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Oral AGE Birth to 1½ y/o CHARACTERISTICS Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration) Primary need: Security Major conflict: weaning Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & self-control) Major conflict: toilet training Center of pleasure: child¶s genital (masturbation) Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex Energy directed to physical & intellectual activities Sexual impulses repressed Relationship between peers of same sex Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment
1½ to 3 y/o
4 to 6 y/o
6 y/o to puberty
2. Erikson¶s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory STAGE 1. Infancy AGE Birth-18 mos 1½ to 3 y/o CENTRAL TASK Trust vs Mistrust Autonomy vs Shame & doubt (+) RESOLUTION (-) RESOLUTION
2. Early childhood
3. Late childhood
3 to 5 y/o
Initiative vs guilt
Learn to trust others Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement Self control w/o Compulsive, selfloss of self esteem restraint or compliance. Ability of cooperate & express oneself Willfulness & defiance. Learns to become Lack of selfassertive confidence. Ability to evaluate one¶s own behavior Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing. Over-control &
career or lifestyle commitments.talk . & possible anti-social behavior. Feelings of confusion. others. 5. 3.control elimination of wastes . Maturity 65 y/o to death Integrity vs despair Avoidance of relationship. lack of interests & commitments. School Age 6 to 12 y/o Industry vs Inferiority Learns to create. Havighurst¶s Developmental Stage and Tasks DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE 1.walk . Identity vs Coherent sense of role confusion self. Young Adulthood 18-25 y/o Intimacy vs isolation 7. Acceptance of death. Adulthood 25-65 y/o Generativity vs stagnation 8.4. concern for others. Adolescence 12±20 y/o Develop sense of competence & perseverance.eat solid foods . Plans to actualize one¶s abilities Intimate relationship with another person. develop & manipulate. Commitment to work and relationships. self-concern. Creativity. indecisiveness. Loss of hope. Acceptance of Sense of loss. productivity. sense of being mediocre. Withdrawal from school & peers. Self-indulgence. 6. Infancy & early childhood DEVELOPMENTAL TASK . Impersonal relationships. over-restriction.distinguish right from wrong through development of a . worth & uniqueness contempt for of one¶s own life.relate emotionally to others .
learn physical skills.achieve personal independence .learn to live with a partner 2.learn to socialize with peers . Middle childhood 3.achieve a masculine or feminine social role .develop concepts necessary for everyday living .gain basic reading. Adolescence 4.achieve assurance of economic independence .learn appropriate masculine or feminine role .establish emotional independence from parents .learn sex differences and sexual modesty . required for games . Early Adulthood .prepare for marriage & establishment of a family .form simple concepts of social & physical reality .conscience .establish more mature relationships with same-age individuals of both sexes .develop attitudes toward social groups & institutions .accept own body .formulate a conscience based on a value system .build healthy attitudes towards oneself . writing & mathematical skills .achieve personal independence .develop a set of values that guides behavior .prepare for an occupation .select a partner .acquire skills necessary to fulfill civic responsibilities .
assume civic responsibilities .start a family .manage a home .adjust to physiological changes . Levinson¶s Seasons of Adulthood AGE 18-20 yrs 21-27 yrs 28-32 yrs 33-39 yrs 45-65 yrs SEASON Early adult transition Entrance into the adult world Transition Settling down Pay-off years CHARACTERISTICS Seeks independence by separating from family Experiments with different careers & lifestyles Makes lifestyle adjustments Experiences greater stability Is self-directed & engages in self-evaluation 5.establish satisfactory living arrangements 4.establish self in a career/occupation . Sullivan¶s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development .adjust to retirement & altered income . Middle Adulthood 6.adjust to physiological changes & alterations in health status .adjust to death of spouse .adjust to aging parents .fulfill civic & social responsibilities .maintain an economic standard of living . Later Maturity 4.relate one¶s partner ..become part of a social group .meet civic & social responsibilities .develop affiliation with one¶s age group .assist adolescent children to become responsible. happy adults .
Learns to reason about events in the here-andnow. Infancy 2. Formal Operations 7-11 years 11+ years . Late Adolescence AGE Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 6 yrs 6 to 9 yrs 9 to 12 yrs 12 to 14 yrs 14 to 21 yrs DESCRIPTION Infant learns to rely on caregivers to meet needs & desires Child begins learning to delay immediate gratification of needs & desires Child forms fulfilling peer relationships Child relates successfully to same-sex peers Adolescent learns to be independent & forms relationships with members of opposite sex Person establishes an intimate. Emerging ability to think Thinking tends to be egocentric. 4-8 months 8-12 months 12-18 months 18-24 months b. Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract. Unable to break down a whole into separate parts. Childhood 3. long-lasting relationship with someone of the opposite sex 5. Uses fantasy. Sensorimotor Stage 1: Use of reflexes Stage 2: Primary circular reaction Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction Stage 4: Coordination of secondary schemata Stage 5: Tertiary circular reaction Stage 6: Invention of new means AGE DESCRIPTION Birth to 2 yrs Sensory organs & muscles become more functional Birth to 1 Movements are primarily reflexive month 1-4 months Perceptions center around one¶s body. Able to classify objects according to one trait. Juvenile 4. Objects are perceived as extensions of the self. Concrete Operations d. Preadolescence 5. Experiments with methods to reach goals. Piaget¶s Phases of Cognitive Development PHASE a. Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities. Becomes aware of external environment. Early Adolescence 6. Develops rituals that become significant. Initiates acts to change the movement. Exhibits use of symbolism.STAGE 1. Uses mental imagery to understand the environment. Pre-operational Pre-conceptual stage 2-7 years 2-4 year Intuitive stage 4-7 years c.
Orientation of Individual Survival Concentrates on what is best for self. the activity is ³right´ if one is not punished. It is ³wrong´ to violate others¶ rights. Goodness as Self-sacrifice . Dependent on others. Is dependent. The person understands the principles of human rights & personal conscience. A deed is perceived as ³wrong´ if one is punished. Behavior is ³right´ when it conforms to the rules. Puts needs of others ahead of own.6. Individual feels ³duty bound´ to maintain social order. Authority is respected. Transition Selfish. Feels responsible for others. Misbehavior is viewed in terms of damage done. they are ³right. ³Right´ is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self. Recognizes connections to others. Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws.´ Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained. Gilligan¶s Theory of Moral Development LEVEL CHARACTERISTICS I. Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others. Approval of others is sought through one¶s actions. When actions satisfy one¶s needs. Kohlberg¶s Stages of Moral Development LEVEL AND STAGE LEVEL I: Pre-conventional (Birth to 9 years) Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation DESCRIPTION Authority figures are obeyed. LEVEL II: Conventional (9-13 years) Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance Stage 4: Law and order orientation LEVEL III: Post-conventional (13+ years) Stage 5: Social contract orientation Stage 6: Universal ethics orientation Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility II. 7. Person believes that trust is basis for relationships.
Self-judgment is not dependent on others¶ perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions. III. Considers needs of self and others. Increased social participation. Morality of Nonviolence 8. Sees self and others as morally equal Assumes responsibilities for own decisions. Basic tenet to hurt no one including self. Accepts existence of a deity. not on others¶ responses. Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity. Appreciates others¶ viewpoints. Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality.Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to ³help. Conflict between selfishness and selflessness. Wants to help others while being responsible to self. Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & beliefs. Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness. Toddlerpreschooler Stage 2: Mythicalliteral faith School-aged child Stage 3: Syntheticconventional faith Stage 4: Individuative- Adolescent Late adolescent & young adult . Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories. Fowler¶s Stages of Faith STAGE Pre-stage: Undifferentiated faith Stage 1: Intuitiveprojective faith AGE Infant CHARACTERISTICS Trust. Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts.´ Decisions based on intentions & consequences. hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment.
Makes concepts of love & justice tangible. .reflective faith Stage 5: Conjunctive faith Stage 6: Universalizing faith Adult Adult Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth.