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1. Impact of Online Consumer Characteristics on Web-Based Banner Advertising
Ramaraj Palanisamy
(Department of information System, St Francis Xavier University,nava scotia CANADA)
Suzanna A Wong
St Francis Xavier University,nava scotia CANADA

A research conducted by Ramaraj Palanisamy from Department of information System, St Francis Xavier
University,nava scotia CANADA is focus on the online consumer characteristics on banner ad effectiveness. The
characteristics variable included in this study are: online consumer internal flexibility, consumer expectations,
consumer involvement and perceived personal usefulness.

A questionnaire survey was proposed to collect empirical data about the research variables, and the hypotheses were
statically tested.

This study dealt with web based ads but more specifically with banner ads. They are more influenced by banner ads.

Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management; Jan-Jun 2003; 4, 1/2; ABI/INFORM Global
2. Consumers’ response to offensive advertising: a cross cultural study
AUTHOR: Kara Chan and Lyann Li
Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
Sandra Diehl
Saarland University, Saarbru¨ cken, Germany, and
Ralf Terlutter
University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Germany
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Chinese and German consumers react to
print advertisements that are potentially offensive. culture of a country also effects the reaction of consumers
towards advertisement according to a study by Kara Chan , Lyann , Sandra Diehli &Ralf Terlutter acceptance of
advertisement in German consumers is more than Chinese consumers.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Using culture theories about information context, individualism

and feminine consciousness, the paper hypothesizes that Chinese consumers will be less accepting of
the advertisements than German consumers. It also compares the dimensions of consumer perceptions
for both countries and how consumer perceptions are related with intentions to reject the products and
the brands because of the ads. A survey of 563 respondents aged 17-58 from urban China (Shanghai)
and Germany was conducted in October 2005 and June 2006. A questionnaire with six print
advertisements containing sexism and other themes was constructed. Data were collected through five

CONCLUSION: The study compared the effects of offensive advertising on Chinese and
consumers. China represents a high context and collectivistic culture whereas
Germany is a low context and more individualistic country. The results of the study
were mixed.
It was expected that the Chinese respondents would perceive the advertisements
more negatively than the German respondents, but this was only partly the case. They
considered the ads more often offensive, uncomfortable, disgusting and impolite than
the German consumers, but the Germans judged them to be more irritating and
ridiculous. It was also only partly true that German respondents will perceive the ads
more positively than the Chinese respondents, as the Germans considered the
advertisements as more creative, interesting and clever than the Chinese consumers,
but less convincing and informative. It seems to suggest that German consumers are
more likely to appreciate the creative elements in the potentially offensive
advertisements than Chinese consumers. On the other hand, Chinese consumers are
more likely to appreciate the informative elements in the potentially offensive
advertisements than Germans consumers.

PUBLICATIONS: International Marketing Review

Vol. 24 No. 5, 2007
pp. 606-628
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/02651330710828013

3. Gender, identity and the consumption of advertising

Margaret K Hogg;and Jade Garrow
The Research seeks to challenge the tendency to represent gender as a unitary theoretical construct;and would argue
for a more differentiated view of how the psychological aspects of gender influence the consumption of advertising.

Recruitment of participant.
Pre testing advertising stimuli, Analysis of focus group discussions.

Gender polarization as a unitary variable in exploring men and women’s consumption of advertising and
representing consumers. So we can say that the no. of consumer (men &woman) is influenced by advertising.
Qualitative Market Research; 2003; 6, 3; ABI/INFORM Global

4.Determinants of successful sports advertisements: The effects of advertisement and

product and consumer.
Sung-Joon Yoon; Yong-Gil Choi
This study is to investigate whether consumers’ preference is influenced by their degree of participation in, as well
as their attitude towards, sport.the relationships among preferences for advertisements and products and consumers’
desire to purchase are also explored.

Study subject and survey questionnaire method are used in this research. Subject were 200 students in three
universities in the provincials areas of Seoul and Kyonggi in Korea.
CONCLUSION: the research conducted by Sung-Joon Yoon; Yong-Gil Choi shows Sport participation, sport
preference and lifestyle influence advertisement preference.Preference towards an advertisement translates into
preference towards the product appearing in the advertisement

Journal of Brand Management; Feb 2005; 12, 3; ABI/INFORM Global

5.Emotions, attitudes and memorability associated with TV

Li-Wei Mai
Senior Lecturer in Marketing and Acting Director of the Centre for Research
in Marketing at Westminster Business School,
University of Westminster.
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to identify the effect of selected advertising on consumers by
assessing their emotions, attitudes, understanding and memory. An online survey combined
experimentation design was conducted among people aged 20 or over. Four selected TV
commercials were used in the experiment, and the measurements of emotions, attitudes
memorability were calculated based on variables derived from previous studies. A fi nal
sample of
120 respondents was used for analysis. The result shows that different levels of emotions
as warmth, love, longing and desire, happiness and amusement were elicited by different TV
commercials. The most memorable advertisements were those that evoked the most
feelings and were the best understood is shows by the study of LI-Wei Mai. However, in this
study none of the commercials scored
higher than three out of fi ve for memorability. This refl ects an overload of media exposure
modern society, meaning that most advertisements have limited impact. Age was found to
signifi cantly affect a person ’ s interpretation and emotional experience of a TV commercial.

A survey combined with experimentation design was conducted to assess the
advertising effect on
the respondents. Screening through the TV commercials aired in the United
Kingdom and
archived in between January 2004 and July 2006, four TV
commercials were
selected based on their duration (40 seconds), advertising elements, themes and
assumed emotions that they evoke
sampling was used for this survey, requesting respondents to introduce other
potential audiences to participate in the survey. Respondents were given clear
instructions on the questionnaire; at the same time, they were to open another
browser on YouTube logging on to a pre-set account to view the commercials. The
snowball effect generated 150 responses, but there were 120 final valid cases for
CONCLUSION: This study signifies the methodological design of the experimentation
in examining the
commercials ’ impact on respondents ’ emotions and attitudes based on a web
survey, and was
facilitated by a video sharing website in presenting selected TV commercials. The
experiment design using a web survey has been widely used in commercial
marketing research practice, but not in academic research. This study attempts to
show the viability of experimentation design using a new research medium.
However, it is worth noting that this type of research is likely to be skewed towards
heavy Internet users who are familiar with Internet-sharing websites, and are
comfortable or enjoy staying online for an extended period of time. For example,
this experiment took an average of 40 min to complete, and among the samples,
there are higher proportions of participants who were single, aged between 25 and
34, and were students and professionals

PUBLICATIONS: © 2009 Palgrave Macmillan 0967-3237 Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for
Marketing Vol. 17, 1, 55–63

6.A Study into the Antecedent, Mediator and Moderator of Online

Shopping Behavior’s Model from Information Richness and Framing.
AUTHOR: Kuo-Ming Chu, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a complete online purchasing behavior model,
explore the influence on
the antecedent, mediator and moderator factors of online purchasing intension, and to
compensate the insufficiency
of publications of investigations regarding online purchasing behavior. The results indicate:
information richness
environment and message framing can increase the communication effect in terms of
internet advertisement. What is
worth the attention is that it helps to elevate the enterprise image; product involvement has
positive impact on
communication effect; product knowledge has no influence on it but helps on the
development of consumer’s point
of view; internet advertisement can not only affect customer’s point of view, but also
elevate the intension of
purchasing. The investigation also finds internet information richness environment and
customer’s product
involvement degree affect each other, and negative message framing is more efficient than
the positive one

Sampling method and questionnaire
This study intended to avoid the selection bias for internet questionnaires. Hence, this study
compared the
data characteristics to what is from the investigation on Taiwan’s internet user behavior in
2006. It shows no
significant difference between the 6373 sampling valid questionnaires and this study.
Overall saying, the samples of
this study has no significant difference from the ordinary internet user distribution. That says
the samples of this
study are representative and appropriate for further analysis.

Amount of internet shoppers rapidly increase for these two years, the needs and influence of
internet purchasing
behavior become more and more important. The situation is pretty much the same as what is for
Metcalfe’s Law. The
higher the purchasing amount, the royalty is higher and needs for abundant information
environment is higher; the lower
the purchasing price, the needs for message framing and product involvement are higher and
easily to accomplish
impulsive purchasing behavior. This study further finds recommendation information would have
obvious affect on
internet consumer’s purchasing behavior. It is seen that internet shop owner should appropriately
utilize recommendation
information from experts and users when establish internet information environment and to show
the product information
and knowledge faithfully to customers to eliminate the uncertainty of customers and actively
inform the product related
information to the customers to excite the potential requirement and to utilize the new internet
characteristics of internet
marketing new tool.
Second, regarding internet abundant information environment, since there is not much domestic
investigation on
internet information abundance, most explore internet media characteristics, information
strategy altitude and intension,
but not much explore website “information amount” and influence of purchasing behavior.
Exploring internet abundant
information is especially an urgent topic in the days of rapid increased internet population and
prevailing electronic commerce. This study finds internet abundant information environment has
positive communication effect on consumer’s
internet purchasing behavior, further finds information abundant environment would have strong
effect on consumers’
altitude on messages and products. Product involvement and abundant information environment
have significant positive
effect on each other. The study also shows recommendation information has stronger influence
on consumers than product
introduction information does. Product information and product knowledge have influence on
each other. It is seen that the
development of consumers’ knowledge is related to recognition learning process and deserves
further to validate the
Finally, regarding the communication effect, the study finds that serial advertisement activities
have strong
influence on consumers no matter in message or product altitude. It also would have positive
effect on enterprise images.
In terms of consumer’s altitude, the study finds no matter message or evaluation of product
received from internet would
raise the consumer’s intension of purchasing. It is further found that internet consumer’s altitude
for internet message has
slightly greater influence than the altitude for product on purchasing behavior
The Business Review, Cambridge * Vol. 11 * Num. 2 * December * 2008
7.The impact of advertising message strategy – fair labour v. sexual
appeal – upon Gen Y consumers’ intent to patronize an apparel
Karen Hyllegard, Jennifer Ogle and Ruoh-Nan Yan
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine Gen Y consumers’ responses to American
Apparel’s use of two advertising message strategies – fair labour and sex appeal, using the theory of
reasoned action to predict intent to patronize American Apparel and comparing the utility of the
classic reasoned action model with an extended model that included variables external to the theory.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: A questionnaire was administered to 425 consumers, who were

randomly assigned to one of four advertisement exposure groups. Group 1 evaluated an American
Apparel ad (Ad No. 1) that promoted fair labour practices. Groups 2, 3, and 4 evaluated Ad No. 1 as
well as one of three additional ads that featured messages employing sex appeal of varied intensities.

Recent advertising campaigns employed by American Apparel offer a rare opportunity
to compare the efficacy of two disparate advertising message strategies – fair labour
and sex appeal – that are not often used simultaneously by a single company within
the contemporary consumer marketplace. The present examination of consumer
responses to these advertising message strategies provides a unique contribution to
our understanding of the relative “value” of fair labour, as well as sex appeal, in
predicting brand attitude and purchase intention. In particular, this study expands
upon earlier work by exploring Gen Y consumer responses to advertisements
employing diverse message strategies that varied in content as well as in intensity degree of sexiness) and by
examining the relationship of these responses, as well as
other variables, to patronage intention.

PUBLICATIONS: Journal of Fashion Marketing and

Vol. 13 No. 1, 2009
pp. 109-127
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/13612020910939914


Fen-Hui Lin
Department of Information Management
National Sun, Yat-sen University
No. 70, Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 804
Yu-Fan Hung
Department of Information Services
Taiwan Institute of Economic Research
11F., No.170, Sec. 2, Sianmin Blvd., Banciao City, Taipei County, Taiwan 220
A sponsored link is an innovative advertisement format that simplifies the advertising message with text forms.
This study seeks to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of Internet users toward the sponsored link. The
research is made up of two parts. The first part empirically tests the cause-and-effect model of the advertising values
and the advertising attitudes. Four advertising characteristics are used as antecedent constructs: informativeness,
entertainment, irritation and credibility. The second part of the study performs a cluster analysis according to the
information search degrees of Internet users toward and how those four characteristics affect their values and
attitudes vice a sponsored link.
Using 711 valid replies from the survey, the Partial Least Square analysis shows that the
credibility plays the most important role. The cluster analysis segregates the Internet
searchers into four groups: light searchers, middle searchers, heavy searchers yet using
only a few websites, and heavy searchers. Entertainment is significant for two groups and
informativeness shows no importance. The research results imply that Internet users
concern more on credible or trustworthy of sponsored links. Irritation generated negative
attitudes so that the advertisers should avoid the possible irritating effects of sponsored
links such as negative or threatening words.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Measures and Questionnaire Development, Empirical Analyses,

Structural Model Assessment and Hypothesis Testing,

CONCLUSION: This study sought to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of Internet
searchers toward the sponsored link based on the theoretical models of Ducoffe [1996] and
Brackett and Carr [2001]. The research results show that informativeness was of no
importance to the context of a sponsored link. Entertainment plays a significant role;
however, as it is especially important for people who are heavy web searchers yet rely only
on few websites. Irritation plays an important negative role so that advertisers and search
engine providers should carefully handle this issue to avoid arousing users’ negative
attitudes and feelings. Moreover, credibility that has become the most important factor. The
search engine provider and advertisers should be aware of the need to maintain and
improve their credibility to earn the trust of Internet users.

Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL 10, NO 4, 2009,
National Science Council (NSC 97-2410-H-110-030 and NSC 98-2410-H-110-003).
AUTHOR: Department of Marketing,
School of Business
Montclair State University,
Upper Montclair, New Jersey,
Do creative ad executions like large ad sizes and intrusive ad formats that enhance communication outcomes
and clickthroughs immediately after ad exposure persist over time? In examining this question, we focus on the role
of advertisement size (large vs. small) and ad exposure format (intrusive vs. voluntary) on immediate and delayed
brand recall, ad recognition and brand attitude in web-based media. Voluntary exposure ad formats like banners and
text ads are more likely to be cognitively avoided since it is an automatic, subconscious process that occurs in
parallel with the browsing activity and does not require any behavioral action by the consumer. Intrusive ad formats
like pop-ups that interrupt browsing activity and demand immediate response are more likely to be physically
avoided by closing them. Prior research on preattentive processing and endurance of implicit/ explicit memory and
memory for subgoals supports our findings that gains from using intrusive ads accrue when ad sizes are small and
negative impact of intrusiveness decay over time.
Experimental Design and Method
The experimental design for the lab study had two between-subjects factors (two ad intrusiveness conditions;
banner ad vs. pop-up ad and two ad size conditions; large vs. small) and one within-subjects factor (time of
measurement). One hundred sixty three undergraduate senior students at a major Northeastern university taking
computer-lab classes completed all three stages in our study for $10 cafeteria coupon. 57% (94) were male students,
57% (98) had access to their own computer at home, 63% (104) lived in rental apartments and about 71% (118) used
the Internet daily. Their ages ranged from 18-29, with a mean age of 23.
1.Context Manipulation
2. Selection of Ad Stimuli
3. Independent Measures
CONCLUSION: Chi-square tests revealed no significant differences in Internet use frequency, use of ad avoidance
technologies and ownership of computer across cells. The data offer support for sleeper effects when pop-up ads are
small but not when they
are large.
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL 9, NO 1, 2008
10. Consumer attitudes toward pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer
AUTHOR: Mathew Joseph
Bill Greehey School of Business, St Mary’s University,
San Antonio, Texas, USA, and
Deborah F. Spake and Zachary Finney
Mitchell College of Business, University of South Alabama,Mobile, Alabama, USA
The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer attitudes toward direct-to-
(DTC) advertising and whether consumer attitudes regarding these types of
advertisements differ
based on income.
METHODOLOGY: A sample of 168 consumers completed the survey on-site
at a
pharmacy while waiting for their prescription(s) to be filled. We obtained the
cooperation of a pharmacy chain in the southern USA to gather data for
this study. Staff at three pharmacies distributed a paper-and-pencil
questionnaire to
customers who were filling or re-filling prescriptions. We selected this type of
because these individuals currently use prescription drugs or purchase
drugs for others. Thus, they are familiar with the product. The staff
encouraged the
customers to complete the survey on-site while waiting for their
prescription(s) to be
filled. The questionnaire contained three sections. Part one consisted of
modified items
based on those developed and tested by Joseph et al. (2005) that addressed
opinions of DTC advertising. These items were measured on a five-point
Likert scale
(1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree). Part two contained questions
exposure to DTC prescription drug advertising and respondents’ views as to
consumers should use the information they obtain in DTC advertising. Part
three asked
demographic questions for classification purposes.
CONCLUSION: While consumer opinion of DTC was generally positive, most consumers
did not agree
that DTC advertising influences their behaviour or brand preferences. Given the
response to DTC advertising seen by pharmaceutical firms, the validity of consumer
responses to these items is questionable. Instead, it appears that DTC promotions
influence consumers, but consumers are:
. reluctant to admit; or

. unaware that DTC promotions influence them.

PUBLICATIONS: International Journal of

Pharmaceutical and Healthcare
Vol. 2 No. 2, 2008
pp. 117-133
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/17506120810887916