopædia Britannica) to seventeen million (Richard Overy). The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front, motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets, and greatly delayed the formation of German allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs (see Vlasov army). These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht.

Victims of Soviet NKVD in Lviv, June 1941.

World War II: The Eastern Front


Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totaling 26.5 million war related deaths. Military losses of 10.6 million include 6.0 million killed or missing in action and 3.6 million POW dead, plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses. Civilian deaths totaled 15.9 million, which included 1.5 million from military actions; 7.1 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 1.8 million deported to Germany for forced labor; and 5.5 million famine and disease deaths. Additional famine deaths, which totaled 1 million during 1946–47, are not included here. Soviet repressions seems also to be not included. These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in 1939–40. Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite. Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August 1941. The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some 380,000 young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands of civilians more. More than 600 villages like Khatyn were burned with their entire Homeless Russian children in occupied territory (about population.[64] More than 209 cities and towns (out of 270 total) 1942) and 9,000 villages were destroyed. Himmler pronounced a plan according to which 3/4 of Belarusian population was designated for "eradication" and 1/4 of racially cleaner population (blue eyes, light hair) would be allowed to serve Germans as slaves. Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in War to "3 million 650 thousand people, unlike the former 2.2 million. That is to say not every fourth inhabitant but almost 40% of the pre-war Belarusian population perished (considering the present-day borders of Belarus)." [65] Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. By the end of the war, large numbers of Soviet POWs, forced laborers and Nazi collaborators (including those who were forcefully repatriated by the Western Allies) went to special NKVD "filtration" camps. By 1946, 80 per cent civilians and 20 per cent of PoWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labor battalions. 2 per cent of civilians and 15 per cent of the PoWs were sent to Gulag.[65] [66] The Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention (1929). However, a month after the German invasion in 1941, an offer was made for a reciprocal adherence to the Hague convention. This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials.[67] The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in 1947 reported 6,028,000 war victims out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll. Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of prisoners in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.[68] Most of them were political prisoners, imprisoned and executed without a trial.[69]

World War II: The Eastern Front


Industrial output
The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of her war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land. Stalin's five-year plans of the 1930s had resulted in the industrialization of the Urals and central Asia. In 1941, the trains that shipped troops to the front were used to evacuate thousands of factories from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines. Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be reassumed without fear of German bombing. As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from 1943 onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives. The increases in production of materiel were achieved at the expense of civilian living standards — the most thorough application of the principle of total war — and with the help of Lend-Lease supplies from the United Kingdom and the United States. The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs. Although Germany produced many times more raw materials she could not compete with the Soviets on the quantity of military production (in 1943, the Soviet Union manufactured 24,089 tanks to Germany's 19,800). The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production. Meanwhile, German industry engineered more advanced but complex designs such as the Panther tank, the King Tiger or the Elefant from a 1943 decision for "quality over quantity".

Summary of German and Soviet raw material production during the war[70] [71]
Year Coal (million tonnes, Germany includes lignite and bituminous types) German Soviet Steel (million tonnes) Aluminium (thousand tonnes) Oil (million tonnes)

German Soviet German Soviet German Soviet Italian Hungarian Romanian Japanese

1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 [72]

483.4 513.1 521.4 509.8 –

151.4 75.5 93.1 121.5 149.3

31.8 32.1 34.6 28.5 –

17.9 8.1 8.5 10.9 12.3

233.6 264.0 250.0 245.3 –

– 51.7 62.3 82.7 86.3

5.7 6.6 7.6 5.5 1.3

33.0 22.0 18.0 18.2 19.4

0.12 0.01 0.01 -

0.4 0.7 0.8 1 -

5.5 5.7 5.3 3.5 -

1.8 2.3 1 0.1

Summary of Axis and Soviet tank and selfpropelled gun production during the war[70]
Year Soviet 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 German Tanks and selfpropelled guns Italian 595 1,252 336 500 Hungarian Japanese 595 557 558 353 137

6,590 5,200[73] 24,446 9,300[73] 24,089 28,963 19,800 27,300 –

[72] 15,400

World War II: The Eastern Front


Summary of Axis and Soviet aircraft production during the war[70]
Year Soviet 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 15,735 25,436 34,845 40,246 German 11,776 15,556 25,527 39,807 7,544 Italian 3,503 2,818 967 Aircraft Hungarian 6 267 773 Romanian 1,000 Japanese 5,088 8,861 16,693 28,180 8,263

[72] 20,052

Summary Of German and Soviet industrial labour (including those classified as handworkers), and summary of foreign, voluntary, coerced and POW labour[74]
Year Industrial Labour Soviet 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 [72] German Foreign Labour Soviet German - 3,500,000 50,000 4,600,000 200,000 5,700,000 800,000 7,600,000 2,900,000 Total Labour Total Soviet 11,000,000 7,250,000 7,700,000 9,000,000 12,400,000 Total German 16,400,000 16,200,000 16,800,000 18,000,000 -

11,000,000 12,900,000 7,200,000 11,600,000 7,500,000 11,100,000 8,200,000 10,400,000 9,500,000 –

It should be noted that the Axis allies Italy, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria added to the German numbers. Two-thirds of Germany's Iron ore, much needed for her military production, came from Sweden. Soviet production and upkeep was assisted by the Lend-Lease program from the United States and Britain. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in Goebbels' Sportpalast speech, increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer's astute direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign.

World War II: The Eastern Front


The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history. It was by far the deadliest single theatre of war in World War II, with over 5 million deaths on the Axis Forces (out of which 337,000 died in Soviet captivity);[76] Soviet military deaths were over 9 million (out of which 3.6 million died in German captivity[77] ), and estimated civilian deaths range from about 14 to 17 million. Over 11.4 million Soviet civilians within pre-1939 borders were killed, and another estimated 3.5 million civilians were killed in the annexed territories.[78] The Nazis exterminated one to two million Soviet Jews (including the annexed territories) as part of the Holocaust.[79] Soviet and Russian historiography often uses the term "irretrievable casualties". According to the Narkomat of Defence order (№ 023, 4 February 1944), the irretrievable casualties include killed, missing, those who died due to war-time or subsequent wounds, maladies and chilblains and those who were captured. The huge death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans, large deficiency of food and medical supplies in Soviet territories, multiple atrocities by the Germans and the Soviets against the civilian population and each other. The multiple battles, and most of all, the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land, infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food.

Over 3 million German and axis personnel were awarded the Eastern Front Medal for service during 15 November 1941 – 15 April 1942 from its creation on 26 May 1942 until 4 September 1944. Soon it was nicknamed as the Gefrierfleischorden - "order of [75] the frozen meat".

Military losses on the Eastern Front during World War II[80]
Forces fighting with the Axis Total Dead Greater Germany Soviet residents who joined German army Romania Hungary Italy Total KIA/MIA POWs taken by the Soviets 3,300,000 1,000,000 500,000 500,000 70,000 5,450,000 POWs that died in Captivity 374,000 Unknown 200,000 200,000 50,000 824,000

4,300,000 4,000,000 215,000+ 281,000 300,000 82,000 215,000 81,000 100,000 32,000

5,178,000+ 4,428,000

Military losses on the Eastern Front during World War II[81]
Forces Fighting with the Soviet Union Total Dead Soviet Poland Romania Bulgaria Total 10,600,000 24,000 17,000 10,000 KIA/MIA 6,829,437 [82] POWs taken by the Axis 5,200,000 Unknown 80,000 Unknown 5,280,000 POWs that died in captivity 3,300,000 Unknown Unknown Unknown 3,600,000

24,000 17,000 10,000

10,651,000 6,927,204 + Partisan KIA.

World War II: The Eastern Front Polish Armed Forces in the East, initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in Soviet Union in 1939–1941, began fighting alongside the Red Army in 1943, and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in 1944–1945. When the Axis countries of Eastern Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they were forced to change sides and declare war on Germany. (see Allied Commissions). Some of the Soviet citizens would side with the Germans and join Andrey Vlasov's Russian Liberation Army. Most of those who joined were Russian POWs. These men were primarily used in the Eastern Front but some were assigned to guard the beaches of Normandy. The other main group of men joining the German army were citizens of the Baltic countries annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 or from Western Ukraine. They fought in their own Waffen-SS units. A comparison of the losses demonstrates the cruel treatment of the Soviet POWs by the Nazis. Most of the Axis POWs were released from captivity several years after the war, but the fate of the Soviet POWs differed markedly. Nazi troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps and executed them. Hitler's notorious Commissar Order implicated all the German armed forces in the policy of war crimes.


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Smithsonian Institution Press. Max. No. Moscow: Izdatelstvo politicheskoi literatury. [57] Ziemke. see References page 81-111 [55] Beevor. 45. see References pp. Jordan (23 May 2008). pp. 1998). Europe-Asia Studies. Mika Raudvassar (2006). Battle in the Baltics 1944–1945: the fighting for Latvia. (ed. Meelis Maripuu. 2. [27] Edward E. No. Reshin. pp. & Indrek Paavle. [30] Zhukov. 134 [59] Raymond L. [61] The New York Times. occupation. Lithuania and Estonia: a photographic history. 1982). pp. 1–2 160 . The End of the Blitzkrieg. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Indrek Paavle (Eds. 9 February 1946. In Toomas Hiio. 263–283 [28] Source: L. . [62] Bellamy 2007. Hitler's Late Summer Pause in 1941. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 4 (Jun. P. No. p. August 1945. Berlin. 50. . 21–28. Vol. vm. pp. aw/ class=file/ action=preview/ id=12709/ TheWhiteBook. Vol. Molotov's Apprenticeship in Foreign Policy: The Triple Alliance Negotiations in 1939. 1. Milward. Lenin. 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htm#contents)" Center of Military History. 2002.World War II: The Eastern Front [63] On 7 Sep 1943. Battle For Berlin: End Of The Third Reich. Moscow 2004.org/ military/library/report/other/us-army_germany_1944-46_index. Stalin's Russia by Richard Overy p. Chief of Security Police & SS.4 [67] Beevor. Richard Overy The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (2004). 272 [77] Richard Overy. Antony. and Dennis Showalter. Army in the occupation of Germany 1944–1946 (http://www. pwn. pp. Supplement A pg 1270. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7 [79] Martin Gilbert. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. and sent copies to the Chief of Regular Police. NY:Ballantine Books. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 [80] Rűdiger Overmans. D. Knopf. Penguin 2001 ISBN 0-14-100131-3 p60 [68] Robert Gellately. Chris (2007). p. Stalin. 1997. • Ziemke. 1990. United States Army. ISBN 1-85409-267-7 [82] http:/ / www. Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War. Da Capo Press. html 161 References • Beevor. Zbrodnie Sowickie W Polsce (http:/ / encyklopedia. 1969.S.. See Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. The Dictators [78] Krivosheev. (Self-propelled guns cost 2/3 of a tank (mainly because they have no turret) and were more appropriate in a defensive role. ISBN 3-486-56531-1. [75] Johannes Steinhoff. and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. pl/ 83293_1. ISBN 0-7139-9309-X [81] Vadim Erlikman. that not a house remains standing. C. [71] Axis History Factbook (http:/ / www. html) [70] Richard Overy. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. 155 and Campaigns of World War II Day By Day. p.) [74] The Dictators: Hitler's Germany. Earl F. 265.globalsecurity. He ordered cooperation with Infantry general Staff. ISBN 0-670-88695-5 • Bellamy. ru/ doc/ casualties/ book/ chapter5_05. SS-Obergruppenführer Berger.Н. soldat. php?id=3631) [72] Soviet numbers for 1945 are for the whole of 1945 even after the war was over. Earl F. Voices from the Third Reich: An Oral History (http:/ / books. Istoriya SSSR. com/ index. Berlin: The Downfall 1945. pp.N. by Chris Bishop and Chris McNab. [76] German losses according to: Rűdiger Overmans. 9780375410864. google. also someone named Stampf. Mark Axworthy. [73] German figures for 1941 and 1942 include tanks only. p. №5. Russia's War. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. 244–52. html) [65] (“Военно-исторический журнал” (“Military-Historical Magazine”). 216. Himmler sent orders to HSSPF "Ukraine" Hans-Adolf Prützmann that "not a human being.htm) . Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. London:Macdomald & Co. 1994 ISBN 0306805944. 1990. No. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 75-619027 • CHAPTER XV: The Victory Sealed: Surrender at Reims (http://www. not a hundredweight of cereals and not a railway line remain behind. № 4 (Zemskov V.. 2007 ISBN 1-4000-4005-1 p. Penguin Books. 391 [69] (Polish) Encyklopedia PWN. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Oldenbourg 2000. Washington. Stalingrad. not a single head of cattle. and the chief of the partisan combating units. G. com/ travel1/ Khatyn. 126. I. • Ziemke. ISBN 0375410864.globalsecurity. ISBN 3-486-56531-1. 498. On repatriation of Soviet citizens. Oldenbourg 2000. Peter Pechel. Lenin. page 32) [66] Земское В. Macmillan. К вопросу о репатриации советских граждан. that there is not a well which is not poisoned. belarusguide. axishistory. The enemy must really find completely burned and destroyed land". Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. not a mine is available which is not destroyed for years to come. Arms and Armour 1995. [64] (http:/ / www. 1944-1951 годы // История СССР. 1990. " The U. com/ books?id=96vYGg9tpMAC).org/military/library/ report/other/us-army_germany_1944-46_ch15. The Germans therefore favored their production in the second half of the war.

co.com/rkkaww2/maps.warontheeasternfront.yuku. interviews.pobediteli.bbc.com/topic/6101) • Pictures of German Occupation in the USSR (http://rodohforum.borodulincollection.ru/) (photos.html) German and Soviet tactics explained.com/) • 27 Million (http://rodohforum.yuku. Excellent set of war photos • OnWar maps of the Eastern Front (http://www.php?p=Eastern+ Front+Chronology) • RKKA in World War II (http://rkkaww2.htm) • Dedicated to The War on the Eastern Front (http://www.com (http://www.feldgrau.com/maps/wwii/eastfront1/index. Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 (http://www.wilhelm-radkovsky. Wilhelm Radkovsky 1940–1945 (http://www.html) The German Armed Forces 1919–1945 • Information about the Eastern front up to September 1943 (http://www.uk/history/ worldwars/wwtwo/soviet_german_war_01.World War II: The Eastern Front 162 External links • Prof Richard Overy writes a summary about the eastern front for the BBC (http://www. memorials.htm) • Memories of Leutnant d. video.daswolf.com/topic/2558?page=1) • Small Unit Actions During German Campaign in Russia (http://allworld.de) Experiences as a German soldier on the Eastern and Western Front • Pobediteli: Eastern Front flash animation (http://english.armchairgeneral.html) Borodulin Collection.co.onwar. .armchairgeneral. Written from a Russian perspective) • Feldgrau.com/index.com/ war/english/index.com) Cold War United States President Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev meet in 1985. year by year (http://www.startlogic. written by former German commanders in the East • Armchair General maps.com/ Small-Unit-Actions-During-German-Campaign-in-Russia.uk/index.R.shtml) • Rarities of the USSR photochronicles.

. strategic conventional force deployments. the USSR assisted and helped foster communist revolutions. opposed by several Western countries and their regional allies. at a time when the nation was already suffering economic stagnation. propaganda. the USSR and the US disagreed about political philosophy and the configuration of the post-war world while occupying most of Europe. in Latin America and Southeast Asia. military. they expressed the conflict through military coalitions. military tension. ca. and technological competitions such as the Space Race. Kholodnaya voyna. the Vietnam War (1959–1975). Some countries aligned with NATO and the Warsaw Pact. under the Reagan Doctrine. the Berlin Crisis of 1961. 1985). while the Soviet Union would not let most Eastern Bloc members participate. the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962). the Korean War (1950–1953). The US and its allies used containment of communism as a main strategy. and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World – primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies – and the powers of the Western world. The US funded the Marshall Plan to effectuate a more rapid post-War recovery of Europe. some they attempted to roll back. with mixed results. the Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979–1989).Cold War 163 Part of a series on the Cold War Origins of the Cold War World War II War Conferences Eastern Bloc Iron Curtain Cold War (1947–1953) Cold War (1953–1962) Cold War (1962–1979) Cold War (1979–1985) Cold War (1985–1991) The Cold War (Russian: Холо́дная война́. proxy wars. Although the primary participants' military force never officially clashed directly. conventional and nuclear arms races. establishing alliances such as NATO to that end. and others formed the Non-Aligned Movement. The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied. extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable. proxy wars. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika ("reconstruction". ending the Cold War . the United States increased diplomatic. annexing some and maintaining others as satellite states. Despite being allies against the Axis powers. "reorganization". In the 1980s. and the Able Archer 83 NATO exercises in November 1983. The Cold War and its events have had a significant impact on the world today. rivalry at sports events. The Cold War ended after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. appeals to neutral nations. In the late 1980s. The Cold War featured periods of relative calm and of international high tension – the Berlin Blockade (1948–1949). and it is commonly referred to in popular culture. some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955–1991). 1947–1991) was the continuing state of political conflict. which would probably guarantee their mutual assured destruction with nuclear weapons. espionage. primarily the United States and its allies. Elsewhere. 1987) and glasnost ("openness". and economic pressures on the Soviet Union. Both sides sought détente to relieve political tensions and deter direct military attack.

Russia began to make a ‘cold war’ on Britain and the British Empire. published October 19.[8] As a result of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (followed by its American troops in Vladivostok. Soviet Russia found itself isolated in during the Allied intervention in the Russian [9] international diplomacy. According to this view.[16] the American refusal to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933. 1946. “Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war.[13] Western support of the anti-Bolshevik White movement in the Russian Civil War. stated that the Soviet Union must see that "the present capitalist encirclement is replaced by a socialist encirclement. including the Bolsheviks' challenge to capitalism.[12] Various events before the Second World War had been demonstrative of mutual distrust and suspicion between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. in The Observer of March 10.[8] the 1926 Soviet funding of a British general workers strike causing Britain to break relations with the Soviet Union.Cold War 164 Origins of the term At the end of World War II. Leader Vladimir Lenin stated that the Civil War. Britain signed a formal alliance and the United States made an informal agreement. he warned of a “peace that is no peace”. and he viewed diplomacy as a weapon to keep Soviet enemies divided. English author and journalist George Orwell used the term Cold War in his essay “You and the Atomic Bomb”. French.”[3] The first use of the term to describe the post–World War II geopolitical tensions between the USSR and its satellites and the United States and its western European allies is attributed to Bernard Baruch. with allegations of British.[10] Subsequent leader Joseph Stalin. although tensions between the Russian Empire. Stalin remained highly suspicious and believed that the British and the Americans had conspired to allow the Soviets to bear the brunt of the fighting against Nazi Germany.”[6] Newspaper reporter-columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency. Japanese and Nazi German espionage. withdrawal from World War I).[19] However. he delivered a speech (by journalist Herbert Bayard Swope)[5] saying. In wartime.[4] In South Carolina. which he called a permanent “cold war”. on April 16. Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare. 1947. the United States supplied both Britain and the Soviets through its Lend-Lease Program.[15] conspiratorial allegations during the 1928 Shakhty show trial of a planned British.[18] As a result of the German invasion in June 1941.[17] and the Stalinist Moscow Trials of the Great Purge. 1945."[11] As early as 1925.[14] Stalin's 1927 declaration of peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries "receding into the past". which called for revolutionary upheavals abroad. August 1918. in the British newspaper Tribune. the Allies decided to help the Soviet Union.and French-led coup d'état. Orwell wrote that “[a]fter the Moscow conference last December. beginning with the establishment of the Soviet Comintern. Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism. an American financier and presidential advisor. who viewed the Soviet Union as a "socialist island".[7] Background There is disagreement among historians regarding the starting point of the Cold War. with the book Cold War (1947). others argue that it began towards the end of World War I. Soviet Union was surrounded by a "hostile capitalist encirclement". while the world was in a period of "temporary stabilization of capitalism" preceding its eventual collapse.[1] Orwell directly referred to that war as the ideological confrontation between the Soviet Union and the Western powers. While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II. other European countries and the United States date back to the middle of the 19th century.[2] Moreover. the Western Allies had .

[28] while strong US and Western allied Post-war Allied occupation zones in Germany.[21] The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible. and how borders would be drawn. the Soviet Union. permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations.[26] In the American view. whereas in the British approach Stalin appeared as the greatest threat to the fulfillment of their agenda. the achievement of global American economic supremacy over the British Empire.[27] Further Allied negotiations concerning the post-war balance took place at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Thus.[20] 165 End of World War II and post-war (1945–47) Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look. following the war. With the Soviets already occupying most of Eastern Europe. forces remained in Western Europe.[29] Following the Allies' May 1945 victory. and the independence of Eastern European countries as a buffer between the Soviets and the United Kingdom. Britain and France established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control. among other things.Cold War deliberately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last moment and shape the peace settlement. Franklin D. In October 1944. the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government.[28] In April 1945. ensuring the survival of the British Empire. Stalin was at an advantage and the two western leaders vied for his favors. Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers. United States.[30] . Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. which were mainly centered on securing control over the Mediterranean. the Soviets effectively occupied Eastern Europe. and the creation of a world peace organisation — were more global than Churchill's. both Churchill and new United States President Harry S. Churchill traveled to Moscow and agreed to divide the Balkans into respective spheres of influence. Stalin seemed a potential ally in accomplishing their goals.[21] Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security. In Allied-occupied Germany.[22] Given the Russian historical experiences of frequent invasions[23] and the immense death toll (estimated at 27 million) and the destruction the Soviet Union sustained during World War II. Roosevelt's goals — military victory in both Europe and Asia.[21] [25] The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference: Winston Churchill. Truman opposed. 1945.[24] the Soviet Union sought to increase security by dominating the internal affairs of countries that bordered it. and at Yalta Roosevelt signed a separate deal with Stalin in regard of Asia and refused to support Churchill on the issues of Poland and the Reparations. The differences between Roosevelt and Churchill led to several separate deals with the Soviets. The Western Allies were themselves deeply divided in their vision of the new post-war world. albeit this conference also failed to reach a firm consensus on the framework for a post-war settlement in Europe. whose relations with the Soviets were severed. the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile.

Truman and Joseph to the news calmly. Shortly after the attacks.[46] The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies. but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by individual members' ability to use veto power. which started in late July after Germany's surrender.[31] Accordingly.[33] Moreover.[40] [41] The Eastern European territories liberated from the Nazis and occupied by the Soviet armed forces were added to the Eastern Bloc by converting them into satellite states. Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan. he reacted Winston Churchill.[47] In Asia.[42] such as East Germany.[37] Latvia (which became the Latvian SSR). the People's Republic of Bulgaria.[38] [39] part of eastern Finland (which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania (which became the Moldavian SSR). the UN was essentially converted into an inactive forum for exchanging polemical rhetoric.[38] [39] Lithuania (which became the Lithuanian SSR). Harry S.[35] One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference.Cold War The 1945 Allied conference in San Francisco established the multi-national United Nations (UN) for the maintenance of world peace. the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[48] . employed by Joseph Stalin and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition.[35] Stalin was aware that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb and. the People's Republic of Hungary.[44] the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and eastern Europe.[43] the People's Republic of Poland. and went on to occupy the large swath of Korean territory located north of the 38th parallel. the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by directly annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics that were initially (and effectively) ceded to it by Nazi Germany in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.[34] At this conference Truman informed Stalin that the United States possessed a powerful new weapon.[38] [38] [39] Estonia (which became the Estonian SSR). given that the Soviets' own rival program was in place. and expressed the hope that the weapon would be used against Japan. 1945. the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war. These included eastern Poland (incorporated into two different SSRs). but also adopted the brutal methods Post-war territorial changes in Eastern Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc. and the Soviets regarded it almost exclusively as a propaganda tribune. The Soviet leader said he was pleased by the news Stalin at the Potsdam Conference.[45] the People's Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania.[36] Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc During the final stages of World War II.[32] 166 Potsdam Conference and defeat of Japan At the Potsdam Conference. the participants' mounting antipathy and bellicose language served to confirm their suspicions about each others' hostile intentions and entrench their positions.

[57] The speech called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets. the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram. George F. James F.[49] When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc. it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war". however. when the Tito–Stalin split obliged its members to expel Yugoslavia. and became the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union for the duration of the Cold War. the NKVD. Byrnes delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan (a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany) and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely. was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. a plan "to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire".[55] As Byrnes admitted a month later. given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war.[59] Cominform faced an embarrassing setback the following June. supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance.[60] . imprisoned. the British War Cabinet's Joint Planning Staff Committee developed Operation Unthinkable. and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was unreliable.[51] 167 Tensions build In February 1946.] it was a battle between us and Russia over minds [. former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton. the purpose of which was to enforce orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc.[52] The plan. led by Lavrentiy Beria. Missouri. 1946. sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov.[42] [58] Containment through the Korean War (1947–53) Cominform and the Tito-Stalin split In September 1947.. which remained Communist but adopted a non-aligned position. Stalin's strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power. the Soviets created Cominform.Cold War As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc. whom he accused of establishing an "iron curtain" from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic".[50] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that. executed.[54] On September 6. there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe.[51] In April–May 1945.. and in several instances.]"[56] A few weeks after the release of this "Long Telegram".. "The nub of our program was to win the German people [. put on trial..[53] That September.

[70] The plan also stated that European prosperity was showing countries that received Marshall Plan contingent upon German economic recovery. US president Harry S. a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate.[64] [65] Moderate and conservative parties in Europe. including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants. Other critiques of consensus politics came from anti-Vietnam War activists. the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[69] In June 1947. The American government's response to this announcement was the adoption of containment. France and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany. and the National Security Council. the United States enacted the Marshall Plan.[72] . such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East elections. although dissent began to appear after 1956. aid. paid by the KGB and involved in its intelligence operations. Truman delivered a speech that called for the allocation of $400 million to intervene in the war and unveiled the Truman Doctrine. goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets. but ultimately held steady.[69] The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power.[63] Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam War. These would become the main bureaucracies for US policy in the Cold War. which framed the conflict as a contest between free European military alliances. Britain.[67] adhered to Moscow's line.[66] while European and American Communists. the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Greek monarchical military regime in its civil war against communist-led insurgents.[61] In February 1947.Cold War 168 Containment and the Truman Doctrine By 1947.[17] US policymakers accused the Soviet Union of conspiring against the Greek royalists in an effort to expand Soviet influence.[62] Even though the insurgents were helped by Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia. Truman's advisers urged him to take immediate steps to counter the Soviet Union's influence. in accordance with the Truman Doctrine.[71] One month later.[62] the goal of which was to stop the spread of communism. The red columns show the relative amount of Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947. peoples and totalitarian regimes. the CND and the nuclear freeze movement. citing Stalin's efforts (amid post-war confusion and collapse) to undermine the US by encouraging rivalries among capitalists that could precipitate another war. including the Soviet Union. Department of Defense.[68] Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état In early 1947. creating a unified total aid per nation. as well as social democrats. gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance.

including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased.[83] The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change. preventing food. representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system. the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures. one of the first major crises of the Cold War.[85] and the US accidentally created "Operation Vittles". his vision of a post-war Germany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any kind of threat to the Soviet Union.[49] [87] . which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with eastern Europe. set in a motion a brief scare that war would occur and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan in the United States Congress. became known as the Molotov Plan (later institutionalized in January 1949 as the Comecon). With US assistance. and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe. Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade. in accordance with the Marshall Plan.[79] which were held on December 5. they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the German economy. supplying West Berlin with food and other provisions.[72] The Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful Communist-Socialist alliance in the elections of 1948.3% and an overwhelming victory for the non-Communist parties.[81] C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Blockade. Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état of 1948 in European economic alliances Czechoslovakia. which supplied candy to German children. materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin. France.Cold War 169 Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control. the Greek military won its civil war. Britain.[77] Increases occurred in intelligence and espionage activities. Shortly thereafter. Greece. 1948 and produced a turnout of 86.[79] As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany. Canada.[17] Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted Germany.[82] The United States. Australia.[74] [75] The public brutality of the coup shocked Western powers more than any event up to that point.[86] In May 1949. New Zealand and several other countries began the massive "Berlin airlift".[80] In addition. following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements".[59] Stalin therefore prevented Eastern Bloc nations from receiving Marshall Plan aid. and Turkey.[76] The twin policies of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan led to billions in economic and military aid for Western Europe. 300.[73] In early 1948.000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue.[78] Berlin Blockade and airlift The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" (later "trizonia" with the addition of France's zone). Eastern Bloc defections and diplomatic expulsions. Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade.[84] The results effectively divided the city into East and West versions of its former self. in early 1948. Once again the East Berlin communists attempted to disrupt the Berlin municipal elections (as they have done in the 1946 elections).[59] The Soviet Union's alternative to the Marshall plan.

[33] The Soviet Union proclaimed its zone of occupation in Germany the German Democratic Republic that October.[89] Soviet propaganda used Marxist philosophy to attack capitalism.[98] In the early 1950s (a period sometimes known as the "Pactomania"). funded a long list of projects to counter the Communist appeal among intellectuals in Europe and the developing world. by then in a government post. Mao's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United States-backed Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government in China. a secret 1950 document. Chinese Civil War and SEATO In 1949. especially those who believed that the Cold War would eventually be fought by political rather than military means. Australia.[17] United States officials moved thereafter to expand containment into Asia.[95] President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. such as George F.[17] In NSC-68. Confronted with the Communist takeover of mainland China and the end of the American atomic monopoly in 1949.[33] Media in the Eastern Bloc was an organ of the state. Africa.[97] the National Security Council proposed to reinforce pro-Western alliance systems and quadruple spending on defense. thereby guaranteeing the United States a number of long-term military bases. acting through the CIA. fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia and elsewhere. New Zealand. an alternative to the controlled and party-dominated domestic press. the United States. acknowledged that the Cold War was in its essence a war of ideas.[92] Radio Free Europe was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War strategy. establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). mostly by the local communist party.[94] In the early 1950s. often led by communist parties financed by the USSR. Kazakh SSR. secured its full membership of NATO. the US worked for the rearmament of West Germany and.[33] In May 1953. France.[92] Radio Free Europe attempted to achieve these goals by serving as a surrogate home radio station. Britain and France spearheaded the establishment of West Germany from the three Western zones of occupation in May 1949. Beria.[90] Along with the broadcasts of the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Voice of America to Eastern Europe.[93] The United States. in 1955. including Kennan and John Foster Dulles.[91] a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 was Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Kennan. the first Soviet atomic device was detonated in Semipalatinsk. and the Soviet Union promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China.Cold War 170 NATO beginnings and Radio Free Europe Britain. the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan.[49] That August. the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand the containment policy. with radio and television organizations being state-owned.[80] [88] the US. Thailand and the Philippines (notably ANZUS and SEATO). completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party. claiming labor exploitation and war-mongering imperialism were inherent in the system.[33] . while print media was usually owned by political organizations. in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements.[93] American policymakers.[17] Following Soviet refusals to participate in a German rebuilding effort set forth by western European countries in 1948. Canada and eight other western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949. had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO. and Latin America.[96] Chiang and his KMT government retreated to the island of Taiwan. dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the Communist system in the Eastern Bloc.

On February 25. Khrushchev used his famous "Whether you like it or not. he declared that the only way to reform and move away from Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors made in the past. the United States. the "construction of a communist society" in the USSR would be completed "in the main".[72] On November 18. UN Command CiC war and were prepared to end it by late 1952.[99] To Stalin's surprise. We will bury you" expression. Kim Il-Sung's North Korean People's Army invaded South Korea.[109] In 1961. Crisis and escalation (1953–62) Khrushchev.[107] As part of a campaign of de-Stalinization. history is on our side.[104] [105] In the South. such as Great Britain. Stalin insisted that they (seated). and even nuclear war. shocking everyone present. and within two decades. Eisenhower and De-Stalinization In 1953.[33] North Korean leader Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized and brutal dictatorship.[106] Albeit Rhee was overthrown after popular protests against his rigged re-election victory in 1960. During the last 18 months of the Truman administration. the American defense budget had quadrupled. Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes. the Netherlands. South Africa. Eisenhower was inaugurated president that January.[108] He later claimed that he had not been talking about nuclear war. the corrupt American-backed strongman Syngman Rhee pursued a comparable system of totalitarian rule.[17] the UN Security Council backed the defense of South Korea. Many feared an escalation into a general war with Communist China. but rather about the historically determined victory of communism over capitalism.[100] A UN force of personnel from South Korea. Canada. For these reasons British officials sought a speedy end to the conflict. changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War. the Philippines. though the Soviets were then boycotting meetings to protest that Taiwan and not Communist China held a permanent seat on the Council. In June 1950.[103] Even though the Chinese and North Koreans were exhausted by the General Douglas MacArthur. 1956. the South Koreans' struggle against a subsequent series of military dictatorships running the republic continued into the late 1980s. France. New Zealand and other countries joined to stop the invasion. The strong opposition to the war often strained Anglo-American relations. the United Kingdom. within a decade its housing shortage would disappear. 15 September 1950. while addressing Western ambassadors at a reception at the Polish embassy in Moscow. and an Armistice was approved only in July 1953. according himself unlimited power and generating a formidable cult of personality. Turkey. McKinley.Cold War 171 Korean War One of the more significant impacts of containment was the outbreak of the Korean War.[17] After the death of Joseph Stalin.[102] Public opinion in countries involved. from the USS Mt. and Eisenhower moved to reduce military spending by a third while continuing to fight the Cold War effectively.[110] . hoping to unite Korea under United Nations auspices and withdrawal of all foreign forces.[101] Among other effects.[72] Dwight D. Belgium. 1956. after Stalin's death. Khrushchev declared that even if the USSR was behind the West. consumer goods would be abundant. Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader following the deposition and execution of Lavrentiy Beria and the pushing aside of rivals Georgy Malenkov and Vyacheslav Molotov. Australia. the Korean War galvanised NATO to develop a military structure. observes the naval shelling of Incheon continue fighting. was divided for and against the war.

[119] This formulation modified the Stalin-era Soviet stance.[17] 172 Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions. and declared his new goal was to be "peaceful coexistence". in 1955. for example.[118] From 1957 through 1961.[112] established a formal alliance therein.000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the chaos. now. However. John Foster Dulles.[123] The communist parties in the west would never recover from the effect the Hungarian Revolution had on their membership.[125] . the "battle for men's minds" between two systems of social organization that Kennedy spoke of in 1961 was largely over.[121] which remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an end in itself rather than a form of class struggle. where international class struggle meant the two opposing camps were on an inevitable collision course where Communism would triumph through global war.[114] the new regime formally disbanded the secret police.[72] Dulles also enunciated the doctrine of "massive retaliation". Khrushchev rejected Stalin's belief in the inevitability of war. declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. Possessing nuclear superiority. imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union. peace would allow capitalism to collapse on its own.[122] The events in Hungary produced ideological fractures within the Communist parties of the world.[116] and approximately 200.[120] as well as giving the Soviets time to boost their military capabilities. particularly in Western Europe.[124] However.[115] Thousands of Hungarians were arrested. by the late 1960s. allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis. a fact that was immediately recognized by some. the Warsaw Pact.[111] The Soviets. threatening a severe US response to any Soviet aggression. calling for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in wartime. who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949. capable of wiping out any American or European city.Cold War Eisenhower's secretary of state. such as the Yugoslavian politician Milovan Djilas who shortly after the revolution was crushed said that "The wound which the Hungarian Revolution inflicted on communism can never be completely healed"[123] America's pronouncements concentrated on American strength abroad and the success of liberal capitalism. the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce. He claimed that Soviet missile capabilities were far superior to those of the United States. The Soviet army invaded. with great decline in membership as many in both western and communist countries felt disillusioned by the brutal Soviet response. with tensions henceforth based primarily on clashing geopolitical objectives rather than ideology.[33] Map of the Warsaw Pact countries The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi.[117] Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and others were executed following secret trials.[113] In response to a popular uprising. Khrushchev openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation. initiated a "New Look" for the containment strategy.

and France a six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin. and militarily. Mohammad Mosaddegh. and decreed a Preventive Penal Law Against Communism at the request of the United States. returned nationalized American property. the United States and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s. Khrushchev earlier explained to Mao Zedong that "Berlin is the testicles of the West.[131] [132] [133] [134] The pro-Western shah. Great Britain.[136] The post-Arbenz government. economically. Churchill told the United States that Mosaddegh was "increasingly turning towards communism" and was moving Iran towards the Soviet sphere.[128] The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence. the shah's domestic security and intelligence agency.[137] .[72] In 1953. set up a National Committee of Defense Against Communism. but which later administrations viewed ambivalently.[130] The United States made use of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to do away with a string of unfriendly Third World governments and to support allied ones. assumed control as an autocratic monarch.[135] The shah's policies included the banning of the communist Tudeh Party and general suppression of political dissent by SAVAK. a military junta headed by Carlos Castillo Armas. which would use this to exacerbate Western disunity. the Soviets saw continuing losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology. giving the United States.[72] In this context. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The popularly-elected and non-aligned Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. Indonesia and Indochina were often allied with communist groups. a CIA-backed military coup ousted the left-wing President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. a covert operation aimed at the overthrow of the Iranian prime minister. In Guatemala. I squeeze on Berlin. President Eisenhower's Central Intelligence Agency implemented Operation Ajax. one hallmark of the 1950s was the beginning of European integration—a fundamental by-product of the Cold War that Truman and Eisenhower promoted politically."[126] NATO formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December and Khrushchev withdrew it in return for a Geneva conference on the German question. notably Guatemala. Every time I want to make the West scream. demilitarized "free city".Cold War 173 Berlin ultimatum and European integration During November 1958. or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans.[129] additionally. after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 Worldwide competition Nationalist movements in some countries and regions. fearful that an independent Europe would forge a separate détente with the Soviet Union. or perceived in the West to be allied with communists. Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent.[127] More broadly.

Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America.[141] Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed defeat by communist Vietminh rebels at the 1954 Battle of Điện Biên Phủ. space race. but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution. the United States pressured the British to withhold Guyana's independence until an alternative to Jagan could be identified. on a Soviet commemorative stamp. won the colonial elections in 1957 and 1961. In 1955. the CIA-cultivated President Joseph Kasa-Vubu ordered the dismissal of the democratically-elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in September. the French accepted a negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in Vietnam.[17] Many emerging nations of Asia.[143] After this.[139] Embarrassed by the landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly Marxist party. . Peace accords signed in Geneva left Vietnam divided between a pro-Soviet administration in North Vietnam and a pro-Western administration in South Vietnam at the 17th parallel north. 1961. the leftist People's Progressive Party (PPP) candidate Cheddi Jagan won the position of chief minister in a colonially-administered election in 1953.[72] Meanwhile. and brought into office.[145] Charting the progress of the Space Race in 1957-1975. Khrushchev made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance.[17] Sino-Soviet split.[142] The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Belgrade-headquartered Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal.[140] Jagan again the Republic of the Congo. the Soviets focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China for leadership of the global communist movement. Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it. at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia. despite Britain's shift to a reconsideration of its view of the left-wing Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time. beginning the Sino-Soviet split.Cold War 174 In the Republic of the Congo. accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge. supported. the British imprisoned the PPP's leadership and maneuvered the organization into a divisive rupture in Patrice Lumumba.[144] Further on. ICBMs The period after 1956 was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union. most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance. Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev attacked him after his death in 1956. Between 1954 and 1961. dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War.[138] In the ensuing Congo Crisis. Khrushchev broadened Moscow's policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states.[143] The Chinese-Soviet animosity spilled out in an intra-communist propaganda war.[138] In British Guiana. prime minister of 1955. Africa. Lumumba called for Kasa-Vubu's dismissal instead. newly independent from Belgium since June 1960. and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. engineering a split between Jagan and his PPP colleagues.. the CIA-backed Colonel Mobutu quickly mobilized his forces to seize power through a military coup d'état. and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart.

East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall.[151] Berlin Crisis of 1961 The Berlin Crisis of 1961 was the last major incident in the Cold War regarding the status of Berlin and post-World War II Germany.[150] Eisenhower's officials were not sure as to whether Castro was a communist. In April 1961. but hostile toward the Cubans' efforts to decrease their economic reliance on the United States.[154] That June. leaving Vice President Richard Nixon to conduct the meeting in his place.[152] However.Cold War On the nuclear weapons front. effectively closing the loophole. In January 1961.[149] Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States continued for some time after Batista's fall. the administration of newly-elected American President John F. Kennedy mounted an unsuccessful CIA-organized invasion of the island at Playa Girón in the Bay of Pigs — a failure that publicly humiliated the United States.[153] The emigration resulted in a massive "brain drain" from East Germany Soviet tanks face US tanks at Checkpoint Charlie. and in August. the 26th of July Movement seized power in January 1959. toppling President Fulgencio Batista. the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)[146] and in October. but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid meeting Cuba's young revolutionary leader Fidel Castro during the latter's trip to Washington in April. such that nearly on October 27. and the Soviet Union pledged to provide support. during the Berlin Crisis of 1961 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961. This culminated in the Apollo Moon landings.[156] . just prior to leaving office. By the early 1950s."[148] 175 Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs In Cuba.[33] In August 1957. launched the first Earth satellite.[151] Castro responded by embracing Marxism-Leninism.[151] Flag of the 26th July Movement.[147] The launch of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race. to West Germany of younger educated professionals. where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement. which astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a battle in the Cold War. the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually emigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin. Sputnik. the United States and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other. Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government. the Soviet Union issued a new ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Allied forces from West Berlin. whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration.[155] The request was rebuffed.

S. devised under the Kennedy administration in 1961.[111] although the Cold War's first arms control agreement.[98] Moscow.[162] Accused of rudeness and incompetence.[72] From the beginning of the post-war period. possibly involving the American military — and yet one more Kennedy-ordered operation to assassinate Castro. had come into force in 1961. . Significant hopes were pinned on a covert program named the Cuban Project. the Antarctic Treaty.[162] Confrontation through détente (1962–79) In the course of the 1960s and 1970s. Alarmed. In February 1962. Navy P-2 of VP-18 flying over a Soviet freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis. he was also credited with ruining Soviet agriculture and bringing the world to the brink of nuclear war. was forced to turn its attention The United States reached the moon in 1969—a milestone in the space race.[157] A U. less-powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to pressure from either superpower.[158] The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before. but allowed him a peaceful retirement. meanwhile. Western Europe and Japan rapidly recovered from the destruction of World War II and sustained strong economic growth through the 1950s and 1960s.Cold War 176 Cuban Missile Crisis and Khrushchev ouster Continuing to seek ways to oust Castro following the Bay of Pigs. and ultimately responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade and presented an ultimatum to the Soviets. Khrushchev learned of the American plans regarding Cuba: a "Cuban project" — approved by the CIA and stipulating the overthrow of the Castro government in October.[159] It further demonstrated the concept of mutually assured destruction.[157] Preparations to install Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba were undertaken in response.[72] [163] As a result of the 1973 oil crisis. Kennedy and his administration experimented with various ways of covertly facilitating the overthrow of the Cuban government. and the Soviet Union removed the missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba again. combined with the growing influence of Third World alignments such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Non-Aligned Movement. Kennedy considered various reactions.[160] The aftermath of the crisis led to the first efforts in the nuclear arms race at nuclear disarmament and improving relations. more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs. Khrushchev backed down from a confrontation. a public humiliation for Marxism-Leninism.[161] In 1964. with per capita GDPs approaching those of the United States. Cold War participants struggled to adjust to a new. while Eastern Bloc economies stagnated.[162] Khrushchev had become an international embarrassment when he authorized construction of the Berlin Wall. that neither nuclear power was prepared to use nuclear weapons fearing total destruction via nuclear retaliation. Khrushchev's Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him.

invaded Czechoslovakia. Brezhnev stated:[168] When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism. de Gaulle began the development of an independent French nuclear deterrent and in 1966 withdrew from NATO's military structures and expelled NATO troops from French soil.000.[72] During this period.000 Czechs initially fleeing. During the speech.[164] Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory. along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods.[72] French NATO withdrawal The unity of NATO was breached early in its history. including an estimated 70.[171] Brezhnev Doctrine In September 1968. . limiting the power of the secret police[166] [167] and potentially withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact. during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia.[169] The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration. In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. which were facing a declining standard of living contrasting with the prosperity of West Germany and the rest of Western Europe. and also for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France. with the total eventually reaching 300. where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance.[170] The invasion sparked intense protests from Yugoslavia. this was a high-water mark in détente between the United States and the Soviet Union. in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism-Leninism with capitalism. together with most of their Warsaw Pact allies.[165] Czechoslovakia invasion In 1968.[168] The Soviet army. but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries. it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned. and from Western European communist parties.Cold War 177 inward to deal with the Soviet Union's deep-seated domestic economic problems. a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring took place that included "Action Program" of liberalizations. Hungary and East Germany. most notably French Algeria. he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom. The doctrine found its origins in the failures of Marxism-Leninism in states like Poland. freedom of speech and freedom of movement. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September 1958. Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine. Romania and China. De Gaulle protested at the United States' strong role in the Soviet Tupolev Tu-95 D aircraft in the early organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between 1970s the United States and the United Kingdom. Soviet leaders such as Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin embraced the notion of détente. with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 United States Navy F-4 Phantom II intercepts a onwards. which described increasing freedom of the press.[172] Leonid Brezhnev and Richard Nixon during Brezhnev's June 1973 visit to Washington. the possibility of a multiparty government.

handed victory to the conservative Joaquín Balaguer. Although Balaguer enjoyed a real base of support from sectors of the elites as well as peasants. and the fitting out of a private mercernary army against the Manley government.Cold War 178 Third World escalations In late April 1965. the hardline anti-communist General Suharto wrested control of the state from his predecessor Sukarno in an attempt to establish a "New Order". ultimately culminated in what most of the world saw as a humiliating defeat of the world's most powerful superpower at the hands of one of the world's poorest nations. the continent-wide South American Operation Condor — employed by dictators in Argentina. during the occupation. Johnson stationed some 575.[179] rumors of imminent Soviet intervention on the Egyptians' behalf during the 1973 Yom Kippur War brought about a massive American mobilization that threatened to wreck détente. with a reluctant Soviet Union feeling obliged to assist in both the 1967 Six-Day War (with advisers and technicians) and the War of Attrition (with pilots and aircraft) against pro-Western Israel. 1973 and quickly consolidated all political power as a military dictator. citing the threat of the emergence of a Cuban-style revolution in Latin America. which (sometimes accurately) perceived Soviet or Cuban support behind these opposition movements. was a troublesome client.000 troops in the Dominican Republic for a one-year occupation of the republic in an invasion codenamed Operation Power Pack. becoming the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas.[177] The United States' covert response included financing Manley's political opponents. Egypt.[140] Violence ensued. Johnson landed some 22. Chile.[176] Displeasing the United States. Uruguay. Moreover. Johnson (right) during the Glassboro Summit Conference In Indonesia. former President Juan Bosch. the Soviets were also successful in establishing close relations with communist South Yemen. Brazil. President Lyndon B. Jamaica began pursuing closer relations with the Cuban government as a result of Michael Manley's election in 1972.[179] Indirect Soviet assistance to the Palestinian side of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict included support for Yasser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).[174] Escalating the scale of American intervention in the ongoing conflict between Ngô Đình Diệm's South Vietnamese government and the communist National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) insurgents opposing it. but his costly policy weakened the US economy and. General Augusto Pinochet carried out a violent coup against the government on September 11. his formally running Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) opponent. the military orchestrated the mass killing of an estimated half-million members and sympathizers of the Indonesian Communist Party and other leftist organizations. by 1975. and Paraguay to suppress leftist dissent — was backed by the United States. the Middle East continued to be a source of contention.[175] Backed by the CIA. Additionally. did not actively campaign.[178] Despite the beginning of an Egyptian shift from a pro-Soviet to a pro-American orientation in 1972 (under Egypt's new leader Anwar El Sadat). Allende's reforms of the economy were rolled back and leftist opponents were killed or detained in internment camps under the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA).[173] Alexei Kosygin (left) next to U.[17] Presidential elections held in 1966. Bolivia.[181] . the instigation of mutiny in the Jamaican army.S.[17] In Chile.[180] Although pre-Sadat Egypt had been the largest recipient of Soviet aid in the Middle East. President Lyndon B. as well as the nationalist governments of Algeria and Iraq. From 1965 to 1966.000 troops in Southeast Asia to defeat the NLF and their North Vietnamese allies in the Vietnam War. the Socialist Party candidate Salvador Allende won the presidential election of 1970.[173] The PRD's activists were violently harrassed by the Dominican police and armed forces. which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the USSR.

[182] Apartheid South Africa sent troops to support the UNITA. and several other African governments also supported a third faction. Cuban troops took part in the war on the side of the Ethiopians. backed by the United States. with the United States. tensions along the Chinese-Soviet border reached their peak in 1969.[186] Although indirect conflict between Cold War powers continued through the late 1960s and early 1970s. the USSR achieved rough nuclear parity Richard Nixon meets with Mao Zedong in 1972.[111] . Somali army officers led by Mohamed Siad Barre carried out a bloodless coup in 1969. Suharto's Indonesia invaded in December — the beginning of an occupation that would last a quarter-century. meanwhile.Cold War In Africa. who built up relations with the Cubans and Soviets. a radical group of Ethiopian army officers led by the pro-Soviet Mengistu Haile Mariam. Nixon announced a stunning rapprochement with Mao's China[185] by traveling to Beijing and meeting with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. The United States. Without bothering to consult the Soviets in advance. backed by the Cubans and Soviets. the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). a two-decade civil war replaced the anti-colonial struggle as fighting erupted between the communist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). the colony of East Timor unilaterally declared independence under the left-wing Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) in November 1975. but the MPLA. the People's Republic of China.[182] When fighting between the Somalis and Ethiopians broke out in the 1977-1978 Somali-Ethiopian Ogaden War. creating the socialist Somali Democratic Republic. tensions were beginning to ease. eventually gained the upper hand. the apartheid government of South Africa. the Vietnam War both weakened America's influence in the Third World and cooled relations with Western Europe. Barre lost his Soviet support and allied with the United States. In February 1972. Supported by Australia and the United States. The Soviet Union vowed to support Somalia. Four years later. and Mobutu's government in Zaire. At this time. the Cuban government sent its troops to fight alongside the MPLA.[183] 179 Sino-American rapproachment As a result of the Sino-Soviet split.[] In southeast Asia. bolstered by Cuban personnel and Soviet assistance.[182] The 1974 Portuguese Carnation Revolution against the authoritarian Estado Novo returned Portugal to a multi-party system and facilitated the independence of the Portuguese colonies Angola and East Timor. In Africa. and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA). where Angolan rebels had waged a multi-faction independence war against Portuguese rule since 1961.[184] The Chinese had sought improved relations with the Americans in order to gain advantage over the Soviets as well. and United States President Richard Nixon decided to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. the pro-American Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown in a 1974 coup by the Derg.

Brezhnev. 1979.000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in order to support the Marxist government formed by ex-Prime-minister Nur Muhammad Taraki. the two sides also agreed to strengthen their economic ties.Cold War 180 Nixon.[17] Second Cold War (1979–85) The term second Cold War has been used by some historians to refer to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War tensions and conflicts in the late 1970s and early 1980s. culminating in the Helsinki Accords signed at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1975. which both ousted pro-US regimes. These aimed to limit the development of costly anti-ballistic missiles and nuclear missiles.[190] Indirect conflict between the superpowers continued through this period of détente in the Third World. Meanwhile. As a result of their meetings. in Vienna and established the groundbreaking new policy of détente (or cooperation) between the two superpowers. Brezhnev attempted to revive the Soviet economy. including the Iranian Revolution and the Nicaraguan Revolution. Chile. assassinated that September by one of his party rivals. particularly during political crises in the Middle East. détente would replace the hostility of the Cold War and the two countries would live mutually. and détente Following his China visit. continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov. these developments coincided with the "Ostpolitik" of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt.[13] War in Afghanistan During December 1979. given that "the Soviets justified their intervention by asserting that they intended to fight against a secret involvement of the United States in Afghanistan" and that "people didn't believe them. Ethiopia.[191] Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in 1979.[187] Meanwhile. Tensions greatly increased between the major powers with both sides becoming more militaristic. the KGB. who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms. approximately 75.[171] Other agreements were concluded to stabilize the situation in Europe. which was declining in part because of heavy military expenditures.[187] These Strategic Arms Limitation Talks resulted in two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I. President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski stated that the president had already signed a directive to provide aid to the anti-communist mujahideen insurgency against the pro-Soviet PDPA government of Afghanistan in July. the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers.[188] and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. including Brezhnev in Moscow.[194] Asked by the interviewer if he had regrets.[17] including agreements for increased trade. led by Yuri Andropov. and Anglo. and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December. June 18. Nixon met with Soviet leaders." Brzezinski responded: .[189] Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II Late 1970s deterioration of relations In the 1970s.[17] Between 1972 and 1974. some six months prior to the Soviet military intervention. which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles.[72] Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence" treaty.[193] In a post-Afghan War interview conducted by French weekly newsmagazine Le Nouvel Observateur.[192] his efforts were undermined by the other events that year.

[204] . It had the effect of drawing the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to regret it? The day that the Soviets officially crossed the border.. representing a catastrophe for the Soviet economy.[203] In December 1981. in addition to containment. Poland's Wojciech Jaruzelski reacted to the crisis by imposing a period of martial law. vowing to increase military spending and confront the Soviets everywhere. 1981 breakdown in relations with the new Ayatollah Khomeini government over the Iran hostage crisis. for fear it might lead to heavy economic sanctions.[202] Additionally. the Reagan administration reached out to the anti-communist Khomeini in an effort to recruit the theocracy into the American camp in the early 1980s. Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. imposing embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR..S. the USSR has many. He described the Soviet incursion as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War". I wrote to President Carter: we now have the opportunity of [195] giving to the USSR its Vietnam. The U.[198] Despite anti-American sentiment in Iran as a result of the 1979 Iranian Thatcher's Ministry meets with Reagan's Cabinet Revolution against the pro-American shah and an accompanying at the White House. formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments. has almost no cards to play. the CIA passed an extensive list of Iranian communists and other leftists secretly working in the Iranian government to Khomeini's administration.[202] Polish Solidarity movement and martial law Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism. the CIA encouraged anti-communist Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency to train Muslims from around the world to participate in the jihad against the Soviet Union.[200] A Tower Commission report later observed that the list was utilized to take "measures. a visit to his native Poland in 1979 stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movement that galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later. and further announced that the United States would boycott the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics. and demanding a significant increase in military spending.. Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an "evil empire" and predicted that Communism would be left on the "ash heap of history".Cold War 181 “ Regret what? The secret operation was an excellent idea.[197] Both Reagan and new British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher denounced the Soviet Union and its ideology. In 1983. the Kremlin's top ideologist.[204] Mikhail Suslov.[196] Reagan and Thatcher In 1980. Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrine — which.. that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran. including mass executions."[199] One mode of American support for the Iranians consisted of secret arms sales. the CIA also sought to weaken the Soviet Union itself by promoting political Islam in the majority-Muslim Central Asian Soviet Union.[201] Besides continuing Carters' policy of supporting the Islamic opponents of the Soviet Union and the Soviet-backed PDPA government in Afghanistan. Then-CIA director William Casey described the Khomeini government as "faltering and [possibly] moving toward a moment of truth. Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland in response. advised Soviet leaders not to intervene if Poland fell under the control of Solidarity. ” Carter responded to the Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II treaty from the Senate."[200] By early 1985.

1945–2006 Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off. and in the sheer size of their military–industrial base.[208] US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles.[206] The Soviet Armed Forces became the largest in the world in terms of the numbers and types of weapons they possessed.[205] Soviet spending on the arms race and other Cold War commitments both caused and exacerbated deep-seated structural problems in the Soviet system. Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity. carrying the Strategic Defense Initiative sensor experiment "Delta Star".[207] However. in the number of troops in their ranks. but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges. which saw at least a decade of economic stagnation during the late Brezhnev years. the quantitative advantages held by the Soviet military often concealed areas where the Eastern Bloc dramatically lagged behind the West.Cold War 182 Soviet and US military and economic issues Moscow had built up a military that consumed as much as 25 percent of the Soviet Union's gross national product at the expense of consumer goods and investment in civilian sectors. .

This buildup was accelerated by the Reagan administration. as oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues.[219] oil prices decreases and large military expenditures gradually brought the Soviet economy to stagnation.. the Soviet Union shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007. a Boeing 747 with 269 people aboard.[220] The Able Archer 83 exercise in November 1983. produced LGM-118 Peacekeepers. when it violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island near Moneron Island —an act which Reagan characterized as a "massacre".. the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions. . Andropov invited Smith to the Soviet Union. bombed Libya and backed the Central American Contras. including sitting Congressman Larry McDonald. . which affected the Soviet Union. as the Soviet leadership keeping a close watch on it considered a nuclear attack to be imminent. along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture.[218] These developments contributed to the 1980s oil glut.3 percent of GNP in 1981 to 6.[216] On September 1. primarily West Germany. and announced his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative. This act increased support for military deployment. which increased the military spending from 5.. were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.[224] However.[221] US domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam War.[216] At the same time. the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military[215] because the enormous military expenses.[213] This deployment would have placed missiles just 10 minutes' striking distance from Moscow.[222] In 1983. Reagan persuaded Saudi Arabia to increase oil production.[98] While Reagan's interventions against Grenada and Libya were popular in the United States.[211] installed US cruise missiles in Europe. and the deployment of Soviet RSD-10 Pioneer ballistic missiles targeting Western Europe. positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system. NATO decided.[210] Tensions continued intensifying in the early 1980s when Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program that was canceled by the Carter administration. 1983.[224] The Kremlin sent nearly 100. Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief.[205] [216] Issues with command economics. under the impetus of the Carter presidency. his backing of the Contra rebels was mired in controversy. anti-communist paramilitaries seeking to overthrow the Soviet-aligned Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Muslim guerrillas.[214] After ten year old American Samantha Smith wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov expressing her fear of nuclear war. the Reagan administration intervened in the multisided Lebanese Civil War. which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. president Carter began massively building up the United States military. Moscow's quagmire in Afghanistan was far more disastrous for the Soviets than Vietnam had been for the Americans because the conflict coincided with a period of internal decay and domestic crisis in the Soviet system. It may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has .[222] The Reagan administration emphasized the use of quick.5 percent in 1986. overseen by Reagan. After Reagan's military buildup. to deploy MGM-31 Pershing and cruise missiles in Europe. low-cost counter-insurgency tactics to intervene in foreign conflicts.[212] With the background of a buildup in tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. Soon after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. A senior US State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as 1980. a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight. has been called most dangerous moment since the Cuban Missile Crisis.000 troops to support its puppet regime in Afghanistan. waged a fierce resistance against the invasion.[223] Meanwhile. aided by the US and other countries..Cold War 183 By the early 1980s. invaded Grenada.[209] the largest peacetime defense buildup in United States history. the USSR had built up a military arsenal and army surpassing that of the United States. leading many outside observers to dub the war "the Soviets' Vietnam". dubbed "Star Wars" by the media. a realistic simulation of a coordinated NATO nuclear release.[217] even as other non-OPEC nations were increasing production.

"They keep dying on me".[237] East–West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late 1980s.[236] The negotiations failed. Bush signed the START I arms control treaty. but the third summit in 1987 led to a breakthrough with the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF). After Chernenko's death.[229] Perestroika relaxed the production quota system.[229] Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House. Reagan was asked why he had not negotiated with Soviet leaders. W. or openness. ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5.[227] 184 Final years (1985–91) Gorbachev reforms By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in 1985.[228] An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary and in June 1987 Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika. Switzerland. contributing to the accelerating détente between the two nations. or restructuring. reforms. when Gorbachev and George H. The INF treaty eliminated all nuclear-armed.[233] Thaw in relations In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions. culminating with the final summit in Moscow in 1989. which increased freedom of the press and the transparency of state institutions. accompanied only by an interpreter.[234] At one stage the two men.500 kilometers (300 to 3.[228] These issues prompted Gorbachev to investigate measures to revive the ailing state. neither of whom lasted long. allowed private ownership of businesses and paved the way for foreign investment.400 miles) and their infrastructure. virtually incapacitated in his last years. was succeeded by Andropov and Chernenko. We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay". which now seems to expend more energy on simply maintaining its equilibrium than on improving itself. Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative.[238] During the following year it became apparent to the Soviets that oil and gas subsidies.Cold War caught up with the Soviet system. 1987 Despite initial skepticism in the West. Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race.[232] Glasnost also enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world. particularly with the United States. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more productive areas in the civilian sector.[231] Glasnost was intended to reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and moderate the abuse of power in the Central Committee. Reagan quipped. the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West. along with the cost of maintaining massive troops . agreed in principle to reduce each country's nuclear arsenal by 50 percent.[111] [230] Partly as a way to fight off internal opposition from party cliques to his Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988.[235] A second Reykjavík Summit was held in Iceland.[198] the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the 1980s.[234] The first was held in November 1985 in Geneva.[225] [226] The Soviets were not helped by their aged and sclerotic leadership either: Brezhnev. which Gorbachev wanted eliminated: Reagan refused. Gorbachev simultaneously introduced glasnost.

Gorbachev's "Common European Home" concept began to take shape. the Communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power. 1991. created on December 21. the two former rivals were partners in the Gulf War against Iraq. glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together[240] and by February 1990. such as Poland.[251] The USSR was declared officially dissolved on December 25. The Commonwealth of Independent States. who strove to maintain friendly relations. Bush. is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union but.[240] In 1989.[245] 185 Faltering Soviet system By 1989. condemned the January 1991 killings in Latvia and Lithuania.[248] Romania being the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state. 1991.Cold War levels. represented a substantial economic drain.[247] The 1989 revolutionary wave that swept across Central and Eastern Europe overthrew the Soviet-style communist states.[242] When the Berlin Wall came down.[239] the only alternative being a Tiananmen scenario. Hungary.[252] .[239] In addition. even Bush. declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit. privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued. the security advantage of a buffer zone was recognised as irrelevant and the Soviets officially declared that they would no longer intervene in the affairs of allied states in Eastern Europe. George H.[244] a year later. deprived of Soviet military support. the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse. according to Russia's leaders. with the Baltic states withdrawing from the Union entirely. Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan[241] and by 1990 Gorbachev consented to German reunification. Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. official end of the Soviet Union who threatened to secede from the USSR. with the dissolution of the USSR looming.[241] In the USSR itself. its purpose was to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to a loose confederation. W. 1989. the coup and a growing number of Soviet republics. Gorbachev and Reagan's successor. and. component republics to declare their autonomy from Moscow.[246] At the same time freedom of press and dissent allowed by glasnost and the festering "nationalities question" increasingly led the Union's The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.[243] On December 3. particularly Russia. the Communist Party was forced to surrender its 73-year-old monopoly on state power.[250] The USSR was fatally weakened by a failed Commonwealth of Independent States.[249] Soviet dissolution Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory.

[13] NATO has expanded eastwards into the former After the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[264] Most of the proxy wars and subsidies for local conflicts ended along with the Cold War.[258] The Cold War also marked the apex of peacetime military-industrial complexes.[13] The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by Communist governments has produced new civil and ethnic conflicts. the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic growth and a large increase in the number of liberal democracies. as a share of their gross national product the financial cost for the Soviet Union was far higher than that incurred by the United States.[267] Historians have also disagreed on what exactly the Cold War was.[253] After Russia embarked on capitalist economic reforms in the 1990s.Cold War 186 Aftermath Following the Cold War. with the United States the sole Union since the end of the Cold War. most notably in Southeast Asia. creating a wrenching adjustment as the military-industrial sector had previously employed one of every five Soviet adults.[13] . while in other parts of the world.[254] Russian living standards have worsened overall in the post-Cold War years. millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe.000[258] troops posted abroad in dozens of countries.[13] In Eastern Europe. it suffered a financial crisis and a recession more severe than the US and Germany had experienced during the Great Depression. as well as refugee and displaced persons crises have declined sharply in the post-Cold War years. however. although the economy has resumed growth since 1999. remaining superpower. ethnic wars. and whether the conflict between the two superpowers was inevitable.000 in Asia (mainly Japan and South Korea). independence was accompanied by state failure. particularly in the former Yugoslavia. while nearly 100. revolutionary wars.[255] [256] [257] The Cold War defined the political role of the United States in the post-World War II world: by 1989 the US held military alliances with 50 countries. historians have sharply disagreed as to who was responsible for the breakdown of Soviet–US relations after the Second World War. with 326. or could have been avoided.[263] In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers. policy and foreign relations. have grown considerably during the Cold War.000 Americans lost their lives in the Korean War and Vietnam War.[254] The aftermath of the Cold War continues to influence world affairs. interstate wars. and had 526.[13] Historiography As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to post-war tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. such as Afghanistan. is not always easily erased. the post-Cold War world is Warsaw Pact and former parts of the Soviet widely considered as unipolar. what the sources of the conflict were.[261] Military expenditures by the US during the Cold War years were estimated to have been $8 trillion. political scientists. as many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute. and large-scale military funding of science.[262] Although the loss of life among Soviet soldiers is difficult to estimate. and journalists. though their origins may be found as early as the 19th century. especially in the USA.[260] These complexes. The military-industrial complexes have great impact on their countries and help shape their society. Russia cut military spending dramatically.000 in Europe (two-thirds of which in west Germany)[259] and about 130.[253] meaning its dismantling left millions throughout the former Soviet Union unemployed.[266] In particular. and how to disentangle patterns of action and reaction between the two sides.[265] The aftermath of Cold War conflict. interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians.

p. BBC News. p. "Islamofascism Anyone?" (http:/ / www. Harper. [7] Lippmann.Cold War Although explanations of the origins of the conflict in academic discussions are complex and diverse. Retrieved on July 2. The Penguin Press. [6] ' Bernard Baruch coins the term "Cold War" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-1-59420-168-4. history. 2008. p. Amsterdam. 57 [10] Palmieri 1989. Retrieved on July 2. p. 28 [37] [38] [39] [40] Roberts 2006.[260] "Orthodox" accounts place responsibility for the Cold War on the Soviet Union and its expansion into Eastern Europe.. 22 [31] Bourantonis 1996. 21 Senn. 194–197 [18] Tim Tzouliadis. 57 [9] Lee 1999. pp. [19] George C. Rodopi. 176 [26] Plokhy 2010 [28] Gaddis 2005. Herring Jr. Geiger. Oxford University Press. Alfred Erich. [34] Alan Wood.[260] "Revisionist" writers place more responsibility for the breakdown of post-war peace on the United States. 1946 Gaddis 2005. pp. Ashgate Publishing. co. [25] Gaddis 1990. Orwell. The concise Oxford dictionary of politics. Michael (2001). p. 1973).com. citing a range of US efforts to isolate and confront the Soviet Union well before the end of World War II.[260] "Post-revisionists" see the events of the Cold War as more nuanced. p. Cold War (http:/ / books. 7. p. p. . Aid to Russia. 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2225-6 Roberts 2006. stm)". April 16. p. 1947. . 74 [15] Tucker 1992. p. several general schools of thought on the subject can be identified.[33] 187 Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Kort. 55 . p. 98 [17] LaFeber 1991. 156 [23] Gaddis 2005. 2005. com/ ?id=Ydc3AAAAIAAJ& q=walter+ lippmann+ cold+ war& dq=walter+ lippmann+ cold+ war). [8] Gaddis 1990. 75 [16] Tucker 1992. p. p. p. May 9. pp. Iain. 46 [12] Tucker 1992. history. iht. ISBN 0192802763. the Origins of the Cold War (Columbia University Press. bbc. Retrieved 2008-06-16. Historians commonly speak of three differing approaches to the study of the Cold War: "orthodox" accounts. 2008. . The Observer. google. 47–8 [13] Halliday 2001. McMillan. 25–26 [36] LaFeber 2002. "revisionism". "Cold War (entire chapter)" (http:/ / books. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4530565. 62 [11] Tucker 1992. p. p. 43 Wettig 2008. 54 Safire. p. The Columbia Guide to the Cold War. 2006).[260] Much of the historiography on the Cold War weaves together two or even all three of these broad categories. 401 [33] Byrd. p. 62 [35] Gaddis 2005. p. com/ this-day-in-history/ bernard-baruch-coins-the-term-cold-war)'. p. In McLean. Peter (2003). Till (2004). 151–153 [21] Gaddis 2005. and attempt to be more balanced in determining what occurred during the Cold War. Walter (1947). Diplomacy. Alistair. pp. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 13–23 [22] Gaddis 1990. New York. php). 21 [29] Zubok 1996. p. 130 [32] Garthoff 1994. com/ articles/ 2006/ 10/ 01/ news/ edsafire. and "post-revisionism". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). pp. 2e [14] Tucker 1992. 1941–1946: Strategy. Columbia University Press. [20] Gaddis 1990. George. Lithuania 1940 : revolution from above. March 10. William (October 1. 94 [30] Gaddis 2005. p. google. 3. 2008. 7 [24] " Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead (http:/ / news. Retrieved December 25. The Forsaken. com/ books?id=xLbEHQAACAAJ& ei=E45VSJrQO4e4jgGh_oWODA). p. Britain and the Economic Problem of the Cold War. p.

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_Bibliography) News • Video and audio news reports from during the cold war (http://news.edu/qsearch.com/SPECIALS/cold. highlights the CIA's efforts from the 1950s through the mid-1970s to pursue in-depth research on Soviet and Chinese internal politics and Sino-Soviet relations.org/) • CNN Cold War Knowledge Bank (http://www.com/) • CBC Digital Archives – Cold War Culture: The Nuclear Fear of the 1950s and 1960s (http://archives.cnn. Bibliographies • Annotated bibliography for the arms race from the Alsos Digital Library (http://alsos. a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan (http://www. Notes on Orwell's essay (http:// georgeorwellnovels.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/ 128mimi/) Terminology • You and the Atom Bomb (1945) (http://georgeorwellnovels.stm) Educational Resources • Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War .co.org/guide/) • An archive of UK civil defence material (http://www.co. POLO.bbc.nps. .uk/onthisday/hi/themes/ world_politics/cold_war/default.ca/ IDD-1-71-274/conflict_war/cold_war/) • The Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) (http://www.wlu. and POLO series.war/) comparison of articles on Cold War topics in the Western and the Soviet press between 1945 and 1991 • The CAESAR.conelrad.Cold War 195 External links Archives • Open Society Archives. and ESAU Papers (http://community.uk/) • CONELRAD Cold War Pop Culture Site (http://www.com/articles/entry/ The-CAESAR-POLO-and-ESAU-Papers-)–This collection of declassified analytic monographs and reference aids. Budapest (Hungary). ESAU.citizendium. one of the biggest history of communism and cold war archives in the world (http://www.org/wiki/Cold_War.theblackvault. designated within the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Directorate of Intelligence (DI) as the CAESAR.org/) • The Cold War Files (http://coldwarfiles. aspx?browse=issues/Arms+Race) • Annotated bibliography from Citizendium (http://en.demon.cybertrn.cbc.com/essays/you-and-the-atom-bomb/) Complete essay by George Orwell with first published use of the term "cold war".osaarchivum. The documents reflect the views of seasoned analysts who had followed closely their special areas of research and whose views were shaped in often heated debate.cwihp.com/essays/tribune-and-the-atom-bomb-letters/).

ensuring that they were completely under the control of the party and would never again be able to wage mass terror. Afterwards. The new leadership declared an amnesty for some serving prison sentences for criminal offenses. The leadership also began allowing some criticism of Stalin. Khrushchev initiated "The Thaw" better known as Khrushchev's Thaw. 1956. saying that his one-man dictatorship went against the principles laid down by Lenin. Furthermore. despite his record as part of Stalin's terror state. At a speech "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences" to the closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress of the CPSU. anti-Trotskyism. if the capitalists did desire war. De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era See also: Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin died in March 1953. and a vast majority of the remaining inmates were common criminals). That included some openness and contact with other nations and new social and economic policies with more emphasis on commodity goods. However the central figure in the immediate post-Stalin period was the former head of the state security apparatus. The war hysteria that characterized his last years was toned down. freeing millions of political prisoners (the Gulag population declined from 13 million in 1953 to 5 million in 1956–57.Soviet Russia during the Cold War 196 Soviet Russia during the Cold War The period after Joseph Stalin and the death and funeral of Leonid Brezhnev was dominated by Cold War politics. But. cultural and economic life in the Soviet Union. Lavrentiy Beria. he stated that the orthodox view of war between the capitalist and communist worlds being inevitable was no longer true. February 25. committing sabotage. stating that capitalism would decay from within and that world socialism would triumph peacefully. as the Soviet Union and the United States struggled both directly and indirectly for the planetary domination of their respective systems and the defense of their established spheres of influence. he added. Some subtle critiques of the Soviet . However. allowing living standards to rise dramatically while maintaining high levels of economic growth. Communists around the world were as shocked and confused by his condemnation of Stalin as they had been in 1939 by the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. including the release of some political prisoners. Beria. a complex shift in political. Although by the late fifties the party disowned the legacy of Stalin. and relaxed the restrictions on private plots. Censorship was relaxed as well. and plotting to restore capitalism. and government bureaucrats and factory managers were ordered to wear civilian clothing instead of military-style outfits. the Soviet Union would respond in kind. At the end of the year. Khrushchev shocked his listeners by denouncing Stalin's dictatorial rule and cult of personality. The impact on Soviet politics was immense. The secret police were disarmed and reorganized into the KGB. he was shot following a show trial where he was accused of spying for the West. De-Stalinization also spelled an end to the role of large-scale forced labor in the economy. He also attacked the crimes committed by Stalin's closest associates. Khrushchev eased restrictions. announced price cuts. post-New Economic Policy (NEP) planned economy under Five-Year Plans and the denial of the secret protocols of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact) essentially remained in place unchanged until Mikhail Gorbachev. Khrushchev gradually rose to power. the political culture Stalin established (concentration of power in the hands of the General Secretary. He advocated competition with the West rather than outright hostility. In the post-Beria period. Khrushchev rapidly began to emerge as the key figure. the Politburo members disliked and feared Beria for his role under Stalin and with the support of the armed forces. The speech stripped the legitimacy of his remaining Stalinist rivals. During a period of collective leadership. he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. had him arrested three months after Stalin's death. dramatically boosting his power domestically. initiated a period of relative liberalization.

in 1961. and in return. Aid to developing countries and scientific research. which orbited the earth in 1957. Poland would still remain a member of the Warsaw Pact (established a year earlier). The Soviets also sent the first man into space. closing down many houses of worship. This almost triggered a Soviet invasion when Polish Communists elected him without consulting the Kremlin in advance. The following year Khrushchev defeated a concerted Stalinist attempt to recapture power. but would never possess the absolute power Stalin had. On the other hand. Yuri Gagarin.Soviet Russia during the Cold War society was tolerated. and the artists were not expected to produce only works which had government-approved political context. About 2500-3000 Hungarian insurgents and 700 Soviet troops were killed. 197 . The Hungarian uprising was a blow to Western communists. were careful not to get into trouble. especially into space technology and weaponry. consolidating his power — the tradition followed by all his predecessors and successors. which was in sharp contrast to Stalin's Europe-centered foreign policy. most of whom were proud of both the country and the Party. many who had formerly supported the Soviet Union began to criticize it in the wake of the Soviet suppression of the Hungarian uprising. none of the "anti−party group" were killed or even arrested. the Soviet Union seldom intervened in its neighbors' domestic and external affairs. decisively defeating the so−called "Anti-Party Group". leading to the rise of Władysław Gomułka to power in October. one of the most die-hard Stalinists. This event also illustrated the new nature of Soviet politics—the most decisive attack on the Stalinists was delivered by defense minister Georgy Zhukov. but in the end. Khrushchev became premier on March 27. A political convulsion soon followed. thousands more were wounded. and Vyacheslav Molotov. but he was regarded by his political enemies — especially the emerging caste of professional technocrats — as a boorish peasant who would interrupt speakers to insult them. Incidents such as pounding his shoe on a table at the UN in 1960 and red-faced rants against the West and intellectuals were a source of grave embarrassment to Soviet politicians. Sputnik 1. He was now the ultimate source of authority in the Soviet Union. which led to reprisals from national forces there. Still. Such loosening of controls also caused an enormous impact on other socialist countries in Central Europe. he became the first Soviet leader to visit the US. The Soviet Union launched the first ever artificial earth satellite in history. Khrushchev backed down due to Gomułka's widespread popularity in the country. and the implied threat to the plotters was clear. artists. maintained the Soviet Union as one of the world's two major world powers. however. many of which were resentful of Soviet influence in their affairs. was made ambassador to Mongolia and later the Soviet representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Riots broke out in Poland in the summer of 1956. Khrushchev also began reaching out to newly independent countries in Asia & Africa. 1958. And in September 1959. Khrushchev outmaneuvered his Stalinist rivals. the 1956 Hungarian uprising was brutally suppressed by Soviet troops. In November 1956. This was the final stage in the transition from the earlier period of post-Stalin collective leadership. and nearly a quarter million left the country as refugees. he reintroduced aggressive anti-religious campaigns. and Khrushchev disposed of them quite cleverly: Georgy Malenkov was sent to manage a power station in Kazakhstan.

had earlier attracted the attention of the collective leadership. In his Virgin Lands Campaign in the mid−1950s. In defense policy. Khrushchev began cutting the military's budget. While industrial production. But all Khrushchev's (probably sincere) attempts to build a strong personal relationship with the new president failed. and his reorganization of collective farms into larger units produced confusion in the countryside. increased payments for crops grown on collective farms.Soviet Russia during the Cold War 198 Reforms and Khrushchev's fall Throughout his years of leadership. but it alienated key figures in the Soviet military establishment and culminating in the fiasco (in Soviet eyes) of the Cuban missile crisis. he opened many tracts of land to farming in Kazakhstan and neighboring areas of The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence. created a source of tension with the West. Connected with this decentralization was Khrushchev's decision in 1962 to recast party organizations along economic. however. proved counterproductive. the decentralization of industry led to disruption and inefficiency. feeling that the Soviet nuclear arsenal was an adequate deterrent to outside aggression. the agricultural sector faced a bad harvest in . Although he intended these economic councils to be more responsive to local needs. Khrushchev continued to believe in the theories of the biologist Trofim Lysenko. as his typical combination of bluster. The state encouraged peasants to grow more on their private plots. miscalculation and mishap resulted in the Cuban fiasco. Russia. After the Berlin and Cuba crises. but in some years 1961 they produced excellent harvests. Despite large reductions in Soviet conventional forces since 1956. Later agricultural reforms by Khrushchev. This had a practical reason in that there was a shortage of military-age men due to the lower birth rate of the 1940s. presidential election—the so−called 'Missile gap'. lines. made under initiative of the East German authorities. The resulting bifurcation of the party apparatus into industrial and agricultural sectors at the oblast (province) level and below contributed to the disarray and alienated many party officials at all levels. Khrushchev attempted to carry out reform in a range of fields. which introduced important innovations in this area of the Soviet economy. living standards and consumer goods were still growing at a very rapid pace. The problems of Soviet agriculture. Kennedy with a key issue to use against Richard Nixon in the 1960 U. a major concern of Khrushchev's. Symptomatic of the country's economic difficulties was the abandonment in 1963 of Khrushchev's special seven−year economic plan (1959–65) two years short of its completion. By 1964 Khrushchev's prestige had been damaged in a number of areas. In a politically motivated move to weaken the central state bureaucracy in 1957. rather than administrative. the construction of the Berlin Wall. Khrushchev did away with the industrial ministries in Moscow and replaced them with regional economic councils (sovnarkhozes).S. Khrushchev's boasts about Soviet missile forces provided John F. tensions tapered off between the two superpowers. These new farmlands turned out to after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of be susceptible to droughts. His plans for growing corn and increasing meat and dairy production failed. and invested more heavily in agriculture. a carryover from the Stalin era.

which allowed plots to be formed against him. and his efforts to improve relations with the West antagonized many in the military. The Soviet Union hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics. Despite increasingly poor health. Premier Alexei Kosygin. On the other hand. significant liberalization in the country. whereby the Soviet Union claimed the right to intervene in any country that was deviating from the "correct" path of socialism. The space program continued." However. Power started going to his head. He retired as a private citizen after an editorial in Pravda denounced him for "hare−brained schemes. but in their own country they had little relationship with the common people. the Presidium unanimously voted him out of office and refused to permit him to take his case to the Central Committee. Relations with China devolved into open hostility during the Cultural Revolution. A new constitution was adopted in 1977. worsening the country's financial position. Like the previous leaders of the Soviet Union. The Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia during 1968 was crushed by Soviet tanks. but was longer and more thoroughly mentioned the leading role of the CPSU. The most prominent dissidents attracted widespread sympathy and support from the West. and Stalin was partially rehabilitated. the Soviets began supplying aid to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War.[1] Dissidents were relentlessly harassed by the KGB under Yuri Andropov. replacing the 1936 constitution. 199 The era of Brezhnev See also: Leonid Brezhnev Following Khrushchev's expulsion. he travelled outside the country constantly. and his rule marked the zenith of Soviet political and military strength.Soviet Russia during the Cold War 1963. By that point. and actions divorced from reality. half−baked conclusions. bogged down in a stalemate against Islamic militias who enjoyed American support. censorship was tightened. and Brezhnev had overshadowed Kosygin and Podgorny. but the populace mostly treated it with apathy. . the only major conflict fought by the Soviet Union after World War II. corn. the split with China. and President Nikolai Podgorny took power. while Khrushchev was on holiday in Crimea. and after 1975 the period of "Brezhnev Stagnation" began. The Afghan War. It was basically the same. the triumvirate of 1964 was over. Abroad. and the Cuban missile crisis hurt the Khrushchev's own prestige in his own country. he continued to hold onto power. Economic growth peaked out in the early part of the decade. but it was boycotted by the United States and 60 other countries in retaliation for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan the previous year to prop up that country's Marxist government. Anti-religious activities were also toned down. Poor crop yields in the early 1970s forced the Sovied Union to import large quantities of wheat. and a grassroots anti-government movement never formed as it did in countries like Poland. In terms of foreign policy. and he began to act more autocratically than before. a triumvirate consisting of General Secretary Brezhnev. and soybeans at high prices. and the greater flexibility he brought to Soviet leadership. which was noticeable at the celebrations of his 70th birthday in April 1964. and the two communist giants were mortal enemies by the 1970s. Furthermore. He was also the subject of a growing personality cult. but the Soviet attempt to land men on the moon did not go ahead and by the 1970s had switched to a program of manned space stations. and the Brezhnev Doctrine was instituted. another source of national pride. and many were sent to labor camps or mental hospitals. hasty decisions. the 1962 party reorganization caused turmoil throughout the Soviet political chain of command. the construction of the Berlin Wall. Khrushchev must also be remembered for his public disavowal of Stalinism. a personality cult began to form around him in his last years. In October 1964. Lastly. They began pursuing more stable policies. while retaining the basic elements of de-Stalinization and peaceful competition with the West.

Failed attempts at reform. although hints of reform emerged as early as 1983. Russia in the Twentieth Century: the View of a Soviet Historian. Soviet Political Society. and increasing democratization led to a weakening of the central government. he replaced more than one-fifth of the Soviet ministers and regional party first secretaries and more than one-third of the department heads within the Central Committee apparatus. htm Further reading • Baradat.S.Soviet Russia during the Cold War 200 References [1] http:/ / www. Two days passed between his death and the announcement of the election of Yuri Andropov as the new General Secretary. ISBN 0-13-823592-9 • Nenarokov. The USSR's trade gap progressively emptied the coffers of the union. New York. 1986. Once in power. ISBN 0-394-70745-1 Dissolution of the Soviet Union The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991. The Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991 when Boris Yeltsin seized power in the aftermath of a failed coup that had attempted to topple reform-minded Gorbachev. he assumed the post of chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. Years of Soviet military buildup at the expense of domestic development. Prentice−Hall. created an atmosphere of open criticism of the Moscow regime. A huge rate of defense spending consumed large parts of the economy. he replaced the aging leadership with younger. New Jersey. Mikhail Gorbachev.[1] Several Soviet Socialist Republics began resisting central control. Greater political and social freedoms. but the system was so firmly entrenched that any real change seemed impossible. The dramatic drop of the price of oil in 1985 and 1986. The Andropov interregnum Brezhnev died on November 10. William Morrow Co. ers. a stagnant economy. In June 1983. 1971. especially in the Baltic republics and Eastern Europe. Leadership transition By 1982 the stagnation of the Soviet economy was obvious. Andropov wasted no time in promoting his supporters. 1982. however. But Andropov's ability to reshape the top leadership was constrained by his poor health and the influence of his rival Konstantin Chernenko. thus becoming the ceremonial head of state. New York. literally from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. leading to eventual bankruptcy. and success of Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence against the Soviet Union's forces in war in Afghanistan led to a general feeling of discontent. more dynamic administrators. . and consequent lack of foreign exchange reserves in following years to purchase grain profoundly influenced actions of the Soviet leadership. gov/ AmberWaves/ March09/ Features/ AgCommodityPrices. During his short rule.. It had taken Brezhnev thirteen years to acquire this post. 1968.. As a result. Vintage Books. instituted by the last Soviet leader. who had previously supervised personnel matters in the Central Committee. as evidenced by the fact that the Soviet Union had been importing grain from the U. Leon P. Albert P. The transition period that separated the Brezhnev and Gorbachev eras resembled the former much more than the latter. economic growth was at a standstill. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union. usda. suggesting to many outsiders that a power struggle had occurred in the Kremlin. Leonard. throughout the 1970s. • Schapiro.

The official press agency TASS accused Reagan of "thinking only in terms of confrontation and bellicose. began undermining Soviet-supported governments by supplying arms to anti-communist resistance movements in these nations. Andropov's health declined rapidly during the tense summer and fall of 1983. promoting instead a small degree of candor in politics and mild economic experiments similar to those that had been associated with Kosygin in the mid−1960s. US−Soviet relations deteriorated rapidly beginning in March 1983. Angola. The poor state of Chernenko's health made the question of succession an acute one. under the Reagan Doctrine. Nicaragua and elsewhere. the U. 201 The Chernenko interregnum At 72. KGB repression of Soviet dissidents also increased. although Gorbachev acted as a deputy to the general secretary throughout Andropov's illness. he lived quite simply. to succeed Andropov. after lengthy discussion. when US President Ronald Reagan dubbed the Soviet Union an "evil empire". but in the late autumn of 1984 the United States and the Soviet Union did agree to resume arms control talks in early 1985. His responsibilities for the appointment of personnel allowed him to make the contacts and distribute the favours necessary for a future bid to become general secretary. retaliating for the United States boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. At this point. becoming the first Soviet leader to miss the anniversary celebrations of the 1917 revolution that November. His most significant legacy to the Soviet Union was his discovery and promotion of Mikhail Gorbachev. In tandem with such economic experiments. He died in February 1984 of kidney failure after disappearing from public view for several months. Gorbachev advanced in two years through the Kremlin hierarchy to full membership in the Politburo. Beginning in 1978.S. lunatic anti-communism". suffering from emphysema. But Chernenko's short time in office did bring some significant policy changes. Unlike Brezhnev. In foreign affairs. In Afghanistan. who possessed several mansions and a fleet of luxury cars. The personnel changes and investigations into corruption undertaken under Andropov's tutelage came to an end. and unable to play an active role in policy making when he was chosen. 1. Andropov launched an anti-corruption drive that reached high into the government and party ranks. Larry McDonald.Dissolution of the Soviet Union Andropov's domestic policy leaned heavily towards restoring discipline and order to Soviet society. Although Chernenko had called for renewed détente with the West. He also called for a reduction in the CPSU's micromanagement of the economy and greater attention to public opinion. In the late summer of 1984. When Chernenko died in March 1985. The Soviet Union boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Konstantin Chernenko was in poor health. little progress was made towards closing the rift in East−West relations during his rule. Western experts believed that Andropov was grooming Gorbachev as his successor. However. . Chernenko gave Gorbachev high party positions that provided significant influence in the Politburo. the Soviet Union also prevented a visit to West Germany by East German leader Erich Honecker. 1983 Soviet shooting of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near Moneron Island carrying 269 people including a sitting US congressman. However. Gorbachev assumed power unopposed. and Gorbachev was able to gain the vital support of Foreign Minister Andrey Gromyko in the struggle for succession. Further deterioration occurred as a result of the Sept. Chernenko advocated more investment in consumer goods and services and in agriculture. Andropov continued Brezhnev's policies. Fighting in Afghanistan also intensified. He eschewed radical political and economic reforms. His solution to the country's economic difficulties was basically for the people to work harder and show more discipline. and over Reagan's stationing of intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Western Europe. Gorbachev's time had not yet arrived when his patron died early in 1984.

controlled by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. with the aims of supporting the Afghan government. However. reaching levels not seen since the 1962 Cuban missile crisis as Reagan increased US military spending to 7% of the GDP. relatively young. Reagan's Star Wars program caused only a relatively small rise in defense costs. often referred to as the Soviet Union's "Vietnam War"[2] (see Vietnam War)."[3] East-West tensions increased during the first term of U. Tensions between the superpowers increased during this time.S. causing a sharp economic decline in the already failing Soviet economy. Under Gorbachev. Jimmy Carter had officially ended the policy of Détente. and the impetus for cultivating warmer relations and trade with the West. led to increased public dissatisfaction with the Communist regime in Moscow. it is not clear why the Soviet leaders did not adopt the Chinese option . accelerated the fall of the Soviet Union by encouraging it to overextend its economic base. who in turn put Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence in-charge of leading the war against the soviets by training and leading the anti−Soviet Mujahideen movement in neighboring Afghanistan. the Soviet Union increased its own military spending to 27% of its GDP and froze production of civilian goods at 1980 levels. who had begun their careers in the heyday of "de−Stalinization" under Nikita Khrushchev (1958–1964). “… the study concludes that the increased Soviet defense spending provoked by Mr. the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 added motive force to Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika reforms. This "long-term strategic offensive. it is not clear where the number 27% of the GDP came from. President Ronald Reagan (1981–1985). And the defense effort throughout the period from 1960 to 1987 contributed only marginally to economic decline. Pakistan's Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence was responsible for training. major motivational factor for Gorbachev was his realization that the Soviet Union could not compete economically with the USA. when Carter placed trade embargoes on the Soviet Union and stated that the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War. reform-oriented technocrats. according to this thesis. if economic premises are taken into account. Reagan's policies was not the straw that broke the back of the Empire. Following the death of terminally ill Konstantin Chernenko.[5] The proposition that special operations by CIA in Saudi Arabia affected the prices of the Soviet oil was . the Politburo elected Mikhail Gorbachev to the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in March 1985. Changing of the guard After years of stagnation. The Afghan war and the Soviet response to Mr.Dissolution of the Soviet Union 202 Rise of Gorbachev The war in Afghanistan. This thesis is not confirmed by the extensive study on the causes of the dissolution of the Soviet Union by two prominent economists from the World BankWilliam Easterly and Stanley Fisher from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. which eventually spiraled out of control and caused the Soviet system to collapse. equipping and leading Mujaheddin forces against the Soviet Army. providing new momentum for political and economic liberalization."[4] Moreover. The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence very efficiently fought the war and men like Akhtar Abdur Rahman and Hamid Gul were responsible for winning the war in Afghanistan." which "contrasts with the essentially reactive and defensive strategy of "containment". US President Reagan also actively hindered the Soviet Union's ability to sell natural gas to Europe whilst simultaneously actively working to keep gas prices low. which kept the price of Soviet oil low and further starved the Soviet Union of foreign capital. However. Instead Gorbachev chose political liberalization during the years leading to the collapse of the USSR. marking the rise of a new generation of leadership. Also. the "new thinking" of younger Communist apparatchiks began to emerge. by financially aiding President of Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. To match the USA's military buildup. rapidly consolidated power within the CPSU.economic liberalization with preservation of political system. which served as a pretext for the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan six months later. while not implementing any significant economic reforms.

[7] By the time Gorbachev ushered in the process that would lead to the dismantling of the Soviet administrative command economy through his programs of glasnost (political openness). reduced it in 1987 with subsequent increase in 1988. subsidies to client states—were out of proportion to the Soviet economy. State archives became more accessible.eminent and one of the leading experts on the economy of the Soviet Union in his latest book. They increased the production of oil in 1986. thus creating pressure on the Soviet Union. manufacturing. space program. abortion. debate and participation. and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Nixon normalized American relationship with China. concluded: "Deep transformations in the management of the economy cannot be realised without . It is likely that Gorbachev's primary goal in undertaking glasnost was to pressure conservatives who opposed his policies of economic restructuring. The All−Union Center for Public Opinion Research (VCIOM) — the most prominent of several polling organizations that were started then — was opened. the Soviet people as a whole would support his reform initiatives. Egyptian president Sadat in 1979 after signing of Camp David peace accord severed military and economic relations with the USSR (by that time the USSR provided a lot of assistance to Egypt and supported it in all its military operations against Israel). The new wave of industrialization based upon information technology had left the Soviet Union desperate for Western technology and credits in order to counter its increasing backwardness. the costs of superpower status—the military. crime. He pointed out that the Saudis decreased their production of oil in 1985 (it reached 16 year low). Gorbachev called for democratization: the infusion of democratic elements such as multi−candidate elections into the Soviet political process. 203 Reforms The Law on Cooperatives enacted in May 1988 was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. In his book he asked the question if Saudi Arabia had such an effect on the Soviet oil prices why the prices did not fell in 1980 when the production of oil by Saudi Arabia reached the highest level. the Soviet economy suffered from both hidden inflation and pervasive supply shortages aggravated by an increasingly open black market that undermined the official economy.Dissolution of the Soviet Union refuted by Marshall Goldman. including conducting public opinion polls. In 1972. Additionally. Glasnost resulted in greater freedom of speech and the press becoming Soviet Union administrative divisions. Under this provision. uskoreniye (speed-up of economic development) and perestroika (political and economic restructuring) announced in 1986. The first center for gender studies was opened within a newly formed Institute for the Socio−Economic Study of Human Population. by the time when the Cold War was almost over. whereas the peak of production of oil was reached in 1980. and some social statistics that had been kept secret became open for research and publication on sensitive subjects such as income disparities. the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services. suicide. A 1987 conference convened by Soviet economist and Gorbachev adviser Leonid Abalkin. although he also hoped that through different ranges of openness. In January 1987. but not to the levels of 1980 when the production reached the highest level. Soviet social science became free to explore and publish on many subjects that had previously been off limits. Thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were also released. cooperative restaurants. and infant mortality. The real increase happened in 1990. 1989 far less controlled. For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy. and foreign-trade sectors.three times as much oil as in the middle of eighties and why the Saudis had been waiting till 1990 to increase their production -five years after CIA supposed intervention? Why the Soviet Union did not collapse in 1980 then? [6] However this theory ignores the fact that the Soviet Union had already suffered several important setbacks during “reactive and defensive strategy” of “containment”. shops.

his treaty with Adolf Hitler. To proceed with reforms opposed by the majority of the communist party. Media reports also exposed crimes committed by Joseph Stalin and the Soviet regime. leaving the Soviet Union unable to depend upon its Eastern European satellite states for protection as a buffer zone. as General Secretary of the Communist Party. Fraying amongst the members of the Warsaw Pact nations and instability of its western allies. which had been ignored by the official media. Hungary. 1990. all of which the official media had ignored. Before long. in the case of Romania. Gradually. could be forced to resign at any moment if the communist elite became dissatisfied with him. Massive peaceful protests in the Baltic Republics such as The Baltic Way and the Singing Revolution drew international attention and bolstered independence movements in various other regions. nationalists as well as radical reformers swept the board. such as the gulags. drug abuse. which Gorbachev tried to cover up. a violent uprising. all of which had been imposed after World War II. and much to the embarrassment of the authorities. the upheaval in Eastern Europe inevitably spread to nationalities within the USSR. and the mishandling of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. were brought down as revolution swept Eastern Europe. outdated Stalin-era factories. In all. the Supreme Soviet approved the establishment of a Congress of People's Deputies. but ultimately proved uncontrollable and resulted in a cascade of events that eventually concluded with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. and the Great Purges. which constitutional amendments had established as the Soviet Union's new legislative body. By 1991 the communist governments of Bulgaria.Dissolution of the Soviet Union corresponding changes in the political system. Moscow had repudiated the Brezhnev Doctrine in favor of non−intervention in the internal affairs of its Warsaw Pact allies. each of the Warsaw Pact nations saw their communist governments fall to popular elections and. Initially intended as tools to bolster the Soviet economy. East Germany. the ongoing war in Afghanistan. the ability of the USSR's central Moscow government to impose its will on the USSR's constituent republics had been largely undermined. Problems receiving increased attention included poor housing. which was independent from the CPSU and the soviets (councils) and whose holder could be impeached only in case of direct violation of the law. President of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev aimed to consolidate power in a new position. first indicated by Lech Wałęsa's 1980 rise to leadership of the trade union Solidarity. Gorbachev was elected as the first executive president. In December 1988. alcoholism. pollution. At the same time. Czechoslovakia. accelerated. Moreover.[9] On March 15. . As Gorbachev had weakened the system of internal political repression. Elections to the new Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the USSR in March and April 1989. Article 6 of the constitution was changed to deprive the CPSU of a monopoly on political power."[8] In June 1988. further damaged the credibility of the Soviet government at a time when dissatisfaction was increasing. Gorbachev. In elections to the regional assemblies of the Soviet Union's constituent republics. the media began to expose severe social and economic problems the Soviet government had long denied and actively concealed. the policies of perestroika and glasnost soon led to unintended consequences. The Soviet Union also began experiencing upheaval as the political consequences of glasnost reverberated throughout the country. and the negative aspects of life in the Soviet Union were brought into the spotlight. threatening the identity and integrity of the Soviet Union itself.[11] This undermined the faith of the public in the Soviet system and eroded the Communist Party's social power base. Poland and Romania. and petty to large−scale corruption. the positive view of Soviet life long presented to the public by the official media was rapidly fading.[10] 204 Unintended consequences Gorbachev's efforts to streamline the Communist system offered promise. Relaxation under glasnost resulted in the Communist Party losing its absolute grip on the media. Despite efforts at containment. at the CPSU's Nineteenth Party Conference. By 1989. Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus.

Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies to continue. But by using structural reforms to widen opportunities for leaders and popular movements in the union republics to gain influence. By 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions. Gorbachev's attempts at economic reform were not radical enough to restart the country's chronically sluggish economy in the late 1980s. state socialism. provoking massacres of Armenians in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. The elimination of central control over production decisions. a predominantly ethnic Armenian region in the Azerbaijan SSR. especially in the consumer goods sector. One instance occurred in February 1988. 1991. public dissatisfaction with economic conditions was much more overt than ever before in the Soviet period. He implemented these measures because he wanted to resolve serious economic problems and political inertia that clearly threatened to put the Soviet Union into a state of long−term stagnation. and the ruble moved towards convertibility. The anti−alcohol campaign reduced tax revenues as well. Thus. 205 Dissolution of the USSR The weakening of the Soviet government led to a series of events that eventually caused the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev also made it possible for nationalist. Gorbachev's decentralization caused new production bottlenecks. Ultimately. Summary The four principal elements of the old Soviet system were the hierarchy of soviets. Yeltsin's shock program was employed within days of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. As a means of reviving the Soviet state. 1990. a gradual process that took place from about January 19. . led to the breakdown in traditional supplier−producer relationships without contributing to the formation of new ones. which in 1982 accounted for about 12% of all state revenue. The reforms made some inroads in decentralization. price controls abolished. Gorbachev repeatedly attempted to build a coalition of political leaders supportive of reform and created new arenas and bases of power. inconvertibility of the ruble. Violence against local Azerbaijanis was reported on Soviet television. instead of streamlining the system. The subsidies to money-losing farms and industries were cut. Gorbachev could not forge a compromise among these forces and the consequence was the dissolution of the Soviet Union. including price controls.Dissolution of the Soviet Union The rise of nationalism under freedom of speech soon reawakened simmering ethnic tensions in various Soviet republics. but Gorbachev and his team left intact most of the fundamental elements of the Stalinist system. Although perestroika was considered bold in the context of Soviet history. to December 31. Tax revenues declined as republic and local governments withheld tax revenues from the central government under the growing spirit of regional autonomy. when the government in Nagorno-Karabakh. Gorbachev's programs of perestroika and glasnost produced radical unforeseen effects that brought that system down. others demanded independence for the national republics. orthodox communist. Post−Soviet restructuring To restructure the Soviet administrative command system and implement transition to a market-based economy. and Communist Party dominance. ethnic federalism. and the government monopoly over most means of production. further discrediting the ideal of a unified Soviet people. New opportunities for Yeltsin's circle and other entrepreneurs to seize the former state property were created thus restructuring old state-owned economy within a few months. and populist forces to oppose his attempts to liberalize and revitalize Soviet communism. Emboldened by the liberalized atmosphere of glasnost. Still others insisted on the restoration of the old Soviet ways. Although some of the new movements aspired to replace the Soviet system altogether with a liberal democratic one. passed a resolution calling for unification with the Armenian SSR. exclusion of private property ownership.

Gaidar. org/ issue/ 25991). Retrieved April 30. Retrieved 2010-08-01. ISBN 1-5627-9021-8. Mercury House. Yegor Gaidar. substituting a decentralized market system. htm). Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia (http:// www. Jr. Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. • Gaidar.edu. Reginald (June 17. Oxford University Press. Yegor (2006). ISBN 0-679-41376-6 • David Remnick. html). [7] "Sadat and Nasser" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-679-75125-4 . 1980" (http:/ / www. The Tsarist and Soviet Legacy. 49. Retrieved 2009-07-09. [4] Dale. Retrieved 12 July 2010. eliminating huge macroeconomic and structural distortions through liberalization. On the Issues: AEI online. **** at the American Enterprise Institute. Longmann Group Ltd (1995) ISBN 0-582-08922-0 Further reading • Hélène Carrère d'Encausse. Existing institutions were conspicuously abandoned prior to the establishment of new legal structures of the market economy such as those governing private property. and providing incentives through privatization. [6] Petrostate: Putin.edu/press/Books/2007/collapseofanempire. . American Enterprise Institute. com/ 1994/ 06/ 17/ business/ worldbusiness/ 17iht-think_2. 2008. and enforcing taxation. Справка" (http:/ / www. 1994. the vast majority of "idealistic" reformers gained huge possessions of state property using their positions in the government and became business oligarchs in a manner that appeared antithetical to an emerging democracy. [11] Acton. Retrieved 12 July 2010.brookings. due to major investments and business development and also due to high prices of natural resources. commentarymagazine. com/ viewarticle. RIA Novosti. 25% of the population lived below the poverty line. Yegor (****-**-**). [9] Российская история | Персонажи | Горбачев Михаил Сергеевич (http:/ / www.) [2] Tamarov.aei. in the 1996 presidential election. ru/ spravka/ 20100314/ 213855855. p. The End of the Soviet Empire: The Triumph of the Nations. [5] "The Collapse of the Soviet Union and Ronald Reagan" (http:/ / wais. Yegor (April 19. Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. Bouis (2007). ISBN 0195340736. Basic Books. 14 March 2010.C. They also thought the collapse would create new production possibilities by eliminating central planning. nytimes. The New York Times. overseeing financial markets. edu/ History/ history_ussrandreagan. ISBN 0-465-09818-5 • Gaidar. Jimmy. "State of the Union Address. Random House. [8] Voprosy Ekonomiki (Moscow). Edward. power. jimmycarterlibrary. .com. . ISBN 978-0-8157-3114-6. Since the USSR's collapse. Retrieved 2009-07-09. Vintage Books. 2010. (1995) Russia. aei.: Brookings Institution Press. (Edited version of a speech given November **. Gibel' Imperii: Uroki dlya sovremennoi Rossii [The Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia]. AEI Online. "The Soviet Collapse: Grain and Oil" (http:/ / www. • Jack F. cfm/ sadat-and-nasser-13023).aspx).org/issue/25991). "Many Can Learn From Soviet Downfall" (http:/ / www. and the New Russia (http:/ / books. Matlock. Market economists believed that the dismantling of the administrative command system in Russia would raise GDP and living standards by allocating resources more efficiently.Dissolution of the Soviet Union After obtaining power. [3] Carter. . Retrieved 2010-08-01. 79. Gennady Zyuganov. 2 (1988). p.. and the GDP was halved. Among other things. no. . rian. . which nearly led to election of Yeltsin's Communist challenger. These problems led to a series of crises in the 1990s. 1995.. Commentarymagazine. Washington D. com/ ?id=bit8YHI8Hn0C& pg=PA49& lpg=PA49& dq=Marshall+ Goldman+ William+ Casey+ oil+ USSR& q). 1992. stanford. Antonina W. html?pagewanted=1). life expectancy had fallen. Vladislav (1992).stanford. 206 References [1] Gaidar. google. the economy of Russia has begun to improve greatly. sgu. 2007). ru/ rus_hist/ people/ ?pid=226) [10] "Отмена 6-й статьи Конституции СССР о руководящей роли КПСС. birthrates were low. phtml). org/ documents/ speeches/ su80jec. Afghanistan: Soviet Vietnam. In the recent years. Wais. 1994). . Russia faced many problems that free market proponents in 1992 did not expect. Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. "The Soviet Collapse: Grain and Oil" (http://www.

bbc. Semine S. as Russia was on the verge of independence. ISBN 0-8047-2247-1 207 External links • Reform. also known as "shock therapy".net/eastbloc/) September–December 1991.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/buk. Treasury Department. Russia managed to make the other ex-Soviet republics voluntarily disarm themselves of nuclear weapons and concentrated them under the command of the still effective rocket and space forces. (2) stabilization. and (3) privatization. 1993. post-Soviet Russia lacked the military and political power of the former USSR. Boris Yeltsin had been elected President of Russia in June 1991 in the first direct presidential election in Russian history.co. and the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Despite this acceptance. Russian economy since fall of the Soviet Union . and U. the Russian Federation became an independent country. Thus. accounting for over 60% of the GDP and over 50% of the Soviet population.narod. Russians also dominated the Soviet military and the Communist Party (CPSU). Some of aspects of state national economy evolution in the system of the international economic order. World Bank. These policies were based on the neoliberal "Washington Consensus" of the International Monetary Fund.4020.. in the last months of the USSR • Kuliabin A.jhu. Yeltsin announced that Russia would proceed with radical market-oriented reform along the lines of Poland's "big bang". but for the most part the Russian army and fleet were in near disarray by 1992. Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.shtml) by Professor Archie Brown.S. The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/ soviet_end_01.USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES FAR EAST DIVISION INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC & INTERNATIONAL OCEAN STUDIES Vladivostok. The policies chosen for this difficult transition were (1) liberalization. Dismantling communism Shock therapy The conversion of the world's largest state-controlled economy into a market-oriented economy would have been extraordinarily difficult regardless of the policies chosen.ru/syndromeofsocialism. Russia was the largest of the fifteen republics that made up the Soviet Union. • Soviet Archives (http://psi.ece. In October 1991. Russia was widely accepted as the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic affairs and it assumed the USSR's permanent membership and veto in the UN Security Council (see Russia and the United Nations). Revolution.html) collected by Vladimir Bukovsky • Candid photos of the Eastern Bloc (http://www. Coup and Collapse: The End of the Soviet State (http://www. 1991 (http://simon31. Stanford University Press. htm) History of post-Soviet Russia With the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991.Dissolution of the Soviet Union • Ronald Grigor Suny.

and people would see a lifetime of savings wiped out. and the like. macroeconomic stabilization was enacted to curb this trend. These policies caused widespread hardship as many state enterprises found themselves without orders or financing. Under the stabilization program. a 35-year-old liberal economist inclined toward radical reform. and other sectors of Russian society were positioned. With inflation at double-digit rates per month as a result of printing. the reformers intended to create an incentive structure in the economy where efficiency and risk would be rewarded and waste and carelessness were punished. sharply cut back on government subsidies to industry and construction. A deep credit crunch shut down many industries and brought about a protracted depression. and currency. This entailed removing Soviet-era price controls in order to lure goods back into understocked Russian stores. product mixes. the reform architects argued. and made massive cuts in state welfare spending. age groups. when on January 2. and cutting subsidies to state farms and industries while allowing foreign imports into the Russian market in order to break the power of state-owned local monopolies. ethnic groups. others would suffer. This resulted in the near bankruptcy of much of Russian industry. pricing and investment instead of chronically overusing resources—a problem that resulted in shortages of consumer goods in the Soviet Union in the 1980s. was short of revenue and printed money to finance its debt. classes. By letting the market rather than central planners determine prices. Russian President Boris Yeltsin ordered the liberalization of foreign trade. 1992. prices. initially due to monetary overhang and exacerbated after the central bank. But liberalizing prices meant that the elderly and others on fixed incomes would suffer a severe drop in living standards. was a precondition for all other reforms: Hyperinflation would wreck both democracy and economic progress. Among the winners were the new class of entrepreneurs and black marketeers that had emerged under Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika. they also argued that only by stabilizing the state budget could the government proceed to dismantle the Soviet planned economy and create a new capitalist Russia. an organ under parliament. The rationale of the program was to squeeze the built-in inflationary pressure out of the economy so that producers would begin making sensible decisions about production. . The process of liberalization would create winners and losers. Some would benefit by the opening of competition. removing legal barriers to private trade and manufacture. depending on how particular industries. is a harsh austerity regime (tight monetary policy and fiscal policy) for the economy in which the government seeks to control inflation. output levels. the government let most prices float. which was skeptical of Yeltsin's reforms. regions. The partial results of liberalization (lifting price controls) included worsening already apparent hyperinflation. Stabilization. Removing the causes of chronic inflation. Shock therapy began days after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. also called structural adjustment.History of post-Soviet Russia 208 The programs of liberalization and stabilization were designed by Yeltsin's deputy prime minister Yegor Gaidar. they argued. and widely known as an advocate of "shock therapy". raised heavy new taxes. raised interest rates to record highs.

partly related to the sheer vastness and geographical diversity of the Russian landmass. the directors of Soviet state firms were rewarded for meeting output targets under difficult conditions. But the Soviets devoted little to what would be described as "liberal arts" in the West. and find new markets to adjust to the new post-Cold War and post-Soviet era. at least half of the workforce was employed in defense plants. as the plants were sometimes switching from. mainly large industrial firms. engineering. such as Poland. As noted. were generally not the most prominent priorities for Soviet enterprise managers. economic transformation created severe problems in maintaining social welfare since local governments were unable to assume financial responsibility for these functions. and the population of the towns and regions where they were located. and managing health. post-Soviet Russia did not inherit a system of state social security and welfare from the USSR. For example. and it was often impossible for them to quickly retool equipment. In addition. Hungary. retrain workers. Thirdly. Finally.[1] At the time. and the Czech Republic. Industrial employers were left heavily dependent on their firms. for example. The former Soviet population was not necessarily uneducated. These obstacles may have left Russia on a far worse footing than other former Communist-led states to Russia's west that were also going through dual economic and political transitions. was the sizable number of "mono-industrial" regional economies (regions dominated by a single industrial employer) that Russia inherited from the Soviet Union. Literacy was nearly universal. A second obstacle.History of post-Soviet Russia 209 Obstacles to capitalist reform in Russia A major reason that Russia's transition has been so wrenching is that the country is remaking both its Soviet-era political and economic institutions at once. The concentration of production in a relatively small number of big state enterprises meant that many local governments were entirely dependent on the economic health of a single employer. however. In the late 1980s. they were also responsible for a broad array of social welfare functions for their employees.) The end of the Cold War and the cutback in military spending hit such plants very hard. figures were roughly one-sixteenth of gross national product and about one of every sixteen in the workforce. and similar facilities. producing hi-tech military equipment to making kitchen utensils. the decrease in production caused tremendous unemployment and underemployment. (The comparable U. almost no Soviet employees or managers had firsthand experience with decision-making in the conditions of a market economy. Thus. Profitability and efficiency. the production in the whole country dropped by more than fifty percent. but discouraged the risk-and-reward centered behavior of market capitalism. The former Soviet Union was to deal with a number of unique obstacles during the post-Soviet transition. and the educational level of the Soviet population was among the highest in the world with respect to science.[2] Consequently. there is a human capital dimension to the failure of post-Soviet reforms in Russia. qualified specialists and know-how has been lost. recreational.S. In the process of conversion an enormous body of experience. Roughly half of Russia's cities had only one large industrial enterprise. were traditionally responsible for a broad range of social welfare functions—building and maintaining housing for their workforces. Russia is remaking itself as a new national state following the disintegration of the union. which have fared better since the collapse of the Eastern bloc between 1989 and 1991. But the incentive system built into state institutions and industries during the Soviet era encouraged skill in coping with state-run planned economy. educational. the Soviet Union devoted a quarter of its gross economic output to the defense sector (at the time most Western analysts believed that this figure was 15 percent).[4] Thus. such as uncertainty about whether needed inputs would be delivered in time and in the right assortment. the military-industrial complex employed at least one of every five adults in the Soviet Union. . In some regions of Russia. when the Soviet Union collapsed and the economic ties between Soviet republics and even regions were severed. and some technical disciplines. and three fourths had no more than four. The towns in contrast possessed neither the apparatus nor the funds for the provision of basic social services. Instead the companies. The first major problem facing Russia was the legacy of the Soviet Union's enormous commitment to the Cold War. their families.[3] The former Soviet Union's state enterprise managers were indeed highly skilled at coping with the demands on them under the Soviet system of planned production targets.

5% of the population was living in poverty (defined as income below the equivalent of $25 per month) in the late Soviet era. able to vote for opposition parties in the 1990s. The social inequality has risen sharply during the 1990s with the Gini coefficient.[5] It is about half as severe as the catastrophic drop borne out of the consequence of World War I. Deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases shot up 100%. suicides and accidents caused by increased disregard for safety) have significantly contributed to this trend. As of 2004. In 1999. Following the economic collapse of the early 1990s. There are now roughly one and half times as many deaths as births per year in Russia. mainly because medicines were no longer affordable to the poor. and the Russian Civil War. emblematic of the mild recovery in recent years thanks to a large extent to high oil prices. this was not only related to the opening of Russia's market to imports in the early 1990s but also to the impoverishment of the Russian people in the 1990s. the economic decline was far more severe than the Great Depression was in the United States in terms of Gross Domestic Product. was hit further by the financial crash of 1998. and welfare entitlement programs. which has long been among the world leader in inequality. According to Russian government statistics. often rejected economic reforms and yearned for the stability and personal security of the Soviet era. These were the groups that had enjoyed the benefits of Soviet-era state-controlled wages and prices. total population fell by about three-quarters of a million people. By 2004 the average income has risen to more than $300 per month.History of post-Soviet Russia 210 Economic depression and social decay Russia's economy sank into deep depression by the mid-1990s. Meanwhile life expectancy dropped for men from sixty-four years in 1990 to fifty-seven years by 1994. But the growing income is not being evenly distributed. reform created powerful political opposition. and the regional disparities in the level of poverty are still growing sharper. (Photo taken in 2006. life expectancy is higher than at the nadir of the crisis in 1994. Both health factors and sharp increase in deaths of mostly young people from unnatural causes (such as murders. the telescopes had been removed) macroeconomic data and surveys of household incomes and expenditures indicate that whereas 1. Public health indicators show a dramatic corresponding decline. and then began to recover in 1999–2000.[8] Russia's income disparities are now nearly as large as Brazil. if anything. Russia suffered from a sharp increase in the rates of poverty and economic An abandoned radiotelescope facility near Nizhny inequality. yet it still remains below the 1990 level. Russian voters. for example.[7] Per capita incomes fell by another 15% by 1998. the fall of Tsarism. while women's dropped from seventy-four to about seventy-one. protection from competition with foreign industries. high state spending to subsidize priority sectors of the economy. especially those of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and its allies in the parliament. . workers could now afford to buy little. by mid-1993 between 39% and 49% of the population was living in poverty. according to government figures. Thus. so while the stores might have been well stocked in the Yeltsin era. thus translating into votes for anti-reform candidates. by 2008. Russians on fixed incomes (the vast majority of the workforce) saw their purchasing power drastically reduced. Backlash against reform Structural reform lowered the standard of living for most groups of the population. Alcohol-related deaths skyrocketed 60% in the 1990s. Democratization opened the political channels for venting these frustrations. reaching 40%.[6] Estimates by the World Bank based on both Novgorod. While the supply shortages of consumer goods characteristic of the 1980s went away (see Consumer goods in the Soviet Union).

these groups were well organized. about 25. thereby circumventing the Supreme Soviet of Russia and Congress of People's Deputies of Russia. and had declared Chechnya's independence in 1991.History of post-Soviet Russia During the Yeltsin years in the 1990s. Living 1000 miles (1600 km) south of Moscow. before the dissolution of the USSR. which had been elected in March 1990. and matters came to a head after street riots on October 2–October 3. Yeltsin ordered Special Forces and elite army units to storm the parliament building. the "White House" as it is called. who represented a course of radical privatization. During the height of hyperinflation in 1992–1993. While this spared Yeltsin from the prospects of parliamentary bargaining and wrangling. was driven to take his republic out of the Russian Federation. Yeltsin ordered 40. 1992. A new constitution was approved by referendum in December 1993. (For details on the constitution passed in 1993 see Constitution and government structure of Russia. On October 4. Massive use of artillery and air strikes remained the dominating strategy throughout the . associations of directors of state-owned firms. and the Russian economy continued in a serious slump. they would not play an open role in politics thereafter. inflation exploded into hyperinflation. the outcome was not in doubt. in the Vietnam War. The official count was 187 dead. Dzhokhar Dudayev. the remodeled Russian parliament had greatly circumscribed powers. in contravention of the existing constitution. Thus the transitional period in post-Soviet Russian politics came to an end. radical reform still faced some critical political barriers. A constant theme of Russian history in the 1990s was the conflict between economic reformers and those hostile to the new capitalism.S.000 civilians died under week-long air raids and artillery fire in the sealed-off city. voicing their opposition to reform through strong trade unions. The parliament then declared Yeltsin deposed and appointed Aleksandr Rutskoy acting president on September 22. it also eliminated any meaningful discussion of the right course of action for the country. Radical privatization went ahead. the predominantly Muslim Chechens for centuries had gloried in defying the Russians.000 troops to prevent the separation of the southern region of Chechnya from Russia. 211 Reform by decree On January 2. and the other parliamentary supporters surrendered and were immediately arrested and jailed. Rutskoy. Yeltsin "dissolved" the parliament on September 21. 1993–96 1993 constitutional crisis The struggle for the center of power in post-Soviet Russia and for the nature of the economic reforms culminated in a political crisis and bloodshed in the fall of 1993. Yeltsin—acting as his own prime minister—enacted the most comprehensive components of economic reform by decree. Confronted with opposition to the presidential power of decree and threatened with impeachment. the Russian government was short of revenue and was forced to print money to finance its debt. Tensions built quickly. The Soviet-era Central Bank was still subordinate to the conservative Supreme Soviet as opposed to the presidency. the Republic of Chechnya’s nationalist president. Although the old parliamentary leaders were released without trial on February 26. With tanks thrown against the small-arms fire of the parliamentary defenders. However. was opposed by the parliament. Russia was given a strongly presidential system. the Central Bank actually tried to derail reforms by actively printing money during a period of inflation. Russia was quickly submerged in a quagmire like that of the U. After all. and ordered new elections and a referendum on a new constitution. 1994. 437 wounded (with several men killed and wounded on the presidential side). As a result. and political parties in the popularly elected parliament whose primary constituencies were among those vulnerable to reform. Ruslan Khasbulatov. Though its clashes with the executive would eventually resume. When the Russians attacked the Chechen capital of Grozny during the first weeks of January 1995. Yeltsin.) First Chechen War In 1994.

In exchange for the loans. thus allowing a handful of powerful banks to acquire substantial ownership shares over major firms at shockingly low prices. telecommunications." the Yeltsin regime auctioned off substantial packages of stock shares in some of its most desirable enterprises. The Yeltsin government hoped to use privatization to spread ownership of shares in former state enterprises as widely as possible to create political support for his government and his reforms. Even though initially each citizen received a voucher of equal face value. The first auctions were held in the fall of 1995. market-value prices. the best-connected former nomenklatura leaders accumulated considerable financial resources.[Citation needed] Between 1987 and 1992. highly opaque markets provided a breeding ground for a large number of racket gangs. The government used a system of free vouchers as a way to give mass privatization a jump-start. In turn. because it gave many of those who had gained wealth in the early 1990s a chance to convert it into shares of privatized enterprises. the most successful entrepreneurs became acquainted with government officials and public politicians. and Komsomol (Soviet Youth League) were cashing in on their Soviet-era power and privileges. within months most of the vouchers converged in the hands of intermediaries who were ready to buy them for cash right away. As the Soviet system was being dismantled. The Russians finally managed to gain control of Grozny in February 1995 after heavy fighting. The privatization of state enterprises was a unique opportunity. . These deals were effectively giveaways of valuable state assets to a few powerful. Under the terms of the deals. thus rendering the 1997 peace accord meaningless. As the government ended the voucher privatization phase and launched cash privatization. Even so. such as energy. it devised a program that it thought would simultaneously speed up privatization and yield the government a much-needed infusion of cash for its operating needs. Great fortunes were made almost overnight. state-subsidized prices in order to transact business at high. while inflicting humiliating losses on Russia's demoralized and ill-equipped troops. and metallurgical firms. well-placed bosses and technocrats in the Communist Party. By summer 1996. and a peace treaty was formally signed in May 1997. the lender acquired title to the stock and could then resell it or take an equity position in the enterprise. But it also allowed people to purchase shares of stock in privatized enterprises with cash. Some quietly liquidated the assets of their organization and secreted the proceeds in overseas accounts and investments. well-connected. the emerging cash-based. which quickly became known in the West as "loans for shares. the state handed over assets worth many times as much. By the mid 1990s. rapidly enabled these pioneering entrepreneurs to accumulate considerable wealth. This time the rebellion was brutally crushed by Vladimir Putin. as collateral for bank loans. taking advantage of their insider positions to win exclusive government contracts and licenses and to acquire financial credits and supplies at artificially low. saw opportunity in the economic and legal confusion of the transition. Chechen insurgents seized thousands of Russian hostages. and wealthy financial groups. KGB. The auctions themselves were usually held in such a way so to limit the number of banks bidding for shares and thus to keep the auction prices extremely low. Under the scheme. 212 The "loans for shares" scheme and the rise of the "oligarchs" The new capitalist opportunities presented by the opening of the Russian economy in the late 1980s and early 1990s affected many people's interests. a few young people. At the same time.History of post-Soviet Russia Russian campaign. major packages of shares in some of Russia's largest firms had been transferred to a small number of major banks. while on the other hand. without much social status. However. In August 1996 Yeltsin agreed to a ceasefire with Chechen leaders.[9] Others created banks and business in Russia. the conflict resumed in 1999. trading of natural resources and foreign currencies. Russian troops had not secured the Chechen capital of Grozny by year's end. as well as imports of highly demanded consumer goods and then domestic production of their rudimentary substitutes. if the Yeltsin government did not repay the loans by September 1996.

most often using vouchers. in order to ensure Yeltsin's reelection. set out to use his control of the privatization program as the key instrument of Yeltsin's reelection campaign. Viktor Chernomyrdin. The president's inner circle assumed that it had only a short time in which to act on privatization. the oligarchs emerged as the most hated men in the nation. Vladimir Bogdanov. 1995. extended to the mass media. and appealed effectively to memories of the old days of Soviet prestige on the international stage and the socialist domestic order. Chubais allowed well-connected employees to acquire majority stakes in the enterprises. Thus." but later expressed disappointment over the newfound power and corruption of the "oligarchs. it therefore needed to take steps that would have a large and immediate impact. therefore. The oligarchs. who was not just Yeltsin's campaign manager but also the architect of Russia's privatization program. which loans for shares had assisted. Rem Viakhirev. Gennady Zyuganov. The "loans for shares" giveaway took place in the run-up to the 1996 presidential election—at a point when it had appeared that Zyuganov might defeat Yeltsin. industry. assigning a key role to his daughter. exerted an extensive influence over state television programming for a while. it was the enterprise managers who could ensure that labor did not erupt in a massive wave of strikes. in turn." as it was termed. The government.[11] Panic struck the Yeltsin team when opinion polls suggested that the ailing president could not win.[13] Support from the oligarchs was also crucial to Yeltsin's reelection campaign. Vladimir Potanin. Chubais' solution was to co-opt potentially powerful interests. Instead. telecommunications. did not strenuously resist the tendency for voucher privatization to turn into "insider privatization. and Mikhail Fridman emerged as Russia's most powerful and prominent oligarchs." 213 The 1996 presidential election Campaigns Early in the campaign it had been thought that Yeltsin. Three-quarters of privatized enterprises opted for this method. reciprocated the favor.[12] Chubais.History of post-Soviet Russia The concentration of immense financial and industrial power. One of the most prominent of the financial barons Boris Berezovsky. had little chance for reelection. well-connected tycoons who controlled these great empires of finance. This proved to be the most widely used form of privatization in Russia. The position of the enterprise directors to the program was essential to maintaining economic and social stability in the country. who was in uncertain health (after recuperating from a series of heart attacks) and whose behavior was sometimes erratic. When campaigning opened at the beginning of 1996. Vagit Alekperov. had a strong grassroots organization. A tiny clique who used their connections built up during the last days of the Soviet years to appropriate Russia's vast resources during the rampant privatizations of the Yeltsin years. including enterprise directors and regional officials.[14] . especially in the rural areas and small towns. Along with Berezovsky. Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Yeltsin's popularity was close to zero. the opposition Communist Party of the Russian Federation had already gained ground in parliamentary voting on December 17. Berezovsky and other ultra-wealthy. Viktor Vekselberg. and appointing Anatoly Chubais campaign manager. members of his entourage urged him to cancel presidential elections and effectively rule as dictator from then on. making the reversal of reform prohibitively costly for their opponents. Tatyana Dyachenko. Yeltsin changed his campaign team. Yeltsin and his entourage gave the oligarchs an opportunity to scoop up some of Russia's most desirable assets in return for their help in his reelection effort. The managers represented one of the most powerful collective interests in the country.[10] Meanwhile. energy. The Western world generally advocated a quick dismantling of the Soviet planned economy to make way for "free-market reforms. and media became known as the "Russian oligarchs". who controlled major stakes in several banks and companies. Roman Abramovich. and its candidate. Real control thus wound up in the hands of the managers. in which senior enterprise officials acquired the largest proportion of shares in privatized firms.

except for ending the Chechen war. He appealed to a well-educated middle class that saw Yeltsin as a drunken scoundrel and Zyuganov as a Soviet-era throwback.8%. Yeltsin won 53. According to returns announced on June 17." The oligarchs even played up the threat of civil war if a Communist were elected president. Many of Yeltsin's executive functions thus devolved upon a group of advisers (most of whom had close links with the oligarchs). The Zyuganov campaign had a strong grass-roots organization.5%.[17] Although Yeltsin promised that he would abandon his unpopular neoliberal austerity policies and increase public spending to help those suffering from the pain of capitalist reforms. far-right nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky 5. Yeltsin's physical health and mental stability were increasingly precarious. Yeltsin won 35% of the vote. but he also did well in large cities in the Urals and in the north and northeast. a populist ex-general. In the outlying regions of the country. between Yeltsin and a "return to totalitarianism.4%. who lacked Yeltsin's resources and financial backing.[15] Grigory Yavlinsky was the liberal alternative to Yeltsin and Zyuganov. he made the claim that he would abandon some unpopular economic reforms and boost welfare spending. and Zyuganov. end the war in Chechnya. With no candidate securing an absolute majority.[16] Moscow and Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad) together provided over half of the incumbent president's support. Zyuganov won 32%. In the meantime. 214 Elections Voter turnout in the first round of the polling on June 16 was 69. with a turnout of 68. ." The election became a two-man race. liberal candidate Grigory Yavlinsky 7. with Yeltsin's popularity at a low ebb. watched haplessly as his strong initial lead was whittled away.History of post-Soviet Russia In the spring of 1996.5%. To assuage voters' discontent. underscoring the resilience of the Communist Party in elections since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Yeltsin's campaign also got a boost from the announcement of a $10 billion loan to the Russian government from the International Monetary Fund. dispelling concerns about his health. Yeltsin issued a decree canceling almost all of these promises. with the rest (5. Chubais and Yeltsin recruited a team of six leading Russian financiers and media barons (all oligarchs) who bankrolled the Yeltsin campaign with $3 million and guaranteed coverage on television and in leading newspapers directly serving the president's campaign strategy. pay wage and pension arrears.8%. which was halted for 3 years). In the end.9%) voting "against all".9%. Yeltsin co-opted a large segment of the electorate by appointing Lebed to the posts of national security adviser and secretary of the Security Council. In the run-off on July 3. Yeltsin's election tactics paid off. thus excluding a middle ground—and convince voters that only Yeltsin could defeat the Communist "menace. within a month of his election. Seeing Yavlinsky as a threat. and abolish the military draft program (he did not live up to his promises after the election. most of whom had been appointed by the president. the Yeltsin campaign relied on its ties to other allies—the patron-client ties of the local governors. Yeltsin and Zyuganov went into a second round of voting. a surprisingly high 14. Yeltsin's inner circle of supporters worked to bifurcate political discourse. The media painted a picture of a fateful choice for Russia. exploiting all the advantages of incumbency to maintain a high media profile.3%. The southern stretch of the country became known as the "red belt". but it was simply no match to the financial resources and access to patronage that the Yeltsin campaign could marshal. Yeltsin campaigned energetically.8% of the vote and Zyuganov 40. Right after the election. and former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev 0. Yeltsin lost to Zyuganov in Russia's southern industrial heartland. Aleksandr Lebed.

leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices. Russian observers expressed doubts about Kiriyenko's youth and inexperience. exacerbated Russia's economic crisis.[19] Coal miners were hard hit. Western creditors lost heavily. during which Yeltsin threatened to dissolve the legislature. metals. The Russian crisis caused alarm in the West. As lenders became increasingly certain that the government could not make good on its obligations. To pay off the interest on the loans it had taken. restructure the nation's entire debt. investors continued to flee Russia despite the IMF bailout. Given the ensuing decline in world commodity prices.S. and for several weeks in the summer they blocked sections of the Trans-Siberian railroad. U.[27] . and the government found itself unable to service the massive loans it had received or even to pay its employees. Massive tax evasion also continued.[20] Yeltsin named a virtually unknown technocrat. did the Duma confirm Kiriyenko on a third vote on April 24. But concerns about the financial crisis in Asia and the slump in world oil prices were already prompting investors to withdraw from Russia. but the U. Oil. reflecting the weakness of the economy.[24] The IMF approved a $22. Kiriyenko's government and the central bank were forced to suspend payment on Russia's foreign debt for 90 days.[25] [26] Despite the bailout. Only after a month-long standoff. and a large part of Russia's fledgling banking sector was destroyed.S. Kiriyenko hiked interest rates to 150% in order to attract buyers for government bonds. they demanded ever-higher interest rates. they added calls for the resignation of Yeltsin and his government to their wage demands. and debts to suppliers.History of post-Soviet Russia 215 The crises of 1998 Financial collapse The global recession of 1998. effectively cutting the country in two. As time wore on. By mid-1998. aged 35. Russia's monthly interest payments still well exceeded its monthly tax revenues. Foreign investment rushed out of the country. The pressures on the ruble. Pouring more money into the Russian economy would not be a long-term solution. also feared that a Russian collapse could create a panic on world money markets (and it indeed did help bring down one major US hedge fund Long Term Capital Management). which started with the Asian financial crisis in July 1997. Oil is also a major source of government tax revenue. in particular feared that Yeltsin's government would not survive a looming financial crisis without IMF help. and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports. A political crisis came to a head in March when Yeltsin suddenly dismissed Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and his entire cabinet on March 23. and financial crisis triggered an unprecedented flight of capital from Russia.[23] In an effort to prop up the currency and stem the flight of capital. On August 17. The Duma rejected his nomination twice. pensions. A high exchange rate meant that they needed fewer rubles to buy imported goods. which it did through foreign borrowing.6 billion emergency loan on July 13. and when workers were paid. and the government fell into a self perpetuating trap. natural gas. and devalue the ruble. Ultimately the bubble burst. The oligarchs strongly supported Kiriyenko's efforts to maintain the exchange rate. it was clear Russia would need help from IMF to maintain its exchange rate. Realizing that this situation was unsustainable. since many banks had substantial dollar borrowings. deepening the trap. countries heavily dependent on the export of raw materials such as oil were among those most severely hit. Weeks later the financial crisis resumed and the value of the ruble resumed its fall. especially luxury items.[18] The sharp decline in the price of oil had severe consequences for Russia. it needed to raise still more cash. it was often with bartered goods rather than rubles. President Bill Clinton's treasury secretary. Robert Rubin. resulted in a disastrous fall in the value of the currency. The ruble went into free fall as Russians sought frantically to buy dollars. as acting prime minister. The government stopped making timely payment of wages. Energy Minister Sergei Kiriyenko.[21] [22] Kiriyenko appointed a new cabinet strongly committed to stemming the fall in value of Russia's currency.

who began to lose his hold as his health deteriorated. Putin was a relatively unknown politician. Another reason is that domestic industries such as food processing have benefited from the devaluation. welcomed Kiriyenko's fall.[28] Powerful business interests. Yeltsin. the economy has been helped by an infusion of cash. Succession crisis. Stepashin's tenure was even shorter than Primakov's. as Yeltsin. unemployment in 2000 fell as enterprises added workers. who had formerly been head of the FSB (the successor agency to the KGB) and later been Interior Minister. After the Duma rejected Chernomyrdin's candidacy twice. The Duma narrowly voted to confirm Putin. appealed for international humanitarian aid. which was also suffering from a bad harvest. as did the Communists. but he quickly established himself both in public opinion and in Yeltsin's estimation as a trusted head of government. Nevertheless. since Russia's economy was operating to such a large extent on barter and other non-monetary instruments of exchange. largely due to the Second Chechen War. A week later. his power clearly on the wane. Finally. backed down.History of post-Soviet Russia 216 Political fallout The financial collapse produced a political crisis. as enterprises were able to pay off arrears in back wages and taxes. Yeltsin fired Kiryenko and declared his intention of returning Chernomyrdin to office as the country slipped deeper into economic turmoil. 1999–2000 Yevgeny Primakov did not remain in his post long. had to contend with an emboldened opposition in the parliament. wanted Chernomyrdin back. When appointed. it in turn allowed consumer demand for the goods and services of Russian industry to rise. Russia.[18] [29] Also. The Duma confirmed his appointment on the first ballot by a wide margin. to replace him. In August 1999. with his domestic support evaporating. including food. world oil prices fall at a dramatic pace. Yeltsin once again abruptly dismissed the government and named Vladimir Putin as his candidate to head the new government. fearing another round of reforms that might cause leading concerns to fail. Communists and trade unionists staged a nationwide strike on October 7. Yeltsin. so that Russia ran a large trade surplus in 1999 and 2000. Primakov's appointment restored political stability because he was seen as a compromise candidate able to heal the rifts between Russia's quarreling interest groups. on August 23. Much of the reason for the recovery is that world oil prices rapidly rose during 1999–2000 (just as falling energy prices on the world market had deepened Russia's financial troubles). Yeltsin went so far as to declare that he saw Putin as his successor as president. On October 9. Like Stepashin. Just . and invited members of the leading parliamentary factions into his Cabinet. having made his career in the foreign intelligence service and later as head of the FSB. Recovery Russia bounced back from the August 1998 financial crash with surprising speed. who on September 11 was overwhelmingly approved by the Duma. the political and social equilibrium of the country remains tenuous to this day.[30] Yeltsin then named Sergei Stepashin. The economy remains vulnerable to downturn if. the financial collapse had far less of an impact on many producers than it would had the economy been dependent on a banking system. but the legislature refused to give its approval. For the first time in many years. for instance. Putin had a background in the secret police. Primakov promised to make the payment of wage and pension arrears his government’s first priority. he nominated Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov. There was popular enthusiasm for Primakov as well. and power remains a highly personalized commodity. Instead. and called on President Yeltsin to resign. Yeltsin grew suspicious that Primakov was gaining in strength and popularity and dismissed him in May 1999. after only eight months in office. which caused a steep increase in the prices of imported goods.

stepping up guerrilla operations and rocket attacks on federal helicopters. Russian troops entered Grozny. This made Putin acting president and gave Putin ample opportunity to position himself as frontrunner for the Russian presidential election held on March 26. The support translated into growing popularity for Putin. The initially high public support for the war in Chechnya has declined. two Russian aircraft were bombed. Boris Berezovsky and Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Putin flew to Chechnya on a fighter jet. bombings Russian authorities attributed to Chechen rebels. The Russian public at the time. Three days later.History of post-Soviet Russia days after Yeltsin named Putin as a candidate for prime minister. Putin has confronted several very influential oligarchs (Vladimir Gusinsky. Several high-profile attacks have taken place. This was followed by the Beslan school hostage crisis in which Chechen separatists took 1. Putin began renewed efforts to eliminate the Chechen insurrection. Yeltsin evidentially felt confident enough in Putin that he resigned from the presidency on December 31. (For additional details on the war in Chechnya under Putin. the Chechen capital. 2000. 217 2000–2008 In August 2000. This. Russia organized a vigorous but hectic attempt to save the crew. Khodorkovsky was jailed in Russia and has lost his YUKOS company. widely supported the war. shooting the Vladimir Putin unconscious militants. and a week before the election. allegedly through illegal schemes. the Russian army entered Chechnya in late September 1999. 2002. and killing over 100 civilian hostages with the sleeping gas in the process. during the privatization process. a Russian autonomy near Chechnya. 2004. causing the submarine to sink in the shallow area of the Barents Sea. The separatists demanded the immediate withdrawal of Russian forces from Chechnya and threatened to blow up the building if authorities attempted to enter. claiming victory. as well as the slow initial reaction to the event and especially to the offers of foreign aid in saving the crew. who had taken decisive action in Chechnya. The Chechen War figured prominently in the campaign. Gusinsky and Berezovsky have been forced to leave Russia and give up parts of their assets. the Russian submarine K-141 Kursk suffered an explosion. Putin's stand against oligarchs is generally popular with the Russian people. angry over the terrorist bombings. In the next month. Chechen forces engaged the Russian army in Dagestan. In response.) The government canceled scheduled troop withdrawals. In the aftermath of the theater siege. starting the Second Chechen War. several hundred people died in apartment building bombings in Moscow and other cities. according to another Levada-Center poll. and the entire futile effort was surrounded by unexplained secrecy. see Second Chechen War. which he won. . Chechen separatists assassinated Akhmad Kadyrov. and increased the frequency of assaults on separatist positions. the pro-Russia Chechen leader who became the president of Chechnya 8 months earlier after an election conducted by Russian authorities. formerly the largest oil producer in Russia. Chechen militants responded in kind.300 hostages. Over 700 people inside were taken hostage in what has been called the Moscow theater hostage crisis. even though the jailing of Khodorkovsky is mainly seen as part of a takeover operation by government officials. in particular) who attained large stakes of state assets. Russian commandos stormed the building after the hostages had been subdued with a sleeping gas. On August 24. On October 23. After the success of political forces close to Putin in the December 1999 parliamentary elections. brought much criticism on the government and personally on President Putin. Chechen separatists took over a Moscow theater. six months before his term was due to expire. In May 2004. In February 2000. surrounded Chechen refugee camps with soldiers.

establishing their control on this territory. In a campaign speech in February 2004. "I think that ordinary citizens of the former Soviet Union and the post-Soviet space gained nothing from this. known as monetization. the Ukrainian election evoked echoes of the Cold War. In 2001 and 2002. Russian troops entered South Ossetia and forced Georgian troops back. The second round was ultimately rerun. people have faced a huge number of problems. Yushchenko won the round and was eventually declared the winner on January 10. 2005. Putin came into office at an ideal time: after the devaluation of the ruble in 1998. but it hinges on a continuation of economic recovery. but Putin personally was still popular. have remained stable. average income increased 11% annually in real terms. has been unpopular and caused a wave of demonstrations in various Russian cities.[35] In 2008." from which "only the elites and nationalists of the republics gained. but his ability to withstand a sudden economic downturn has been untested. which stems from his reputation as a strong leader. with a 77% approval rating. and while world oil prices were rising. In the fall of 2008. 218 . followed shortly afterwards by Belorussian president Alexander Lukashenko . that followed the Georgia's attempt to take over the breakaway region of South Ossetia. such as free transportation and subsidies for heating and other utilities for socially vulnerable groups by cash payments. won by Yanukovych.[31] Putin's popularity. and a consistently positive balance of the federal budget enabled the government to cut 70% of the external debt (according to the Institute for Complex Strategic Studies). with thousands of retirees protesting against the loss of their benefits. during the seven years of his presidency. stands in contrast to the unpopularity of his predecessor. many credit him with the recovery. It also saw South Ossetia war against Georgia. for example. Putin called the dismantlement of the Soviet Union a "national tragedy on an enormous scale. amid allegations of large-scale voting fraud. In 2005.7% a year.[32] On repeated occasions. the reaction to Russia's handling of. Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. TV channels NTV (previously owned by Gusinsky).S. or perhaps interference in. but relations with the U. a pro-Western liberal economist. Indeed. Kosovo's declaration of independence saw a marked deterioration in Russia's relationship with the West. He congratulated Yanukovych. Thus. In the West. real GDP grew on average 6. Some researchers assert that most Russians today have come to regret the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991."[33] Putin's international prestige suffered a major blow in the West during the disputed 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. Similar takeovers have also occurred with print media. on his victory before election results were even made official[34] and made statements opposing the rerun of the disputed second round of elections. even Vladimir Putin—Boris Yeltsin's handpicked successor — stated that the fall of Soviet rule had led to few gains and many problems for most Russian citizens. Putin won the Russian presidential election in 2004 without any significant competition. This was the first time such wave of protests took place during the Putin administration. On the contrary.History of post-Soviet Russia These confrontations have also lead to Putin establishing control over Russian media outlets previously owned by the oligarchs. which boosted demand for domestic goods. Putin had twice visited Ukraine before the election to show his support for the pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych against opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. The reform has hurt the popularity of the Russian government." He added. the Russian government replaced the broad in-kind Soviet-era benefits. The reform. TV6 and TVS (owned by Berezovsky) were all taken over by media groups loyal to Putin.

likely the absolute majority. 1998. has shown much interest in aligning his country with Russia. Relations with the West have also been stained by Russia's relationship with Belarus. and no interest in deepening ties with the ever-expanding NATO or implementing Western-backed neoliberal economic reforms. these internal and external cultural influences assumed an ever-greater importance in shaping Soviet politics. In 1999. Poland. seemed profoundly resistant to change just shortly before its collapse. Even in the most repressive years of Stalinism. The Soviet Union. Russian foreign policy repudiated Marxism-Leninism as a putative guide to action. they grappled with defining new relations with the East European states. particularly. Russia opposed the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia for more than two months (see Kosovo War). A union agreement between Russia and Belarus was formed on April 2. itself the heir of a Tsarist state that had gained control of the major part of the Eurasian landmass over hundreds of years.History of post-Soviet Russia 219 Russia's Relationship with the West In the early period after Russia became independent. and ethnic nationalism saw a revival. As the old regime's system for shaping public values and beliefs was breaking down in the late 1980s and 1990s. 1996. the mass media. Russia opposed the expansion of NATO into the former Soviet bloc nations of the Czech Republic. artists. Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko. although Russia's leaders now described the West as its natural ally. private life survived—lasting to this day—formed through strong family and friendship links. So too did a legacy of the Tsarist era through the great classic works of pre-revolutionary literature and art that generations of Soviet schoolchildren and university students were taught to respect and study. The imperative of providing the Soviet regime with a powerful scientific and technological capacity also required the regime to accept a certain level of openness and outside influences: scientific and cultural exchanges of people and ideas kept open channels through which the diverse influences of the outside world and especially the West filtered in the Soviet Union. Under Putin. an authoritarian leader. intellectuals. emphasizing cooperation with the West in solving regional and global problems. The agreement was tightened. a significant proportion of the population. Beneath the official propaganda. the second NATO expansion into the Baltic states in 2004. However. and soliciting economic and humanitarian aid from the West in support of internal economic reforms. interest in both pre-Soviet traditions and the ways of the West grew during the so-called "period of stagnation". the new states formed upon the disintegration of Yugoslavia. Further strengthening of the union occurred on December 25. Russia inherited from the Soviet Union a diverse cultural heritage. and Western Europe. As the Communist regime's machinery for shaping public values and reinforcing CPSU-rule (youth groups. culture. However. and Hungary in 1997 and. however. and public opinion. religious faith. non-communist ideologies such as liberal democracy. and Party-run workplace education) grew increasingly ossified and ineffectual after Joseph Stalin's death. and teachers preserved over a hundred different cultural legacies and national languages. looked hopefully to the future. He also made a number of appearances in the media with President of the United States George W. and in 1999. Russia has sought to strengthen ties with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation as well building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline geared toward growing Chinese energy needs. Throughout the Soviet Union. as the Utopian vision of a prosperous and peaceful democracy gave place to the troubled and . becoming the Union of Russia and Belarus on April 3. but later joined NATO peace-keeping forces in the Balkans in June 1999. Bush in which the two described each other as "friends". At the moment of collapse in 1991. Change and continuity in post-Soviet Russian culture Inheritance from the USSR Contemporary Russian culture is rooted in the legacies of the Soviet regime and the thousand-year heritage of the Russian state. 1997.

Their proselytizing has been controversial. especially. which was kept tightly under wraps during the Soviet era. At the same time. some emigrated. Economic and political upheaval quickly made some of the formerly most respected or stable professions among the least desirable in material terms. If in 1991 overall consensus toward the West was favorable indeed. though the holidays of Easter and Christmas have been reinstated (according to the Julian calendar). have achieved highly profiled success. at a moment of relative stability. Still. the AIDS epidemic is rampant — the number of HIV-positive people increased from less than 100 in 1989 to an estimated 1 million in 2003. the Soviet inheritance. as many English words and constructions have become wildly fashionable. Conversely. Fueled by sharing needles by drug addicts.History of post-Soviet Russia insecure reality. The members of the artistic and cultural elites also had to learn to subsist with greatly diminished levels of support from the state. has come into the open with disastrous consequences. alternative history. more visible than strong in numbers. and some adapted. Many Russians perceived a continued distrust or even hostility from Europe and the United States. however. came to see the so-called "era of stagnation" under Leonid Brezhnev as a kind of stable golden age. and historical novels are popular and commercially successful. it was quickly dimmed by the economic disruptions induced by the indiscriminate and corrupt privatizations. if not confessed atheists. often by the work of their congregation. Slavic neo-pagans have made their appearance. Russian tennis players. Some wilted. most Russians have remained. as churches and monasteries have reopened and been restored. his monuments smashed by dozens. Russians who . Today in Russia there are more than 3 million drug addicts. Teachers worked for months without pay in some cases. While coming to grips with. Spectator sports continued as a welcome diversion. Heroin appears to be the drug of choice. many became nostalgic for the days of the old Soviet superpower. So too have foreign sects and other religions. on the other hand. The younger generation. 220 Post-Soviet realities The word best applied to post-Soviet Russian culture is eclectic. the theories of Anatoly Fomenko). placed their aspirations on Joseph Stalin. especially NATO's 1999 bombing of Serbia over Kosovo. many felt like immigrants in their own country. Scientific workers lived on the poverty line or were thrown out of work when their research institutes were closed. A few. has embraced Western music and other types of pop culture. but to the chronological timeline itself (for example. romance novels. Letters in newspapers and the occasional leading article made it clear that by 2003. The attitude to the rest of the world has seen great perturbations. The Russian Orthodox Church has grown rapidly since 1991. toponymy has achieved a balance between the Soviet and the Imperial past. Russia remains a highly literate nation with considerable interest in literature. But the present has had the greatest effect. Although overwhelming successes at the Olympics and the great national ice hockey teams have become things of the past. quite unobservant. Drug abuse. Crime fiction. That and the growth of advertising has affected the Russian language. Thus a split became all too apparent. A very public debate has been waged about the nation's history. A sense of Russian political isolation was encouraged by overt political actions. especially of the older generation. poetry has declined. and has had to face roadblocks from the state and from some of the citizens. Russia was 3rd in number of both gold and total medals at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. and in no way rejecting fully. Revisionism has extended not merely to reappraisals of attitude. Many Russians. Vladimir Lenin would be buried by half the population. some would say indiscriminately. Russians reached out to identify with their own pre-Soviet past and embraced. Russia still stands quite well in international competition. While it took the publishing industry some time to switch from massive state orders to the consumer market. Nicholas the Martyr in various circles. Nicholas the Bloody has become St. tendencies from the West. and heretofore virtually nonexistent rituals such as church weddings have become common. church attendance has grown substantially compared to Soviet era.

Inequality.org. [8] "CIA — The World Factbook — Russia" (https:/ / www. [5] "Russia" (http:/ / lcweb2.C. Edition. elections/ 1996/ russia/ candidate. The difference in estimates is due to the difference in methodology.. . see Sheila M. Cia.A Country Study. html).March 23.. http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 1998. November/December 2000. p. or (to a somewhat lesser extent) with political ideology. edu/ ~his_ncp/ Soviet2. cnn. between the "Westernizers" and the "Slavophiles" or "Eurasians". and Poverty During the Transformation from Planned to Market Economy (Washington DC: The World Bank. com/ WORLD/ pivotal. com/ WORLD/ pivotal. At present. The higher poverty rate is based on a calculation of household incomes. "Insider Privatization in Russia: Speculations on Systemic Changes. elections/ 1996/ russia/ candidate. Puffer. edu/ ~97levintova/ Ny. 1998" (http:/ / www. The Washington Post. Russia is moving towards the west's ‘ideals’ at a very fast pace. ed.com. html [13] See.g. cnn. org/ newshour/ bb/ europe/ july96/ runoff_results1_7-4. shsu. elections/ 1996/ russia/ candidate. In the end. [17] "Online NewsHour: Boris Yeltsin Wins Presidnetial Elections — July 4. archive. if the tendency does not prove temporary. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ rs." Foreign Affairs. cia. e. cnn." Europe-Asia Studies 46:3 (1994). wmich. Russian presidential candidate profiles. .gov. a kind of dynamic equilibrium appears to have been achieved after the chaos of the first post-Soviet years. Personal hostility from ethnic Russians to the so-called "national minorities" is widespread. however. html). Retrieved 2008-11-26.cnn. Overall. html [11] CNN. gov/ cgi-bin/ query/ r?frd/ cstdy:@field(DOCID+ ru0119)).org. loc. 1998" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080508231236/ http:/ / edition. "How small is the Soviet National Income?" in Henry S. [10] CNN. . . htm). Rowen and Charles Wolf. Pbs.E.gov. [2] For example.loc. . Retrieved 2008-11-26. but its permanence remains to be seen. Among the most controversial breaks with the past. [9] The purported suicide of Nikolai Kruchina. 420-21. Pbs.org. pbs. html) on May 8. html). Russians are divided.gov. NY: M. as in ages past. "State Department Background Notes on Russia in 1991-1995" excerpted from The Soviet Union-. com/ WORLD/ 9602/ russia_zyuganov [12] http:/ / vms. 1995). cia. 1992). html). html [15] "CNN — Pivotal Elections: Russia" (http:/ / web. since households tend not to report some portion on the monthly income. 1990). pbs. Retrieved 2008-11-26.186–90. [4] For example. How Russia Became a Market Economy (Washington D. Pekka Sutela. March 23.. [18] "CIA Site Redirect — Central Intelligence Agency" (https:/ / www. The strongest continuation in Russian outlook from the later Soviet period is that most citizens do not in any sense identify their culture with their government. foreignaffairs. 154 [3] See. Retrieved 2008-11-26.History of post-Soviet Russia prospered or survived under the changed conditions often mocked the nostalgia. pbs. may be a post-imperial national awareness that places greater emphasis on ethnic belonging. e. Archived from the original (http:/ / edition. who managed the Communist Party's financial affairs. [7] Branko Milanovic. pp. html. org/ newshour/ bb/ europe/ jan-june98/ russia_3-23. Retrieved 2008-11-26. the official line today is a neutral acknowledgement of all phases of Russian history and culture. Raymond E. The lower rate is based on household consumption. Lcweb2. 1996" (http:/ / www. html). washingtonpost. com/ WORLD/ pivotal. following the collapse of the August 1991 coup attempt. html). cnn. org/ newshour/ bb/ europe/ july-dec98/ russia_10-27. 1989). The Russian Management Revolution: Preparing Managers for the Market Economy (Armonk. [6] The poverty line in 1993 was set at the equivalent of $25 per month. Gennady Zyuganov candidate profile. appears to be considerably stronger than in the Soviet period. [19] "Online NewsHour: Russia's Economy — October 27. Cia. assisted by demographics and based on perception of internal and international politics. . cc. 1906. ed. [16] "Russia Special Report" (http:/ / media.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Jr. http:/ / edition. . Income. eds. . Underneath the circles of power. [14] Daniel Treisman.http:/ / edition. Zickel. Pbs. "Blaming Russia First. neither age nor material conditions fully determined the outlook. 2008. 1998).. C.. Sharpe. deprived future researchers of the opportunity to discover where many of the party's assets disappeared. p. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ rs. 49. (Washington. org/ 20001101fareviewessay946/ daniel-treisman/ blaming-russia-first.g. see the discussion of this point in Anders Åslund. [20] "Online NewsHour: Russia Shake Up. .: Brookings Institution. D. p. though it is too early either to speak of these tendencies as formal movements or to predict which one will prevail. com/ wp-srv/ inatl/ longterm/ russiagov/ stories/ premier070596. 1996. 221 References [1] Anders Åslund. Retrieved 2008-11-26. This can be read online at http:/ / unx1. Retrieved 2008-11-26. The Impoverished Superpower: Perestroika and the Soviet Military Burden (San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies.

com/ 2007/ 04/ 22/ world/ europe/ 22russia.com. Jamestown.txt) (an analysis of the state of democratic transition in Russia by Charles H. Saunders. [35] Levada Center poll of Sept. [28] "Online NewsHour: Russia's Crisis — September 17. archive. Cnn. Retrieved 2008-11-26. guardian. by Tanya Narozhna • "The Uncertain Return of Russian Power" (http://www. theglobeandmail. pbs.uk/russia/article/0.org.com.org. Number 3. The newsletter about reforming economies.. php?volume_id=2& & issue_id=21) on November 1. 20040212. Pbs.org. . [25] "Online NewsHour: Russia — July 13. Cnn.com. Poland. wsovi0212/ BNPrint/ Front) on September 30. vote. 1998" (http:/ / www. analyses Putin's Russia and looks at claims that the reassertion of Russian power is leading to a new Cold War. . html?ex=1334980800& en=e78329317e370553& ei=5124& partner=permalink& exprod=permalink). 2008. 1998" (http:/ / www.html) (interviews with Yegor Gaidar. html#5). php?volume_id=5& issue_id=293& article_id=3285).1522191. 1998" (http:/ / web. . The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-11-26. p. . cdi. org/ publications_details. co. . html) (Paul J.-Russian relations and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations) • Up for Debate: Shock Therapy: Bolivia. Beyond Transition. nytimes. a leading specialist in Russian politics published in the Journal of Democracy) • Paul J. worldbank. kakanien. July 6. Or What Is Behind the Marshall Plan for Post-Socialist Reconstruction (http://www. org/ wgbh/ commandingheights/ shared/ minitextlo/ int_robertrubin. Theglobeandmail. pbs. [33] "globeandmail.April 24. [27] "CDI Russia Weekly 16 October 1998" (http:/ / www. html). Joseph (April 9. asp?obiektivi=show& n=195). [32] "The Jamestown Foundation" (http:/ / web. "Why "Globalization" Didn't Rescue Russia" (http://www. . Fairbanks. cnn." Journal of Democracy (April 1999).org.at/beitr/fallstudie/TNarozhna1. .pdf). Joseph Stiglitz. The World Bank Group. . cnn. . org/ publications_details. "What Went Wrong in Russia?: The Feudalization of the State. org/ html/ prddr/ trans/ mayjune2002/ pgs14-17. . Jamestown. May–June 2002.html) From the PBS series "Commanding Heights" • Up for Debate: Privatization: Who Wins? Russia's Reform Compromise (http://www. Nytimes.932847. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.S.00. org/ newshour/ bb/ europe/ july-dec98/ russia_7-13. vote. jamestown. Pbs.tu-dresden.uk/index. Retrieved 2008-11-26... Retrieved 2008-11-26. Same Policies-Different Results (http://www.html) • Failed Expectations. (http://www.April 24. org/ russia/ oct1698. "Meet the chief exec of Kremlin inc . "The ruin of Russia" (http:/ / education. co. Retrieved 2008-11-26. "50% Good News Is the Bad News in Russian Radio — New York Times" (http:/ / www. html#6). [22] "CNN . html). by Mike Haynes. org/ web/ 20070930035330/ http:/ / www. Pbs. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 20040212.org. [23] http:/ / www." (http://www. com/ WORLD/ europe/ 9804/ 24/ duma. Cdi. org/ publications_details. archive. Jamestown. [24] "Commanding Heights : Robert Rubin | on PBS" (http:/ / www. wsovi0212/ BNPrint/ Front). Retrieved 2008-11-26. duma. php?volume_id=2& & issue_id=21). 47–53. org/ web/ 20080309073312/ http:/ / www. . org/ web/ 20071101100123/ http:/ / jamestown. html). Saunders is a specialist in U. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-11-26. 2007).org. Grigory Yavlinsky. [34] "Kvali Online Magazine" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.org/feb01/saunders. .com.pbs. .org.9828.Yeltsin nominee confirmed as prime minister . By (April 22. archive. vote/ index.ac. [31] Andrew. php?volume_id=6& & issue_id=368). org/ publications_details. kvali.php4?id=365&issue=116).guardian. cnn. Retrieved 2008-11-26. Archived from the original (http:/ / jamestown. Volume 13. FEUDALIZATION STATE week 8 22699.Russian Duma holds secret ballot in vote on premier . theglobeandmail.org/wgbh/ commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/ufd_privatizerussia_full. uk/ higher/ comment/ story/ 0. Fairbanks. com/ servlet/ story/ RTGAM. and Jeffrey Sachs from the PBS series "Commanding Heights") • Nick Paton Walsh.org/ wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/ufd_shocktherapy_full. com/ WORLD/ europe/ 9804/ 24/ duma.policyreview. doi:Russia.History of post-Soviet Russia [21] "CNN . By Joseph Stiglitz. Kvali. Russia. 1998" (http:/ / www. [30] "The Jamestown Foundation" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-11-26. com/ kvali/ index. html). 2006 222 External links • Charles H.. Retrieved 2008-11-26. pbs. 2007. .com: Front" (http:/ / web. results/ ) on March 9.pbs. Jr. 2007.isj. com/ servlet/ story/ RTGAM. Retrieved 2008-11-26.de/phfis/bev/transition/TRANSITION FAIRBANKS. Retrieved 2008-11-26. Jr. jamestown. org/ newshour/ forum/ september98/ russia.com. 2003). com/ WORLD/ europe/ 9804/ 24/ russia. [26] "The Jamestown Foundation" (http:/ / www.org. results/ ). 2005. Anatoly Chubais. [29] Stiglitz.2763.00. htm Excerpts from Globalization and Its Discontents].

History of post-Soviet Russia • Mike Edwards: "Russia — Playing by new rules" National Geographic Magazine March 1993 Mark Hollingsworth & Stewart Lansley. 2009. 4th Estate 223 . Londongrad: From Russia With Cash.

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