Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings”

ABSTRACT: Nature calamities are unavoidable and unpredictable. It may happen at any time anywhere in the world. They claim millions of life and money, if suitable resistant measures are not followed. Earthquake is one such calamity which costs unaccountable damage to men and man-made structures. Developed countries which are prone to earthquake are very often investing huge amount of money in building structures which are capable to resist earthquake effects. There by they reduce the amount of damage caused to public and to the structures built by or built for the public. Economically undeveloped countries which are prone to earthquake are still struggling and losing their wealth very often to the hands of earthquake. Due to lack in economy and engineering, most people of these countries are at risk from the collapse of their own homes. These are ‘non-engineered’ buildings. Hence to protect the population, there is an urgent need to increase the quality of the domestic construction to reduce their vulnerability to earthquake action. In terms of guiding those reports are prepared by many voluntary organisations on how to build low cost buildings in earthquake areas. This is one such report which discusses the ways to built buildings in an earthquake area and advantages and disadvantages of the materials used for construction. Photographs and sketches are included in this report to provide clear view about earthquake effects on buildings and on improvement measures. A case study on reducing vulnerability on buildings in earthquake prone country (India) is done in order to provide clear understanding on this topic.

Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013

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Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings”

1 INTRODUCTION: Earthquake is a hazardous calamity which causes damage to life and money. Buildings which are engineered to this effect stands during an earthquake and those not engineered fails. Existing buildings which are not engineered are to be improved in order to resist the earthquake effects. Strength of earthquake depends on the intensity, frequency, time duration and soil conditions. Damages on buildings also depend on these criteria along with the quality of construction, strength and durability. From the history of the earthquakes it can be understood that many people were killed or badly injured because of poorly constructed buildings. In earthquake prone undeveloped countries buildings are erected without proper engineering advice with usage of poor quality materials, construction and workmanship. More often buildings constructed with traditional materials like stones and bricks are suffered the most. In fact nonengineered buildings are built mostly with load bearing masonry wall, stud wall, piers in masonry and columns in RC, steel or wood [3]. In view of the fact that in seismic zones of the world more than 90 percent of the population is still living and working in non-engineered buildings
[1]

. As earthquake forces are horizontal in

nature, vertical load carrying structural elements are forced to carry horizontal load and the shear associated with it. If the structural elements are not designed to carry this, the structure fails. Associated causes of earthquake like ground vibration and failure, tsunami and fire are also major disaster causing agents. From analysis of buildings in earthquake areas, it is clear that most of the building fail due to considering strong beams and weak columns, soft storeys and lack of transverse reinforcement [4]. As per the 1991 census of India, the country has nearly 195.0 million non-engineered dwelling units
[3]

. On 26th January 2001, an earthquake rocked Gujarat, India and claimed millions of

lives. Most of the collapsed buildings are identified as non-engineered buildings. This is an example event to point the need of earthquake resistant construction of non-engineered buildings. Recent earthquakes in Kobe-Japan and Anatolia-Turkey triggered the importance of skill in constructing non-engineered buildings. Countries which are extremely prone to earthquake damages require a suitable report which will be useful to people involved in construction of new houses or repair and strengthening of existing buildings. In this report, the construction of earthquake safe non-engineered buildings plays a major role.

Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013

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Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings”

2 BUILDING IN EARTHQUAKE ZONE: Consider a typical two storey house in earthquake prone area which is subjected to seismic forces. The building is non-engineered one and constructed using locally available material. The building is designed and constructed by a local artisan over a soft soil stratum without any engineering knowledge. The materials used are locally available low quality fire burnt bricks, reinforced concrete for roof slab, graded cement, river sand, wooden joineries and wooden truss for sloped tile roof. Due to budget limitation form the owner, the builder decided to add sloped wooden roof with burnt roof tiles as cover to second storey instead of reinforced concrete slab. As this building is constructed using traditional materials, its response to seismic forces will be large and may damage during an earthquake.

Figure 1: Typical two - storey house 2.1 Construction methods: The walls were supported by masonry columns at the edges and at the centre. The RCC roof slab of first storey is made to rest on walls and partially on masonry columns. The masonry columns are continued from first storey to second storey to support wooden roof truss and roof tiles. Walls at first storey level are urged to carry the weight of first storey roof, walls at second storey level, partial weight from roof truss and tiles. Thus the walls act as a load-bearing one. Roof slab is placed above the wall and on column and it is not effectively tied to it. In both the storeys floor to roof distance is uniform. The walls are unreinforced with larger length-to-width ratio on one side and other as simply supported masonry wall. In considering foundation for the house, columns are provided with isolated footings. Individual column footings are not tied to each other using plinth beam. Staircase to second storey is provided outside the building which
Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013

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Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings”

made of reinforced concrete and supported to lintel and column. Sufficient number of window openings is provided. Lintel beams are not continued through the building they are provided only above window and door openings.

Figure 2: Building plan of two-storey house 2.2 Forces acting on the building: 2.2.1 Inertia forces: Basically seismic forces are movements which act randomly in all directions and unpredictable. Due to self weight of the building resists the seismic forces acting on it. This resistant of the building due to its self-weight is called as inertia force. Mostly buildings collapse due to inertia forces only. During seismic load the building moves abruptly and inertia forces are created throughout the building and in its contents force will more and vice versa. As the building is constructed using traditional materials like bricks, RCC for roof slabs; the weight of the building is more. For an earthquake prone area, the buildings should be built less weight, such that the inertia forces will be less. 2.2.2 Seismic forces on whole structure: As seismic forces are abrupt, the vertical vibrations created by that will impose an additional vertical load effect to the walls and columns. As the walls and columns are not designed to it failure will occur. In addition to that they have to carry horizontal bending and shearing stress. From the construction methods of the building it is observed that the link between walls and columns is poor. No reinforcement is provided in that link. Connection between roof slab with wall and column is not well detailed.
Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013
[1]

. If the weight of the building is more the inertia

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Due to ineffective column this may happen. the earthquake force is acting in plane of the wall B and opposite to wall A. 2. The connection between the walls and columns are not well detailed to resist the seismic forces acting on it. As deflection increases with height. At the same time wall B Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 5 . As the adhesion between the slab and wall is poor. due to inertia the building manages itself to be in position.3 Response of first storey: When considering first storey alone. Due to improper linkage between the members of the building this type of failure occurred. Due to this the slab will tend to slide from its initial position.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” Figure 3: Behaviour of two-storey house to seismic force Seismic force acts horizontally to the building on a whole. Figure 4: Response of first storey Wall A is not designed to carry load in X-direction. The columns are made from masonry work without reinforcement and in this case it had failed due to shearing. second storey responds more to seismic forces and will start to slide from its original position. this results in occurrence of crack near the connection between the columns and may fail due to bending action. the inertia force of the slab will not be transferred to the walls A and B.

wall B will carry most of the inertia force from the roof than wall A. During seismic force along Xaxis. they develop more crack due to shaking effects. transferring forces effectively. failure due to shear and bending can be prevented. In this case the wooden truss is made to simply rest on the columns. it can be made to transmit the force horizontally to wall B. If the roof slab is linked well to the walls. as because wall B has more stiffness in that direction than wall A. In real conditions. The diaphragm action of the roof slab is not adequate to transfer its inertia force to the side walls [1]. The relative displacement of wall will bring down the roof slab. By adding suitable horizontal bracing in the truss. the inertia force from the purlins will transmitted to trusses and from trusses to wall A. On failure of columns the roof will collapse. Figure 5: Response of second storey Same as first storey the seismic forces are acting in X-direction. Wall A which is supported to columns will bend on deflection and may fail.4 Response of second storey: The masonry columns are continued from first storey to second storey. As no reinforcements are provided in the columns. which results in sliding of roof truss in one direction and fail. on failure the truss will collapse. The integrity of roof is more important for earthquake resistance. As this storey deflect more than first storey.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” will act as a shear wall withstanding the force from the roof and its own inertia force. The walls B are gabled to receive the purlins of the end bays. The plate action of wall A has to be restrained by the roof at the top and by column supporting it. 2. As the truss is made to support on wall A. The seismic forces are amplified in this case due to ineffective joint connection between the members. If reinforcement is provided. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 6 . the building on whole should act as a box. they will shear and fail. The inertia force created by the roof will only go to the vertical elements in which they are supported. walls and will offer resistance to motion through friction only [1].

the walls are subjected from vertical loads from the roof slab and weight of second storey. it will fail easily due to bending and shear. if the top of the wall is not fixed to the roof effectively. in which wall A is weak to carry that seismic force than wall B which acts as shear wall. The roof truss has to efficiently fix at edges to the columns and supported to the wall. 2.5. As there is no cross reinforcements in the column. The wall supporting the truss has to be designed to carry the inertia forces from the truss created during earthquake. The perpendicular seismic force acting on wall A makes it to bend and even to overturn. performance of the wall during an earthquake in x-direction can be analysed. This is due that the seismic forces are acting in plane to wall B.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 2. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 7 .2 Roof slab and roof truss: The roof slab is made of RCC and it is placed on the walls to transmit the inertia force created during an earthquake. For this transmission the slab has to be joined effectively to the walls and to columns. The roof and wall connection to the columns are to be well detailed in order to perform like a box. These columns are the one which is intended to hold the building as a single element.5. they have to be effectively fixed to the supports mainly columns at sides.1 Column: Columns in this structure are assumed to be made of masonry without any reinforcements in it. In this the joints at the edges of the wall with the column will fail. 2. 2. Apart from its own inertia force.5 Seismic forces on individual parts: The ability of the structure to withstand seismic force depends on the characteristics of individual members. The main purpose of this column is to support the walls and to carry partial loads from first storey roof slab and roof truss. To avoid failure columns are to be tied with each other particularly to the footing. The diaphragm effect of the slab in essential for it to behave as an active resistant to seismic force.3 Walls: As walls are designed to act as load bearing one. The earthquake is assumed to be in x-direction. through which the load is transmitted to the ground. From fig: 3.5.

load acting at different elements of the structure will take their nearest load path and reach the ground to nullify the damage effect to be caused to Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 8 .4 Footing: Though the site is located on soft soil. The amount of lateral force acting during seismic force will be enormous. so occurrence of differential settlement may possible. The footing is assumed to be isolated. The loads acting on the structure has to be transferred to the ground for dissipation. Due to bending action of the column the footing may fail at the junction. plinth band is not used to tie all footings.5. Figure 6: Load path of the building Abrupt forces acting on the structure is transferred from all parts of the members to the nearest load path and reaches the ground. In this same fashion.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 2. Similarly load from first storey roof reaches the ground by columns and walls at first storey level. This is because the column has no reinforcement in it and connection with plinth is not possible. 3 LOAD PATH TO THE GROUND: Basically seismic load is a combination of both horizontal and vertical load. To avoid failure footings are advised to be continuous. Efficient load path depends on durable joints between the members. Flow chart below explains the load path of the building discussed earlier. Load from roof truss reaches the ground by the help of columns and walls at second floor level supporting that.

Normally bricks are used to built buildings. buildings are categorised as per their materials. As a material it resists seismic load applied on it. stone. These many times represent culture and tradition of individuals. As this is easily available material. methods and shapes used for construction will vary from place to place. Its strength can be upgraded when combined with reinforcement steel. This material suffered Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 9 . methods of construction and shapes used. Exhibits poor strength when used with mud mortar [1] . 4. if proper construction method is used. 4. In certain places economy places a major role in selection of these. Depending on availability of material construction of buildings will vary. many are intended to use to this material. 4. These are easily available material and cost less for constructing a building.1. Well dressed polished and unpolished stones are available in the market. Countries prone to earthquake effects often have dwelling spaces built using traditional construction materials.2 Rubble stone: Buildings built of rubble stone are more in rural areas. methods and shapes.1 Fire burnt masonry bricks: Bricks are one of the material which as acceptable compressive strength and unacceptable tensile strength. For discussion. When considering the height of the building.1. Same as brick it has very good compressive strength. it is advisable to use reinforcement with rubble stone. 4 FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS: Materials. the strength and load carrying capacity can be increased. For efficient transmission of loads the members and the joints should be durable and strong enough to carry them without any damage to the structure.1 Materials used for construction: Normally non-engineered buildings are constructed using Fire burnt masonry bricks. wood and earth. Load carrying capacity of bricks in building is increased if bond with mortar is good. India during earthquake in the year 2001 are more of Rubble stone or cut stone type [2] .Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” them. where the load to be carried is more. Buildings destroyed at Gujarat. With introduction of mortar and reinforcement. Bricks are used at places where clay fields are more.

Wooden frames used in buildings may fail due to impose of high lateral load to the frame from heavy cladding. As these types of buildings weigh more.7 million earthen dwelling units which constitute 38% of total dwelling units . The performance of this material under earthquake and water is very poor [3] [1] . They often use wooden sticks as reinforcement. Decrease in forest area due to population increase reduced wood usage in construction. In order to protect environment. Wooden buildings are constructed in areas where availability of the material is more or in unavoidable situations only [1] . More often used in hilly areas.4 Earth: Buildings using earth are informally constructed in many parts of the earthquake prone countries. 4.1. it will fail due to improper bonding and connection details. the inertia forces created during seismic reaction will be more and easily prone to damage.3 Wood: Good damping material. cutting of trees is banned in many countries.1. 4. 4. Currently in India there are about 74. These are the ones which causes the greatest loss of life and damage during seismic events. Buildings built with wood experienced less damage when comparing to buildings built with other materials.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” extensive damage and complete collapse during earthquakes.2 Methods used for construction: Though the material is tough against seismic load. the method followed in constructing that may lead to failure of material. Easily catches fire and may cause mass damage. Depending upon quality price of material varies. Many time materials will not fail by crushing. Due to minimal costs. a) Load bearing masonry b) Reinforced concrete frames Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 10 . Majority of non – engineered buildings are constructed under two main categories [5]. good acoustics and thermal insulation effects it is widely used in rural parts.

It is always preferred to have simple shapes during construction such that all the members Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 11 . Even sun dried clay bricks are used in this type of construction. Masonry units with mud mortar perform worst in this type of construction.2 Reinforced concrete frames: In this type of construction the loads are designed to carry by members assigned in the structure. which are reinforced or many times unreinforced. Frames are designed such that the inertia forces created by the roof are carried through a load path and get dissipated at ground level.2. Structures with simple shape and geometry perform well during an earthquake. Usually the masonry infill is built using stone block or clay brick. size and spacing of openings.2. the roof has to tie to the walls supporting it. the structure collapses. Do well. preferably for buildings taller than three storeys. Beam-column connections are to be designed to carry torsion and lateral forces acting on them. Roof structure often consists of tiles laid on timber planks supported by wooden purlins and rafter. Non reinforcement usage. This method is efficient for earthquake construction. rubble stone and rough dressed stones. Most of these buildings use masonry units like burnt bricks. On absence on this. usage of heavy stone blocks and roofs will make the building to vulnerable to earthquake. This type highly depends on tie between roof and walls. concrete blocks. 4. if properly designed. The units are bonded with each other using available mortar variety. Continuity of columns and beams are a major issue in this type of construction.3 Shapes of construction: Shape and geometry of structure decides the structural response during an earthquake. if the sides of the walls are short. Poor detailing of open first storey combined with poor quality of construction will make the frame to fail.1 Load bearing masonry: In this type of construction the entire load of the slab is concentrated on supporting walls. For efficient performance. 4. This type of construction is very economical and suitable for single storey buildings with low load carrying capacity. The supporting walls are to carry the inertia forces from the slab. If the number of storey exceeds normally reinforced concrete slabs are used [5].Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 4.

separation joints have to be provided such that the torsion and corners effects are neglected. the length of a block is restricted to three times its width” [1]. The same plan when built with few separation joints make the structure to work against seismic force and inertia force in it. “For long narrow rectangular blocks. Though symmetrical plans are suitable for earthquake construction. Structure should avoid projections in it. the failures at the junction. On requirement it should be effectively tied to the structure. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 12 . On using unsymmetrical plan. Structure should be a simple one with out ornamental effects on it. Symmetrical plans with suitable size openings make the structure to behave as whole. it is clear that due to inertia force. mostly with rotation type of failure. Separate enclosed rooms perform well than the rooms without intermediate wall.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” and joints associated can be well designed. due to their simple appearance they are often neglected. where as unsymmetrical plans leads to torsion and extreme corners are subjected to very large earthquake forces [6] . From figure: 9.

Pendulum effects in building plan should be avoided. Each and every member exhibits their own modes of failure. Even symmetrical sections with unequal openings will cause failure.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” Symmetrical buildings are more advantageous than an unsymmetrical building. unsymmetrical plans and uneven openings [2] . Cantilever projections in buildings are provide in order to accommodate more space. Buildings with ornamental effects are to be designed with at most care. buildings are to be designed for symmetry. For discussion purposes. material and method of construction. Many buildings which failed during 2001 earthquake in Gujarat. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 13 . the modes are failure shown by members due to seismic forces are predictable. Though nature of seismic forces are not predictable. Probable mode of failure will be crushing failure of columns. Effects of openings in buildings will be discussed in modes of failure. But this enhances occurrence of rotation and causes failure (Figure: 8). They can easily dissipate the energy created on them. 5 POTENTIAL MODES OF FAILURE: Structural members under designed to carry seismic forces fail easily than any other members. India are buildings with cantilever projections. Few projections and unrelated members can create more effects and may lead to failure. Modes of failure depend on shape. modes of failure are described as per the materials used in construction of buildings. if properly designed to seismic force. pendulum effects will easily cause failure to the building. As inertia increases with height. Thus for better performance during an earthquake. regularity and simplicity.

On seismic force. solid concrete blocks and with hollow concrete blocks. this would have occurred. As wall A is not designed to carry loads in perpendicular directions. Horizontal cracks in gable ends may occur if the roof truss is not fixed properly to the supports. it collapses by overturning. On a whole masonry building has wall. wall A shows majority of bending cracks only. as the wall is unreinforced shear cracks may develop. Figure 10: Modes of Failure Walls A and B in above figure clearly explains the modes of failure that could happen on occurrence of seismic force. the wall failed. column. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 14 . This is due to “to and fro motion” of seismic forces. beam and other essential structural members.1 Masonry buildings: Usually masonry buildings are built using fire burnt bricks. Consider a masonry wall which is supported only at the base. Bending cracks in wall B is due to compressive action from the supports provided by masonry columns. For load bearing constructions masonry walls are important. This is due to transmission of truss loads directly from the end purlins to the gable ends. They are built together using mortar for providing good bond.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 5. Occurrence of diagonal cracks indicates the effect of length and width ratio. Occurrence of cracks on walls depends on length to width ratio. If a seismic force acts perpendicular to the wall. Diagonal tension cracks can be seen on the surface of the walls if the seismic load is acting on the plane. If the load is applied to the plane the wall might not be collapsed but slightly move from its initial position. For wall B the seismic load is in plane. As the load is applied opposite to the plane direction. Possibly the ratio is moderate for wall B.

They also decide the strength of walls. if wall A is fixed clearly to its supports [1] . Majority of inertia force will be transmitted to wall B.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” If the walls are not supported properly to the columns. Mostly these members fail at their junctions due to hinge formations. column splice regions and inadequate splice length combined with short column effects could cause complete collapse of the structure [4] . during earthquake force the roof truss may move from its original position and fail. formation of cracks at the joint connection may occur and the wall will fail by overturning effect. If this is followed collapse of entire structure can be prevented. Columns and beams in frame construction carry heavy loads during an earthquake. Stirrups with proper spacing protect these members from failing from shear. This happened due to larger stiffness of wall B in x-direction. A framed structure is to be designed with “weak beams and strong columns”. More often damages start from openings provided in wall panels. This action reduces the bending and overturning effect of wall A. the inertia developed by roof will be transmitted to the walls beneath it. If not sliding of roof will occur and may cause severe damage. Connection between roofs with beams and columns has to be perfect such that they behave as one. This type of cracks even causes complete collapse of the building [1]. Columns and beams are to be designed by sufficient reinforcement with proper spacing of shear connectors. Hinge formation at the junction creates easy collapse of the structure. For increased strength the openings provided in wall panels should be small in size and centrally located. Due to non-proper fixity. Lack of transverse reinforcement in beam – column connections. For flat roof cases. Diagonal cracks usually start from corner of openings and centre of wall segments. In adequate load path formation may also Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 15 .

This results to wall overturning and roof collapsing. foundations may fail by differential settlement [1]. They are joined together using mortar either of cement or mud. This mode of failure creates cracks in shear walls.2 Stone buildings: Stone buildings often use round stone boulders. India caused major damage to this type of buildings and claimed thousands of lives [2]. Few stone buildings will fail if their roof slabs are not properly tied to the walls. During an earthquake stone buildings easily fail at corners and at T-junctions. This type of buildings is more built in rural areas than urban. Building with unsymmetrical plans often fails by torsion and wrapping. 5. Provision of heavy slabs as roof should be avoided in this type of buildings. Stone footings on soft soil perform very poor during an earthquake. This type of buildings is often provided with stone footings. The 26th January 2006 earthquake in Gujarat. During seismic load the roof will be displaced and stone associated with it will cave in. This type of buildings is not recommended in the areas of high seismic influence. polished or unpolished stones are used. Due to failure of ground during an earthquake.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” collapse the structure. Some times cut or chiselled. During shaking the tensile strength of mortar and stone exceeds the limit and make the walls (Wythes) to bulge and collapse [7]. such that these possible failure modes often occur in combination. Due to uneven stone shapes and poor mortar usage in developing a bond this would have happened. On a whole earthquake effects occur in both the directions of the building and creates bending and shearing effects together. Majority of stone buildings are constructed as load bearing ones. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 16 .

it fails on certain aspects. If wooden buildings are built over soft soil. Mostly crushing failure occurs in this type of construction. If not falling of roof tiles during an earthquake may hurt people. Regarding roof tiles. This may be due to soil settlement or soil liquefaction. This leads to sliding after joint fracture. On failure lower storey falls first and other storeys remain undamaged. Failure of 17 Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 . With more absorbing capacity wood can easily dissipate the energy produce on it. Corner failures and out of plane collapse of walls are common mode of failures. If anchor bolts are not fixed properly to the foundation.3 Wooden buildings: As a structural material. sliding of entire structure may happen [1] . Joints connecting columns and girders frequently fail during lateral loading.4 Earthen Buildings: Earthen buildings are highly vulnerable to seismic effects and easily fail during an earthquake. Due to structural deterioration and roof weight the restoring forces at the joints are impede to movement. lower storey suffers more damage than any other storey. wood offers a good amount of resistance towards seismic load. Damage is always much more severe in two storeyed when compared to single storeyed. Wooden buildings mostly damaged by fire due to earthquake. chance of getting damaged during an earthquake is more. Figure 13: Possible wooden failures Usually in storeys more than two.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 5. Though wood as many qualities to survive seismic load. 5. Prevention of fire is most important in case of wooden buildings. Even buildings with horizontal bracings will not survive this [3]. it had to be fixed properly to the frame.

Provision of openings close to corners and large door and window openings can stimulate the failure pattern. Few methods should be adopted before constructing a new building and retrofitting methods should be followed on existing building. Ductility of material earth is very low when compared to any other material. walls too high and too long and many more [1]. Certain factors influence the damage in this type of buildings namely heavy tile roof. vertical and horizontal reinforcements are needed to overcome failure. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 18 . As earth is weak in tension. Risks of failure can be overcome by implementing simple guidelines such as: a) Following simple geometry for the building. This is to reduce the vulnerability of the building to earthquake. lack of horizontal reinforcement.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” roofs is common in single storeyed and complete disaster may happen in two storeyed. Figure 14: Possible earthen failures 6 IMPROVEMENT OF STRUCTURES: Structure prone to earthquake can be improved by following certain construction practices. Though reinforcement is provided earthen buildings fail due to their nature of brittleness. If not. poor adobe quality. separation joints should be used.

6. c) Control on thickness.1. e) Good quality of materials and workmanship. f) Supervision from experienced personals.1 Mortar: The cement mortar should be used in the ratio of 1 parts of cement with 4 parts of sand for category I and 1:6 for category II.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” b) Openings should be provided as per the guidelines. g) Retrofitting existing buildings. d) Proper use of reinforcement when using traditional materials.III. h) Overall reference of guidelines specified for non-engineering constructions.IV can be used.1 Masonry buildings: 6. Table 1: Categories of buildings for strengthening purposes [1] (Ref table:1 ) or even richer mix Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 19 . length and height of walls in a room.

It also helps in preventing shrinkage and temperature cracks. These seismic bands are a very important feature in masonry buildings towards earth quake resistant. Horizontal reinforcement helps walls to gain strength towards horizontal bending against plate-action due to inertia load. type of soil and number of storeys [1] . levels of lintels of doors and windows and at the ceiling level of roofs [8].2 Seismic bands: A reinforced concrete flat runner through both external and internal masonry walls at plinth level. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 20 . The amount of reinforcing and minimum size of the band depends upon importance of buildings.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6.1. The size of the band and reinforcement used depends on length of the walls between the perpendicular cross walls. Reinforcing bars will be Fe 415 type (TOR or HYSD bars) [8]. These bands hold the building together and makes it to move as a single unit during shaking [9]. seismic coefficient.

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6.3 Openings in bearing walls: As doors and windows reduce the lateral loads resistance of the walls.1. The requirements of openings with respect to good seismic performance are shown in fig: 17. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 21 . they should be located centrally and preferably small in size.

a minimum of 50 times diameter of the bar has to be provided [8]. The diameter of the reinforcing bars depends on number of storeys.1. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 22 .4 Vertical reinforcement: Vertical reinforcements are to be provided at corners of walls from the foundation concrete and should be covered with rich mortar mix. Window openings larger than 60 cm in width will also need such reinforcement [8] . On lapping of vertical reinforcement.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6. These vertical bars start from foundation pass thro all seismic bands effectively tied to horizontal and lateral ties using binding wires.

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” Eave and gable band: 6. This is to provide full bond strength. Wooden dowels are also used successfully instead of steel dowels [3].5 Dowel at corners and junctions: As a supplement to seismic bands dowels are inserted at regular intervals of 50 cm and taken into walls to entire length. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 23 .1.

buttress wall should be provided at intervals not more than 5m. Hole formation for vertical reinforcement in solid block walls is not feasible.2 Stone buildings: Mortar: Mortar can be of same type that had used for masonry construction. 6. e) Buttress should have a top width equal to wall thickness and base thickness equal to one sixth of the wall height.6 Reinforcement in Hollow and solid concrete block masonry: All specifications for this type of construction are same as brick masonry.2 m and span of walls between cross walls has to be limited to 7 m.1. 6. c) Maximum storey height should be 3. Special concrete blocks with one hollow are cast and used at the bar-points.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6.2. Clay mortar should be avoided because of its low bonding capacity and less strength towards earthquake. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 24 . d) For rooms larger than 7m.1 Dimension control for stone masonry using cement mortar [8]: a) Heights of buildings are restricted to one storey for category I and II and can be two storeys for III and IV category. b) Thickness of wall is limited to 350 mm and stones of inner and outer walls are interlocked with each other. In hollow blocks holes are available and this eases the provision of vertical reinforcement.

6. And width of pier between two consecutive openings should be greater than or equal to 600 mm [8]. the ratio of total length of opening in wall to length of wall in a room should not exceed 0.5 in single storeyed and 0. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 25 .Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” f) Stone masonry buildings should not be taller than 2 storeys when built with cement mortar and 1 storey when built with mud mortar [7].2 Control of openings in bearing walls: For perfect provision of openings.2.42 in two storeyed. Distance of opening from inside cover should be greater than or equal to 450 mm.

long stones of 500mm600mm in length can be used [8]. Hooked steel links and S-shaped steel ties can be used as alternatives to through stones.3 Masonry work: Construction lifts in stone buildings is restricted to 600 mm.2 m along the length. can be used in place of through stones. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 26 . At wall corners and at T-junctions. Through stones or bond stones should be used at every 600 mm height and at a maximum spacing of 1. Bonding elements of concrete bars 50mm x 50 mm section with 8mm dia bars placed centrally or solid concrete blocks of 150mm x 150mm x wall thickness. This is vital in preventing the wall from separation as Wythes [7].2.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6. Wooden planks.

this is to done to continue that into stone walls [8] . Around which the masonry is built and the pipe is removed once the masonry hardens. For sloping roofs. In that place. If the opening provided in the building does not comply with standards they are reinforced or boxed in reinforced concrete all – round or reinforcement bars provided in jambs through the masonry [3].2. This provides integrity to the building and holds the walls together to resist horizontal effects [7]. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 27 .4 Seismic bands: Seismic bands are same as masonry buildings provided continuously in all internal and external walls without any break.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6. In lintel and plinth bands. stones are projected out of the concrete by 50mm to 75 mm. It is important to provide at least one band either roof or lintel band in stone construction. Requirement of reinforcing bars is RC bands is given in table: 2.5 Vertical reinforcements: Vertical reinforcements are provided at corners and at T-junctions at window sill level and at jambs of doors and large windows. triangular gable walls are enclosed in eave level band and a band at the top of the gable wall. a rod 12 mm dia of 600mm ling is inserted and well compacted using M 20 concrete [8]. 6. Vertical reinforcement is made to continue from foundation level to roof band at the top. During installation of the vertical reinforcements. PVC casing pipe of 100mm external dia of 600-750mm long is used.2. The bands are to be cast directly on the masonry and its top surface is made rough to achieve good bond with masonry.

This is a perfect alternative to steel reinforcing. III and IV category.7 m and span of walls between cross walls has to be limited to 5 m. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 28 . j) For rooms larger than 5m.33 of wall length in all categories of constructions. h) Thickness of wall is limited to 450 mm and stones of inner and outer walls are interlocked with each other. Pier widths between consecutive openings should be greater than or equal to 600 mm [8]. 6. 6.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6. Distance of openings from inside corner should be greater than or equal to 600 mm. k) Buttress should have a top width equal to wall thickness and base thickness equal to one sixth of the wall height.2. Masonry work is same as stone work in cement mortar. i) Maximum storey height should be 2. effectively spliced and held by lateral members in lattice form are used in timber available regions as horizontal bands.2.7 Control of openings in bearing walls: Total length of openings in a wall should be equal to 0. In few cases seasoned wooden battens of size 50mm x50 mm can be used as bonding element.5m.6 Dimension control for stone masonry using mud mortar [8]: g) Heights of buildings are restricted to one storey for category I and can be two storeys for II. Seasoned wooden battens of size 60mm x 60mm can be used as an alternative to long stones at wall corners and T-junction. Same as cement mortar construction the wooden bands are provided continuously through the building [1]. Wooden planks of rectangular sections. buttress wall should be provided at intervals not more than 3.8 Seismic bands: Horizontal bands made of wood are used in this type of construction.2.

And this vertical member is nailed to wooden seismic bands at plinth.9 Vertical reinforcement at corners: Two wooden planks of size 50mm x 30mm is nailed together to form an L-section. and lintel and eaves level.2.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6. sill. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 29 . This vertical reinforcement is to be placed at all corners of the room.

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6. The super structure should be connected to the foundation in one of the two ways. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 30 . Bearing lines of upper storey are made to be supported over bearing lines of lower storey.m will made to rest on a firm plane ground such that the building is free to slide laterally during ground motion. The maximum width of openings is limited to 4m and should be at least 50 cm away from the corner. 6. The maximum spacing of the bearing wall is limited to 8m. a) Small buildings of one storey with area less than 50 sq.3 Wooden buildings: 6. Bearing wall types depends on type of construction.3. The height of building is always limited to two storeys [1].2 Foundations [8]: Frame construction often starts above plinth level over masonry or concrete.3.1 Building plan: The entire plan of the building is to be divided by bearing wall lines. through sills or by column pedestal. Bearing walls of lower storey are to be supported by continuous foundations.

Joints like.3. The joints are to be effectively nailed or bolted together. 6. 8]: a) Sheathing boards are to be properly nailed to the timber frame.3. General [1. Usage of metal straps in important joints is highly recommended. if not bracings should be used. Anchor bolts are provided on both sides of joints of sills. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 31 .Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” b) The superstructure will be fixed rigidly to the plinth masonry or concrete foundation. columns with sill and wall plates with horizontal members are areas of most interest.3 Joints: Joints are high prone areas of damage during an earthquake. b) The diagonal bracings are to be framed to the verticals or should be nailed to the surface. 6.4 Frames: In general two types of frame construction methods are followed: Stud wall construction and Brick nogged timber frame. c) The sill in stud wall construction has to be connected to the foundation using anchor bolts.

whose dimension should not be less than the dimension of the stud.5m in height. first floor and eave level. h) Horizontal framing members in brick nogged construction shall not be spaced more than 1m apart. two of equal in size to studs and the third being a size to fit and as to make a rectangular section. j) Horizontal bracing should be provided at wall corners and at T-junctions of walls at sill. Storey height should not be more than 2.70m e) All studs will be connected to the adjacent studs using horizontal blockings at every 1. g) The vertical framing members in brick nogged should have minimum finished size of 40mm x 100mm spaced not more than 1. i) The corner post should consist of three timbers. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 32 . It should be effectively tied to the main member.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” d) The size of studs used should not be less than 40mm x 90 mm. f) The minimum dimension of braces is 20mm x 60mm. k) The top of studs should be connected to top plates.5m apart.

6. c) The height and width of an opening of the wall is controlled.4 Earthen Buildings [1]: This type of buildings is more prone to earthquake effects. pilasters should be provided at equal intervals at all corners and at junctions. 6. Height should not be greater than 8 times of its thickness and width of opening should not be more than 1. b) Constructing over water table is not encouraged. construction of earthen buildings in soils of type firm subsoil.20m d) A minimum of 1.20m distance should be maintained between the corner and opening.4.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 6.4. c) Sufficient amount of foundation depth should be maintained as per the guidelines available. d) Footing should be constructed using stones or bricks with rich cement mortar. sandy loose soils. selection of clay should be done with utmost care. Usage of mud mortar in construction of footing should be avoided.1 Walls: a) Height of the building should be restricted to one storey in zone I and two storeys in Zone II.2 Foundations: a) In zones I and II. Certain tests are available to select the type of clay which is suitable for construction. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 33 . As clay is the prime material in this type of construction. poorly compacted clays and fill materials should be avoided.III and IV b) Vertical buttress should be provided for walls of longer lengths. e) To increase the seismic stability of the walls. f) A minimum of 50cm should be maintained as bearing length of lintels on each side of the opening.

4 Horizontal bands: a) Two continuous bands made of wood should be used for this purpose. Heavy covering such as RCC should not be used. b) Mesh form of reinforcement is highly recommended in seismic areas.5 Vertical reinforcement: a) Vertical reinforcements are provided in a mesh form of bamboo made or cane or with collar beams and bands.4.3 Roofs: a) Light material should be used as roof covering. b) Roof should not be made to rest over the walls directly.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” e) A minimum height of 300mm from water table should be maintained while constructing plinth level. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 34 . One at lintel level and other at roof level. Preferably wooden or brick restings should be provided over the walls for this purpose.4. b) Horizontal bands should be effectively tied at corners and at wall junctions.4. 6. 6. 6. c) Roofs should be made waterproof such that the penetration of water is avoided. The vertical mash should be tied effectively to horizontal bands at all level. Unfinished rough cut wood should be used.

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” c) These meshes are to be started from the foundation and should be tied with lintel and roof bands.1 Concrete mix: Proportion of 1:2:4 is to be maintained while preparing the mix.5. beams and column. Compaction should be achieved using vibrators or manually. After concrete cast. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 35 . 6.2 Reinforcement: a) Minimum clear cover should be maintained in slabs. 6. The amount of water in the concrete should be enough to make a ball out of the mix by hand.5 Reinforced concrete buildings [1]: 6. These have to be effectively nailed to the framing members. c) Beams should be reinforced both on top and at bottom.5. b) Longitudinal bars should be tied to transverse bars and stirrups. d) Diagonal bracings can be provided using cane members. it has to be cured for at least 14 days. Vertical shear stirrups should be closely spaced. d) Splices should be placed within two at least two stirrups. Minimum of two bars of 12 mm dia is used.

f) Corner columns should be effectively provided with steel and minimum spaced lateral ties. g) Connection between column and beam should be well anchored to obtain full strength. Its strength can be increased by using ties with adequate anchorage and end hooks. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 36 .Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” e) In column vertical reinforcements should be provided at all faces.

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 37 .

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 7 REAL PICTURES OF FAILURES: a) Location: Bhuj. Improvement measures: Provision of transverse reinforcement in beam-column connection. Gujarat. Indonesia – 27th May 2006 Type of failure: Failure due to racking shear could be due to diagonal compression or tension. provision of lintel and sill band. Gujarat. Yogya. Increase in size of column and reinforcement. Provision of reinforcements in walls could even make the structure to perform well. Cantilever projection. avoiding cantilever projection in open first storey. India . Improvement measures: Sufficient hoop reinforcement should be provided in order to eliminate failure in hinge region. Improvement measures: Control of opening sizes. b) Location: Bhuj. Improvement measures: Providing horizontal seismic bands at all levels of the buildings and vertical reinforcement at corners. d) Location: Banda Aceh.26thJanuary 2001 Type of failure: Column failure in open first storey due to hinge failure. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 38 .26thJanuary 2001 Type of failure: Failure of load bearing masonry walls and lintel level crack. column splice regions and provision of adequate splice length in column. India . Effective tying of walls to floor and roof should be done. Indonesia – 26th December 2004 Type of failure: Beam-column connection failure. c) Location: Bantul. strengthening of masonry around openings.

In overall an efficient construction practice has to be followed. g) Location: Kachchh. seismic bands.26thJanuary 2001 Type of failure: Complete collapse of masonry buildings Improvement measures: providing good bond between masonry. Improvement measures: Provision of shear reinforcements in columns. Thickness of the column could have been improved in order to carry the load applied. India .Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” e) Location: Banda Aceh. control on openings. Introducing horizontal bands in each level. Indonesia – 26thDecember 2004 Type of Failure: Column shear failure. Indonesia – 27th May 2006 Type of failure: Brick out of wall collapse combined with roof collapse. light roof. h) Location: Maninagar. reinforcement. f) Location: Bantul. Improvement measures: Provision of reinforcement in between walls. effective reinforcement at corners. Yogya. Effective connection between beam and column has to be done. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 39 . Gujarat.26thJanuary 2001 Type of failure: Plastic hinging and buckling failure Improvement measures: Provision of efficient concrete cover and hoop reinforcement. India . Gujarat.

India – 1997 earthquake Type of failure: Typical joint failure in mud house. Horizontal bands at all levels of the building. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 40 . horizontal bands and vertical ties. Japan -1995 earthquake Type of failure: Typical first storey failure usually seen in wooden buildings. Bearing lines of lower storey should be supported by continous foundation. Improvement measures: All bearing wall line of upper storey should be supported by bearing wall lines of lower storey. Frame members should be effectively nailed to each other. k) Location: Killari. Indonesia – 27th May 2006 Type of failure: Collapse of one side wall due to poor reinforcement. shear cracks Improvement measures: Provision of vertical cane reinforcement and wooden horizontal bands. l) Location: Bantul. Maharashtra. crushing of column and separation of joint members. Yogya. Improvement measures: Provision of through stones. j) Location: Kobe. Control on height of wall and opening in wall should be followed.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” i) Location: Jabalpur. India-1993 Earthquake Type of failure: Delamination of Wythes followed by inner and outer stone wall collapse. Improvement measures: reinforcement at T-junctions and corners.

5 m from the ground level. Footing is at the depth of 1. I have personally experienced few tremors of earthquake in the past and Tsunami on 26th December 2004. This is as per 1992 survey of India on non-engineered buildings [3]. strengthen and modification of certain structural elements to with stand effects caused by earthquake. it may collapse during an earthquake. graded cement. Diagonal shear cracks can be seen. Such that the inertia transmitted by the roof will be carried by the adjoin walls. which was constructed a decade ago with minimal cost by locally employed persons. few retrofitting methods will help the structure to with stand an earthquake. Joint failure may occur near wall and masonry column junction. Retrofitting involves repair. Masonry columns are used to support the walls over which RCC roof slab is place. Roof to wall and column connection is good. Footings are connected to each other using plinth beam. FE 415 steel bars are used for the construction. During an earthquake failure may occur near the corners and at near the openings. Even my own house is a non-engineered single storey load-bearing masonry wall type. Though my home town is in seismic zone IV (moderate exposure to earthquakes) there are many nonengineered dwelling units. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 41 . Horizontal reinforcements are provided in between the bricks during wall construction. Parapet wall is provided over the roof.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 8 DOMESTIC CONSTRUCTION IN INDIA: India though being an earthquake prone country it has nearly 195. river sand. Vulnerability of my house to earthquake action is moderate. Horizontal seismic bands are provided through the building. Procedures on how to built seismic resistant masonry brick units are discussed in previous chapters. Fire burnt bricks. In plane failure may occur at some places. As a native of southern part of India-Chennai.0 million nonengineered dwelling units. Any how we have not faced any damage by these disasters. Openings of windows are not controlled and distance from corner of walls is less than 100mm. As my house is an existing one. As parapet wall is not connected to any member of building. Tamilnadu. Building is symmetrical and square in shape. But provision of vertical reinforcements at corners and at T-junctions is absent.

Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 42 . 8.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 8. As in my house the openings do not comply with the requirements. Diagonal strip increases the in-plane shear capacity [3].2 FRP retrofit: FRP composites are flexible and easy to apply. By following surface mounted techniques the FRP strips are applied to the walls vertically and diagonally to improve out of plane capacity in both way bending. the openings are reinforced or boxed in reinforced concrete all – round or reinforcement bars in jambs through the masonry [3].1 Local modifications: Local modification involves works such as closing the opening or providing reinforcement around it.

Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” Using near surface mounting technique. 8. wire mesh can be used. they are more prone to earthquake effects.e. Two steel meshes of size 50mm x 50mm is attached to both sides of the wall and connected by steel at 500-700mm interval. the exposed joints are raked to a depth of 20mm and cleaned using wire brush. 8. A micro concrete layer is applied on both sides and the connected links are grouted. The brickwork in between the Ferro cement layer will behave efficiently when subjected to lateral load [3]. For this the masonry walls are to cuttted horizontally and vertically and FRP rods are placed in to the gaps followed by covering it a layer of specified adhesive [3]. A welded mesh of 25mm x 50mm with 8mm gauge length is taken with a width of 350mm and Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 43 .5 Strengthening the corners: As corners in my house are weak. FRP rods can be placed in to the masonry walls.3 Strengthening of existing walls: Method of confining by more ductile material i. In single storey building the vertical steel is anchored to the foundation [3]. 8. In order to eliminate the failure the corners have to be strengthened. Plaster is removed for a height of 400mm above 80mm of the plinth level with a length of 300mm.4 Pre-stressing for wall strengthening: Pre-stressing bars can be introduced in pairs in opposite sides of wall so that the out of plane bending of walls can be eliminated.

they can be integrated and anchored by effective sewing of perpendicular walls. Then with the help of plaster 1:4 ratio the mesh is covered up to 15mm thick and cured for 14 days [3].Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” placed on the wall using long nails. Holes are drilled in an inclined manner and polymer grout is injected after inserting steel reinforcement [3].6 Strengthening wall to wall connection: As T and L-junctions in my house are not reinforced. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 44 . 8.

It doesn’t mean that more amount of money has to be spent for earthquake resistant construction. Even with locally available material it can be achieved. Methods discussed in this report are more economical and attained using local materials. The methods can be improved better on basis of previous earthquake intensity reports. Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 45 . To avoid this quality domestic construction has to be improved. They are at risk from collapse of their own homes. While building a dwelling unit.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” CONCLUSION: In countries at risk from earthquake action. most people are living in non-engineered buildings. the owner or the builder may refer any other guidelines other than this. The final motto has to be construction of earthquake resistant buildings. Due to constraint only few methods are discussed here. Method and measures suggested may vary from place to place.

4. UNDP.India-Buildings Materials and Technology Promotion Council. (home. building types and common problems.42.New Delhi. GOI-UNDP DRM Programme.Anand S.IITK-BMPTC Earthquake Tips.India . (www.pdf. 2001 .pdfAccessed on 27/03/09) 7.pdf-Accessed on 9/04/09) Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 46 . and Jean-Robert Pierre – NRC Reasearch press web.pdf-Accessed on 9/04/09) 8. Jag Mohan Humar. Vol.(www. Dr D. 2.pdf -Accessed on 27/03/09) 3.ca/Publications/Lessonf%20grom%20previous%20 EQs/PDF%20Files/India.caee.arup. November 23.in/untrs/reports/Retrofitting_Guidelien_16th_%20Nov_2006.ac.Accessed on 27/03/09) 5.com/_assets/_download/download197.iitk.Accessed on 27/03/09) 6. Ministry of Home Affairs.quakesafedelhi. India”. David Lau. Murat Saatcioglu.in/nicee/EQTips/EQTip16.India. Paper No. October 2005 – “Guidelines for earthquake resistant reconstruction and New construction of Masonry buildings in Jammu & Kashmir state”.org. typical earthquake damage pattern”.2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami on Physical Infrastructure”.nic. December 2005. Prof.un.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” REFERENCES: 1.Paul.( www.Arya.in/~vinaykg/Iset457. Ioan Nistor – ISET Journal of earthquake Technology. No. ( www. (www.“Buildings Vulnerability. The Associated cement companies Limited. July 2006 – “Guidelines for retrofitting of buildings”. IIT Rourkee.uottawa.Lecture PPT .K.iitk. 2001-“ Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake”. 2001 -“Repair and strengthening guide for earthquake damaged low-rise domestic buildings in Gujarat.“Guidelines for earthquake resistant non-engineered construction”.pdf Accessed on 27/03/09) 4. India.net/rollout/Paul. Government of Tamilnadu. IIT Kanpur. Gujarat Relief Engineering Advice Team (GREAT) publication. India.ndmindia. Government of India. pp. Professor and Head – Department of Earthquake Engineering.ac.in/EQProjects/Kashmir%20Final. Mumbai. Ahmed Ghobarah. July 2003 -“ How to make Stone Masonry Buildings Earthquake Resistant?”.pdf. National Seismic Advisor.(www.79-94 – “ Effects of the December 26.457.

Government of India.pdf-Accessed on 9/04/09) 4.Arya.un. July 2006 – “Guidelines for retrofitting of buildings”. ( www. India.in/untrs/reports/Retrofitting_Guidelien_16th_%20Nov_2006. Ministry of Home Affairs. July 2003 – “ Why are horizontal bands necessary in masonry buildings?”.“Guidelines for earthquake resistant non-engineered construction”. Figures: 17-21-39-40-41-42 Government of Tamilnadu.( www.quakesafedelhi. 2001 .net/rollout/Paul.“Buildings Vulnerability.pdfAccessed on 9/04/09) FIGURES AND TABLES: 1. 2.India . GOI-UNDP DRM Programme. typical earthquake damage pattern”.pdf Accessed on 27/03/09) Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 47 . (www.India-Buildings Materials and Technology Promotion Council.ndmindia.IITK-BMPTC Earthquake Tips.in/nicee/EQTips/EQTip14. IIT Kanpur. (www.New Delhi.org. India. October 2005 – “Guidelines for earthquake resistant reconstruction and New construction of Masonry buildings in Jammu & Kashmir state”.Paul.Anand S.pdfAccessed on 27/03/09) 3. Mumbai.iitk. building types and common problems. Professor and Head – Department of Earthquake Engineering. IIT Rourkee.nic. Figures: 15-16-18-19-20-22-23-25-26-28-30-31 Tables: 2-3 Prof.ac. National Seismic Advisor. UNDP.in/EQProjects/Kashmir%20Final.K.India. Figure: 7 Dr D.Lecture PPT .Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” 9. Figures: 11-12-13-14-24-27-19-32-33-34-35-36-37-38 Table: 1 The Associated cement companies Limited.

and Jean-Robert Pierre – NRC Reasearch press web. pp.in/~vinaykg/Iset457. No.net/whereport1view.42. Vol.caee.457.Accessed on 27/03/09) 4.org/lfe/pdf/indonesia_yogya_structural_damage.world-housing. International Association for Earthquake Engineering (IAEE)-“World Housing Encyclopedia” (http://www.(www.net/whereport1view.php?id=100094 http://www.4. Ahmed Ghobarah.eeri.pdf.php?id=100051) (Accessed on 10/04/09) Course Work 2 – Student ID: 2004 40013 48 . (www. Pictures: i-j-k Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI).pdfAccessed on 27/03/09) 3.ac.iitk.php?id=100056 http://www.Accessed on 27/03/09) 2. Pictures: d-e Murat Saatcioglu.79-94 – “ Effects of the December 26. November 23. (home. 2001-“ Performance of buildings during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake”. Pictures: a-b-g-h Jag Mohan Humar. David Lau.Design and Management of Structures in Earthquake Zones – CIVE 5913M Report on “Non-Engineered Buildings” REAL PICTURES: 1. Pictures: c-f-l Teddy Boen. Structural Damage Report”.pdf.2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami on Physical Infrastructure”.world-housing.net/whereport1view.world-housing. December 2005.ca/Publications/Lessonf%20grom%20previous%20 EQs/PDF%20Files/India. Senior advisor –World Seismic Safety Initiative-“Yogya Earthquake 27 May 2006. Paper No. Ioan Nistor – ISET Journal of earthquake Technology.uottawa.

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