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What is Animation? The word Animation is generated from word 'anime' which means life. Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2 -D or 3D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. A collection of static images joined together and shown consecutively so that they appear to move. Animation is about storytelling by bringing things to life (making them move).
For starting out, the below diagram illustrates the Maco animation flow chart. The arrows represent which way the animation can flow. Sometimes certain animations can only be accessed if coming from a particular previous animation (such as a stop animation can only occur if it comes after a run), while other animations have a high priority and can be called at any time such as the Death or Slide animation.
Introduction to animation
What kind of stories to tell? Scientific, Visualization, Entertainment, Fiction, Non-fiction. What is unique about animation? Unprecedented control! Anything can happen Total control over how things look Total control over how things move Animation process of creating images one at a t ime to be displayed rapidly in sequence giving the illusion of movement . Persistence of vision blending together by the eye and brain of rapidly displayed sequential images, giving the illusion of movement. What is Animation? Computer Animation deals with continuous sequence and display of set of images to create an effect of visual motion. * Sequence of computer generated images. * Object light and camera change over time.
: Early Examples Of Animation : Early Examples Of Animation The Persian bowl showing phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree The Egyptian Mural. shows wrestlers in action. magic lantern. praxinoscope. Animation devices which fall into this category include the zoetrope. phenakistoscope. thaumatrope. Many of the early inventions designed to animate images were meant as novelties for private amusement of children or small parties. approximately 4000 years old. and flip book : .
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Specifying the key -frame.e. In-between of the key-frames. 3-D Animation :.power point animation. Defining the object of animation.The standard approaches for designing any animation sequences is to have the following four steps : . including traditional 35mm film and newer media such as digital video Computer Animation :.: Computer Animation :.Storyboard layout.g:.e.g:-visual effect of movies. Design Of Sequence:. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects The final animated piece is output to one of severa l delivery media.Beginning of 21st Century : Beginning of 21st Century The animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. .2-D Animation :.
this automatic updating would not occur. The advantage to using a reference over an import. we know that if Maco is jumping forward in the air. . my Maya files would It is important to use references. ere¶s an explanation of the different sequence node attributes we used when creating Maco. Anything that I have not explained in the list we never used and left as default.mb file. Cyclic ± Does the animation loop over and over? Override Duration ± This controls the speed that the animation plays in game. a reference is basically an import of your original model into a new scene. For example. 2 means the animation plays slow. If you are unfamiliar with a reference in Maya. End Frame ± This is the last frame of the animation. is that if you make a change in your original maco_player. There¶s no min or max value on this so you¶ll have to play with it yourself to better understand it. Keeping this in mind we have to make sure the last frame of the jump animation and the first frames of those other animations will be able to transition smoothly into each other. a fall. he can either transition into a wall grab. Once the rig is complete the rigger can hand the rig off to the various animators. or a land animation. If you imported your model instead of referencing. jump). this ch ange will become updated in all of the animation files referencing that particular Maya file. ledge grab. here are some of the basics and things to think about when animating your model: Save each animation as a separate Maya file ± Remember to Reference! It is important that once you are finished your final character model. run. The great thing is that the modeler can be making tweaks to the model or updating textures and these changes will all become updated in all of the other files. We found that if we needed to .While this document is not purposed with tea ching animation. This technique is used all the time in the film and game industry. walk. For example. Torque does a relatively good job of blending between animations but you have to make sure that the body parts are in relatively the correct spots or you are going to get some bad looking blends between your animations. Animation Start/End frames It is important to always be aware of which animations can lead into or will be leading out of an animation. Start Frame ± This is the 1st frame of the animation. any animations you create should be saved in separate Maya files. It allows a modeler to create a low poly proxy model for the person rigging the model. 1 means it¶s off.1 would mean the animation plays extremely fast. It contains all of the same data in the exact same form as the original file. for a character that has 4 animations (idle.
left.speed up the animation slightly in game that we would just turn this to something like 0. 7. turning this O N might help solve the problem. 9. not 1). Note that if this attribute is turned on. Also do not think of the state values as 0 meaning off. The trigger state is what the code is looking for. We have this turned off most of the time (except for the jump animation). You may have up to 32 different Trigger State¶s coded into Torque. It¶s best not to touch this because as you add or delete triggers from your scene this will change automatically to reflect those changes Trigger Frame0 ± The frame number that you put in this attribute represents the frame that you would like to have something happen in your animation. and 1 being on. Force Transform ± by default this is turned off. 10 ± These are all used for the ledge up animation to play separate sounds during the animation Note: The number 0 directly after the words Frame and St ate only means that it is the first trigger created in the sequence (remember programmers start counting from 0. Num Triggers ± this is how many triggers you have in the scene. If this is turned off. because really that number doesn¶t mean anything and it¶s only internal to Maya¶s Channel box. etc. The next trigger you create will be labeled TriggerFrame1 and TriggerState1. you will NOT be able to export triggers. As you can see from above. Ignore Ground ± this one is kind of tricky. it means that the animation will not take into consideration that your character is moving forward. We use these triggers for footstep decals and player sound effects. I think perhaps to avoid confusion you should think of it as being labeled ³A´ instead. or right in the Maya scene. . 8. back. Trigger State0 ± Each Trigger Frame comes with a matching trigger state. and left footprint decal 2 ± Right footstep sound. We have the following states programmed into the engine already: 1 ± Left footstep sound. all the state does is provide the code with a flag telling it to do something. and right footprint decal 3 ± Play a rustling sound of Maco¶s clothing 6. the next TriggerFrame2 and TriggerState2. Sometimes if you¶re having problems exporting and your animation isn¶t looking right.8 and that would do the trick.
dts model contains the actual 3D mesh of the model. the bones/skeleton (if one is present).: Problems in Animation :. A quick review on the different file types we will be exporting to: DTS A .dsq file plays the supporting role for the .dsq contains is a list of the joints (also called nodes) and where the joints are moving in 3D space. detail levels.Rendering:-The animation should have smooth rendering process between the images. Slow -in and slow-out.dts file. 3. owever you still need to use a bounding box in the scene and it is still used to decide where the player is positioned inside of the in-game code generated bounding box using the Maya bounding box pivot (yes a little confusing but there will be more explanation below).Ray tracing :. and bounding box.dts model as discussed above is the physical mesh and skeleton while the . Problems in Animation :.dsq file is the animation information.It occurs when the view of a moving object is represented by a series of short samples as distinct from a continuous view. 2. 1. Squash and stretch. These are the basic thumb rules to be followed for generating a good animation sequence. All that the . UV texture information. Dsq A . Now instead of re-explaining how to export characters in this document. 3. 2.Ray tracing is atechnique for generating an image by tracing the path of light through pixels in an image plane.garagegames. The file exporting specifics are located near the bottom of the page: http://tdn. Maintaining 3d affects. The .Temporal aliasing:.com/wiki/DTS/Maya/Creating_a_Simple_Character Rules of Animation :.Exporting Great! So you have your model and you have your animations let¶s get them ready for the game.: Rules of Animation :. One exception if you are exporting a model for the sake of using it as a player character is that the dimensions of the bounding box do not matter because the code generates its own bounding box based on code.1. I would like to point to a great resource on the Torque Developer Network authored by Amr Bekhit.The three basic rules to give a realistic appearance to the animation sequence. collision information. .
Basic Principles of Animation : Basic Principles of Animation Staging A pose or action should clearly communicate to the audience the attitude. Size. The effective use of long.volumes. and proportions with this method. ARCS All actions. Fast. or close up shots. volume. supplementing and/or re-enforcing the main action. and proportions are controlled in this way. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow. follow an arc or slightly circular path. 4. A variety of slow and fast timing within a scene adds texture and interest to the movement. cartoon. . reaction or idea of the character as it relates to the story and continuity of the story line. but in video we can¶t. but it does ha ve spontaneity and freshness.A video is a live recorded motion picture. Fewer drawings make the action faster and crisper. wild action scenes are done this way. A video is recorded from actual footage where as an animation is made digitally. Basic Principles of Animation : Basic Principles of Animation Straight Ahead Action and Pose -To-Pose Action Straight ahead animation starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. etc. as well as camera angles also helps in telling the story. medium. 3. Usage of Animation : Usage of Animation Artistic purposes Storytelling Displaying data (scientific visualization) Instructional purposes Basic Principles of Animation : Basic Principles of Animation TIMING The basics are: more drawings between poses slow and smooth the action. This is especially true of the human figure and the action of animals.Confusion between video & animation ?? : Confusion between video & animation ?? An animation is an animated dr awing. An animation is never referred to a live recording. You can lose size. with few exceptions (such as the animation of a mechanical device). In animation we are giving some effects to particular object. Pose to Pose is more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. SECONDARY ACTION This action adds to and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation. mood. Although "video" is often used to refer to any kind of audio/visual recording.
Photographing one frame of film at a time 4. Transform these into color and movement giving the characters the illusion of three -and four-dimensional life. blocks. E. dolls 2. volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension apply to animation as it does to academic drawing. 2D bitmap graphics 2. Clay or malleable material 2. Three dimensional is movement in space. onion skinning. Not fully malleable 3. stiff fabric. expressions. Clay figures Clay animation: 1. morphing.An armature or wire frame Cutout animation: 1. weight. Unique technique 2. Automated computerized versions: tweening. Exaggeration in a walk or an eye move ment or even a head turn will give your animation more appeal. Cut out from: paper. card. Non drawn objects: toys. violent action all the time. photographs Object animation: 1.world objects 3. poses. Smith and J. attitudes and actions. It¶s like a caricature of facial features. uman or animal character 5. props. interpolated . Types of animation : y y y y y y Cut animation Stop maotion clay animation Object animation Puppet animation 2-D animation 3-D animation Stop motion: 1. Combined with other forms PUPPET ANIMATION The moving of the puppets Armature inside of them Ongoing process In 1898 Albert. 2D vector graphics 3. backgrounds 3. Not designed 4.Basic Principles of Animation : Basic Principles of Animation Solid Drawing The basic principles of drawing form. Physically manipulating real . Stuart Black "The umpty Dumpty Circus" 2D animation: 1. Frame-by-frame 2. Basic Principles of Animation : Basic Principles of Animation Exaggeration Exaggeration is not extreme distortion of a drawing or extremely broad. Flat characters.
statistics reveal not even half of the manpower requirement in the animation industry is being fulfilled in India. . Rigging 3. motion capture Creating Animation : Creating Animation 2 step process for creating animations Step 1: Planning Step 2: Implementation Step 1: Planning Decide on the problem to be solved Design a solution ± storyboard Determine the characters and objects to appear on Story Board Example : Story Board Example Creating Animation : Creating Animation Step 2: Implementation Start production Post -production Test playback and review Amendments Delivery or packaging Slide 18: VOCABULARY Animation has it¶s own special ³language´ The software Animation:Master also has it¶s own computer shortcuts to make animation simpler and easier We will be spending a lot of time on vocabulary and computer shortcuts so you can become an animation expert! Slide 19: ELEMENTS OF ANIMATION Character design Script writing Storyboarding Dialog recording ± dialog is recorded first.5 billion by the year 2009. so the animator can match the voice to the lips What is the story all about? What will it look like when it¶s done? What does the character look li ke? What will the character act out? Will there be interaction with other characters? Creer Prospects The Indian animation industry is currently at US $500 million and is expected to reach US $1. NASSCOM has projected a creation of an ad ditional 300. Digital models manipulated by animator 2.000 jobs in this sector in next few years. Various other techniques: mathematical functions. effects fire and wat er. Yet.rotoscoping 3D animation: 1. NASSCOM says that India's gaming industry (computer games and mobile games) is expected to generate $424 million by the 2010. particle simulations. simulation with fur or hair.
Animation clips is a library used for directly importing images. 4. Morphing :. System with complex inter -relationship are possible.Computer Animation used for presenting result of biomechanical analyses and simulation.Techniques of Animation :.The transformation of an object¶s shape from one form to another is called morphing. Applications : Applications In medical .Translation.digital cameras for creating images. To visualize the event that can¶t be catch by the camera. 1. In education ± By using visual effects in educations students can easy grasp and attract by the students. 3.: Techniques of Animation :. In entertainment ±Animation is used for creating cartoons or other visual effects like movies .Scaling. Hardware requirements : Hardware requirements Image generation tools and devices such as scanners . 2. Disadvantages : Disadvantages Difficult to specify large and dynamic images. In sports ± Animation can be used in sports like athletes for improving performance.FLC . Screen capture software used to capture computer screen as graphic images. Animation software import a nimation files like .: Morphing :. Special software and programs are required to obtain and process the data. Interaction are automatically realistic.video games for entertaining the user.Interpolation and transformation is the basic technique used in animation which are used for in -between the key frames.Rotation. The real -life performance may not be translate into the computer model. Graphics accelerator board used for controlling resolution and number of color of display. 2.linear interpolation. Capability of helping to keep the learned knowledge in mind.FLI and . . It consume a lot of memory space for storing data. Software requirement : Software requirement Animation creation software allow user to create animation sequences from scratch. Advantages : Advantages The animator has total control of animation. It can be applied to any motion or transition involving a change in shape.
3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. To manipulate a mesh. fire/water effect and the use of Motion Capture.Examples of traditionally animated feature films : Examples of traditionally animated feature films Computer animation : Computer animation Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques. simulated fur or hair. (rigging) Other techniques can be appl ied such as mathematical functions. the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. 3D animation : Digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. it is given a digital skeletal structure that can be used to control the mesh. . 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer. 3D animation EXAMPLES: Beowulf. 2D animation : 2D animation 2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D Vector graphics. onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping. morphing. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of tweening.3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. : 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation. 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer. Polar Express and Avatar are recent examples of 3D Animation 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation. Many 3D animations are very believable and are commonly used as Visual Effects for recent movies.
. Animated series/films can now be enjoyed not only by kids but the family on the whole.Animation Industry : Animation Industry The rapid advancement of technology has made computer animation available to the masses and the animation industry is one of the fastest growing industries. The demand for animated entertainment has expanded with the increase in broadcasting ho urs by cable and satellite TV along with the growing popularity of the Internet.