Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 SOLID WASTE-A CONSEQUENCE OF LIFE: From days of primitive society, humans and animals have used the resources of the earth to support life and dispose wastes. In early times, the disposal of human wastes did not pose a significant problem, for the population was small and the amount land available for the assimilation of wastes was large. Although emphasis is currently being placed on recycling values of solid wastes, the farmer in ancient times probably made bolder attempt at this. Problems with the disposal of wastes can be traced from the times human first began to congregate in tribes, villages and communities and accumulation of wastes became a consequence of life. Littering of food and other solid wastes in medieval towns led to the breeding of rats, with their attendant fleas carrying bubonic plague. This led to killing of half of fourteenth century Europeans. It was not until recently that public health control measures became a vital consideration to public officials, who realized that wastes had to be collected and disposed of in a sanitary manner. Ecological phenomena such as water and air pollution have also been attributed to improper management of solid wastes. For instance, liquid from dumps and poorly engineered landfills has contaminated surface waters and groundwater. Although the nature has the capacity to dilute, disperse, degrade, absorb, or otherwise reduce the impact of unwanted residues in the atmosphere, in the waterways, and on land,

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Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

ecological imbalances have occurred where the natural assimilative capacity has been exceeded. 1.2 WASTE GENERATION IN A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY The development of a technological society can be traced to the beginnings of the industrial revolution in Europe; unfortunately, so can increase in solid waste disposal problems. In fact, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, conditions were so bad in England that an urban sanitary act was passed in 1888 prohibiting the throwing of solid wastes into ditches, rivers, and waters. This preceded by about 11 years the enactment of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 in United States, which was intended to regulate the dumping of debris in navigable waters and adjacent lands. Thus, along with the benefits of technology have also come the problems associated with disposal of resultant wastes. To understand the nature of these problems, it will be helpful to examine the flow of materials and the associated generation of wastes in a technological society and to consider the direct impact of technological advances on the design of solid waste facilities. Modern technological advances in packaging of goods create a constantly changing set of parameters for the designer of solid waste facilities. Of particular significance are the increasing use of plastics and the use of frozen foods, which reduce the quantities of food wastes in the home but increase the quantities at agricultural processing plants. The use of packaged meals, for example, results almost in no wastes in the home except for packaging materials. These continuing changes present problems to the facilities designer because engineering structures for the processing of solid wastes involves such large capital expenditures that

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Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

they must be designed to be functional for approximately 25 years. Thus, the engineers responsible for the design of solid waste facilities must be aware of trends, even though they cannot, of course, predict all the changes in technology that will affect the characteristics of solid wastes. On the other hand, every possible prediction technique must be used in this ever-changing technological society so that flexibility and utility can be designed into the facilities. Ideally, a facility should be functional and efficient over its useful life, which should coincide with the maturity of bonds that were floated to pay for it. But important questions arise : Which elements of society generate the greatest quantities of solid wastes and what is the nature of these of wastes? How can the quantities be minimized? What is the role of resource recovery? Can disposal and recovery technology keep up with consumer product technology? 1.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also responsive to public attitudes. In its scope, solid waste management includes all administrative, financial, legal, planning and engineering functions involved in solutions to all problems of solid wastes. The solutions may involve complex interdisciplinary relationships among such fields as political science, city and regional planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, demography,

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and conservation.E (CIVIL) 4 . and the funding limitations for public services in many large cities. In this text. the development of sprawling urban areas. as well as engineering and materials science. storage.4 FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF A WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The problems associated with the management of solid wastes in today’s society are complex because of the quantity and diverse nature of the wastes. and the emerging limitations in both energy and raw materials.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities communications. and understood clearly. and processing at the source. the activities associated with the management of solid waste from the point of generation to final disposal have been grouped into six functional elements: (1) Waste generation (2) Waste handling and separation. adjusted for uniformity of data. (3) Collection (4) Separation and processing and transformation of solid waste (5) Transfer and transport and (6) Disposal By considering each functional element separately. 1. if solid waste management is to be accomplished in an efficient and orderly manner. As a consequence. the impact of technology. the fundamental aspects and relationships involved must be identified. it is possible (1) to identify the fundamental aspects and relationships involved in each element and SEM VII B.

a number of other management issues must be addressed in the operations of ISWM systems. 1.5 OPERATION OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The facilities that compose a solid waste management system are often identified as solid waste management system units. where possible. the manual physical handling required-remains the same.1 Management Issues: In addition to meeting the requirements associated with Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM).E (CIVIL) 5 . analyses. the means of transport in the collection of solid waste has changed from the horse-drawn carts to the motor vehicle. but the fundamental method of collection –that is. and evaluations. For example.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities (2) to develop. quantifiable relationships for the purpose of making engineering comparisons. and technical factors. The discussions purpose of the discussions is to introduce to the reader the physical aspects of solid waste management and to establish a useful framework within which to view the activities associated with management of solid wastes. it allows the development of a framework within which to evaluate the impact of proposed changes and future technological advancements. The solid waste practitioner must acknowledge these SEM VII B. Some contemporary solid waste management issues and future challenges and opportunities are introduced as follows: 1. The planning and engineering of solid waste management units include social. political.5. This separation of functional elements is important because. The combinations of all of these factors form a series of issues that must be addressed by community decision makers.

Solid waste cannot be washed away and hidden by paper regulations.2 Setting Workable but Protective Regulatory Standards:Solid waste management units are subjected to an increasing number of regulations. Municipal waste does not contain massive quantities of toxics. there is a lack of uniform basis for data interpretation. Billion of dollars has been invested in analytical equipments. but strict adherence to very protective regulatory standards often causes failure of these processes by which waste management units are put in place.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities management issues or face a high risk of failure in the implementation of solid waste management programs. Nobody wants waste. What does such detection accuracy mean to a solid waste management unit? SEM VII B. An unworkable regulation is one that ignores reality and deals only with certain technical data. Analytical equipment and laboratory techniques produce data of accuracy in parts per billion or trillion. Municipal solid waste management is caught in the backlash of understandable public concerns over hazardous waste management. in setting standard for construction. however. 1.5. laboratory.5. are beset by lawyer and environmental groups recently armed with scientific data derived from experiments with massive doses of toxic compounds. and data accumulation since the passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERLA).E (CIVIL) 6 . Even with all the data. operation.3 Improving Scientific Methods for Interpretation of Data:The need to know about hazards in the environment has generated large amount of data on toxics. but it does contain the small amounts found in the waste from normal household activities. 1. The attention is justified and timely. and monitoring units. Regulatory agencies.

The increased cost must be paid by waste generators. highly controlled waste management unit. who pays for long term maintenance of land disposal waste management unit-the SEM VII B.5 Paying for Improved Waste Management Units: Solid waste management has a tradition of low cost. The improvements demanded by a concerned public are more costly than past practices. how much data should be presented to the public? How does the public participate in data gathering and interpretation? 1.E (CIVIL) 7 . insecticides. businesses and institution. In the meantime. Example: bleach. The issue is whether household hazardous waste contaminates the municipal waste management unit and whether. This issue involves changing the manner in which a consumer thinks about paying for waste disposal.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities The goal is to understand the effects of very small quantities of toxic components on the environment.4 Identification of Hazardous and Toxic Consumer Products Requiring Solid Waste Management Units: Municipal solid waste is a heterogeneous mass made up of every discard from home. How is the cost of waste disposal presented to the consumer? When the consumer is asked to pay-at the time of product purchase or when the product is discarded? Since solid waste decays very slowly. Which products are more hazardous? How will the consumer store hazardous discards until they are picked up or delivered to the special management units? Who will setup and operate special management units as such units will be defined by regulators as hazardous waste units? 1.5. because of the large land areas in landfills. certain household waste should be removed from the garbage can for disposal in smaller.5. and cleaning fluids. Although small in quantities. gasoline. some are less hazardous.

Urban land use planning is facing a severe challenge to provide designated waste management units. The goal is to develop the human resources needed to develop and operate waste management units. dripping garbage collecting trucks. a set of managers must be trained and put in appropriate positions to develop and operate expanded and improved management units.7 Establishing and Maintaining More Qualified Managers to Develop and Operate Waste Management Units: Solid waste management units are increasing in quantity and complexity.5. In response. The issues are identifying environmentally acceptable land areas for land disposal units and then preserving lands for the intended use. Yet it is within urban centers that the greatest quantity of solid waste is generated.5. Who will set a standard for “environmentally acceptable”? Will different standard apply for urban and rural areas? Can a scientific basis be identified that will satisfy a suspicious public regarding the safety of land disposal units? 1. A suspicious public views these units as open dumps and littered transfer stations served by odorous.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities generator at the time of the discard or future users as maintenance costs are incurred? 1. especially land disposal units.6 Designating Land Disposal Units at or near Large Urban Centers: Waste management units are difficult to place in an urban environment.E (CIVIL) 8 . Who will train the managers/ how will the cost of training be paid? What standards will apply during the interim period while managers receive training? SEM VII B.

We are already 50 to 60 years behind the US and European nations in treating the garbage and implementing waste technologies and any further delay in this respect can cause irreparable consequences to our city of Mumbai. Mumbai specifically is just lifting and shifting its wastes but is not able to find a permanent solution to the heaps of solid wastes that is generated on its streets everyday. changes in revenue systems and by adopting economical technologies. SEM VII B. The main aim of ours of taking up this project is to propagate to the society the need of solid waste management and to suggest improvement in the collection. handling.E (CIVIL) 9 . and disposal of solid waste with the help of simple management. improved legislations. This all will not only solve the problem facing us but it will also generate enough job opportunities for the unemployed youth and will turn the mountain of solid waste generated by the city into a gold mine from which wealth can be generated to sustain the growth and even diversify the funds for other potential use. about 6000 tonnes have no major treatment facility available. The collection fleets are being woefully stretched. With concern towards this grave problem which our own city of Mumbai is facing. that is. treatment. dump yards are fast filling out and absence of recycling facilities have made Mumbai’s garbage disposal system a MESS. This lethargic approach of the administration and the people have given rise to major Environmental Concerns.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 1. transportation. we the students of FINAL YEAR of CIVIL ENGINEERING with our limited knowledge have thought to provide suitable alternatives and solutions to this problem of solid waste.6 PERSPECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT Countries like India with urban cities like Mumbai which generate large quantities of waste.

2. This has resulted in phenomenal growth of packaging industry which encourages self service merchandising by packages that help to sell the product by themselves. bottles. affluence and technology. 2.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Chapter 2 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Solid waste is often called the third pollution after air pollution air &water pollution.E (CIVIL) 10 . and paper board and plastic containers. pollution will naturally increase. Returnable glass containers and bottles are being replaced by non-returnable cans. is that material which arises from various human activities &which is normally discarded as useless or unwanted. Packaging is largely responsible for causing solid waste pollution because packaging materials like plastic bags and cans etc.2 Technology: Rapidly growing technologies for most economic gods indicate a shift in technology from the returnable packaging to non returnable packaging.1 Over-population: As the number of people producing a pollutant increases. 2.1 CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE POLLUTION: The reasons for the rapid growth in the quantity of solid waste are over population. It consists of highly heterogeneous mass of discarded material from the urban community.1. are not biodegradable and persist unchanged in disposal operations such as SEM VII B. Same is true for solid waste pollution also which increases with the increase in population.1.

commercial.2 CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE: Because of the heterogeneous nature of solid waste.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities landfills. industrial waste. hazardous waste etc. the type of waste garbage. ii) Commercial waste: Included in this category are solid wastes that originate from offices. repairs. no single method of classification is entirely satisfactory. lack of public participation and poor enforcement of laws. is useful. In some cases it is important for the solid waste to know the source of waste. and furnishing. 2. For other situations.E (CIVIL) 11 . so that the classification as domestic. The per capita contribution of solid waste has increased manifold due to increase in urbanization. street waste. packing clothing book. becomes brittle and is easily broken up by wind or rain. i) Domestic/Residential waste: This category of waste comprises the solid waste that originates from household. institutional. cleaning. Residents in developed countries sometimes discard bulky waste such as furniture and large appliances which cannot be repaired and used. which gives a better indication of its physical and chemical characteristic is more useful. construction and demolition waste etc. ash. hobbies and redecoration and contain empty containers. These wastes are generated as consequence of house hold activities such a cooking. Plastic can be recycled to make new packs but recycled plastic soon loses its strength. writing. lack of awareness. whole sale and retail SEM VII B. rubbish.

repair and demolition of houses. and other commercial establishments. heating system and electrical wires etc. plastic. hotels. vi) Industrial waste: Included in this category is the discarded solid material of manufacturing processes and industrial operation. solid waste from small industrial units and ash from power plants are frequently disposed off at municipal landfill sites. leaves and other vegetables matter discarded by road users. universities. vii) Sewage waste: The solid by-products of sewage treatment are classified as sewage waste. bricks. hospitals and research institutes.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities stores. warehouse. market. commercial buildings and other structures. refurbishment. dirt. lumber. concrete. The inorganic fraction of raw sewage such as grit is separated at the preliminary stage of treatment SEM VII B. restaurants. iv) Street waste: this term applies to waste that is collected from streets. It consists of earth. stones.E (CIVIL) 12 . Street waste includes paper. alley and vacant areas. cardboard. They cover a vast range of substances which are unique to each industry. For this reason they are dealt with separately from municipal waste. It also includes the waste left by the vehicles moving over the road v) Construction and demolition waste: Construction and demolition waste is the waste material generated by the construction. roofing material. However. They are mostly organic and derive from treatment of organic sludges from both the raw and treated sewage. walkways. plumbing material. iii) Institutional waste: Institutional wastes are those arising from institutions such as school.

its storage. cinders and clinkers. coke and other combustible material. non putrescible commercial solid wastes originating an in households. Such sludge therefore may enter the stream of municipal wastes unless special arrangements are made for its disposal. When produced in large quantities at power generating plants and factories these wastes are classified as industrial wastes.E (CIVIL) 13 . it is classified as solid waste because it is confined SEM VII B. institutions and small industrial establishments. therefore. attracts rats. cooking and serving of food. viii) Garbage: Garbage is the term applied to animal and vegetable wastes resulting from handling. coal.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities and is disposed off. because of its physical. ix) Rubbish: Rubbish is a general term applied to dry. for cooking and heating in houses. The bulk is treated. handling and disposal requires immediate attention. Ashes mainly consist of fine powdery residue. chemical or biological characteristics is potentially dangerous to humans and the environments. preparation. In some cases although the active agents may be liquid or gaseous. xi) Hazardous waste: Hazardous waste may be defined as waste of industrial. institutional or consumer origin which. sale. dewatered sludge is useful as a soil conditioner but invariably its used for this purpose is uneconomical. excluding establishments institutions. charcoal. storage. x) Ashes: Ashes are residue from burning of woods. flies and other vermin. garbage and ashes. Since such wastes contain putrescible organic matter which produce strong odours and.

such as pathological waste from hospitals and radioactive waste. require special handling at all times. collected transported and disposed off separately. cows. Good management practice should ensure that hazardous waste is stored. Others. paints and pesticides whose spent container are frequently mixed with municipal waste and become part of urban waste stream. large and small. collection and disposal of large dead animals is often entrusted to NGOs or private agencies while the small animals are collected by municipal agency. Their presence in public places is particularly offensive from the aesthetic point of view. sheep. Typical examples are: solvents. Certain hazardous waste causes explosions in incinerators and fires at landfills sites. xii) Dead animals: This a term applied to dead animals that die naturally or are accidentally killed. In large cities.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities in solid containers. This category does not include carcass and animal parts from slaughterhouses which are regarded as industrial wastes. If not collected promptly. dead animals are threat to public health because they attract flies and other vermin while they putrefy. xiii) Bulky waste: In this category is included the bulky households waste which cannot be accommodated in the SEM VII B. preferably after suitable treatment to render it innocuous. goats. Small animals include dogs. rabbits and rats. cats. hogs and the like. Among the large animals are horse.E (CIVIL) 14 . The reason for this differentiation is that large animals require special equipments for lifting and handling during their removal. Dead animals are divided into two groups.

In developing counties abandoned vehicles are greatly valued for their parts. the equipments and machinery used for scrapping.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities normal storage containers of households. For this reason they require special collection. Except lawn cutting. the developed countries find it more economical to abandon vehicle after relatively short lives. Abandoned vehicles have significant scrap value fro their metal and are sold to scrap merchants. transport and processing of the vehicle for the scrap market are expensive and require large capital investment. abandoned vehicles are rarely found in the waste from developing countries. SEM VII B. xiv) Abandoned vehicles: In this category are automobiles. crates. Responsibility of their removal varies from country to country but is more commonly that of the municipal agency. The value of abandoned vehicle is highly variable. trucks and trailers that are abandoned on streets and other public places. Hence. since there is no dearth of skill and technical expertise in keeping the old vehicle serviceable. The economics of such an enterprise dictates that only a large operation is feasible. wood.E (CIVIL) 15 . Metallic bulky waste is sold as scrap metal but the greater portion is disposed of at sanitary landfills. However. vehicle parts. branches of trees and banana stems (in coastal cities) no other bulky waste is expected in the solid waste stream in India. tyres. refrigerators and washing machines as well as furniture. in favour of new purchases. In developed countries bulky waste are large household appliances such as cookers. On the other hand. trees and branches.

loss of property and life.4. geographical location.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities About 10% o abandoned vehicles were recycled in industrialized countries in 1996.E (CIVIL) 16 . • Heaps of refuse are a nuisance from an aesthetic point 2. climate. if there is accidental combustion of inflammable refuse. glass. • The garbage. standard of living. The weights are expressed as a percent of the original sample on a wet weight basis. they change from place to place since it depends on several factors such as social customs.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE The characteristics of municipal solid waste vary throughout the world. • There is always a possibility of water pollution. • There is a risk of air pollution. • The pathogens may be conveyed to man through flies and dust. SEM VII B. 2.3 HAZARDS RELATED TO ACCUMULATION OF SOLID WASTE Improper collection and disposal of solid waste can cause serious problems such as: • The organic portion of solid wastes favours fly breeding. The individual components are stored in bins and weighed. if rain water passes through the deposits of fermenting refuse. etc. attracts rats and rodents. plastic etc. in the refuse.1 Physical characteristics: The collected sample is physically sorted out on a sorting platform into various ingredients such as paper. 2. Within the same countries too.

5% and increases with the increase in the population.0 3 3.57 43.49 38.94 0.9 Table 2.59 56.59 0.56 0.04 48.9% to 6.35 0.73 0.38 1.67 49.28 0.84 53. and do not exceed 1% except in metropolitan cities.46 0. drain silts. viz.48 0. compostable (in surveyed and matter millions) plastic 0.5 to 1. less than 1%.1 Physical characteristics of municipal solid wastes in Indian cities The biodegradable fraction is quite high. Population Number Paper Rubber. Glass Metals Total inerts range of cities leather.95 44.78 0. essentially due to habit of using the fresh vegetable in India.1 to 0.71 0. The plastics.73 2. The inerts (ashes and fine earth) content of Indian municipal solid waste is high due to the practice of inclusions of street sweepings.5 12 2091 0.0 9 4.0 to 2.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities NEERI has carried out extensive characterization solid waste from 43 cities during 1970-1994.80 30.07 >5 4 6.0 to 5. The metal content is also low.0 15 2. and construction and demolition debris in municipal solid waste.32 40.95 0. The proportion of ash and fine earth reduces with increase in population due to improvement in the road surface.18 0. rubber and leather content are lower than the paper content.E (CIVIL) 17 . the average characteristics are presented in table 2.33 44. The low values are essentially due to large scale recycling of these SEM VII B. The paper content generally varies between 2.1.71 0.43 0.48 0.

paper is recycle don a priority basis while the plastics and glass are recycled to a lesser extent. Since income directly affects the lifestyle and consumption pattern. This is apparent from table 2.E (CIVIL) 18 . In Mumbai. Zones City Eastern suburbs Western suburbs Paper Source 6. High plastic content poses a problem in its disposal.85 Glass and crockery Source DS 1.4 also illustrates the differences in physical composition of waste with socio-economic factors.38 7.48 2. SEM VII B.2 Recyclable constituents of municipal solid waste in greater Mumbai A large organic content indicates the need for its frequent collection and removal. In such a case sanitary land filling is preferable.80 Table 2.87 0.3.08 3. A high value of paper content indicates that the waste can be thermally treated.61 DS 5. A large percentage of ash indicates that putrefaction will not readily occur and collection could be less frequent.28 1.47 DS 4. The data in table 2.87 5.42 3.2).23 4. the physical composition of waste also changes accordingly.10 0. During a recent study in Mumbai (1993-94).98 Plastic Source 4. samples were collected both at the sources as well as disposal sites to ascertain the extent of recycling (table 2.93 6.10 3.16 10.54 3.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities constituents.

brick etc.8 Table 2.5-3.4 Physical composition of municipal solid wastes from developed and developing countries SEM VII B. characteristics and quantities Component Food waste Paper\cardboard Plastics Textiles Rubber Leather Garden trimming Wood Glass\ceramics Metals Dirt.5-0. ashes. ceramic 0.2-2.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Composition: Low income (% by weight) countries Metal 0.3 Patterns of composition.5 Glass.4-0.6 (kg\cap\day) Middle income countries 1-5 1-10 20-60 15-40 2-10 2-6 1-30 170-330 40-60 0. Range in percent by weight Developed countries Developing countries 6-26 20-35 28-60 4-10 2-8 2-5 0-4 2-8 0-2 0-2 0-2 1-3 0-20 0-6 1-4 0-2 4-16 0.9 High income countries 3-13 4-10 20-50 15-40 2-10 2-10 1-20 100-170 20-30 0.5-5 3-13 0. 1-8 combustible Inert 20-50 Density (kg\m3) 250-500 Moisture content 40-80 (% by wt) Waste generation 0.E (CIVIL) 19 .5 Food and garden 40-65 waste Paper 1-10 Textiles 1-5 Plastic\rubber 1-5 Misc.7-1.5-2 0-10 20-40 Table 2.

2. Moisture adds weight to the waste\fuel without increasing its heating value and evaporation of water SEM VII B. calcium. • Moisture content is high in low income countries with higher agricultural activities. • Density of waste is a function of national income being 2 to 3 times higher in low income countries than in countries of high income. The ash factor should also be determined because of its potentially harmful environmental effects.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities The data clearly shows that • The proportion of paper in waste increases with national income.4. hydrogen. mercury. tin and zinc. they do not present a serious problem.4.4. Other metals. 2. brought about by the presence of toxic metals-cadmium. are also present but because they are not toxic.1 Ultimate analysis: Ultimate analysis is useful during mass balance calculations for a chemical or thermal process. magnesium and sodium. nickel. such as iron. 2. manganese.2 Chemical characteristics: 2. Ultimate analysis is carried out to determine the proportions of carbon. nitrogen and sulphur.E (CIVIL) 20 . • The proportion of putrefaction organic matter is greater in countries of low income than those in high income. volatile matter and fixed carbon.2. chromium. The fractions of greatest interest are: moisture content. oxygen. as.2 Proximate analysis: Proximate analysis is important in evaluating the combustion properties of waste or waste derived fuel (refuse derived fuels). lead.

Waste or fuel with high proportion of fixed carbon requires longer retention time on the furnace grates to achieve complete combustion than does waste\fuel with a low proportion of fixed carbon. • Fats. • Hemicelluloses. rubber. Fixed carbon represents the carbon remaining on the surface of grates as char. Ash also adds weight without releasing any heat during combustion. a condensation product of fiver and six carbon sugars. and various other organic acids. Volatile matter is that portion of waste that is converted into gas before and during the combustion. • Celluloses.4. amino acids.3 Biological properties of MSW: Excluding plastic.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities reduces the heat released from the fuel. • Proteins. and leather components. a polymeric material containing aromatic rings with methoxyl groups (-OCH3). the organic fraction of most MSW can be classified as follows: • Water soluble constituent as sugar. which are composed of chains of amino acids. and waxes. 2. a combination of lignin and cellulose. the exact chemical nature of which is still not known (present in some paper products such as news print and fiberboard) • Lignocellulose. oils. starches. a condensation product of six carbon sugar glucose. SEM VII B. The gases are passed through secondary combustion chamber where rapid combustion occurs. which are esters of alcohols and long chain fatty acids. • Lignin.E (CIVIL) 21 .

Another group of persons return them to house owners.5 COLLECTION: 2. some of which are described below: • Curb services: the hose owner is responsible for placing the refuse containers at the curb on the scheduled day. • Set-out: The workers of the solid waste collection vehicles collect the containers from individual houses and empty them in SEM VII B.g.1 House to house collection: In the house-to-house collection. when the workmen from solid waste collection vehicles collect and empty the containers in the collection vehicle and place them at the curb.5. (e. collect the containers and empty them in the in the solid waste collection vehicle. refuse generated and stored in individual premises is collected by several methods. food waste) 2. • Set-out. The production of odors and the generation of flies are also related to the putrescible nature of the organic materials found in MSW..E (CIVIL) 22 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Perhaps the most important biological characteristic of the organic fraction of MSW is that almost all of the organic components can be converted biologically to gases and relatively inert organic and inorganic solids. • Alley service: The containers are placed at the alley line from where they are picked up from the workmen from solid waste collection vehicles who deposit back the empty containers. set-back service: Set-out men go to the individual houses.

5 Comparison of various methods of house to house collection SEM VII B.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities the collection vehicle. Evaluation with reference to: i) service to citizen ii) crew cost Poor High Fair Low Medium Good Good Medium Table 2. 3. The house owner is required to take back the containers. 5. handcraft or sack or cloth to the yard and empty the solid waste container in it. Sr. 6.E (CIVIL) 23 . The handcraft or bin is subsequently taken to solid waste collection vehicles. Description Curb service Alley Setout service setback service Option al Option al Yes Yes 1-3 Low Requir es special vehicle Low Fair No No No No 3-7 High - Setout Backyard service service 2. • Backyard service: solid waste workers carry a bin. no 1. House owners’ cooperation is required: i) to carry full cans ii) to carry empty cans Scheduled service s necessary for obtaining houseowners’ cooperation Prone to upset Average crew size Complains regarding trespassing Special service Yes Yes Yes Yes 1-3 Low - No No Yes Yes 1-5 High - No No No No 3-5 High - 7. 4.

2 Community bin system: This system is commonly adopted in India wherein community bins are located at street corners.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities A modified form of house to house collection called “Block collection” is also sometimes adopted in developing countries. capacity and design. In this system. This is difficult to achieve due to the low purchasing power of the citizens. The house to house collection system works efficiently. The house owner brings his waste and deposits the same in the vehicle which then moves ahead and the process is continued till the vehicle is full.5. and at specific frequencies along the straight roads. Indian cities are by and large outgrowth of small town and have narrow streets and crowded localities. The municipal agencies are unable to provide and maintain such a large inventory of containers due to their poor financial conditions. the collection vehicle stops at selected locations on specific days. 2. if the house to house collection is to be effective.E (CIVIL) 24 . In India the daily volumetric contribution of waste per house hold is small and as the waste requires frequent collection (to prevent decomposition at source) the vehicle will be required to make a large number of halts. Storage of waste at individual premises should be in the containers of specific size. if location of bins in individual premises is carefully planned and fixed. The residents are expected SEM VII B. standard containers should be used by the individuals. This increases the cost of collection in house to house collection system. It is therefore difficult to provide specific locations outside the house for waste containers and these must therefore be stored within the houses. This poses a number of sociological and aesthetic problems. Further.

In come cities e. ii) Traffic SEM VII B. This system can work efficiently if the movement of the vehicle is appropriate and continuously controlled and the citizens also cooperate. As he moves slowly. The spacing of the containers should be fixed on the basis of per capita quantity and the population contributing the waste. Residents from adjoining areas come to the vehicle and deposit the waste in the vehicle.5. the distance between the containers should never be more than 100 metres. workers with large sized handcarts move along the streets and residents deposits the waste in these carts. In this system the collection vehicle is provided with a bell and on reaching specific points it is rung. 2. Indonesia.4 Street cleansing: In addition to the waste generated in the premises. 2.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities to bring their waste and deposit the same in the community bins. waste is also generated along the streets.g. residents can still find him in the vicinity and deposit the waste in the handcart. In the case of larger spacing.3 Bell ringing system: It is observed that in some cities a modified form of house to house collection system is adopted. The waste comprises of i) Natural waste-waste blown from adjoining open spaces. Ban dung.E (CIVIL) 25 . However. He waits at specific points and deposits the waste in the waste transport vehicle when it arrives. Often the worker uses the bell to inform the residents of his arrival.5. The capacity of the community bins should be at least 50% in excess when collection is made daily and 100% in excess when collection is made on alternative days. the workers tend to avoid transportation of waste to the community bins and private start operating in such areas.

They work on six days a week but it is desirable that the work be carried out daily and holidays to different workers are staggered.1 Land fills: Land filling involves the controlled deposal of solid wastes on or in the upper layer of the earth’s mantle.6 PROCESSING TECHNIQUE: 2. Important aspects in the implementation of sanitary landfills include: SEM VII B. The duty norms are not clearly specified and workers do not have specific facilities. They work in two shifts form 6 to 12 AM in the first shift and 3 to 5 PM in the second shift. although there is a perceptible trend towards use of long handled brooms.6. The area to be served should be 300 to 500 sq. The manual cleaning work is usually carried out in pairs-one person (commonly female) sweeping the road and other collecting the swept material in the handcart. The sweeping is carried out mutually by using short handled brooms. except for the fact that in a few cities they assemble at mustering check posts for attendance. Besides. They are usually assigned a ‘beat’ where they work.m in low density and periurban areas. Only the major roads were swept everyday.m in medium dense regions and more than 1000 sq.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities waste-waste from the tyres of the truck and other vehicle. iii) Behavioral waste-waste deposited by the pedestrians and people using the streets. 2. 500 to 1000 sq. waste from residents is often thrown by the roadside and hence street sweeping is de facto a waste collection activity.m in highly dense region.E (CIVIL) 26 . other roads were swept on alternate days and minor roads in peri urban areas are swept only once a week.

a portion of the trench is dug with a bulldozer and the dirt is stock piled to form an embankment behind the first trench.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 2. The operation continues until the desired height is reached. Cover material is SEM VII B. The trench method of landfilling is ideally suited to areas where an adequate depth of cover material is available at the site and where the water table is well below the surface. spread into thin layer and compacted. Wastes are then placed in the trench. the daily cover material is omitted. A final layer of cover material is used when the fill reaches the final design height. a 150 to 300 mm (6 to 12 in. The filling operation usually is started by building an earthen levee against which wastes are placed in thin layers and compacted. The cover material must be hauled in by the truck or earth moving equipments from adjacent land or from borrow pit areas. A completed lift. until the thickness of the compacted waste reaches a height varying from 2 to 3 m (6 to 10 ft. Successive lifts are placed on top of one another until the final grade called for in the ultimate development plan is reached. and (3) depression.1.1 Landfilling methods and operation: To use the available area at a landfill site effectively. The methods used for landfilling dry may be classified as (1) area.) layer of cover material is placed over the completed fill. including the cover material. (2) trench. Each layer is compacted as the filling progresses. In some newer landfill operations.). At the time. Various operational methods have been developed. primarily on the basis of field experience.6. a plan of operation or the placement of solid waste must be prepared. To start the process (for a small landfill). and at the end of each day’s operation. is called a cell. The area method is used when the terrain is unsuitable for the excavation of trenches in which to place the solid waste.E (CIVIL) 27 .

and the excess of the site. ravines. the characteristics of the cover material.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities obtained by excavating an adjacent trench or continuing the trench that is being filled. where natural or artificial depressions exist. In large landfills. methane. and the third products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). This practice prevents the accumulation of water behind pushed up against the canyon face at a slope of about 2 to 1. nitrogen.2 Gases in Landfills: Gases found in landfills include air. ammonia. hydrogen. filling start at the head end of the canyon and ends at the mouth. Canyons. Carbon dioxide and methane are principal gases produced anaerobic respiration of organic solid waste components. and oxygen. 2. carbon monoxide. dry borrow pits. carbon dioxide.E (CIVIL) 28 . In this way. At locations.6.1. a high degree of compaction can be achieved. and quarries have all been used for this purpose. a dragline and one or more scrapers are used to excavate a deep rectangular pit. The anaerobic conversion of organic compounds is thought to occur in three steps: The first involves the enzyme-medicated transformation (liquefaction) of higher-weight molecular compounds into compounds suitable for use as source of energy and cell carbon. hydrogen sulfide. The second is associated with the bacterial conversion of compounds resulting from the first step into identifiable lower-molecularweight intermediate compounds. the hydrology and geology of the sites. it is often possible to use them effectively for landfilling operations. SEM VII B. In a canyon site. The technique to place and compact solid waste in depression landfills vary with the geometry of the sites.

30 to 0. leachate is found in the bottom of landfills. depending on the characteristics of the surrounding material.E (CIVIL) 29 .45 m (12 to 18 in) is recommended. The spacing of cell vents depends upon the width of the waste cells but usually varies from 18 to 60 m (60 to 200 ft). its movement is through underlying strata. Gas vents are constructed of gravels. The rate of seepage of leachate from the bottom of the landfill can be estimated by Darcy’s Law by assuming that the material below the landfill to the top of the water table is saturated and that a small layer of leachate exists at the bottom of the fill. continuing.6. as measured by gas production reaches a peak within the first 2 years and then slowly tapers off. 0. for a period of 25 years or more.1. The computed value represents the maximum amount of seepage that would be expected. From there. The thickness of the gravel layer should be such that it will remain continuous even though there may be differential settling.1. Under these conditions the leachate discharge rate per unit are is equal to the value of the coefficient of permeability K expressed in meters per day.4 Leachate in landfills: Leachate may be defined as liquid that has percolated through solid waste and has extracted dissolved or suspended materials from it. Under normal conditions. 2. Barrier or well vents can be used to control the lateral movement of the 2. and this value should be used for design SEM VII B. in many cases. The lateral movement of gases produced in a landfill can be controlled by installing vents made of materials that are more permeable than surrounding soil.3 Control of Gas Movement: The movement of gases in landfills can be controlled by construction of vents and barriers and by gas recovery.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities The rate of decomposition in unmanaged landfills.6. although some lateral movement may also occur.

many of the chemical and biological constituents originally contained in it will be removed by the filtering and adsorptive action of the material composing the strata.E (CIVIL) 30 . The use of clay has been the favored method of reducing or eliminating the percolation of leachate.6. Because of the potential risk involved in allowing leachate to percolates to the underground water. surface infiltration can be controlled effectively.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities purposes. but they are expensive and require care so that they will not be damaged during filling operations.1. which is the major contributor to the total volume of leachate. Ultimately. especially the clay content. SEM VII B. Under normal conditions. the actual rate should be less than this value because the soil column below the landfill would not be saturated. and appropriate surface slope (1 to 2 percent) and adequate drainage. 2. Equally important in controlling the movement of leachate is the elimination of surface-water infiltration. it may be necessary to collect and treat the leachate.5 Control of leachate movement: As leachate percolates through the underlying strata. best practice calls for its elimination or containment. the extent of this action depends on the characteristics of the soil. With the use of an impermeable clay layer. In general. Membrane liners have also been used.

It is the most widely used thermal treatment technique.2 Incineration: Incineration is the complete oxidation (at high temperature) of the waste material. But.1 Typical Landfill cross section 2. A heat content of more than 5000 kJ/kg has been found to be required to make the refuse incineration viable and economical justifiable.E (CIVIL) 31 . The problem of municipal solid waste disposal has become public concern as availability of landfill sites is becoming limited. the installation cost of incineration is quite high.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 2. This is mainly due to fact that in general. Incineration technology has proved to be reliable technique for reduction of MSW SEM VII B. Also. Indian SW has gat relatively high moisture content (22-45%). it has to be mentioned right in the beginning that in India incineration of SW is not at all popular at present. high density (260-560 kg/m3).6. high inert content (30-45%) and a low heat content (3400-5000 kJ/kg).

2 flow diagram of incineration plant SEM VII B. The term ‘incineration’ and ‘combustion’ have the same definition. combustion is generally used for steam power generation. Incineration technique can be used for destroying a variety of waste including municipal.6. air pollution control equipment and stack Waste Furnace Cooling Equipment Air pollution Control equipment Air Bottom ash Flyash Stack Fig2. Both of these terms have been used interchangeably in waste incineration documents. However.2. has the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of waste stream.E (CIVIL) 32 .1 Parts of incineration unit: The incineration unit consists of furnace. Infact US EPA(Environment Protection Agency) research data and industry’s opening experience indicate tat incineration. cooling equipment. MSW incineration achieves up to 70% and 90% reduction in waste mass and volume respectively. a process of burning.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities even though it is not ultimate disposal method as it yields residual end product. hazardous waste and residue from dump-site clean-up. Incineration on the other hand is a controlled burning of waste in properly designed and constructed furnaces with proper care of air pollution. which require further disposal. 2. resulting from the rapid oxidation of the substances. when compared to other alternative technologies. medical.

1 Furnace: The furnace/combustion chamber consists of primary and secondary chamber. The off-gases are burned out in the secondary chamber. no further significant changes occur in the concentration of principals combustion gas variables such as CO.2.1.6. where 100% to 140% of the stoichiometric air requirement is injected. 2.1. In the primary chamber wastes are fed and fired with less than and more than stoichiometric air requirement depending on the type of furnace.2 Cooling equipment: Cooling of flue gas required after it has left combustion zone to permit discharge to air pollution controlled device. For properly operated incinerator. Cooling can be done by water evaporation or by dilution with air.e. The temperature should be maintained at 800± 50ºC in the primary and 1050±50ºC with the retention time of at least one second in the secondary chamber. refractor and ash remover systems. except by dilution due to leakage or the introduction of air. The feeding of refuse may be either batch or continuous. CO2 and O2. fuel feeding.6.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 2. with a hydraulic ram expelling waste from the hopper. The furnace is fitted with waste feeding. In general.E (CIVIL) 33 . Each of the chambers normally has one or two burners to provide the heat required to bring the furnace up to operating temperatures and maintain its required operating temperature. Batch feeding of refuse directly in to the furnace is done in most cases. Combustion temperatures lower than the mentioned temperature favours dioxin and furan emissions. cooling at 230-370ºC is necessary if the gas is discharged to air pollution control equipment while cooling to 470-590ºC is adequate for discharged to a refractory lined stack. the combustion is essentially complete by the time the hot gases exit the secondary chamber i.2. Water evaporation condition can be installed as either an alternative to heat removal in boiler SEM VII B.

3 Air pollution control equipment(APCE): Emission from combustion of solid waste and their potential health impacts have become an increasing concern. Wet cooling can be: wet bottom method or dry bottom method. especially as more incineration facilities are SEM VII B. In wet method.2. water is introduced into the hot gas stream and evaporation occurs. Dilution with air is the simplest method for the flue gas cooling.E (CIVIL) 34 . which may be advantageous to some type of APCE (Air Pollution Control Equipment) and disadvantageous for other (fabric filter).Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities type incinerator or add-on to boiler system to lower gas temperature below those considered safe in a boiler to improved removal efficiency of acid gases. Hot water can be used for low-temperature industrial as spaceheating application. The advantages of this system are that heat is recovered and that the shrinkage in the flue gas is greater than with other method. In the dry bottom method.1. dioxin/furan compound and some other pollutants. In wet bottom water much more than required for cooling the flue gas is sprayed. Another method for cooling the flue gas is by use of convention boiler in which heat is removed from the flue gas by the generation of either stream or hot water. Only damper of air control is necessary for a system with adequate chart. The increase in volume increase the capacity and operating cost of the equipment which follows the point at which dilution take place.6. Stream can be used for both heating and generation of electricity. 2. On the other hand large quantities of air are required for dilution. only enough water is added to cool the gas to preset temperature and the system is designed and operated to assure complete evaporation. In both cases there is reduction in gas volume and the gas is humified during the cooing. mercury.

2.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities planned and built.2 Venture scrubber: Venture scrubbers are widely used. capture trace matter and organics and neutralize acid gases produced in the combustion chamber.1 Dry cyclonic separators: The cyclonic is an inertial separator.6. odor etc. because of their inertia.6. From the expansion system the gas enters the enlarge SEM VII B.6. The following criteria should be considered. Gas entering the cyclone forms e vortex eventually reverses the direction and forms a second vortex leaving the cyclonic chamber.E (CIVIL) 35 .2. • Pollutant removal efficiency • Capital investment to include • Operating cost • Impact on incinerator availability • Operability and maintainability • Compatibility with other regulation e. To meet the stringent standard established by the state and the federal government. tends to move towards outside wall.2. The heart of the system is a wetted venture throat zone. reaching velocities of 200 to 600 feet per second. where water is readily available.2. where gas passes through a contracted area. The process of selecting an optical APC technology is complex. The APCE effectively collects particulate matter.g. and then pass through an expansion system. noise.2.2. They will drop from this wall. Particulate matter. to an external receiver for an ultimate disposal. it is therefore required to install APC equipment in the incineration unit.2 Different types of APCE are discussed below 2. 2. the sides of the cyclone.

SEM VII B. the wall tubes are welded together with a narrow steel strip between the individual tubes to form a continuous. Steam can also be used to produce mechanical or electrical energy with a steam turbine.3 Heat recovery and power generation: The simplest method of waste heat recovery from MSW incineration has been the incorporation of the waste heat boilers immediately following the incinerator for the regeneration of hot water or stream. gas tight membrane or water wall enclosure.2. steam turbines’ and reciprocating engines as prime move for mechanical energy. A grounded surface. Steam can be used directly for industrial process and building heating. The higher inertia of the water particles throws than against the bottom of the scrubber where they eventually exit the gas stream. and electrical generators for the conversions of mechanical energy into electricity. 2. as in waste heat boilers. Steam turbines are used in larger systems (10 to 50 MW) and gas turbines and reciprocating engines are used in smaller systems.6. Often.2. or collector electrode.3 Electrostatic precipitator: Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are effective devices for the removal of airborne particulate matter.E (CIVIL) 36 . Boiler can also be built as a separate device.2. surrounds the discharge electrode. Charged particulate will collect on the ground surface by a series of rappers for collection an ultimate disposal. The principal components used for energy recovery are boilers of steam production.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities chamber where its velocity suddenly decreases. A negative charge is induced in the particulate matter passing through the corona.6. The cooling water under pressure is passed into pipes or tubes immersed in hot gas stream or arranged in panel lining of furnace wall. 2.

The most efficient generation has been in water-tube-wall boiler operating with low excess air without interruption for 24 hours a day. • Last resort when all other techniques have failed. • Treatment is relatively complete. 2. • Not affected by external parameters. from fuel to steam (fluidized bet boilers firing MSW achieve 85% efficiency). • If not properly operated there is probability of causing air pollution. 2.6.5 The disadvantages of incineration are: • Relatively high cost. • Technology which is evolved with time and modernization. the major purpose of energy from waste plant is to dispose off waste in a hygienically and environmentally sound manner and generate power. it is necessary to provide auxiliary fuel to maintain constant generation because often the varying moisture content of the refuse and the varying supply of the refuse. To achieve satisfactory heat generation.2. • Compact unit i.6. • Availability of many different types. Energy from the waste plant attain 80% efficiency in the conversion. The majority of energy from the waste plant limits steam pressure to 40-50 bar and steam to 400ºC.4 Advantages of incineration are: • Relatively reliable and full proof. SEM VII B. • Relatively faster treatment.e.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities The amount of steam generated per pound of refuse burned depends on many factors.2.E (CIVIL) 37 . large area not required • Chance of heat recovery and power generation.

Fig 2.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • It may cause hazards like explosion. • Odours problems (it is not more than from other treatment units). Ash quenching 8.3 Cross section of incineration plant 1. • Emission of toxic like dioxins and furans. Grab 3. Waste holding area/pit 2. Boiler 9. Air holding chamber 7. Moving grate 5. Stack SEM VII B. Flue gas cleaning system 10. Flue gas cleaning system 11. Hydraulic arm to push the waste 6.E (CIVIL) 38 . Feed hoppers 4.

1 Indore method of composting: In pits it is similar to Bangalore method except that it is timed at specific intervals to help maintain aerobic conditions which will ensure high temperature. and macro-organisms that contribute to this biological decomposition are generally aerobic.6. to lighten and improve the soil structure of clay soils). aeration. Some of the important parameters generally affecting the activity of the organisms causing stabilization are moisture content.1 Methods of composting: 2. While filling with refuse and night soil.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 2. fungi. soil amendments (for example. Composting being e biological process is sensitive to environmental influence along with physical and chemical characteristics of waste. which mixes the different components and aerates the mixture.6.1.3. carbon to nitrogen ratio. and temperature.6. Systematic turning of the material. 2. and mulch. In the succeeding section the effect of these parameters on composting is briefly discussed. generally accelerates the process of breaking down the organic fraction. particle size. pH. uniform decomposition as well as absence o flies and odour.3. The microbes. The composting process takes from 14 to 180 days.E (CIVIL) 39 . about 60cm on the longitudinal side of the pit is kept vacant for starting the timing operation.3 Composting: Composting is a natural microbiological process where bacteria break down the organic fractions of the municipal-solidwaste stream under controlled conditions to produce a pathogen-free material called Compost that can be used for potting soil. The timing is manually SEM VII B.

Sometimes a top layer of soil is given to prevent fly breeding. On top of this. e second layer of refuse is spread which sandwiches the night soil layer. It is allowed to decompose for 4-6 months. The top of the mass is rounded to avoid rainwater entering the pit.6. after SEM VII B.2 Bangalore method: A layer of coarse refuse is first put at the bottom of the pit to a depth of 15-20cm which is 7. Night soil is poured to thickness of 5cm in the depressed portion and the elevated edges prevent its drainage to sides.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities carried out after 4-7 days using long handled rakes and the second timing after 5-10 more days Fig 2 4 Typical cross section of Composting 2. The top layer of the refuse should be atleast 25-30cm thick.1.5cm deeper for a 25cm width at the pit edges. Such alternate layers of refuse and night soil are repeated till it reaches a height of 30cm above the edges of the pits.3.E (CIVIL) 40 .

6.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities which the compost can be taken out for use. 2. makes nutrients more concentrated and available for plant uptake.3.6. The above method is anaerobic in nature (absence of O2). The windrows (stack or piles in rows) have to be timed at suitable intervals to maintain the aerobic reaction. 2.E (CIVIL) 41 . in an excellent technique for recycling food waste in the apartments as well as composting yards wastes in the backyard. It also contains worms at various stages of development and other microorganisms associated with the composting processing. Secretion in the intestinal tracts of earthworms.3 Windrow composting: In tropical region with higher ambient temperature. along with soil passing though earthworms.1. because you don’t have to turn over the compost to keep it aerated. composting in open windrows is preferred. SEM VII B.4 Vermicomposting: Vermicomposting or composting with earthworms. but also bedding material and organic waste s at various stages of decomposition. Vermicomposting contains not only worm castings. Letting worms recycle your food waste also saves your back.3. Worm bins located in near a hot water heater in the garage during the winter will save many a trip through snow to the backyard compost bin. Earthworm casting in the home garden often contains 5-11 times more nitrogen.1. including micronutrients. phosphorous and potassium as the surrounding soil.

80 3.40 Sodium (%) <.00 Table 2.00 Aluminum (ppm) 7380.00 7563. mmhos/cm=millimhos per cm.57 0. ***Kjehdahl nitrogen= is a measure of the total percentage of the nitrogen in the sample including that in organic matter.6 parameters of vermin composting * units-ppm=parts per millions. ** EC=electrical conductivity is a measure (millimhos per cm) of the relative salinity of soil or the amount of soluble salts it contains.27 4.20 Phosphorous (%) 0.02 Magnesium (%) 0.80 Vermicompost 6.00 278.60 0.00 Boron (ppm) 25.94 (%)*** Nitrate nitrogen (%)**** 156.E (CIVIL) 42 .**** nitrate nitrogen= that nitrogen is the sample that is immediately available for plant uptake by the roots.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Parameter* pH EC (mmhos/cm)** Total Kjehdahl nitrogen Garden compost 7.01 0.00 Manganese (ppm) 414. Chapter 3 CASE STUDY OF B-WARD SEM VII B.35 0.00 7012.47 Potassium (%) 0.70 1.80 11.00 Copper (ppm) 17.00 34.00 27.00 475.70 Calcium (%) 2.48 0.46 Iron (ppm) 11690.00 Zinc (ppm) 128.50 902.

maintenance and cleaning of public sanitary conveniences. The dumping grounds are near creeks and surrounded by residential development around it. Mulund and Gorai. MCGM is responsible for municipal solid waste management of Mumbai running a comprehensive operation of street cleaning.71 km2 and houses more than 12 million people.E (CIVIL) 43 . and waste disposal (including disposal of dead bodies of animals). waste transportation.475 kilograms per capita per day.400 TPD of construction and demolition waste is also generated. One of the important components of urban infrastructure is Solid Waste management (SWM) which has a direct impact on health and environmental safety of the city. waste collection.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Mumbai. Mumbai generates approximately 6. MCGM maintains a large fleet of vehicles for transportation and secondary collection of waste from various waste storage containers and bins. In addition. the commercial and financial capital of India is spread over an area of around 437. SEM VII B. Final disposal of the MSW in Mumbai since last many years is by open dumping method without any waste treatment. The present municipal solid waste disposal facilities include three disposal sites located at Deonar. The consequent large scale migration has resulted in very high densities of population and corresponding demand on its infrastructure.000 tons per day (TPD) of MSW at the rate of 0. Waste dumping at the site is not scientific and unsanitary condition prevail which causes nuisance to the surrounding land uses. construction. Financial and commercial institutions as well as the industrial houses in Mumbai provide considerable employment opportunities. approximately 2.

F/S. H/E. N.K/L.6 1972 1200 1200 R/S. D. P/N. R/C. K/W. G/N.. K/W. S. and T Gorai 19. M/W. waste F/N. H/W. R/N.1 Details of the Existing Dumping Grounds and Approximate Quantity of MSW and Debris Received SEM VII B. K/E. M/W. H/W. M/E. G/N.E (CIVIL) 44 . F/N.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Total Area(hectares) Year of establishment MSW received (TPD) Debris received Deonar 132 1927 4100 1000 Mulund 25 1968 600 200 A. E. G/S. H/E. P/S (TPD) Wards supplying A. E. Table 3. C. B.G/S. D. N. C. L. M/E.

91 million.E (CIVIL) 45 .1 Dumping ground locations 3.1 MUNICIPAL WASTE GENERATION AND POPULATION FORECAST The population of Mumbai as per 2001 census was 11. Similarly. The population has been projected for a period of 25 years using the arithmetic method.97 million). the growth rate has been coming down. It is estimated that the waste quantity will increase from SEM VII B. the last decade shows 20% growth in population.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3. The past data shows that the population has grown four folds from 1951 (2. Though. waste quantity generated per capita per day has also been projected for a period of 25 years to estimate the quantum of waste generated as tabulated below.

Year Population (million) 2005 12. 3. meter). Some of these are as old as 70 years.4 8100 2025 15. A large number of residential premises with very low rentals. These include private as well as govt/MCGM owned properties such as BIT chawls.8 6000 2015 14. Waste Quantity in TPD However the density of population is the highest (8 persons per sq. B ward is the centre for commodities trading activity and has largest number of wholesale markets.2 Population and MSW Generation Projection 3. B ward is the smallest of all the Municipal wards in Mumbai. They are characterized by very low rentals – Rs. 2. 4.9 9780 2030 16.2 REASON FOR SELECTION OF B-WARD: 1. No system for house-to-house waste collection is provided by MCGM as it is very difficult to cater to several small residences in a very SEM VII B. which are old structures and need substantial repairs.65 kilograms/capita/day during the projected period.475 kilograms/capita/day to 0. They account for as much as 30 to 50% of residential population of the ward. 30 pm inclusive of water supply and sanitation services and full building maintenance for MCGM properties such as BIT chawls.2 10530 Table 3. which attract a large number of floating population. 5. garbage and rodents like rats.E (CIVIL) 46 . Presence of a large number of house gullies which are filled with drainage water.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities the present 0.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities small area and narrow lanes and prevalence of “infamous house gullies” where age-old habits of throwing garbage prevail. Waste is primarily collected and deposited at collection spots by municipal staff. 3. 6. No separate systems exist for collection and disposal of Institutional wastes such as Hotels and Markets which account for over 35% of the total waste generated in the ward. 9.75 km. The distance from ward office to Deonar dumping ground is 19. It is then transported by a private contractor to the dumping ground at Deonar. restaurants and other commercial establishments. Abdul Rehman Street and Mohammad Ali Road SEM VII B. 7. Nagdevi Street. Keshavji Naik Road. 8. As a result the waste disposal system is dominated by a few critical collection spots such as Memonwada. The boundaries of the ward are – East – Upto P D ‘Mello Road West – Upto Ibrahim Rehimtulla Road & Abdul Rehman Street North – Upto Ramchandra Bhatt Marg & Jinabhai Mulji Rathod Marg South – Upto Lokmanya Tilak Marg The ward has wholesale markets located on Narsi Natha Street. Bibijan and Pydhonie which overflow with garbage at all times of the day.E (CIVIL) 47 . The density of population is the highest.3 ABOUT THE B-WARD: B ward is one of the smallest wards of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Koliwada.

2 Wards of Mumbai Area of Ward 2.47 km SEM VII B.E (CIVIL) 48 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3.

Nil 5 Nos. it is important to consider the population of the ward as 3 lacs and not 1.677 237 2 Nos. per capita waste generation per day: 135 tpd) 3. (Estimated generation of waste based on the norm of 450 gm.4 lacs(approx) 1. 14 Nos. 8 Nos. SEM VII B.3 factual data about the ward Population of the ward : Floating Population : 1.5 lacs Total Estimated population per day : Around 3 lacs. Hence while preparing the plan for SWM of B ward.E (CIVIL) 49 .4 lacs.5 lacs(approx) 3229 properties 50000 825 5000 17.4 lacs 1.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Population Floating Population per day Total Premises Residential Commercial Approximate Slum Population No.(Trolley and open dump (MCGM Collection Points) +10 TDP spots) Table 3. of Hawkers Licensed Unatuthorized Shops and Establishments Eating Places Markets Gardens Municipal Private Hospitals Community Bins 1.4 EXISTING SYSTEM OF SWM IN B WARD Current system at B ward is really geared to collect the garbage in whichever form it is available from the collection points and transported by the private contractor but the labour for putting the waste into the trucks is provided by the municipal staff.

preventing 500 kg wet waste from such origins will definitely reduce the transportation load and to that extent.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Municipal sweepers try to clean the house gullies as well as municipal properties such as BIT chawls as much as possible.E (CIVIL) 50 . Eateries and markets generate a lot of pure bio degradable waste. In fact. • There is no house to house collection done. • There is a lack of morale. Current waste handling system mixes such waste with dry and other waste and transports all the mixed waste to Deonar dumping ground. SEM VII B. there is some return on the investment. motivation and sense of ownership in the staff at all levels in the ward especially in solid waste management.introduce segregation at least in a limited scale. It is virtually impossible to get segregated waste from most parts of residential areas from this ward except via a few isolated efforts in buildings. • While the dept does the job of removing the garbage fairly competently under very difficult circumstances. there is no thought. But low grade/ high volume eateries and markets as well as unofficial slaughtering provides a good opportunity to obtain mostly segregated bio degradable waste and establishing a bio gas plant as a demo can be quite effective in this area. no plan to improve the practices.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3.3 Composition of waste SEM VII B.E (CIVIL) 51 .

4 Composition of Waste in B-ward 3.5 CURRENT SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN B-WARD SEM VII B.E (CIVIL) 52 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Sources of waste in B-ward Approx. Weight (tpd) Eating houses/stalls/ hawkers 35 Residential Commercial 70 Markets 17 Debris 15 Animal Waste 5 Total 142 Table 3. No.4 Existing approximate composition of waste in B-ward Sr.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities The ward has adopted 4 systems for the collection and disposal of waste generated in the ward. These compactors are old compactors and do not provide standard bins lifting arrangements. • Tempo (Privately managed by M/s DCON India Pvt. Compactor attends10 sheds and 3 open dumps out of which 4 sheds and 1 open dump are very critical with heavy generation of waste.E (CIVIL) 53 .t. 3 dumpers are provided twice a week SEM VII B.) – Having a capacity of 1. Ltd. TDPs are placed at 10 places in the ward having total number of 15 TDP containers served by 4 TDP vehicles • Dumper lifting thru JCB (Municipal) – Having a capacity of 8 m. which is not effectively compacted.5 tonnes of waste capacity. • Compactor system (Privately managed) – These compactors can carry 8 tonnes of waste.5 tonnes waste (35 baskets with 85 ltr capacity each) 5 tempos –2morning+2afternoon+1night • TDP – (Municipal) – Having 2.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3.5 Garbage collection spots at B-ward SEM VII B.E (CIVIL) 54 .

E (CIVIL) 55 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Table 3.5 Quantity of waste lifted SEM VII B.

6 Garbage lifting by compactor Fig 3.E (CIVIL) 56 .5.1 Garbage Compactor Observations: • System handled by private compactor and Payment to the contractor per tonne of waste is Rs 545/• Ceiling put on waste lifting by Compactor is 57 tpd • Compactor lifts around 65-70 tpd • Eventhough it is a compactor it does not do technically effective compacting • There are total 14 dumping spots from where the private compactor lifts garbage (11sheds and 3 open dumps) SEM VII B.7 Condition of trolleys 3.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3.

3.2 Tempo (managed privately by M/s DCON India Ltd): • Private contractor provides 5 tempos .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Compactor also lifts harkat i. 2 in the afternoon and 1 at night (For afternoon shift one additional tempo has been started) • No ceiling on weight lifting but each tempo is supposed to make 3 trips per shift • Tempo lifts housegalli waste during day time • • • • • Per shift the contractor gets Rs 576/. apprx 40 kgs tempos • • Weight of waste lifted by tempo per day is 18.900 kgs i. housegalli waste Total 5 compactors are provided – Work is done in 3 shifts (5+4+2 hours) • Motor loaders are BMC labor and the private contractor doesn’t have control on the motor loaders • Sometimes the compactor comes late for the shift.2 in the morning.e.5.e.E (CIVIL) 57 .(3 trips per shift) Payment is made at the end of the month on the basis of actual trips made The contractor provides a driver and 35 baskets (85 ltr each – apprx 60-65 kgs capacity) in the tempo as per BMC specifications BMC provides a staff of 2 labour and 1 Mukadam on the tempo BMC labour lifts around 60-65 ltr i. 18-19 tpd Reporting is done at the ML chowky but quantity lifted is not cross checked strictly at the chowky • 35 baskets*40kgs = 1575 kgs total weight per trip and such 3 trips of 4 SEM VII B.e. sometimes the labour gathers late eventually the shifts starts quite late and timings cannot be fixed at the spots for local people.

which is a BMC property. which are not high waste generation spots (With the exception of trolley spot recently converted SEM VII B.5.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Generally tempos are unloaded at BRC (Bulk Refuse Container) at C Ward • In the morning due to traffic jams at the c ward spot.3 TDP.Tata Dumper Placer (Managed by MCGM): • There are 10 TDP spots having total number of 15 TDP containers in B Ward • Almost all the TDPs are placed in areas. • By the time the tempo starts its 3rd trip at night many hotels are closed • The baskets in the tempo are not user friendly. • At night (with respect to hotel service) the route is defined but tempo leaves from ward at irregular timings. Tempo also collects garbage from Sydneham compound. when they are full workers cannot lift them and put into the tempo or unload at the BRC 3. B ward tempos are emptied at some TDP spot in the ward. even at night in the last trip the Tempo is emptied at some TDP spot (There is triple handling of waste – when waste is lifted by tempo and emptied in TDP container which is emptied at Mahalaxmi transfer station and from there this waste is loaded in dumper/truck to dump at Deonar) • During day shift the trip is scrutinized at the C ward along with scrutiny at ML chowky in the Ward • At night there is no verification at the C ward because there is no BMC staff for night shift (No source to cross check tempo dumping) • Tempo trips are organised as per the reporting done by JOs(Junior Overseer) regarding housegalli waste in the section/bit.E (CIVIL) 58 .

TDPs in the ward are mostly placed in the commercial areas and not in residential areas. these TDPs are unloaded at Mahalaxmi transfer station • These vehicles are provided from Worli (garage) office along with a driver • There is no ward labour on the vehicle • The vehicle trip is scrutinized at both ward level (ML chowky) and at Mahalaxmi transfer station .8 TDP spot on Kalyan street fully occupied by Drug addicts 3.The weight lifted is not checked at any of the check posts.E (CIVIL) 59 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities to TDP spot at Koliwada). TDP spots are loaded with more of dry waste Fig 3.5 tonnes • 4 vehicles are provided to lift the containers. sometimes half loaded TDPs are also lifted just because the vehicle has to complete its trips • Segregation of waste is not possible in the TDP. Many times good quality biodegradable waste generated by hotels and markets gets mixed with dry as well as wet waste from house gallis • It was observed that unlike the compactor spots. • Waste carrying capacity of the TDP is 2.5.4 Dumpers (Managed by Municipality): SEM VII B.

SEM VII B. But the ward office doesn’t have any guideline for the use of dumpers.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3.E (CIVIL) 60 . at the ward level. Roads dept gets a dumper every day. where debris lifting is done manually by 6 labour and 1 mukadam.5 Debris: Apart from Maintenance dept. Because of the dual authorities involved in debris collection and disposal becomes nobody’s responsibility leading to emergence of debris dumping spots at many places. some repairs etc. Maintenance dept lifts debris that is created mainly because of road work. Sometimes if urgent work comes (e.5. 3.9 Dumpers managed by municipality Dumpers are used by Conservancy and Maintenance Dept. complaint from local corporator regarding lifting debris in his/her constituency) then the debris lifted is unloaded in the ward itself (Elphinston bridge is a regular place for such debris unloading).g. compactor and TDPs are supposed to take care of the mixed waste and dumpers were looked upon as vehicles to lift debris from different places in the ward. The tempo. and surprisingly such debris remains unattended for quite a long period.

6 Informal debris dumping spots in the ward • Under J J Flyover • On Carnac Bridge • Near Mandvi Post Office • On Solapur Street – parallel to Raichur Street • On the bridge at Jinabai Mulji Rathod Marg . the waste is dumped and lifted in mixed form Dry waste is mainly found in the areas where wholesale markets are situated and where waste is mainly collected in TDPs • Many TDP spots are managed by rag pickers who take out the dry waste from the bins and sell it to the scrap vendors in the ward • Many a times municipal labour on the compactor is seen segregating the waste at the compactor spots • Most of the hotels mainly bars have there own system to manage the dry waste which is mostly pet bottles and or glass bottles 3.from Walpakhadi towards Wadi Bunder and on Issaji Street 3.E (CIVIL) 61 .5.5.8 Market waste observation: There are 4 markets in the ward – • J B Shah Market (Municipal Market) • Dongri Municipal Market (Municipal Market) • Char Nal Market (Unauthorized market) SEM VII B.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 3.7 Dry waste observation: • The ward generates more quantity of wet waste as compared to the dry waste • On all the municipal collection spots.5.

mutton and fish). Nagdevi street and Abdul Rehman street. which collects the non-veg waste twice in a day. Shah Market has 120 shops out of which 38 are big store rooms (warehouses) whereas Dongri Markethas 152 shops.9 Dongri Market: SEM VII B. Lot of waste is section waste and then the waste from hotels and hawkers in the surrounding areas. Both these markets contribute a small share of waste at the collection spots named after the markets. food grains and fruits whereas Dongri market has a sale of food grain items. Keshvji Naik Street.E (CIVIL) 62 . This entire market activity is not under the charge of ward authorities. 3. The non-veg waste generated in Dongri Market is collected by an offal van(vehicle used for transporting non-veg waste). Only common situation in this is both the markets are cleaned by labour from Market dept. vegetables and also sizable amount of nonveg (chicken. Other commodity markets are situated on Narsi Natha street. J. J B Shah Market is located besides Masjid Bunder Railway station which is mostly commercial and wholesale market area and Dongri market is located in an area near Sandhurst Rd station which is a combination of residential population and commercial activities.5. J B Shah Market is a wholesale market and mainly has a sale of spices.B. The commodity markets have more generation of dry waste which is picked up by the rag pickers at some of the collection spots especially at TDP spots.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Vegetable market at Lokmanya Tilak Marg near Crawford Junction (Unauthorized market).

chicken stalls (authorized/unauthorized) and residential waste • A shed has been constructed outside the market from the local corporator’s fund but the surface is uneven • There are total 152 shops out of which 45 belong to fish vendors. 22 mutton shops and 10 chicken shops make it a market with more sale of non veg items • This shows that the market generates more of non-veg waste rather than the green vegetable waste • The sweeping and maintenance of the market is done by the market department and the ward doesn’t have any control on the market • Eventhough the market is cleaned by the market labour.10 Hotel waste observation: SEM VII B. non. afternoon and night • Many a times rag pickers are seen on the spot who segregate dry waste which has resale value –these rag pickers are mainly drug addicts and female rag pickers are hardly seen on the spot 3.E (CIVIL) 63 . hotel waste from the hotels in the vicinity. the waste other than non-veg waste is lifted by conservancy department from the community collection spot outside the market • An offal van comes to lift non-veg waste twice a day • Generally 2 trolleys are kept on the spot outside the market • Private compactor attends the spot in 3 shifts – morning.veg waste from the mutton.5.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • The market generates around 2 m3 waste which is mixed in nature • This spot was created only for the market waste but it is used for dumping of BMC section waste.

Plastic. discarded surgical gloves (after surgery). • Waste is disposed off mostly at the collection spots or in housegallis if the quantity is small. sugarcane juice and coconut vendors as well as a large number of non-veg eatable stalls. SEM VII B.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities There are around 233 hotels in the ward registered with the ward office. The hotel waste which is a relatively segregated wet waste is also dumped at the collection spots and gets mixed with the other waste at the spot. sugarcane juice stalls etc. (called as Tapryas). • Vehicle service for the collection of Bio-Medical Waste is twice a Week only for the hospitals.5. All the vendors dump their waste at the collection spots at different times of the day. This includes waste generated by the tea stalls. Needles (used to give shots or draw blood). Injection Wrapper Strips.12 Hospital waste observations: • No use of biomedical van door to door service by small dispensaries and clinics in the ward. 3. • Type of the garbage is. Blood Soaked Bandage .E (CIVIL) 64 . Besides these. there are a large number of small movable eating joints such as tea stalls. 3.11 Present System of Collection and disposal of Hotel waste in B ward: The total generation of hotel waste in the ward is around 35 tpd. syringe etc. There are also a lot of stalls of non vegetarian eatable items such as kabab and meat stalls. Plastic Saline bottles .5.Cotton. coconut stalls.

private sweepers of hospital burn that waste or they burry that waste under the nearby land available like garden etc. • In absence of the service by the vehicle of Bio-medical waste .5 House gullies observation 557 110 163 127 947 Fig 3. Some hospitals do not keep the garbage separately.10 Unhygienic conditions were observed in the house gully due to leakages from downtake pipe SEM VII B. Total number of House gullies which are Cleaned daily in B ward Total number of House gullies which are Cleaned alternately Total number of House gullies which are Cleaned Twice weekly Total number of House gullies which have been Encroached Total number of house gullies in B ward Table 3.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Quantity of Dry Waste is greater than Wet Waste.E (CIVIL) 65 .

12 Garbage thrown in housegully Fig 3.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3.E (CIVIL) 66 .13 Drinking water supply lines and sewerage connections were observed side by side which may contaminate water SEM VII B.11 Due to garbage resultant filthy conditions in the house gullies the nuisance of pest and rodents was more Fig 3.

5. • Some of the house gullies in the ward are already encroached whereas in some cases some constructions were seen within the House gullies. but these house gullies are used for throwing garbage from the households.13 Important observations: • The house gullies are provided for installation of drainage systems for the two adjacent buildings. heaps of garbage and presence of pests and rodents.14 Numerous water connections in the House gully from the Main supply lines Fig 3.E (CIVIL) 67 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Fig 3. SEM VII B.15 Encroachments within the house gullies 3. • The House gullies are in total unhygienic condition with leaking drainage systems.

Bhajipala lane Janjikar street (which is mostly the commercial area) were found full of commercial waste i.E (CIVIL) 68 . dry waste including papers. and the quantity of waste dumped outside the house gullies is more than the capacity of the tempo then dumpers along with JCB and even compactors are used for collecting the waste. cardboard packing etc. • Drinking water connection pipes and drainage (down take) pipes were seen side by side from where contamination of the drinking water is possible if the drinking water pipes are damaged.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Many illegal water connection lines can be seen within the house gullies. • In most of the cases underground chamber lids have been broken which makes it easier for the garbage in the house gully to enter into the chambers and further blocking drainage lines. due to poor conditions of sewer traps and gully traps further SEM VII B. • Another major problem of pests and rodents was observed in almost all house gullies of the total surveyed house gullies were observed with full of garbage and similarly the house gullies were observed with drainage problems such as leakages from the down take pipes. • Sometimes if the house gullies are not cleaned regularly. polythene bags. • House gullies from Nagdevi street. It is collected by the tempo and is dumped at a TDP spot in the ward. • House gullies are cleaned by the conservancy labour and if the waste is less in quantity i. Sarang St. which have been taken (tapped) from the main supply lines.e. 2-3 baskets per house gully then the labour takes the waste which is removed from the house gully to the nearby common collection spots and if the quantity is more then the waste is dumped outside the house gully on the road for about 1-2 days so that water drains out from the waste.e.

SEM VII B. There is only one shift and the shift timings are 6.m.30 p. dry cleaning or ironing shops were seen at the entrances of the house gullies which make it difficult for the workers to clean it regularly and if it is cleaned then these shop keepers don’t allow the workers to leave the garbage in front of their stalls or shops. • Plumber shops. Some of the house gullies are very narrow making it very difficult for the labour to enter in them for cleaning. 3. • In some places the entrances of the house gullies were blocked because of which the sweepers cannot clean it regularly. tea stalls.m. to 1. The staff cleaning the house gullies has to work in inhuman conditions.5. • One of the biggest problems faced by the house gully labour is that even when they are cleaning the house gullies the residents facing the house gullies throw waste directly on them. Many house gullies have drainage leakages and a lot of waste.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities creating problems with the garbage entering the underground chambers thus blocking the drainage lines. The sweepers cleaning the housegallis collect the waste in baskets which are hung to a wooden pole and are carried to the nearby collection spot by the two sweepers on their shoulders.30 a. There are 79 people working for cleaning of house gullies which is permanent labour.E (CIVIL) 69 .14 Problems faced by House gully cleaning labour: • In some cases the underground chamber covers were either missing or in bad condition which makes it difficult for the sweepers to work in.

outside BMC market. Waste from these stalls is collected twice a day by BMC offal van. are dumping the slaughter waste at the community collection spots.5. • Except Dongri Market. chicken and fish in B ward. • Animal waste is brought to the community collection spots in open containers through their own staff or many a times through drug addicts. 3.16 Animal waste generated in the ward: • There is only one municipal Market (Dongri Market) which has licensed shops for selling meat. 5-6 dry fish squatters and around 100 fish squatters. there is no special BMC service for collection of non-veg waste. Fig 3.15 Slaughtering : A sizable quantity of animal slaughter waste is dumped on the collection spots especially at the Dongri market and Memonwada collection spot slaughtering in the ward. • Private shopkeepers and stall owners.5.16 Slaughtering in B ward SEM VII B. 8 poultry (chicken) stalls.E (CIVIL) 70 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 3. • There are around 19 Meat stalls.

E (CIVIL) 71 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Illegal slaughter business was observed (goat cutting) in some lanes such as Attar gully.m. • The labour signs the attendance register-There are two registers for beat B1 and B2. Dr Memon Marg and M.6 STRUCTURE OF CONSERVANCY DEPARTMENT AT WARD LEVEL fig no 3.m.7 The general procedure at ML(Motor Loaders) chowkey is as follows • The shift starts at 6. • The Mukadum fills the log sheet on the basis of the attendance register manually. SEM VII B.45am. Compactor comes by 6.30 a.45-7 a. But the labour assembles by 6.17 Structure Of Conservancy Department At Ward Level 3. Time taken 15 minutes. Sarang Marg • This illegal slaughtering is carried out in extremely unhygienic conditions 3. • DR labour is called to fill in the gaps for permanent labour.A.-Time taken 15 minutes.

1 2 3 4 Collectio Name of n Spot No.8 ROUTE MAPS Sr. 3.m3 6 m3 8m 3 Time of collection 7:30am to 8:30am 8:45am to 11:00am 7:15am to 10:30am 10:45am to 11:30am 16m 6m 3 3 7:15am to 7:45am 8:00am to 11:30am SEM VII B. C-1 C-3 C-2 C-4 Collection spot Abdul rehman street Mirchi Bibijan street Chunabhatt Name of Road Abdul rehman street Abhaychand Gndhi marg Bibijan street Miyan Ahmed Chattani 5 6 C-5 C-6 Mandvi police quarter Pydhonie marg Mohd Ali road Ibrahim Mohd merchant road 1m3 17m 3 Generati on in cu.E (CIVIL) 72 . • • Their names are entered in the log sheet.N o. The total time taken for completing this procedure is atleast 45 minutes to one hour.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • Their names are entered in the DR attendance register and then the labour signs. Log sheet is given to the compactor driver who carried it with him to the dumping ground.

R.Naik marg S.E (CIVIL) 73 .4 Ibrahim Mohd merchant road Samantbai nanji marg Abhaychand Gndhi marg K.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 7 8 9 10 11 C-10 C-8 C-11 C-12 C-4 Memonwada Asha Sadan Koliwada Sydnam Compound Chunabhatt Imamwada road Samantbai nanji marg Madhav rao rokade marg S.R. road Madhav rao rokade marg 16m3 1m 3 7:15am to 10:45am 11:00am to 12m 3m 4m 3 3 11:30am 7:15am to 11:00am 11:15am to 11:45am 2:15pm to 3:00pm 3 12 13 14 15 C-2 C-10 C-7 C-6 Bibijan street Memonwada Dongri market Pydhonie 6m3 10m 10m 17m 3 3:15pm to 6:30pm 2:00pm to 4:15pm 4:30pm to 6:30pm 2:00pm to 5:00pm 3 3 16 17 18 19 20 C-8 C-3 C-9 C-12 C-11 Asha Sadan Mirchi Keshavji naik Sydnam Compound Koliwada 1m3 12m 4m 8m 2m 3 3 5:15pm to 6:00pm 2:15pm to 5:00pm 5:15pm to 6:30pm 2:15pm to 4:45pm 5:00pm to 5:30pm 3 3 SEM VII B. road Miyan Ahmed Chattani marg Bibijan street Imamwada road Navroji hill road no.

M Road 65 Clive road 65 Clive Generatio n in cu.No.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 21 22 23 C-10 C-7 C-6 Memonwada Dongri market Pydhonie Imamwada road Navroji hill road no.30pm to 12:30am 3 24 C-4 Chunabhatt 2m3 12:45am to 1:30am 25 26 27 C-9 C-11 C-4 Keshavji naik Koliwada Chunabhatt 1m3 4m 1m 3 1:45am to 2:30am 10:00pm to 11:30pm 11:45pm to 12:30am 3 marg Table 3.m 5m3 5m 5m 5m 3 Time of collection 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 3 3 SEM VII B.4 Ibrahim Mohd merchant road Miyan Ahmed Chattani marg K.E (CIVIL) 74 . Collection Name of Spot No. 1 2 3 4 T-7 T-8 T-9 T-10 Collection spot Masjid bunder Masjid bunder 65 Clive road 65 Clive Name of Road Y.6 Route maps for Municipal Compactor (16m3) Sr.Naik marg Madhav rao rokade marg Miyan Ahmed Chattani 10m3 10m 12m 3 10:15pm to 12:30am 12:45am to 2:00am 10.M Road Y.

D.M Road Y.M Road 5m 5m 3 3 12 13 14 15 T-12 T-7 T-8 T-1 Kalyan Masjid Masjid 5m3 5m 5m 5m 3 2:00pm to 4:30pm 2:00pm to 4:30pm 2:00pm to 4:30pm 2:00pm to 4:30pm 3 Sant tukaram Sant tukaram marg Raichur Madhav rao rokhade marg 65 Clive 3 16 17 T-13 T-6 Raichur Koliwada 5m3 5m 3 10:15pm to 5:45am 10:15pm to 5:45am 18 T-10 65 Clive 5m3 10:15pm SEM VII B.Mello road Madhav rao rokhade marg Kalyan street Y.D.M.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 5 6 T-14 T-6 road Nadi bunder Koliwada road J.E (CIVIL) 75 . Rathod 5m3 marg Madhav rao rokhade marg Surat street Kalyan 5m 3 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 7 8 9 10 11 T-5 T-11 T-3 T-4 T-6 Surat Kalyan Ahmedabad P.Mello road Koliwada 5m3 5m 3 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 7:00am to 1:30pm 2:00pm to 4:30pm street Ahmedabad 5m3 street P.

e. 1st March 2006 STATEMENT AND OBJECTIVES Whereas solid waste management and handling is an obligatory function under Section 61 (A).7 Route maps for Municipal Dumper placer (5m3) Chapter 4 MSW Rules and Regulation MUNICIPAL CORPORATION OF BRIHANMUMBAI Municipal Solid Waste (Prohibition of Littering and Regulation of Segregation. Delivery & Collection) Rules 2006 NOTIFICATION w.f.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 19 20 T-9 T-2 road 65 Clive road 65 Clive 5m 5m 3 to 5:45am 10:15pm to 5:45am 10:15pm to 5:45am road road Sant tukaram Sant tukaram 3 marg Table 3.E (CIVIL) 76 . 61(C) and 61 (N) of the Brihanmumbai SEM VII B. Storage.

And whereas. 1986. Policy Guidelines for Granting Permission to Utility and Municipal Agencies for Excavation and Reinstatement thereafter – Jan. stringent enforcement of applicable rules as well as active citizen participation. And whereas. 2000. 2005 Construction & Demolition & De-silting waste (Management & Disposal) Rules – 2006 Facilitation of the implementation of the Bio-Medical Waste (M & H) Rules.E (CIVIL) 77 . some of the initiatives undertaken by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation include: • New Solid Waste Management contracts and collection processes which emphasise reduction of community waste storage centres on public roads and a corresponding increase in “on-time” point-topoint collection through bell-ringing vehicles and collection at source of segregated waste. management and handling of hazardous industrial waste and bio-medical waste are governed by separate sets of rules framed under the Environment (Protection) Act. under the direction of Maharasthra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) • • • SEM VII B. the effective implementation of a Solid Waste Management Programme requires an integrated plan that covers all aspects of the situation ranging from framing of appropriate regulations to rationalisation of existing waste management contracts and operations.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Municipal Corporation and has to be done in accordance with the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 framed under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986. And whereas.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

Establishment of waste processing plants and sanitary landfills and the closure of existing dumping grounds in a scientific manner in phases with the advice and assistance of expert consultants. (planned) Promotion of waste segregation, recycling and composting. A MOU with the NGO Council for devising collaborative structures to ensure greater citizens participation in Solid Waste Management and other areas. Expansion and strengthening of the Dattak Vasti Yojana for cleanliness of slum localities. And whereas the apathy of generators of waste regarding their

• •

responsibility to keep the city clean, to avoid littering, and to ensure proper segregation, storage, and delivery of Municipal Solid Waste as well as some constraints in the storage, collection and transport systems have resulted in incomplete or inadequate compliance with the relevant criteria and procedures for different parameters of management of Municipal Solid Waste given in Schedule II of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000. Now, therefore, in exercise of his powers conferred by Section 368 of the Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, read along with Sections 372 and 373, the Municipal Commissioner of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) hereby notifies the rules for Prohibition of Littering and Regulation of Segregation, Storage, Delivery and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste. The following are the overall objectives of these Rules:

SEM VII B.E (CIVIL)

78

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

improving solid waste management practices so as to reduce environmental pollution and improve the quality of life in the city a clean city with increased public health and hygiene levels no visible waste in public spaces segregation of waste into specified types maximum recycling of waste maximum local composting of bio-degradable waste minimising the quantity of waste received at the land-fill minimising transport and handling costs preventing choking of drains and flooding of streets caused by waste improving public awareness and understanding of the waste problem promoting transparency of the processes involved, and sharing of information publicly facilitating formal BMC-Civil Society partnerships encouraging the involvement of Municipal Councillors strengthening and empowering citizen groups for more effective and sustainable participation in the enforcement of the Rules.

• • • • • • • •

• • •

(1)

Title and Commencement: a. These Rules shall be referred to as the “Municipal Solid Waste (Prohibition of Littering and Regulation of Segregation, Storage, Delivery and Collection) Rules 2006”.

SEM VII B.E (CIVIL)

79

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

b. Save as otherwise provided in these Rules, they shall come into force from 1st March 2006 . (2) Application: These Rules shall apply to every public place within the limits of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, to every generator of Municipal Solid Waste and to every premises under the ownership or occupation of any person within the limits of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation.

(3)

Definitions: In these Rules, unless the context otherwise requires: -

1.

“aangan” means the public place in front of or adjacent to any

premises extending to the kerb side and including the drain, footpath and kerb;
2.

“Assistant Commissioner” means the Assistant Commissioner of

the concerned ward of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation
3.

“agency / agent” means any person / entity appointed or authorised

by BMC to act on its behalf, based on an agreement between the Agent and BMC for discharge of duties or functions such as sweeping of streets, collection of waste, collection of charges, etc.;
4.

"bio-degradable waste" means the waste of plant and animal origin

e.g. kitchen waste, food & flower waste, leaf litter, garden waste, animal

SEM VII B.E (CIVIL)

80

first and second grade restaurants. “marriage halls”. its Agent(s). or other users such as clubs.E (CIVIL) 81 . gymkhanas. 7. “bulk generator” means the owner. recreation / entertainment complexes that are specifically identified and notified by the Assistant Commissioners of the concerned Ward will also be considered as bulk generators.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities dung. 8. SEM VII B. 9. fish/meat waste. industrial estates and shopping complexes / malls and includes any government or public office building. “Chief Engineer” means the Chief Engineer of the Solid Waste Management Department of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. and including categories mentioned in Schedule IV. markets. treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biologicals. “bio-medical waste” means any waste which is generated during the diagnosis. star and non-star hotels. "bio-methanation" means a process which involves the enzymatic decomposition of organic matter by microbial action to produce methanerich biogas. 6. occupier or any other person representing owners and occupiers of any housing society or complex with 200 or more households / units. 5. where the context requires. “Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation” means the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) and.

“Citizens Cleanliness Team (CCT)” means a team of citizens in a Councillor Ward who have come forward to make regular surveys and reports about the cleanliness situation and participate in the organisation of cleanliness drives or awareness campaigns in their Councillor Ward and who are registered by the Assistant Commissioner of the concerned ward. SEM VII B. 14. This is also referred to as “house-to-house collection” or “door-step collection”. 12. "collection" means lifting and removal of Municipal Solid Waste from fixed collection points or any other location. “Clean Mumbai Zone” means any specified public road or group of roads.E (CIVIL) 82 . notified by the Municipal Commissioner or the Assistant Commissioner of a Ward for the purpose of maintenance of a high standard of cleanliness at all times and “zero-tolerance” of littering and other public nuisances and “zero-visibility” of garbage. any other public space or any specified area consisting of all the public roads and other public spaces and public buildings in that area. “community waste storage centre” means any storage facility set up and maintained collectively by owners and / or occupiers of one or more premises for storage of Municipal Solid Waste in a segregated manner in the premises of any one of such owners / occupiers or in their common premises. “collection at source” means the collection of Municipal Solid Waste by BMC directly from within the premises of any building or common premises of a group of buildings. 13.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 10. 11.

repair and demolition operations. 20. it includes vermi-composting which is a process of using earthworms for conversion of bio-degradable waste into compost. 16. during which there is a relaxation in the Fines for SEM VII B. 18. "composting" means a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of organic matter. “familiarisation/warning period” means that specific period as provided in Schedule I. 17. “Dattak Vasti Yojana (Slum Adoption Scheme)” means the scheme referred to by this name which is operated by BMC through Community Based Organisations for achieving cleanliness in slums. "construction and demolition waste" (C&D waste) means non- hazardous waste from building materials.1(6) of these Rules. debris and rubble resulting from construction. or structure located or any municipal or Government land or in a public space which is authorised to receive & sort dry waste. remodelling. 21. shed. 19.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 15. “dry waste” means the category of Municipal Solid Waste referred to at Rule 5.E (CIVIL) 83 . kiosk. “delivery” means handing over any category of solid waste to a BMC worker or any other person appointed authorised or licensed by the BMC for taking delivery of such waste or depositing it in any vehicle provided by the BMC or by any other authorised or licensed by the BMC to do so. “dry waste sorting centre” means any designated land.

chemical and biological properties make it suitable for sanitary landfilling. 24. 22. react. 26. etc. which cannot be accommodated in the daily collection system for bio-degradable waste. traffic islands. or that is corrosive or toxic. urinal. wood chippings. “house gully” means a passage or strip of land. 23. constructed. woody 'brown' carbon-rich material such as prunings. straw or dead leaves and tree trimmings.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities contravention of these Rules. branches. and includes grass clippings. annual weeds. "generator of waste" means any person generating Municipal Solid Waste within the limits of Municipal Corporation of Brihanmumbai. “inert solid waste” means any solid waste or remnant of processing whose physical. twigs.E (CIVIL) 84 . SEM VII B. 27. cesspool or other receptacle for waste or other polluted matter by persons employed in the clearing thereof or in the removal of such matter therefrom. gardens. “hazardous waste” means waste that can catch fire. “ghanta-gadi” means the bell-ringing vehicle provided by BMC for point-to-point collection of Municipal Solid Waste. “bulk garden and horticultural waste” means bulk waste from parks. or explode under certain circumstances. set apart or utilised for the purpose of serving as or carrying a drain or affording access to the latrine. 25.

bird menace. greenhouse gas emissions. or causing. percolate or otherwise escape into or onto any public place. percolate or otherwise escape into or onto any public place. permitting or allowing litter to fall. fire hazard. construction or demolition material. bad odour. metal. “landfill” means a waste disposal site for the deposit of residual solid waste in a facility designed with protective measures against pollution of ground water. pet litter. “litter” includes: (a) any solid or liquid domestic or commercial refuse. descend.E (CIVIL) 85 . blows. furniture or furniture parts. and (b) any other material. blow. be washed. abandoned vehicle parts. segregation and SEM VII B. nature or volume makes a nuisance or detrimentally affects the proper use of that place. blow. 29. food. substance or thing deposited in a public place if its size. cigarette butts. descend. “Local Area Citizen Group” (LACG) means a group of owners or occupiers of residential or commercial premises or associations of such owners or occupiers of a particular neighbourhood. is washed. debris or rubbish and includes any glass. that has been defined by the BMC based on specified criteria. paper. wind-blown litter. soil sand or rocks.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 28. "littering " means putting litter in such a location that it falls. garden waste and clippings. mattresses. surface water and air fugitive dust. wood. 31. descends. fabric. shape. pests or rodents. slope instability and erosion. 30. who have come forward in order to take responsibility for the maintenance of cleanliness and promotion of waste reduction. percolates or otherwise escapes or is likely to fall. be washed.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities recycling in that area. "Municipal Commissioner" means the Municipal Commissioner or an Additional Commissioner of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. but including treated bio-medical waste. “neighbourhood” means a clearly defined locality. where the context requires. with reference to its physical layout. any or any officer of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation who is vested or delegated with the relevant powers of the Municipal Commissioner under the MMC Act 1888 or any other law. its Agent(s). and where the context requires. segregation and recycling in their neighbourhood. residential and other waste generated in the Municipal Corporation of Brihanmumbai area in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous waste. 32. 35. character or inhabitants. 36. as specified in the BMC (Building Proposals) circular of the same date regarding the mandatory provision of SEM VII B. 33. “Municipal Corporation” means the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation and. "Municipal Solid Waste" includes commercial. provided they are registered with the Registrar of Co-operative Societies and their stated aims and objectives include maintenance of cleanliness and promotion of waste reduction.E (CIVIL) 86 . and which has been approved by BMC as the LACG of that neighbourhood. 34. “new construction” means all buildings constructed after 9th January 2003.

"occupier/occupant" includes any person who for the time being is in occupation of. "owner" means any person who exercises the rights of an owner of any building. recognising that institutionalized partnership between municipal bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)/ civil society organizations (CSOs) is critical for promoting good city governance. “nuisance detectors” (NDs) means those employees of BMC who are appointed by BMC to enforce these Rules by detecting instances of contraventions of any of these rules and collecting Fines as specified for contravention of the same. "person" means any person or persons and shall include any shop or establishment or firm or company or association or body of individuals whether incorporated or not and their Agents. and comprises a mix of organisations with complementary expertise covering different concerns. 40. SEM VII B. 37. or land or part thereof. or otherwise using. 38. 41.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities vermi-composting units within such premises.E (CIVIL) 87 . for any purpose whatsoever. This Council was formed. BMC has entered into an MoU with the NGO Council for a formalized collaborative working structure. 39. any land or building or part thereof. “NGO Council” means the Council of Non-Governmental Organisations of Mumbai that is a representative body of Civil Society Organisations and the NGO sector in Mumbai.

playgrounds.E (CIVIL) 88 . and any other structure whether of masonry. causeway. metal or any other material whatsoever and lands of any tenure whether open or enclosed whether built upon or not being used for the time being for purposes of residence. "public place" includes any road. arch road. "premises" includes buildings. etc. It also includes any portion of a public road that is permitted by the Municipal Commissioner to be used for the time being for parking of vehicles. shed. service. "processing" means any scientific process by which solid waste is treated for processing for the purpose of recycling or making it suitable for landfilling. public plazas and SEM VII B. industry. banquets. wood. recreation grounds. stable. business. exhibitions. tenements in a building. brick. storage of materials at a work site or for any public or private purpose whatsoever other than the movement of vehicles. bridge. 43. 45. water courses. house.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 42. gardens. beaches. viaduct. alley or passage. 44. square alley or passage whether a thoroughfare or not over which the public have a right of passage. organized events. “point-to-point collection” means the system of collection of Municipal Solid Waste from specific pick-up points as designated by BMC. hut. street vending. and such places to which the public has access such as parks. highway. meetings. government or any other public or private purpose including weddings. lane. trade. outhouse. up to which the generator must bring the collected and stored waste for delivery to a ghanta-gadi. mud. water bodies. footway.

bio-medical. 51. public hospitals. government and municipal buildings. etc. which may or may not be similar to the original products. 50. slaughter houses. “receptacle” means any container. including bins and bags. bulk garden and horticultural. "recycling" means the process of transforming segregated non- biodegradable solid waste into raw materials for producing new products. “stabilised biodegradable waste” means the biologically stabilized (free of pathogens) waste resulting from the mechanical / SEM VII B. 47. courts. hazardous. 49. and all other inert waste. 46.. markets.E (CIVIL) 89 . construction and demolition. "segregation" means to separate Municipal Solid Waste into the specified groups of bio-degradable. “source” mean the premises in which waste is generated or a community storage centre used by owners / occupiers of one or more premises for segregated storage of Municipal Solid Waste. It includes “trade refuse charges” as made applicable to various categories of licensees. used for the storage of any category of municipal waste. “refuse removal charges” means fees or charges notified by BMC from time-to-time for collection. transport and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste from different categories of waste generators. 52. "Schedule" means a schedule appended to these Rules. 48.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities promenades.

56. Words and expressions used in these Rules but not defined shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act. “Superintendent of Gardens” means the Superintendent of Gardens of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corportation. “ward office” means the office of an administrative ward which is headed by an Assistant Commissioner of BMC.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities biological treatment of biodegradable waste. 55. SEM VII B. 1888. attraction to vectors. only when stabilised can such waste be used with no further restrictions. stray animals and excessive foul odour. or the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000. "storage" means the temporary containment of Municipal Solid Waste in a manner so as to prevent littering. "transportation " means conveyance of Municipal Solid Waste from place to place. 54.E (CIVIL) 90 . 57. “ward” means an administrative ward of BMC unless specified otherwise. unless the context otherwise requires. 53.

4. and other nuisances and ensuring “Saaf Aangan”: 4. spit. wash vehicles.1) Littering in any public place: No owner / occupier shall throw. feed groups of animals or birds. the Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act. in any public place except in such public facilities or conveniences specifically provided for any of these purposes. including in any type of water body (natural or man-made) except in a manner provided for in these Rules.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities (4) Prohibition of littering. 4. deposit or cause to be thrown or deposited any waste whether liquid. 1986. urinate. defecate. semi-solid or solid including sewage and waste water upon or in any public place.3. semi-solid or solid including sewage and waste water and every such owner / occupier shall provide an adequate number of litter bins on such premises. the Environment (Protection) Act. SEM VII B.2) Creating Public Nuisance: No person shall bathe. 1888. utensils or any other object.E (CIVIL) 91 . or any other Act or Rules framed under any such Act.) “Ensuring Saaf Aangan”: Every person shall ensure that any public place in front of or adjacent to any premises owned or occupied by him including the footpath and open drain/gutter and kerb is free of any waste whether liquid.

Repeated breach may also result in other penal measures. this will be considered a breach of the Rules.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities (5) Segregation. storage. If the waste delivered is found to be mixed. and a fine will be applied as per the Schedule of Fines. Proviso: The Municipal Commissioner may separately notify from time to time the mandatory colour coding and other specifications of receptacles prescribed for storage and delivery of different types of solid SEM VII B. delivery and collection of Municipal Solid Waste 5.E (CIVIL) 92 . as well as at the point of collection-atsource or the point of delivery.2) Delivery of segregated waste: At the co-operative society/multistoried building/community level. waste shall be kept unmixed / segregated and stored and delivered in the above specified groups.1) Segregation of waste into six specified groups: Every generator of Municipal Solid Waste shall store unmixed in or separate the waste at the source of waste generation into the following six categories: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) bio-degradable (“wet”) waste specified household hazardous waste bio-medical waste construction and demolition waste bulk garden and horticultural waste including tree trimmings all other non-bio-degradable (“dry”) waste including recyclable and non-recyclable waste 5.

if any. 5.4. which generators of different types of solid waste shall have to adhere to. markets. within a period of 6 months from the publication of these Rules.5) Composting of bio-degradable waste by bulk generators and new constructions: Notwithstanding any contained in Rule 5.3) Bio-degradable waste: Segregated Biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste (as per the illustrative list in Schedule II). it shall be SEM VII B. or at the sites designated for this purpose in the Notice. 5. or to the designated biodegradable waste storage centres from where biodegradable waste collection vehicles provided by BMC shall collect such waste daily at such times as the concerned Assistant Commissioner may notify from time to time. shall be stored by generators of such waste within their premises and its delivery shall be ensured by every such generator to the ghanta-gadi. restaurants. or to the biodegradable waste collection vehicle provided for specified commercial generators of bulk biodegradable waste such as hotels. 5. clubs.4) Composting by all generators: With a view towards achieving the larger objective of reducing the cost of transportation of waste and of promoting local processing of waste it shall be mandatory for any generator of waste who receives a Notice from the concerned Assistant Commissioner to compost the bio-degradable waste at source after a suitable notice period as specified. canteens.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities waste to enable safe and easy collection without any manual handling or spillage of waste. if not composted by the generator. etc.E (CIVIL) 93 . Suitable exemptions / reductions in applicable fees. shopping malls. will be available to the generators on compliance with a Notice given under the rule. eating places.

or to a centre designated for collection of such waste for disposal in a manner that is mandated by the Government of Maharashtra or the MPCB. alternate arrangements may be considered and approved by BMC on merit by charging suitable fees. 5. Suitable exemptions / reductions in applicable fees for refuse removal will be available to the bulk generators who comply with this rule. These Rules state that that for Category 4 i.8) Construction and Demolition waste (C&D waste) shall be stored and delivered separately as per the Construction & Demolition and Desilting Waste (Management and Disposal) Rules 2006 of BMC. or to a centre designated for collection of such waste.e. Small Generators (household SEM VII B. 5. 5. Where it is not possible to compost at site due to space constraint.7) Untreated bio-medical waste (as listed in Schedule IV) shall be stored in specified type of covered receptacles and delivered by every generator of waste to the collection vehicle which shall be provided weekly/periodically by BMC or any other Agency authorized by the MPCB.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities mandatory for bulk generators & for owners/ occupiers of new constructions to compost bio-degradable waste at source. Biodegradable waste may also be processed using the biomethanation technique. for disposal in a manner that is mandated by MPCB in accordance with the BioMedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 2000.6) Specified household hazardous waste: [as listed in Schedule III] shall be stored and delivered by every generator of waste to the collection vehicle which shall be provided weekly/periodically by BMC or any other Agency authorised by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) for collection of such waste.E (CIVIL) 94 .

5. it will be the responsibility of the generator to store the segregated C&D waste at source. and then further transport this waste to a processing centre. Non-compliance will attract fines as per the Construction & Demolition & De-silting waste (Management & Disposal) Rules 2006. or to the licensed dry waste sorting centres set up on municipal / Government / private lands. who will then send a vehicle to pick up the segregated C&D waste from the generator. Where it is not possible to compost at site. Rag pickers' cooperatives. Instructions/guidelines with regard to pruning of trees and storage and delivery of tree trimmings including collection schedules.10) Bulk garden and horticultural waste shall be kept un-mixed and composted at source. details of which are available in the respective ward offices of BMC. The generator must then call a local Help-line of BMC or the Agent of BMC.1(6) in these Rules shall be stored and delivered by every generator of waste to the dry waste collection vehicle which shall be provided by BMC or its Agents at such spots and at such times as may be notified by the concerned Assistant Commissioner from time-to-time for collection of such waste. BMC will continue to collect and transport segregated SEM VII B. (Illustrative list of types of recyclable waste is given in Schedule II) 5. licensed recyclers or scrap dealers may be appointed as the sole Licensed Agents of BMC for providing dry waste collection services and /or operating such dry waste sorting centres in any specified area.E (CIVIL) 95 .9) All other Non-biodegradable (“Dry”) waste – both recyclable and non-recyclable – referred to at 5.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities level). shall be notified by the Superintendent of Gardens or the concerned Assistant Commissioners. with a specified charge.

and not around or in the general vicinity of any such receptacle.13) Non-compliance of rules as specified in 5.11) Community waste storage centres: Where any type of Municipal Solid Waste is collected by a BMC vehicle directly from any community waste storage centre whether located in an open space or a closed shed located inside any premises or in a public place. SEM VII B.14) Action against Transport Contractors / BMC Employees: BMC shall take strict and swift action against the Transport Contractor and/or BMC employees. including levying a penalty. dump sites.12) Burning of waste: Disposal by burning of any type of solid waste at roadsides. or does not pick up waste as per the specified time schedule. the waste shall be deposited inside separate receptacles to be provided for different types of segregated waste. or any private or public property is prohibited.1 – 5. 5. (This does not refer to the facilities set up for close and controlled incineration of specific types of waste which are authorised by the MPCB) 5. if any worker of the contractor or any BMC employee mixes segregated waste at any point of collection. 5.12 will attract a fine as specified in the Schedule of Fines. 5.E (CIVIL) 96 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities garden and horticultural waste by charging suitable fees as notified by it from time to time.

6. The names and telephone numbers of officials and registered persons / organisations who can provide training. litter bins. Adequate community toilet and washing facilities will be provided in slum localities with the participation of the local community based organisations or Local Area Citizens Groups to prevent nuisances such as squatting. CBOs under Dattak Vasti Yogana will also be published by the Chief Engineer. guidance and assistance in respect of these processes will be made available through the respective Ward Offices of BMC and the field staff of the solid waste management department. washing and bathing on public roads.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities (6) Obligatory Responsibilities of BMC 6. In addition to waste collection services. The SEM VII B. before imposing any penalties under the relevant Rules.2) Assistance for reducing and recycling waste: Exemptions and discounts will be provided on the basis of savings made by BMC on account of in-situ processing or recycling by generators of waste at source. conveniently located community storage centres. in consultation with local citizens. who are registered by the Solid Waste Management Department of the BMC so as to facilitate and support the citizens in recycling waste.1) Infrastructure facilities: BMC will provide adequate infrastructure facilities to assist citizen compliance with these Rules.3) Citizen Resource Base: The Chief Engineer will prepare and publish lists of composting experts.E (CIVIL) 97 . etc. agencies with expertise in recycling. dealers of recyclables. licensed scrap dealers. LACGs. and composting centres will be set up. wherever possible and essential. 6. dry waste sorting centres. container / bin manufacturers. Lists of ALMs.

or will cause such units to be set up by adopting agencies / caretakers / contractors / tenants responsible for the maintenance of public spaces or private owners / occupiers of such vacant lands. restaurants. The Superintendent of Gardens of the Municipal Corporation will undertake to purchase any extra compost. NGO Council and Local Area Citizen Groups. 6. at a specified fixed price as notified from time to time by him with the approval of the Standing Committee of the BMC.4) Trade Refuse Charges: BMC will rationalise the Trade Refuse Charges applicable to hotels. so that it is linked to the volume of net waste generated and not to the licence fee charged against any license issued to such a generator of waste. if available. 6. markets. gardens.in. and other generators of waste. from the generator.6) Local Bio-degradable waste processing units: Wherever possible BMC will set up small scale processing units (composting or biomethanation) in public parks. 6. Such information will be available at all Ward Offices and on BMC website.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities details will also be made available at the website of BMC at www. Awareness about the same will also be created through the media.mcgm.E (CIVIL) 98 . large vacant lands owned and maintained by BMC or any other public authority or Government department. These will also serve as demonstration models for the local community and will be maintained in such a manner that no nuisance or SEM VII B. playgrounds.5) Purchase of compost: Generators of waste are urged to compost their bio-degradable waste and use the compost created for gardening and greening of their individual premises and surroundings. recreation grounds.gov.

and the receptacles as well as the composting units will be manned specifically for this purpose.8) Point-to-Point waste collection services: The Chief Engineer will provide for the collection of the Municipal Solid Waste from specific pick-up points on a public or private road up to which the generator must bring the collected and stored waste for delivery to a “ghanta-gadi” (bellringing vehicle) that shall be provided by BMC. 6.10) Data about waste received at landfill: BMC will release publicly. 6. fruits only) at certain designated sites near water-bodies such as beaches. The services of the ghanta-gadi shall be provided by BMC for point-to-point collection of waste according to the route plans at such times and at spots as may be notified by the concerned Assistant Commissioners in advance for specified types of waste for different localities.E (CIVIL) 99 .9) Collection at source: BMC will provide for the collection of Municipal Solid Waste at source from within the premises of a building or group of buildings from waste storage receptacles kept on the premises to which BMC vehicles / workers are provided access at such times as may be notified by the concerned Assistant Commissioners. leaves. in special receptacles or “kalashes”. The collection from such receptacles will then be composted at a suitable location. etc. 6. as notified. lakes.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities inconvenience is caused to the public and no damage is caused to the environment. ponds.7) Bio-degradable puja articles: The Assistant Commissioner of every ward will himself undertake or will authorise interested organizations to collect bio-degradable ‘puja’ articles (flowers. the monthly data about the quantity of each category of waste going to SEM VII B. 6.

Details of all such centres including the arrangements and schedules of waste collection from such centres will be available at the Ward Office and on BMC website. composting will also be carried out at these spots. and the corresponding “atsource” or point-to-point collection for that area that has been established prior to the bin being removed. BMC will provide and maintain community waste storage centres on public roads or other public spaces wherever essential and possible. Such information will be available at the Ward Office and on BMC website. and thereafter collected by BMC. SEM VII B. 6. by BMC itself or through an Agent. Where possible.12) Data about phasing out of community waste storage centres in public places: The Chief Engineer will publicly release periodic data about the number and location of the community waste storage centres on public roads that have been phased out.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities the different landfills and waste processing sites. where point-to-point collection or collection at source is not possible or has not been started for the time being. as determined by the Assistant Commissioner. Segregated waste shall be delivered by the concerned generators to such community waste storage centres. 6.11) Community waste storage centres in public places: In exceptional cases. Every community waste storage centre shall have at least two separate receptacles for bio-degradable and non-biodegradable waste. until it becomes possible to make arrangements for collection at source or pointto-point collection by ghanta-gadis at the required frequencies.E (CIVIL) 100 . These community waste storage centres will be manned by BMC or its Agents to ensure compliance of segregation and avoidance of public nuisance and health hazards.

ii) recyclable and nonrecyclable (dry). 6. or in the form of sheds or kiosks provided at suitable public places and will be manned/operated by registered cooperative societies of ragpickers / licensed recyclers or any other Agents authorised / appointed by BMC.14) Time schedule and route of collection: The daily and weekly time schedules and routes of BMC’s collection of different types of Municipal Solid Waste such as i) biodegradable. These dry waste sorting centres may be on BMC land or land belonging to the Government or other bodies. will be fixed and notified in advance by the concerned Assistant Commissioners. Facilities for purchase and sale of different types of waste at notified prices at such dry waste sorting centres will also be considered and authorised by concerned Assistant Commissioner. and iv) bio-medical waste. Details will be available at all Ward Offices and on the BMC website. where dry waste is collected and then sorted. SEM VII B.13) Dry waste sorting centres: In order to regulate and facilitate the sorting of the recyclable and non-recyclable waste the concerned Assistant Commissioners will provide for as many dry waste sorting centres as needed & possible. Similarly.E (CIVIL) 101 . the Superintendent of Gardens. and garden and horticultural waste. by BMC or its licensees will be made available to the public as well as to the bulk generators of waste by the Chief Engineer. iii) household hazardous.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 6. or the concerned Assistant Commissioner as the case may be. The non-recyclable waste which remains after sorting will be further transported from such sorting centres from time-totime to waste disposal sites for processing or land-filling. made available especially for this purpose. the arrangements for the collection of construction and demolition waste.

awareness-raising and training of all such stake-holders and SEM VII B. BMC staff. Agents of BMC. Local Area Citizen Groups. schools. ALMs.g. collection of transportation of waste. etc.17) Stakeholder awareness.15) Local Area Citizen Group (LACG): Local Area Citizen Groups who come forward will be will be authorised to collect specified administrative charges to enable them to keep their area clean on the basis of a model agreement.. Government or Corporate bodies or Local Area Citizen Groups come forward to collaborate.E (CIVIL) 102 . Details of registration procedures and model bye-laws and model agreements for LACGs will be made available at all Ward Offices and on BMC and on approval of the Standing Committee of BMC 6.16) Cleanliness Drives: The Assistant Commissioners of the ward will organise drives for the enforcement of these Rules & for cleanliness in those areas which he identifies as requiring such special drives and those areas where Local Councillors / Citizens Cleanliness Teams. commercial unions. shops. 6. The additional resources / support required for such special drives shall be provided by the Chief Engineer. slums. which are approved by the Standing Committee of the Corporation. etc.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 6. housing societies. industrial units. education and training: The Chief Engineer along with the NGO Council will identify the educational and training needs with regard to cleanliness of different stakeholders (e.) Thereafter a coordinated plan and communication strategy will be drawn up and executed to tackle education. composting. hawkers. office complexes. Any LACG may also enter into a model agreement with BMC which will enable them to receive payments from BMC based on fixed unit rates for sweeping of roads.

and other details. as SEM VII B. procedures. 6. 6.20) Complaints: The Chief Engineer. as well as displayed publicly. as to survey and provide regular reports for monitoring of cleanliness and to participate in the organisation of cleanliness drives or awareness campaigns in their Councillor’s Ward. These reports are filed on the internet.E (CIVIL) 103 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities BMC will invite proposals from professional agencies to undertake a city-wide Awareness and Outreach programme. Details of such information will be available at all Ward Offices and on BMC website. Such information will also be available at all Ward Offices. and then forwarded to the relevant BMC officials. awards and publicity will be given by BMC for such best practices. in consultation with the NGO Council will upgrade the existing Online Complaint Management System (OCMS) or suitably design a new one as part of the proposed Citizens’ Portal to integrate the systems required for the implementation of these Rules. 6. forms.18) Documentation of successful initiatives: The Chief Engineer along with the NGO Council will invite documentation of successful citizen and / or local Citizen–BMC partnership initiatives in cleanliness and related areas so as to include in the Citizen Resource Base that other citizens and the staff of BMC can utilise.19) Info-line and FAQ section: The Chief Engineer along with the NGO Council shall set-up a special “Info-line” and FAQ section on the BMC website with all relevant policies. Statistics of complaints and Action Taken Reports shall be displayed in the OCMS / Citizens’ Portal.21) Citizens Cleanliness Team (CCT): Concerned citizens may also form CCTs in each Councillor Ward of the city. Recognition. 6.

6. to ensure redressal and to facilitate system improvement. vermi-composting. setting up segregation. including route planning. The Assistant Commissioner and the Chief Engineer will set up mechanisms for receiving and taking cognisance of such reports of the CCT Report. recycling or waste processing facilities.23) Surprise checks: Assistant Commissioner will organise surprise checks in various parts of their respective wards in Municipal limits at SEM VII B. etc. recommended areas for clean-up service.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities a means to ensure monitoring and receiving feedback about the cleanliness of that area.E (CIVIL) 104 . Details of all such invitations of Expressions of Interest will be available at all Ward Offices and on the BMC website. CCT reports may also be publicly displayed by the NGO Council. composting. and the proposals received will be reviewed and assessed jointly by BMC and the NGO Council. Suggestions for improvements in the implementation of the Solid Waste Management programme in the concerned Councillor Ward. requests for Nuisance Detectors at litter-prone spots. 6. suggestions for placement of litter bins. which involves leasing of any municipal land or public space or permission for use of same and / or involves any payment by the BMC. bio-methanation. as well as the reporting by the CCT will be taken cognisance of by the concerned registered Local Area Citizen Group and BMC officers (at Ward and higher levels). suggestions for beautification. There will be periodic meetings of the Cleanliness Reporting Teams and NGO Council with the concerned Municipal Corporation officers.22) Expressions of Interest: Expressions of interest will be invited by the Chief Engineer through public advertisement to initiate any projects for keeping an area clean.

Assistant Commissioners will provide prompt and adequate Nuisance Detectors when required by LACGs and Citizens Cleanliness Teams.25) Information regarding Fines: Information regarding fines collected by BMC. at least twice a year.26) Redressal mechanism: Assistant Commissioners will set-up a redressal mechanism at the Ward level for addressing situations such as non-redressal of complaints within the stipulated time. 6. and non-revenue targets. it’s Agents or Nuisance Detectors will be shared publicly by the Chief Engineer. and take appropriate steps to ensure course correction such as evaluation of BMC’s achievements against targets.27) Joint Review with NGO Council: BMC and NGO Council will jointly review the effective implementation of these Rules. with a view to encourage compliance. etc. 6. cases where fines have been wrongly levied for reasons such as inadequate provisions of supporting infrastructure.E (CIVIL) 105 . 6.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities any time (day or night).24) Enforcement Squads: The Chief Engineer will strengthen the existing system of Nuisance Detectors (both in numbers and capabilities) and Enforcement Squads by providing suitable uniforms and vehicles to Nuisance Detectors and creating a system of incentives for nuisance detection. Such information will also be available at all Ward Offices and on the BMC website. BMC’s support to SEM VII B. Any contravention will attract a Fine and any litter found during these checks will be cleared by BMC. Citizens Cleanliness Teams or other volunteers may come forward to assist BMC’s squad of Nuisance Detectors in the nuisance detection in their area. 6. “Local Area Citizen Groups”.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

LACGs; citizen response and participation; revision of Fines, evaluation of incentives, etc. These reviews shall be presented to the Standing Committee of BMC and shared with the public. 6.28) Specific Annual Targets: Specific Annual Targets shall be set

by BMC as per Schedule V & shall be publicly announced. 6.29) Designated officers and periodic reports: The Chief Engineer and the Assistant Commissioner will designate officers under their control who shall be responsible for implementing the obligatory responsibilities of BMC specified under these Rules in accordance with the micro-plans and time schedules for implementation during the financial year. The specific plans and time schedules and achievements against the same along with reasons for short falls, if any, will also be shared publicly by the Chief Engineer through the BMC web-site. 6.30) Transparency and Public Accessibility: In order to ensure

greater transparency and public accessibility of BMC, it is necessary to build alternate mechanisms other than those currently existing within BMC and hence all such information that BMC is required to or intends to share publicly, shall also be shared with the NGO Council who may publicly display the same in www.karmayog.org for which an MoU has been signed to act as an interface between MCGM and citizens. 6.31) Co-ordination with Government Bodies: BMC shall co-

ordinate with other government agencies and authorities, to ensure compliance of these Rules within areas under the jurisdiction or control of such bodies.

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(7) Obligatory Responsibilities of BMC and/or generators of waste in case of some specific categories / situations: Keeping in mind the particular nature of some situations, the following responsibilities are specifically mandated: 7.1) Slums BMC’s responsibility: (a) Assistant Commissioners will extend the Dattak Vasti Yojana (Slum Adoption Program) to currently uncovered areas within their wards for solid waste management, wherever qualified Community Based Organisations (CBOs) come forward. (b) Where applicable, BMC’s ghanta-gadi will be provided at fixed times to a point outside the slum, for the collection of segregated solid waste. (c) In exceptional cases, until the services of a ghanta-gadi at required frequencies can be provided at designated spots on a public road or any other public space for the time being, manned community waste storage bins will be maintained by BMC, where segregated waste will be deposited by the generator, and from where BMC will collect such waste. The CBO’s participating in the Dattak Vasti Yojana will be involved in the maintenance of such community waste storage centres. (d) Cleanliness drives will be conducted by BMC in association with local Councillors, Citizens Cleanliness Teams, Local Area Citizen Groups, Government bodies / Corporates for the cleanliness of

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areas inside the slums, from time to time, in association with CBOs participating in the Dattak Vasti Yojana. 7.2) Poultry, Fish and Slaughter Waste (from all areas other than designated slaughter houses and markets) Every owner/occupier of any premises other than designated slaughter houses and markets, who generates poultry, fish and slaughter waste as a result of any commercial activity, shall store the same separately in closed, hygienic conditions and deliver it at a specified time, on a daily basis to BMC collection vehicle provided for this purpose. Deposit of such waste in any community waste bin is prohibited and will attract fines as indicated in the Schedule of Fines.

7.3) Vendors/Hawkers All vendors/hawkers shall keep their bio-degradable and other waste unmixed in containers / bins at the site of vending for the collection of any waste generated by that vending activity. It will be the responsibility of the generator/vendor to deliver this waste duly segregated to the ghanta-gadi of BMC or to the nearest designated community waste storage bin. Failure to do so will attract fines as per the Schedule of Fines. 7.4) House-gullies: It will be the responsibility of the owner/occupier of premises with house-gullies to ensure that no waste is dumped in the house-gully, and to segregate and deliver any solid waste to the waste collection vehicle

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socio-cultural events. Where owners/occupiers of such premises wish to avail of the services of BMC for the cleaning of the house gully. as may be notified by BMC.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities which shall be provided by BMC at such spots and at such times as may be notified by BMC.E (CIVIL) 109 . they must apply to the concerned Ward Office of BMC and pay suitable refuse removal charges as notified may be by BMC from time to time. Failure to do so will attract a fine as per the Schedule of Fines. organised in public places for any reason (including for processions. it will be the responsibility of the Organiser of the event or gathering to ensure the cleanliness of that area as well as all appurtenant areas. 7.6) Public Gatherings and Events: For Public Gatherings and Events. Failure to do so will attract fines as per the Schedule of Fines.5) Litter by owned/pet animals It shall be the responsibility of the owner of any pet animal to promptly scoop/clean up any litter created by pet animals on the street or any public place. political rallies. by the concerned ward office for the duration of the event. circuses. fairs. commercial. exhibitions. and take adequate steps for the proper disposal of such waste.) where Police and/or BMC permission is required. This Deposit will be refunded on the completion of the event after it is noted that the said public place has been restored back SEM VII B. 7. will be taken from the Organiser. protests and demonstrations. etc. A Refundable Cleanliness Deposit. It will be the responsibility of the owners/occupiers to provide access to the house gully for cleaning purposes. religious.

) In case the Organisers of the event wishes to avail of the services of BMC for the cleaning.2). the warning/familiarisation period is two months. for repeat offences. collection and transport of waste generated as a result of that event. and any waste generated as a result of the event has been collected and transported to designated sites. 2) For the Rules related to the Segregation. during which time SEM VII B.1). Proviso: 1) For the Rules related to the Prevention of Littering (Rule 4.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities to a clean state. (8) Penalties for contravention of these Rules: On and after the date of commencement of these Rules. ensuring “Saaf Aangan” (Rule 4. there will be a familiarisation/warning period as stated below. (This deposit will be only for the cleanliness of the public place and does not cover any damage to property.E (CIVIL) 110 . they must apply to the concerned Ward Office of BMC and pay the necessary charges as may be fixed for this purpose by BMC.3). after which. during which time the fine charged will be half the fine specified in the Schedule of Fines. on a daily basis. and for the Specific Categories / Situations (Rule 7). Nuisance Creation (Rule 4. any contravention of these Rules shall be punishable with fines as per the Schedule of Fines (Schedule I) below for every instance of breach of these Rules and thereafter. the warning/familiarisation period is one month. Delivery and Collection of Municipal Solid Waste (Rule 5). Storage.

the Fines applicable will be twice the amount as stated in this Schedule of Fines.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities no fine will be charged. This familiarisation period will not be applicable to those generators of waste to whom collection-atsource or point-to-point bell ringing waste collection services are provided or those areas identified and notified as "Clean Mumbai Zones". 4) For repeat offenders.E (CIVIL) 111 . 5/-. or as deemed appropriate by the Municipal Commissioner. the fines charged will be five times the Fine stated in this Schedule of Fines. whichever is higher. 5) There will be an escalation in the fines every year by 5% or Rs. 3) For breach of Rules in any notified “Clean Mumbai Zones”. SEM VII B.

50 Rs. Creating Nuisance.1000 b) for others Rule No. 50 Creating Feeding groups of animals/birds Rs.100 Rs.2 Urinating Rs.5 generators or in new constructions within 6 months of these Rules. storage.3 For not delivering bio-degradable waste in a segregated manner as specified 12 Rule No. 5: Segregation.1 Littering Rs. 100 Rs. 4.2 segregated and stored as specified in separate bins: a) individual b) bulk generator 11 Rule No.E (CIVIL) 112 .4 For non-composting by bulk and 5. 50 Defecating Rs. 5. delivery and collection 10 Rule No 5. 100 SEM VII B. 500 Rs. 4. 100 Rs. 5. 100 Spitting Rs. No. 50 Nuisance in non-designated areas Washing vehicles Washing utensils /clothes/any other object Rule no. 4: Littering. 100/day Rs. Rs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sub-division / Description of Rule Amount of Fine applicable for breach of Rule Rule No.3 For not maintaining Saaf Aangan: for a) for owners / occupiers of single premises Rs.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Schedule – I (Schedule of Fines) Sr. Rule No. 4.1 For delivering waste that is not and 5. 50 Bathing Rs. 50 Rule No. and Saaf Aangan Rule No.

500 Rs.8 For not delivering Construction and Demolition waste in a segregated manner as specified 16 Rule No. 5.2 For not delivering (nonRs. 500 Rule No.10 18 Rule No.E (CIVIL) 113 . 5. 5. 5.4 a) For not keeping a house gully Rs.5.6 For not delivering specified household hazardous waste in a segregated manner as specified 14 Rule No. 100 SEM VII B.11 a segregated manner as specified For not delivering garden waste and tree trimmings as specified For depositing waste outside designated community waste storage bin or in any non19 Rule No.12 designated area For disposal of waste by burning Rs.9 For not delivering “dry” waste in 17 Rule No. 7. 7. 7: Specific Categories / Situations 20 Rule No. 7. 1000 Rs.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities and for others when applicable 13 Rule No. 1000 Rs. 500 household) fish. 1000 Rs.7 For not delivering biomedical waste in a segregated manner as specified 15 Rule No. 5. 100 Rs. 100 Rs. 100 Rs.3 a) For a vendor/hawker without a container/waste basket b) For a vendor/hawker who does not deliver waste in a segregated manner as specified 22 Rule No. poultry and meat waste in a segregated manner as specified 21 Rule No. 500 Rs. 5.

which may or may not be similar to the · original products. 50 24 Rule No. 500 segregated manner as specified 23 Rule No. Kitchen Waste including: · Newspapers tea leaves. books and magazines Glass · Meat and bones SEM VII B. 7. egg shells. waste" “wet” waste of plant and animal waste Recyclable waste that can be transformed means “recyclable waste” means “dry” through a process into raw materials for producing new products. fruit and vegetable peels · · Paper.5 For littering by pet/owned animals Rs. 7.E (CIVIL) 114 .6 For not cleaning-up after public Forfeiture of the gathering/event within 24 hours Cleanliness Deposit SCHEDULE – II Illustrative list of bio-degradable and recyclable waste Biodegradable Waste "biodegradable origin.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities clean b) For not delivering solid waste from a house gully in a Rs.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

·

Garden and leaf litter, · including flowers · · · · · · ·

Metal objects and wire Plastic Cloth Rags Leather Rexine Rubber Wood /furniture packaging

· · · · ·

Animal litter Soiled paper House dust after cleaning Coconut shells Ashes

Schedule III: Specified household hazardous waste: Specified Household Hazardous Waste “hazardous waste” is waste that can catch fire, react, or explode under certain circumstances, or that is corrosive or toxic · Aerosol cans · · · · · Batteries from flashlights and button cells Bleaches and household kitchen and drain cleaning Agents Car batteries, oil filters and car care products and consumables Chemicals and solvents and their empty containers Cosmetic items, chemical-based Insecticides and their empty

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Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities

containers · · · · · · · Light bulbs, tube-lights and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) Medicines, discarded Paints, oils, lubricants, glues, thinners, and their empty containers Pesticides and herbicides and their empty containers Photographic chemicals Styrofoam and soft foam packaging from new equipment Thermometers and mercury-containing products

Schedule IV: List of Bio-medical waste: (Extract from the Bio-Medical Waste (M & H) Rules, 1998) Bio-medical waste “Bio-medical waste” means any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biologicals. Category No 4 Waste sharps (needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps) Category No 5 Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs (waste comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded

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medicines) Category No 6 Solid Waste (Items contaminated with blood, and body fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, beddings, other material contaminated with blood) Category No. 7 Solid Waste (waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubings, catheters, intravenous sets etc).

Schedule V: Specific annual targets: Specific annual targets shall be fixed ward-wise, where applicable, by the Chief Engineer of the Solid Waste Management Department in consultation with the Assistant Commissioners of the respective administrative wards and the Deputy Municipal Commissioners of the respective Zones, with clear criteria for selection / prioritising where applicable, for every financial year (1st April – 31st March) and shall include the following:
1. Reduction in tons / day of the non-inert waste reaching landfills. 2. Number of "Clean Mumbai Zones" zones to be established

including roads, beaches and other important areas to prevent littering and other nuisances and to ensure complete cleanliness at all times.

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Number of waste bins on public roads to be removed and number of such bins to be managed with arrangements for segregated storage of waste.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities 3. Number of slums to be taken up for coverage under Dattak Vasti Yojana 9. Percentage of waste lifted throughout the city to be covered for point to point collection / collected at source. Number of public and slum community toilets to be upgraded 11. Number of new public and slum community toilets to be set up SEM VII B. Number of composting units to be set up – (beginning with bulk waste generators). 4. 6.E (CIVIL) 118 . 7. Percentage of waste generated to be segregated completely at source and collected separately. 5. 8. Number of target stakeholders to be covered by awareness and training programs 10. Number of Construction & Debris Waste collection and processing centres to be set up.

G.1 DRAWBACKS OF PRESENT SYSTEM There are many areas identified in the process of management of waste which lack the basic fundamentals of collecting and disposing of waste which are as follows. management and revenue system of solid waste of B ward.C.M authorities in this respect and schedules for collecting and treating the wastes. classification. We came across the collection.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities CHAPTER 5 PROJECT SCOPE AND PERSPECTIVE In the previous chapters we studied the various aspects of the municipal solid waste system existing in B ward. properties. 5. We even saw the legislation laid forward by the M.E (CIVIL) 119 . • No segregation done at any level from collection to disposing. SEM VII B. • No house to house collection in the ward.

M and private contractors who own the vehicles. • Multiple handling of wastes takes place which increases the hauling cost. • Lack of coordination between motor loaders provided by M.E (CIVIL) 120 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities • No motivation in the staff and negligence towards work and responsibility. • Unhygienic conditions at collection spots and waste bins discourages the public from using them and thus the people throw the waste any where causing littering. • Majority of conservancy workers working in B ward are staying in Dahisar.C. • Baskets provided for loading and unloading the waste to tempos and compactors are not worker friendly. • No effective compaction takes place in the compactor due to unskilled labour. Nallasopara and other such faraway suburbs which causes late arrival and early departure of workers.G. • Rs 545/tones and Rs 516/tones are the hauling charges for the compactors and tempos operated by private contractors. 5. • Delay from motor loaders and contractors lead to late shifts causing difficulties to local people. • No reporting of vehicles at any stage during the process. Vasai. • Absence of facilities and equipments for compaction in the ward increases the dependence on other wards for the same. • Illegal encroachments in the house gullies hamper the cleaning procedure of the gullies.2 SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PRESENT SYSTEM SEM VII B.

origin and lifestyle reside who produce different quantities and qualities of wastes • Thus by decentralizing the whole process of collection and treatment we can not only save the hauling charges but can also reduce the pressure on our dumping grounds and by treating them efficiently we can also earn profits from it. but very simple and basic collection and sustainable approaches to the problem which are as follows. This can this can be attributed to the fact that land the land use is not properly planned by the planning agencies.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities On account of several disadvantages and inefficient system of collection and disposal of waste. we analyzed it and found out some new. • Also in different wards people of specific religion. making it unsustainable for long run. • To get rid of this cost permanently we can decentralize the whole processor specifically the process after collection. Each ward can have its own recycling unit which recycles all its waste and leads to minimum dumping. In fact every new permission for residential structure should have a clause for house-to-house collection.E (CIVIL) 121 . • The hauling charges seems to be quiet pinching with no returns from waste (since only dumping takes place and there is no recycling). • This otherwise is even necessary because the waste generated in each ward is characteristically different than then other. • In B ward itself there are quiet good residential structures which are organized and house-to-house collection can be initiated from there. • The problem of coordination between motor loader and private contractor can be resolved by instructing contractor to bring its own SEM VII B.

• Now since segregation is given top priority in any waste management system the collection spot should be designed in such a manner so that the waste not only arrives in segregated form but stays in segregated form until it reaches treatment unit. • Having a pay-as-you-throw scheme in households and commercials pay charges according to the waste they throw. • Booths can be set up where dry recyclable waste can be sold that may even avoid multiple handling and hauling.E (CIVIL) 122 . Besides this they should be given training operating vehicles. • Offer tax incentives to zero garbage communities to promote source reduction of waste. • Now since the whole process is decentralized there is hardly any chance of multiple handling because the waste will be treated within the ward premises which will be not to far and vehicles once start from the collection spot will end up directly at treatment unit. with their arrival and departure time can be checked. Therefore accommodation within the ward should be the top priority. • The workers are usually residing in Dahisar and suburb areas due to which they often arrive late. Separate bills with colour coding should be provided so that citizens can throw the waste accordingly. loading and loading the basket etc. • With the help modern wi-fi systems and electronic gadgets reporting of staff. • Without participation of the citizens every garbage disposal scheme is incomplete and therefore formation of “ADVANCE LOCALITY MANAGEMENTS” UNITS involving non governmental SEM VII B.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities motor loaders or now since the collection and treatment is decentralized the ward can have its own trucks and drivers and motor loaders.

local newspapers. The treatment unit will be designed as per the testing done on the wastes in the next semester. seminars. This treatment unit will be designed as per the latest EPA norms. But the spare land of railway yard at Sandhurst Road can provide that required space. B-ward is categorically is very congested and it is very difficult to find out some place for treatment.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities organizations and support councilors for promoting segregation and introducing zero waste to landfills concept.E (CIVIL) 123 . Collection spots and 240 litre vehicle for collection will be upgraded and colour coding will help for segregation. • Public participation can be increased by wide scale publicity in schools. dumpers and TDP will be changed and in their place will arrive advance mobile units which will transfer waste in segregated form. • Selling electricity to sate government or city suburbs. magazines. • Earning carbon credits in view of clean development mechanism. • Selling refined derived fuel obtained for treatment. A symbiosis operation can be achieved in which the profits of the project can be shared in terms of electricity or monitory returns which can be earned by: • Selling compost in the market. • With major changes in revenue system (Transfer Revenue Charges). The hauling units like trucks. etc. • Selling burning gas obtained from biomethanation process. SEM VII B. colleges.

E (CIVIL) 124 . new and efficient vehicle for hauling segregated waste. In the next semester with the help of advanced management techniques and sophisticated treatment facilities. advanced computer system for managing whole operation in each ward. up gradation of existing collection spots and overall increase in manpower. a best example of a management disaster. we will prove that MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE is truly A GOLD MINE OF OPPURTUNITIES. Large investments will be required for developing units in each ward. SEM VII B.Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities Advanced computer system will be used that will monitor the whole management process. These investments can be catered with the help of municipal bonds which will help the municipality to raise the funds for all their infrastructure projects including solid waste management. in fact. CLOSING REMARK In the previous chapters we saw that the present system of municipal solid waste is a good.

Samuel A.google. Hillary Theisen.com • www.Vigil • Environmental Sanitation by Baljeet Kapoor SEM VII B.com • B ward municipal office • Integrated Solid Waste Management by George Tchobanoglous.wikipedia.E (CIVIL) 125 .Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities REFERENCES • www.

Municipal Solid Waste Management – A Gold Mine Of Opportunities SEM VII B.E (CIVIL) 126 .

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