A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate

communications among users and allows users to share resources. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. A computer network allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices.

Computer networks can be used for a variety of purposes:

• • • •

Facilitating communications. Using a network, people can communicate efficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing. Sharing hardware. In a networked environment, each computer on a network may access and use hardware resources on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer. Sharing files, data, and information. In a network environment, authorized user may access data and information stored on other computers on the network. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. Sharing software. Users connected to a network may run application programs on remote computers. Information preservation. Security. Speed up.

[edit] Network classification
The following list presents categories used for classifying networks.

[edit] Connection method
Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network, such as optical fiber, Ethernet, wireless LAN, HomePNA, power line communication or G.hn. Ethernet as it is defined by IEEE 802 utilizes various standards and mediums that enable communication between devices. Frequently deployed devices include hubs, switches, bridges, or routers. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium. ITU-T G.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network.

[edit] Wired technologies

Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. Computer networking cabling consist of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 100 million bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms which are Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded twisted-pair (STP) which are rated in categories which are manufactured in different increments for various scenarios. Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other worksites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire wrapped with insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer. The layers of insulation help minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed range from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per second. Optical fiber cable consists of one or more filaments of glass fiber wrapped in protective layers. It transmits light which can travel over extended distances. Fiber-optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic radiation. Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per second. The transmission speed of fiber optics is hundreds of times faster than for coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than a twisted-pair wire.[citation needed]

[edit] Wireless technologies

Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and receiver. The equipment look similar to satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Path between relay stations spaced approx, 30 miles apart. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top of buildings, towers, hills, and mountain peaks. Communications satellites – The satellites use microwave radio as their telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically 22,000 miles (for geosynchronous satellites) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals. Cellular and PCS systems – Use several radio communications technologies. The systems are divided to different geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. An example of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology is IEEE.

Infrared communication , which can transmit signals between devices within small distances not more than 10 meters peer to peer or ( face to face ) without any body in the line of transmitting.

[edit] Scale
Networks are often classified as local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), personal area network (PAN), virtual private network (VPN), campus area network (CAN), storage area network (SAN), and others, depending on their scale, scope and purpose, e.g., controller area network (CAN) usage, trust level, and access right often differ between these types of networks. LANs tend to be designed for internal use by an organization's internal systems and employees in individual physical locations, such as a building, while WANs may connect physically separate parts of an organization and may include connections to third parties.

[edit] Functional relationship (network architecture)
Computer networks may be classified according to the functional relationships which exist among the elements of the network, e.g., active networking, client–server and peer-to-peer (workgroup) architecture.

[edit] Network topology
Main article: Network topology Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based, such as bus network, star network, ring network, mesh network. Network topology is the coordination by which devices in the network are arranged in their logical relations to one another, independent of physical arrangement. Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement and are connected to a hub, the network has a star topology, rather than a bus topology. In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network are distinct. Networks may be classified based on the method of data used to convey the data, these include digital and analog networks.

[edit] Types of networks based on physical scope
Common types of computer networks may be identified by their scale.

[edit] Local area network
A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T

G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phone lines and power lines).[4]

Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they are handling multiple subnets (the different colors). Those inside the library, which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. It would be more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access routers. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks), include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and no need for leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s.[5] [edit] Personal area network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters.[6] A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN. [edit] Home area network A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a broadband service through a CATV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider. It can also be referred to as an office area network (OAN).

routers) and transmission media (optical fiber.). the data link layer. [edit] Metropolitan area network A Metropolitan area network is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. . the university library and student residence halls. country. cables. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer.[edit] Wide area network A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city. In the case of a university campus-based campus network. and the network layer. Sample EPN made of Frame relay WAN connections and dialup remote access. The networking equipments (switches.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant / owner: an enterprise. and air waves. using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines. [edit] Campus network A campus network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LAN's) within a limited geographical area. such as telephone companies. academic departments. the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including. Cat5 cabling etc. copper plant. or spans even intercontinental distances. government etc. university. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers.

VPNs. VPN may have best-effort performance.. shops. the Internet) instead of by physical wires.g.. remote offices. Generally. a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. production sites. [edit] Backbone network A Backbone network (BBN) A backbone network or network backbone is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet. or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. such as authentication or content encryption. in order to share computer resources. [edit] Internetwork An internetwork is the connection of two or more private computer networks via a common routing technology (OSI Layer 3) using routers. hence its name was shortened to Internet. but a VPN need not have explicit security features. The Internet is an aggregation of many internetworks. providing a path for the . [edit] Virtual private network A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users [edit] Enterprise private network An enterprise private network is a network build by an enterprise to interconnect various company sites. for example. head offices. e.g.

Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented. In IEEE Project 802. and private computer networks. forming a redundant worldwide mesh of transmission paths. or over wide areas. etc. public. [edit] Global area network A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. Backbone networks should not be confused with the Internet backbone. satellite coverage areas. usually a local area network. It is based on the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol Suite. if a server cluster needs to be accessed by different departments of a company that are located at different geographical locations. An intranet is a set of networks. that is under the control of a single administrative entity. [edit] Intranets and extranets Intranets and extranets are parts or extensions of a computer network. corporate. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense. That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific.exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks. and often standardized. A large intranet will typically have at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). . Normally. using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. Most commonly. the backbone's capacity is greater than the networks connected to it. academic.[7] [edit] Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected governmental. in different buildings in a campus environment. authorized users.[1][2] A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building. for example. A large corporation that has many locations may have a backbone network that ties all of the locations together. this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs. The pieces of the network connections (for example: ethernet. The Internet is also the communications backbone underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Network congestion is often taken into consideration while designing backbones. protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address registries. an intranet is the internal network of an organization. wireless) that bring these departments together is often mentioned as network backbone.

[edit] Overlay network An overlay network is a virtual computer network that is built on top of another network. Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing. an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN. DiffServ. an overlay network can be incrementally deployed on end-hosts running the overlay protocol software. . Nodes in the overlay are connected by virtual or logical links. Technically. trusted organizations or entities—a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet—while at the same time the customers may not be considered trusted from a security standpoint. whose IP address is known in advance. but not necessarily. and IP Multicast have not seen wide acceptance largely because they require modification of all routers in the network. distributed hash tables can be used to route messages to a node having a specific logical address. many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks because they are organized as nodes of a virtual system of links run on top of the Internet. MAN. it must have at least one connection with an external network. Previous proposals such as IntServ. each of which corresponds to a path. in the underlying network. For example. Nowadays the Internet is the basis for many overlaid networks that can be constructed to permit routing of messages to destinations specified by an IP address.[citation needed] On the other hand. perhaps through many physical links.[8] Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems were connected over telephone lines using modem. WAN. before any data network existed. The Internet was initially built as an overlay on the telephone network .An extranet is a network that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity and also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually. although an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN. or other type of network. A sample overlay network: IP over SONET over Optical For example. such as through quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media.

the backbone's capacity is greater than the networks connected to it. and Routers.[9] It works on the Physical Layer of the OSI model. [edit] Network interface cards A network card. Akamai Technologies manages an overlay network that provides reliable. RON (Resilient Overlay Network) for resilient routing. [edit] Repeaters A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal. in different buildings in a campus environment. Bridges. some method of connecting these building blocks is required. and OverQoS for quality of service guarantees. among others.[1][2] A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building.12) or optical cable ("optical fiber"). so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations. or over wide areas. repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonly Category 5 cable). For example. or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. The overlay has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes. [edit] Hubs A network hub contains multiple ports.without cooperation from Internet service providers. The destination address in the frame is not changed to a broadcast address. Each network interface card has its unique id. regenerates it. [edit] Basic hardware components All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnect network nodes. providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or subnetworks. Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802. the sequence of overlay nodes a message traverses before reaching its destination. and retransmits it at a higher power level. such as Network Interface Cards (NICs). A backbone network or network backbone is a part of computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network. This is written on a chip which is mounted on the card. When a packet arrives at one port. . Academic research includes End System Multicast and Overcast for multicast. Hubs. Normally. efficient content delivery (a kind of multicast). for example. but it can control. It provides physical access to a networking medium and often provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. Switches. or to the other side of an obstruction. network adapter. cleans it of unnecessary noise. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model. it is copied unmodified to all ports of the hub for transmission.. In addition.

where the connecting link is slower than the end networks. as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e.[edit] Bridges A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. [edit] Routers A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing information found in the datagram or packet (Internet protocol information from Layer 3 of the OSI Model). bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports. [edit] Switches A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams (chunks of data communication) between ports (connected cables) based on the MAC addresses in the packets..g. Once the bridge associates a port and an address. [edit] Firewalls . A switch normally has numerous ports. A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as a broadcast domain. Remote bridges. The first time that a previously unknown destination address is seen. and cascading additional switches. Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basis of MAC addresses. but learn which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. the bridge will forward the frame to all ports other than the one on which the frame arrived. Bridges come in three basic types: • • • Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs) Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. In many situations. a Web URL identifier). Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the source address of frames that it sees on various ports. it will send traffic for that address to that port only. no further processing is done for said data). as hubs do.[11] Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels. these are called multi-layer switches. Once a frame arrives through a port. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received.[10] A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected. However. The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges. Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to forward packets (this can include the "null" also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it. its source address is stored and the bridge assumes that MAC address is associated with that port. however. this information is processed in conjunction with the routing table (also known as forwarding table). facilitating a star topology for devices. largely have been replaced with routers. Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.

The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in 'cyber' attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data.Firewalls are the most important aspect of a network with respect to security. Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links.[1][2] Network topologies may be physical or logical. location and cable installation. “study”) is a major area of mathematics concerned with spatial properties that are preserved under continuous deformations of objects.) of a computer network. nodes. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design. and λόγος. topology had become an important area of study within mathematics. such as space. The computers on a home network can be arranged in a circle but it does not necessarily mean that it represents a ring topology. algebraic topology. This later acquired the modern name of topology. Any particular network topology is determined only by the graphical mapping of the configuration of physical and/or logical connections between nodes. which was referred to in Latin as the geometria situs (“geometry of place”) or analysis situs (Greek-Latin for “picking apart of place”). a basic object of topology. and geometric topology. etc. Of particular importance are homeomorphisms. A firewalled system does not need every interaction or data transfer monitored by a human. which establishes the foundational aspects of topology and investigates concepts inherent to topological spaces (basic examples include compactness and connectedness). etc Topology (from the Greek τόπος. Topology includes many subfields. Toward the end of the 19th century. The word topology is used both for the mathematical discipline and for a family of sets with certain properties that are used to define a topological space. For instance. planting viruses. The most basic and traditional division within topology is point-set topology. Ideas that are now classified as topological were expressed as early as 1736. Topology can be considered as a virtual shape or structure of a network. It emerged through the development of concepts from geometry and set theory. and allowing actions from recognized ones. This shape does not correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. the function y = x3 is a homeomorphism of the real line. The study of network . for example. dimension. “place”. which primarily studies manifolds and their embeddings (placements) in other manifolds. Physical topology means the physical design of a network including the devices. a distinct discipline developed. By the middle of the 20th century. do not fit neatly in this division. Some of the most active areas. but no tearing or gluing. which can be defined as continuous functions with a continuous inverse. as automated processes can be set up to assist in rejecting access requests from unsafe sources. such as low dimensional topology and graph theory. which generally tries to measure degrees of connectivity using algebraic constructs such as homotopy groups and homology. and transformation. deformations that involve stretching.

transmission rates.1.1.1 Classification of physical topologies  Star  Ring  2.1.2 Bus  2. the mapping of the data flow between the nodes in the network determines the logical topology of the network.2. A local area network (LAN) is one example of a network that exhibits both a physical topology and a logical topology.5 Mesh  2.1. and/or signal types may differ in two networks and yet their topologies may be identical.1 Point-to-point  2. Distances between nodes. The physical and logical topologies may or may not be identical in any particular network.1 Physical topologies  2.1.1 Classification of logical topologies 3 Daisy chains 4 Centralization 5 Decentralization 6 Hybrids 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit] Basic topology types The study of network topology recognizes seven basic topologies: [3] • • • • • • • Point-to-point topology Bus (point-to-multipoint) topology Star topology Ring topology Tree topology Mesh topology Hybrid topology .1.1. physical interconnections. Any given node in the LAN has one or more links to one or more nodes in the network and the mapping of these links and nodes in a graph results in a geometric shape that may be used to describe the physical topology of the network.1.1.2 Logical topology  2. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • 1 Basic topology types 2 Classification of network topologies o 2.6 Tree o 2. Likewise.topology uses graph theory.

The logical layout also describes the different speeds of the cables being used from one network to another.This classification is based on the interconnection between computers — be it physical or logical. The physical topology of a network is determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media. the level of control or fault tolerance desired.[1] [edit] Classification of physical topologies . The physical topology you choose for your network influences and is influenced by several factors: • • • • Office Layout Troubleshooting Techniques Cost of Installation Type of cable used Logical topology describes the way in which a network transmits information from network/computer to another and not the way the network looks or how it is laid out. This refers to how the cables are laid out to connect many computers to one network. and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits. the locations of nodes. Networks can be classified according to their physical span as follows: • • • LANs (Local Area Networks) Building or campus internetworks Wide area internetworks [edit] Classification of network topologies There are also two basic categories of network topologies: [4] • • Physical topologies Logical topologies The shape of the cabling layout used to link devices is called the physical topology of the network. cables. and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling or wiring system. [edit] Physical topologies The mapping of the nodes of a network and the physical connections between them – the layout of wiring.

with a microphone to a single public address speaker is another. The resources in such a connection can be released when no longer needed. and dropped when no longer needed. Each computer or server is connected to the . Within many switched telecommunications systems. or nearly so. to the user. Permanent (dedicated) Easiest to understand. Switched: Using circuit-switching or packet-switching technologies. it is possible to establish a permanent circuit. and has been expressed as Metcalfe's Law. each machine is connected to a single cable. which is programmed to ring only the number of a telephone dispatcher. is a pointto-point communications channel that appears. communications between the two endpoints. for example.[edit] Point-to-point The simplest topology is a permanent link between two endpoints (the line in the illustration above). a point-to-point circuit can be set up dynamically. "Nailing down" a switched connection saves the cost of running a physical circuit between the two points. One example might be a telephone in the lobby of a public building. These are examples of physical dedicated channels. Switched point-to-point topologies are the basic model of conventional telephony. A children's "tin-can telephone" is one example. of the variations of point-to-point topology. The value of an on-demand point-to-point connection is proportional to the number of potential pairs of subscribers. The value of a permanent point-to-point network is the value of guaranteed. a television circuit from a parade route back to the studio. to be permanently associated with the two endpoints. This is the basic mode of conventional telephony. [edit] Bus Main article: Bus network Bus network topology In local area networks where bus topology is used.

since only one cable is utilized. However. which would cause interference with and degradation of the signals on the transmission medium (See Electrical termination).) All of the endpoints of the common transmission medium are normally terminated with a device called a 'terminator' (see the note under linear bus). the low cost of implementing the technology is offset by the high cost of managing the network.e. Linear bus The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints (this is the 'bus'. If the network cable breaks. it is rather inexpensive to implement when compared to other topologies. A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the MAC address or IP address on the network that is the intended recipient. Additionally. Notes: 1. which is also commonly referred to as the backbone. Since the bus topology consists of only one wire. . if the data does match the machine address.. A terminator is required at each end of the bus cable to prevent the signal from bouncing back and forth on the bus cable. Alternatively. all nodes share a common transmission medium).single bus cable through some kind of connector. it can be the single point of failure. the data is accepted. Note: The two endpoints of the common transmission medium are normally terminated with a device called a terminator that exhibits the characteristic impedance of the transmission medium and which dissipates or absorbs the energy that remains in the signal to prevent the signal from being reflected or propagated back onto the transmission medium in the opposite direction. the machine ignores the data. If the machine address does not match the intended address for the data. the entire network will be down. or trunk) – all data that is transmitted between nodes in the network is transmitted over this common transmission medium and is able to be received by all nodes in the network virtually simultaneously (disregarding propagation delays)[1]. Distributed bus The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has more than two endpoints that are created by adding branches to the main section of the transmission medium – the physical distributed bus topology functions in exactly the same fashion as the physical linear bus topology (i.

since this hierarchical functionality is replaced by the common bus. The primary disadvantage of the star topology is that the hub represents a single point of failure.) The physical distributed bus topology is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a physical tree topology – however.. a distributed bus with no branching segments. • . the choice of which node is the 'hub' and which node is the 'spoke' being arbitrary[1]. the star topology connects each node to the hub with a point-to-point connection. [edit] Star Main article: Star network Star network topology In local area networks with a star topology. An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes. the simplest type of network that is based upon the physical star topology would consist of one node with a single point-to-point link to a second node.2. In contrast to the bus topology. 3.e. although the physical distributed bus topology resembles the physical tree topology. each network host is connected to a central hub. All traffic that traverses the network passes through the central hub. The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement. Notes A point-to-point link (described above) is sometimes categorized as a special instance of the physical star topology – therefore. The hub acts as a signal booster or repeater.) The physical linear bus topology is sometimes considered to be a special case of the physical distributed bus topology – i. it differs from the physical tree topology in that there is no central node to which any other nodes are connected.

as in note 1. although some texts make no distinction between the two topologies.) above. since many illustrations of the physical star network topology depict the central node as one of these special devices. Distributed Star A type of network topology that is composed of individual networks that are based upon the physical star topology connected together in a linear fashion – i. it is also possible to implement a network that is based upon the physical star topology using a computer or even a simple common connection point as the 'hub' or central node – however. • Star networks may also be described as either broadcast multiaccess or nonbroadcast multi-access (NBMA).After the special case of the point-to-point link. the repeaters being used to extend the maximum transmission distance of the point-topoint links between the central node and the peripheral nodes beyond that which is supported by the transmitter power of the central node or beyond that which is supported by the standard upon which the physical layer of the physical star network is based.g. since this practice may lead to the misconception that a physical star network requires the central node to be one of these special devices. the 'hub' of the star).. two or more 'stacked' hubs. • Extended star A type of network topology in which a network that is based upon the physical star topology has one or more repeaters between the central node (the 'hub' of the star) and the peripheral or 'spoke' nodes.) above also has the topology of the physical star.. • Although most networks that are based upon the physical star topology are commonly implemented using a special device such as a hub or switch as the central node (i. or only addresses individual spokes with each communication. depending on whether the technology of the network either automatically propagates a signal at the hub to all spokes. along with their associated star connected nodes or 'spokes'). which is not true because a simple network consisting of three computers connected as in note 2. If the repeaters in a network that is based upon the physical extended star topology are replaced with hubs or switches. then a hybrid network topology is created that is referred to as a physical hierarchical star topology. 'daisy-chained' – with no central or top level connection point (e. some confusion is possible.e. . the next simplest type of network that is based upon the physical star topology would consist of one central node – the 'hub' – with two separate point-to-point links to two peripheral nodes – the 'spokes'.e..

Fully connected mesh topology .[edit] Ring Main article: Ring network Ring network topology A network topology that is set up in a circular fashion in which data travels around the ring in one direction and each device on the right acts as a repeater to keep the signal strong as it travels. [5] [edit] Mesh Main article: Mesh networking The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers. The network is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. is approximated by Reed's Law. up to and including all the endpoints. assuming that communicating groups of any two endpoints.

[edit] Tree . Partially connected mesh topology Partially connected The type of network topology in which some of the nodes of the network are connected to more than one other node in the network with a point-to-point link – this makes it possible to take advantage of some of the redundancy that is provided by a physical fully connected mesh topology without the expense and complexity required for a connection between every node in the network.The number of connections in a full mesh = n(n . except in the case of a failure or break in one of the links.1) / 2 Fully connected Note: The physical fully connected mesh topology is generally too costly and complex for practical networks. all of the data that is transmitted between nodes in the network takes the shortest path (or an approximation of the shortest path) between nodes. although the topology is used when there are only a small number of nodes to be interconnected. in which case the data takes an alternative path to the destination. This requires that the nodes of the network possess some type of logical 'routing' algorithm to determine the correct path to use at any particular time. Note: In most practical networks that are based upon the physical partially connected mesh topology.

the top level central 'root' node being the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy (The hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical. the third level) connected to it. 2.) The branching factor.This tree has individual peripheral nodes. the second level) with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node. 5. therefore.) The total number of point-to-point links in a network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology will be one less than the total number of nodes in the network. the nodes that are at higher levels in the hierarchy will be required to perform more processing operations on behalf of other nodes than the nodes that are lower in the hierarchy. of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy. 1. the number. Such a type of network topology is very useful and highly recommended. 3. since a network with a central 'root' node and only one hierarchical level below it would exhibit the physical topology of a star.) A network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology must have at least three levels in the hierarchy of the tree. while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i. The type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i..e.) Each node in the network having a specific fixed number. [edit] Logical topology . 4. f. if the nodes in the network require ports for connection to other nodes the total number of ports per node may be kept low even though the total number of nodes is large – this makes the effect of the cost of adding ports to each node totally dependent upon the branching factor and may therefore be kept as low as required without any effect upon the total number of nodes that are possible. is independent of the total number of nodes in the network and.) If the nodes in a network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology are required to perform any processing upon the data that is transmitted between nodes in the network.Tree network topology Also known as a hierarchy network..e.) A network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology and with a branching factor of 1 would be classified as a physical linear topology. also with a point-to-point link. being referred to as the 'branching factor' of the hierarchical tree.

A daisy-chained network can take two basic forms: linear and ring. or connecting each computer in series to the next. A network's logical topology is not necessarily the same as its physical topology. An advantage of the ring is that the number of transmitters and receivers can be cut in half. the easiest way to add more computers into a network is by daisy-chaining. wires. each system bounces it along in sequence until it reaches the destination. a ring topology can be formed.) Logical topologies are often closely associated with media access control (MAC) methods and protocols. While IBM's Token Ring is a logical ring topology. 3. or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices.) The logical topologies are generally determined by network protocols as opposed to being determined by the physical layout of cables. hence the convention of using the terms 'logical topology' and 'signal topology' interchangeably. twisted pair Ethernet is a logical bus topology in a physical star topology layout.) Logical topologies are able to be dynamically reconfigured by special types of equipment such as routers and switches.The logical topology. Logical Topology Example [edit] Daisy chains Except for star-based networks. and network devices or by the flow of the electrical signals. since each computer (except for the ones at each end) required two receivers and two transmitters. this was expensive in the early days of computing. If a message is intended for a computer partway down the line. the message is processed by each computer . By connecting the computers at each end. When a node sends a message. it is physically set up in a star topology. 2. For example. since a message will eventually loop all of the way around. • • A linear topology puts a two-way link between one computer and the next. the path that the data takes between nodes being used to determine the topology as opposed to the actual physical connections being used to determine the topology Notes: 1. However. although in many cases the paths that the electrical signals take between nodes may closely match the logical flow of data. [edit] Classification of logical topologies The logical classification of network topologies generally follows the same classifications as those in the physical classifications of network topologies. is the way that the signals act on the network media. Click the following link to see an example of a logical topology of a network. in contrast to the "physical".

If a computer is not the destination node.e.in the ring.. hierarchical topology) can be viewed as a collection of star networks arranged in a hierarchy. An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems. a partially connected mesh topology). When the physical star topology is applied to a logical bus network such as Ethernet. This potentially results in a doubling of travel time for data. If a link connecting a leaf fails. it will travel around the entire ring and return to the sender. it will pass the message to the next node. If the central node is passive. delayed by the two-way round trip transmission time (i. This tree has individual peripheral nodes (e. more advanced central nodes were developed that are able to keep track of the identities of the nodes that are connected to the network. the functionality of the central node may be distributed.e. This lookup table then allows future transmissions to be forwarded to the intended destination only. individual nodes may thus still be isolated from the network by a single-point failure of a transmission path to the node. an entire section of the network becomes isolated from the rest. As in the conventional star network. the disadvantage is that the failure of the central node will cause the failure of all of the peripheral nodes also. examining the data packets and recording the address/identifier of each connected node and which port it's connected to in a lookup table held in memory. If the message is not accepted by any node on the network. leaves) which are required to transmit to and receive from one other node only and are not required to act as repeaters or regenerators. In order to alleviate the amount of network traffic that comes from broadcasting all signals to all nodes. These network switches will "learn" the layout of the network by "listening" on each port during normal data transmission. [edit] Decentralization In a mesh topology (i. the central node only. sometimes including the originating node. if a connection to a non-leaf node fails.) to a central node. All peripheral nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to. Unlike the star network. the originating node must be able to tolerate the reception of an echo of its own transmission. there are at least two nodes with two or more paths between them to provide redundant paths to be used in case the link providing . and receiving from.g. [edit] Centralization The star topology reduces the probability of a network failure by connecting all of the peripheral nodes (computers. this central node (traditionally a hub) rebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network. to and from the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node.a. that leaf is isolated. However. etc. until the message arrives at its destination. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral node from all others. A tree topology (a.k. but the remaining peripheral nodes will be unaffected.

In a fully connected network with n nodes. but provide a high degree of reliability due to the multiple paths for data that are provided by the large number of redundant links between nodes. there are n(n-1)/2 direct links. so it exhibits characeristics of a hybrid network topology but is not composed of two different basic network topologies being connected together. This is similar in some ways to a grid network.. a tree network connected to a tree network is still a tree network. A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected.. but their decentralized nature makes them very useful. limiting the number of hops between two nodes.g. A Snowflake topology is really a "Star of Stars" network. some systems have used genetic algorithms to design custom networks that have the fewest possible hops in between different nodes. However. etc. ring. The number of arbitrary forks in mesh networks makes them more difficult to design and implement. where a linear or ring topology is used to connect systems in multiple directions. A fully connected network. it can also be seen in the file sharing protocol BitTorrent in which users connect to other users in the "swarm" by allowing each user sharing the file to connect to other users also involved. Two common examples for Hybrid network are: star ring network and star bus network • • A Star ring network consists of two or more star topologies connected using a multistation access unit (MAU) as a centralized hub. [edit] Hybrids Hybrid networks use a combination of any two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (e. star. This topology is mostly seen in military applications. A Star Bus network consists of two or more star topologies connected using a bus trunk (the bus trunk serves as the network's backbone). is a hypercube. . although they function quite well. Some of the resulting layouts are nearly incomprehensible. for instance. in star and tree networks).g.one of the paths fails.). complete topology or full mesh topology is a network topology in which there is a direct link between all pairs of nodes. bus. Often in actual usage of BitTorrent any given individual node is rarely connected to every single other node as in a true fully connected network but the protocol does allow for the possibility for any one node to connect to any other node when sharing files. A multi-dimensional ring has a toroidal topology. Networks designed with this topology are usually very expensive to set up. For example. This decentralization is often used to advantage to compensate for the single-point-failure disadvantage that is present when using a single device as a central node (e. but two star networks connected together exhibit a hybrid network topology. A special kind of mesh. While grid networks have found popularity in high-performance computing applications.

a. a. a formal agreement between nation states (cf: treaty). a.a. Protocol. Protocol may also refer to: [edit] Procedures for human behavior • • • • • Protocol (diplomacy) Protocol (politics). guideline (medical) Research methods: o Protocol (natural sciences) .k.k.A protocol is a set of guidelines or rules. etiquette Clinical protocol.

however. The TCP/IP model. because it is descriptive while the OSI Reference Model was intended to be prescriptive. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Model or the DoD Model. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted. or Internet Protocol Suite. addressed. hence being a reference model. o Layers in the TCP/IP model . has four abstraction layers as defined in RFC 1122. describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. sometimes referred to as the Internet model. TCP/IP. transmitted. an agency of the United States Department of Defense. incorrectly. This layer architecture is often compared with the seven-layer OSI Reference Model. Protocols exist for a variety of different types of communication services between computers. which was the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet. using terms such as Internet reference model. routed and received at the destination. It evolved from ARPANET.• • • • Clinical trial protocol Voice procedure a protocol for voice communications The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA.

This means that all transport layer implementations must choose whether or not to provide reliability and to what degree. for example. UDP provides data integrity (via a checksum) but does not guarantee delivery.Two Internet hosts connected via two routers and the corresponding layers used at each hop. TCP provides both data integrity and delivery guarantee (by retransmitting until the receiver acknowledges the reception of the packet). while the lower layers avoid having to know the details of each and every application and its protocol. provide. Again. Encapsulation of application data descending through the TCP/IP layers The layers near the top are logically closer to the user application. This abstraction also allows upper layers to provide services that the lower layers cannot. while those near the bottom are logically closer to the physical transmission of the data. .[5] For example. IP is not designed to be reliable and is a best effort delivery protocol. the original OSI Reference Model was extended to include connectionless services (OSIRM CL). or choose not to. Viewing layers as providing or consuming a service is a method of abstraction to isolate upper layer protocols from the nittygritty detail of transmitting bits over. Ethernet and collision detection.

Again. The processes of transmitting and receiving packets on a given link can be controlled both in the software device driver for the network card. In this scenario. or virtual link. These will perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission. as in the comment by David D. the Internal Organization of the Network Layer (IONL) [6]. This is fine for discussing IP (since the whole point of IP is it will run over virtually anything). Such protocols can be considered to be below IP but above the existing link system. to comply with OSI architecture. as TCP/IP is designed to be hardware independent. The SSL/TLS library operates above the transport layer (uses TCP) but below application protocols.g. For multiaccess links with their own addressing systems (e. often do not consider ISO's later extensions to that model. The link is treated like a black box here. Ethernet) an address mapping protocol is needed. 1. presidents and voting. "We reject: kings. The IETF explicitly does not intend to discuss transmission systems. 4. 2. in its Management Framework (OSIRM MF) [7] 3. but are not explicitly defined. As a result TCP/IP has been implemented on top of virtually any hardware networking technology in existence. the Link Layer data may be considered application data which traverses another instantiation of the IP stack for transmission or reception over another IP connection. Clark. The Link Layer is also the layer where packets may be selected to be sent over a virtual private network or other networking tunnel. on the part of the designers of these protocols. This regime is called the link in Internet literature. We believe in: rough consensus and running code. The TCP/IP model includes specifications of translating the network addressing methods used in the Internet Protocol to data link addressing. Such a connection. as well as on firmware or specialized chipsets. This is the lowest component layer of the Internet protocols. such as Media Access Control (MAC). may be established with . [edit] Link Layer The Link Layer is the networking scope of the local network connection to which a host is attached. ICMP & IGMP operate on top of IP but do not transport data like UDP or TCP. there was no intention.This model lacks the formalism of the OSI reference model and associated documents. then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium. which is a less academic but practical alternative to the OSI Reference Model. this functionality exists as layer management extensions to the OSI model. however all other aspects below that level are implicitly assumed to exist in the Link Layer. While the IETF does not use the terminology. The following is a description of each layer in the TCP/IP networking model starting from the lowest level. this is a subnetwork dependent convergence facility according to an extension to the OSI model. The Link Layer is used to move packets between the Internet Layer interfaces of two different hosts on the same link." Criticisms of this model. Again. which have been made with respect to the OSI Reference Model. but the IETF does not use a formal model and does not consider this a limitation.

the Internet Protocol performs two basic functions: • • Host addressing and identification: This is accomplished with a hierarchical addressing system (see IP address). IP can carry data for a number of different upper layer protocols. The Transport Layer can be thought of as a transport mechanism. Thus. These protocols are each identified by a unique protocol number: for example. [edit] Internet Layer The Internet Layer solves the problem of sending packets across one or more networks. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are protocols 1 and 2. Protocols above transport. and application addressing (port numbers). End to end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either connection-oriented. or connectionless. also can provide reliability. Some of the protocols carried by IP. implemented in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). such as RPC. such as ICMP (used to transmit diagnostic information about IP transmission) and IGMP (used to manage IP Multicast data) are layered on top of IP but perform internetworking functions. . segmentation. This process is called routing..[8] In the Internet Protocol Suite. unless another protocol layer is responsible for safe delivery. the Transport Layer is the first layer of the TCP/IP stack to offer reliability. along with error control. This illustrates the differences in the architecture of the TCP/IP stack of the Internet and the OSI model. [edit] Transport Layer The Transport Layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transfer capabilities independent of the underlying network.a transport protocol or even an application scope protocol that serves as a tunnel in the Link Layer of the protocol stack. respectively. Packet routing: This is the basic task of getting packets of data (datagrams) from source to destination by sending them to the next network node (router) closer to the final destination. flow control. Since IP provides only a best effort delivery. The Transport Layer provides this service of connecting applications through the use of service ports. IP can run over a reliable data link protocol such as the HighLevel Data Link Control (HDLC). e. Internetworking requires sending data from the source network to the destination network. implemented in User Datagram Protocol (UDP).g. congestion control. a vehicle with the responsibility to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach their destination safely and soundly. the TCP/IP model does not dictate a strict hierarchical encapsulation sequence.

connection-oriented transport mechanism. Other applications.) [edit] Application Layer The Application Layer refers to the higher-level protocols used by most applications for network communication. "unreliable" protocol. Like IP. or for simple query/response applications like DNS lookups. It is Message-stream-oriented — not byte-stream-oriented like TCP — and provides multiple streams multiplexed over a single connection. but the Network File System (NFS) assumes that the subordinate Remote Procedure Call protocol. video. It was developed initially for telephony applications (to transport SS7 over IP). such that if one fails. UDP is typically used for applications such as streaming media (audio. The appropriate transport protocol is chosen based on the higher-layer protocol application. can tolerate some loss of packets. (See List of TCP and UDP port numbers. By convention certain well known ports are associated with specific applications.For example. the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol that addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream: • • • • • data arrives in-order data has minimal error (i. in which a connection end can be represented by multiple IP addresses (representing multiple physical interfaces). Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a datagram protocol that is designed for real-time data such as streaming audio and video. User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless datagram protocol. For example. Voice over IP etc) where on-time arrival is more important than reliability. Examples of application layer protocols include the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)[9]. will guarantee reliable transfer. such as VoIP. but not the reordering or delay that could be caused by retransmission. it is a best effort.e. The applications at any given network address are distinguished by their TCP or UDP port. It also provides multi-homing support. where the overhead of setting up a reliable connection is disproportionately large. the connection is not interrupted. Reliability is addressed through error detection using a weak checksum algorithm. . not transport. correctness) duplicate data is discarded lost/discarded packets are resent includes traffic congestion control The newer Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is also a reliable. Data coded according to application layer protocols are then encapsulated into one or (occasionally) more transport layer protocols (such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP)). TCP and UDP are used to carry an assortment of higher-level applications. the File Transfer Protocol expects a reliable connection. but can also be used for other applications. which in turn use lower layer protocols to effect actual data transfer.

It's also sometimes necessary for Network Address Translation (NAT) facilities to take account of the needs of particular application layer protocols. typically using an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chipset for each network interface or other physical standard. such as X. Transport and lower level layers are largely unconcerned with the specifics of application layer protocols. rather they just provide a conduit for it. Clients. supported by driver software in the operational system. (NAT allows hosts on private networks to communicate with the outside world via a single visible IP address using port forwarding. [edit] OSI and TCP/IP layering differences The three top layers in the OSI model—the Application Layer. Application layer protocols are most often associated with client– server applications. This is usually done through libraries. tend to use ephemeral ports. the application layer must include any protocols that act like the OSI's presentation and session layer protocols. However. and the commoner servers have specific ports assigned to them by the IANA: HTTP has port 80. also combined them. on the other hand. in turn. while the layers below are services provided by the TCP/IP stack in the operating system. [edit] Hardware and software implementation Normally. Telnet has port 23. While some pure OSI protocol applications. some firewall and bandwidth throttling applications do try to determine what's inside.e. hardware or software implementation is not stated in the protocols or the layered reference model. and is an almost ubiquitous feature of modern domestic broadband routers). Application Layer protocols generally treat the transport layer (and lower) protocols as "black boxes" which provide a stable network connection across which to communicate. etc. layers are not necessarily clearly defined in the Internet protocol suite. as with the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). Non-programmable analog and digital electronics are normally in charge of the physical components in the Link Layer. i. port numbers assigned at random from a range set aside for the purpose. High-performance routers are to a large extent based on fast non-programmable digital electronics. which. the Network File System (NFS) application protocol runs over the eXternal Data Representation (XDR) presentation protocol. application programmers are concerned only with interfaces in the Application Layer and often also in the Transport Layer. However. Microcontroller firmware in the network adapter typically handles link issues. Routers and switches do not typically "look inside" the encapsulated traffic to see what kind of application protocol it represents.400.Since the IP stack defines no layers between the application and transport layers. there is no requirement that a TCP/IP protocol stack needs to impose monolithic architecture above the Transport Layer. although the applications are usually aware of key qualities of the transport layer connection such as the end point IP addresses and port numbers. As noted above. For example. carrying out link level switching. the Presentation Layer and the Session Layer—are not distinguished separately in the TCP/IP model where it is just the Application Layer. .

or the ISO 8648 Internal Organization of the Network Layer (IONL). are more frequent when one only looks at the original OSI model. as demonstrated by tunneling protocols such as Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE). some of its protocols may not appear to fit cleanly into the OSI model. the ICMP and IGMP are neatly defined as layer management protocols for the network layer. While basic OSI documents do not consider tunneling. which is part of text based protocols such as the HTTP and SMTP TCP/IP model Application Layer protocols. there is some concept of tunneling in yet another extension to the OSI architecture. so it can run safely over the best-effort User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transport. RFC 1122. without looking at the annexes to this model (e. The associated OSI development effort.runs over a protocol with Session Layer functionality.g. however. specifically the transport layer gateways within the International Standardized Profile framework [10]. Mike Padlipsky's Kurose[11]. RPC provides reliable record transmission. however. ISO 7498. which is used in application layer protocols such as HTTP and SMTP. ISO 7498/4 Management Framework). In like manner.. [edit] Layer names and number of layers in the literature The following table shows the layer names and the number of layers of networking models presented in RFCs and textbooks in widespread use in today's university computer networking courses. Remote Procedure Call (RPC). Since the IETF protocol development effort is not concerned with strict layering. the IONL provides a structure for "subnetwork dependent convergence facilities" such as ARP and RARP. [13] Comer . IETF protocols can be encapsulated recursively. has been abandoned given the overwhelming adoption of TCP/IP protocols. The Session Layer roughly corresponds to the Telnet virtual terminal functionality[citation needed]. These conflicts. Some functions that would have been performed by an OSI presentation layer are realized at the Internet application layer using the MIME standard. which is considered as part of the transport layer in the TCP/IP model. Internet Cisco 1982 "Arpanet Forouzan Stallings[15] Tanenbaum[16] Kozierok[14] STD 3 Academy[17] Reference Model" [12] (1989) (RFC 871) Four+one Four Five layers Five layers Four layers Four layers Three layers layers layers "Five-layer Internet "TCP/IP 5"TCP/IP model" or layer "TCP/IP "Internet "Internet "Arpanet reference reference "TCP/IP reference model" model" model" model" model" protocol model" suite" . When the IONL and Management Framework documents are considered. It also corresponds to TCP and UDP port numbering.

The argument is that these OSI layers do usually not exist as separate processes and protocols in Internet applications. OSI's Application Layer. Google Talk. XMPP and Microsoft Messenger. or if a hardware layer is assumed below the Link Layer. Pidgin (formerly Gaim). is mapped to OSI Layer 4 (Transport Layer). those are often discussed in terms of physical layer and data link layer. If the person is online. Meebo. and the remaining functionality of the Session Layer are collapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. a more general concept of network functionality. ICQ. Instant messaging software designed for use in business includes IBM Lotus Sametime. Presentation Layer. their name will typically be listed as available for chat. The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP model. . MSN Messenger. Some authors have tried to use other names for the Link Layer. Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding the question whether the Link Layer (and the TCP/IP model) covers Physical Layer issues.[citation needed] Instant Messaging Main article: Instant messaging An instant messaging application or client allows one to communicate with another person over a network in real time. such as network interface layer. Popular. In literature with a bottom-up approach to Internet communication[12][13][15]. in view to avoid confusion with the Data Link Layer of the seven layer OSI model. consumer-oriented clients include AOL Instant Messenger. Skype and Yahoo! Messenger. in which hardware issues are emphasized. The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped into the OSI Model's Network Layer. sometimes also including aspects of OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer) functionality. in relative privacy. Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto the OSI Model.Application Application Application Application Transport Transport Network Data link Physical Internet Host-tohost or transport Internet Transport Internet Host-tonetwork Applicatio Application/Proces Application n s Transport Transport Host-to-host Internet Link Internetwor k Network interface Network interface Data link Network (Network access interface) (Hardware) Physical These textbooks are secondary sources that may contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources such as RFC 3439[18]. One can add friends to a contact or "buddy" list by entering the person's email address or messenger ID. sometimes also described as the host-to-host layer. The mapping often results in a model with five layers where the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer.

Clicking on their name will activate a chat window with space to write to the other person. depending on the expertise of the operators of the bulletin board. Most forums are public. Whether you are in another person's chat room or one you've created yourself. one after the other. Users may join a pre-existing chat room or create a new one about any topic. Current successful services have combined new tools with the older newsgroup and mailing list paradigm to produce hybrids like Yahoo! Groups and Google Groups. as well as read their reply. you may type messages that everyone else in the room can read. it tends to adopt characteristics and tools of other services that compete. Also as a service catches on. In some industry areas. publicly. for example. There are various standards and claimants for the market leaders of each software category. A few are private. as well as respond to messages from others. Forums often grow in popularity until they can boast several thousand members posting replies to tens of thousands of topics continuously. gated communities where new members must pay a small fee to join. Instant messaging facilitates both one-to-one (communication) and many-to-many interaction. [edit] Internet forums Main article: Internet forum Originally modeled after the real-world paradigm of electronic bulletin boards of the world before internet was born. Other users can view the topic and post their own comments in a linear fashion. like the Something Awful Forums. Over time. Other features include the ability to post images or files or to quote another user's post with special formatting in one's own post. the bulletin board has its own commercially successful achievements: free and paid hardcopy magazines as well as professional and amateur sites. internet forums allow users to post a "topic" for others to review. Various add-ons may be available. including translation and spelling correction software. Once inside. [edit] Wikis Main article: Wikis . [edit] Text chat Main article: Text chat Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and other online chat technologies allow users to join chat rooms and communicate with many people at once. wiki user pages have become social portals for individual users and may be used in place of other portal applications. Forums can contain many different categories in a hierarchy according to topics and subtopics. allowing anybody to sign up at any time. Often there is a steady stream of people entering and leaving. you are generally free to invite others online to join you in that room.

Blogs engage readers and can build a virtual community around a particular person or interest. For more detail on free and commercially available wiki systems see Comparison of wiki software. [edit] Social network services Main article: Social network service . The owner will post a message periodically. but is now practical on a global network. creating an inter-blog conversation. SynchroEdit. Etherpad is a very promising platform. they fail to capture the power of blogs as social software. LiveJournal. allowing others to comment. that has been open sourced. MeatballWiki. Beyond being a simple homepage or an online diary.e. links to other blogs which the owner reads or admires) and indicate their social relationship to those other bloggers using the XFN social relationship standard. but other users will only see changes after saving. Topics often include the owner's daily life. Google Docs & Spreadsheets and Zoho allow joint editing. This a more formal version of social interaction. CommunityWiki and Wikisource. views on politics or a particular subject important to them. [edit] Blogs Main article: Blog Blogs. They also have blogrolls (i. Examples include Slashdot. Pingback and trackback allow one blog to notify another blog. ACE and Moonedit are examples of this type of social software. Blogging has also become fashionable in business settings by companies who use software such as IBM Lotus Connections. Blogs mean many things to different people. Examples include Wikipedia.A wiki is a web page whose content can be edited by its visitors. SubEthaEdit. ranging from "online journal" to "easily updated personal website. some blogs allow comments on the entries. although it qualifies as a robust type of social software. BlogSpot. [edit] Collaborative real-time editors Main article: Collaborative real-time editor Simultaneous editing of a text or media file by different participants on a network was first demonstrated on research systems as early as the 1970s. are like online journals for a particular person. thereby creating a discussion forum. short for web logs. [edit] Prediction markets Main article: Prediction market Many prediction market tools have become available (including some free software) that make it easy to predict and bet on future events. Wiktionary." While these definitions are technically correct. the original Portland Pattern Repository wiki.

BuddyPress. They rely upon informed opinion and advice that is given with a clear expectation of outcomes. thus forming a decentralized/distributed online social network. Status. Lacking trustworthy explicit information about such viewpoints. • • Explicit social network search engines allow people to find each other according to explicitly stated social relationships such as XFN social relationships. in contrast to centralized social network services listed in the previous section.ps or rSitez or more flexible. There are two subclasses of social network search engines: those that use explicit social networks and those that use implicit social networks. For example. hobbies or causes.sites. some sites provide meeting organization facilities for people who practice the same sports. grou. among other things. blogs. subject matter. [edit] Social network search engines Social network search engines are a class of search engines that use social networks to organize.by examining. allows people to share their relationships on their own sites. link relationships and grammatical features to infer social networks. They are built for the purpose of establishing sustained relationships between individuals and their government. phpFox. such as a shared political viewpoint. XING and LinkedIn) and social event meetups (Meetup). Implicit social network search engines allow people to filter search results based upon classes of social networks they trust. installable software like Elgg. [edit] Deliberative social networks Deliberative social networks are webs of discussion and debate for decision-making purposes. For example. the NewsTrove search engine infers social networks from content . ideas to make the product . This was called an epistemic filter in the 1993 "State of the Future Report" from the American Committee for the United Nations University which predicted that this would become the dominant means of search for most users.Social network services allow people to come together online around shared interests. Some large wikis have effectively become social network services by encouraging user pages and portals. for example. Other services enable business networking (Ryze. which relies on opinion of product. pods and feeds . this type of social network search engine mines the web to infer the topology of online social networks. [edit] Commercial social networks Commercial social networks are designed to support business transaction and to build a trust between an individual and a brand. Jcow. prioritize or filter search results.net or Concursive's ConcourseConnect. Anyone can create their own social networking service using hosted offerings like Ning. XHTML Friends Network. SocialEngine.

books. shared only inside specific networks. reddit. Delicious. using statistical computation and network theory. Examples of this software are Knowledge Plaza. IBM Dogear. An example of these networks is Dell IdeaStorm. This allows academics researching or interested in similar areas to connect and share resources.[citation needed]. Users can share their collections. restaurants and wifi hotspots. Some sites offer a buddy system.[1] It collects and indexes these tags in a webinfrastructure server residing behind the firewall. [edit] Social cataloging In Social cataloging much like social bookmarking. One such application is wikitravel. records and DVDs. etc. as well as virtual "check outs" of items for borrowing among friends. online database like Academic Search Premier or LexisNexis Academic University. These sites can also be used to meet others sharing common interests. Enterprise bookmarking is a method of tagging and linking any information using an expanded set of tags to capture knowledge about data. [edit] Social guides A social guide recommending places to visit or contains information about places in the real world such as coffee shops. enabling customers to participate with the brands in promoting development. a book found in a library catalog and so on. service delivery and a better customer experience. and Connectbeam.0. Jumper 2. [edit] Social bookmarking Main article: Social bookmarking Main article: Enterprise bookmarking Some web sites allow users to post their list of bookmarks or favorites websites for others to search and view them. Examples include digg. StumbleUpon. . Users can share knowledge tags with specified people or groups. It allows the user to post a citation for an article found on the internet or a website. [edit] Social libraries This applications allows visitors to keep track of their collectibles. Folksonomy or tagging is implemented on most of these sites. typically within an organization. These citations can be organized into predefined categories or a new category defined by the user through the use of tags. Recommendations can be generated based on user ratings. this software is aimed towards academics. [edit] Social viewing Social viewing allows multiple users to aggregate from multiple sources and view online videos together in a synchronized viewing experience.better. and furl.

CCP Games with Eve Online) to monitor their in-game economic systems. This emergence has resulted in expanding social possibility and also in increased incentives to cheat.[edit] Social online storage Social online storage applications allow their users to collaboratively create file archives containing files of any type. Commercial MMOGs (or. Some MMOG companies even have economists employed full-time (for example. GDrive) or leverage idle resources by applying P2P technology (e. interacting with others using chat or voice chat. and be paid in game money to do so. The Sims Online and There. Instead.g. the in-world economy is one of the primary features of the world. more accurately. go on routine missions for them and so on. In the case of Second Life. Files can either be edited online or from a local computer which has access to the storage system. [edit] Economies Very often a real economy emerges in these worlds.g. Such systems are social because they allow public file distribution and direct file sharing with friends. [edit] Other specialized social applications . some virtual worlds are more like social networking services like MySpace and Facebook. competition and winners and losers to virtual world simulation. massively multiplayer online role-playing games or MMORPGs. ActiveWorlds. Experts can design dresses or hairstyles for characters. winners and losers. [edit] Non-game worlds Another development are the worlds that are less game-like or not games at all.) include Everquest and World of Warcraft. [edit] Virtual worlds Main article: Virtual world Virtual Worlds are services where it is possible to meet and interact with other people in a virtual environment reminiscent of the real world. Such systems can be built upon existing server infrastructure (e. [edit] Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) Main article: Massively Multiplayer Online Games MMOGs are virtual worlds (also known as virtual environments) that add various sorts of point systems. Examples include Second Life. Thus the term virtual reality. Wuala). Typically. Games have points. extending the non-physical service economy within the world to service providers in the real world. levels. but with 3D simulation features. the user manipulates an avatar through the world.

text chat). face and body language. By contrast. virtual presence or telepresence means being present via intermediate technologies. In other words.There are many other applications with social software characteristics that facilitate human connection and collaboration in specific contexts. [edit] Social software vendor lists Various analyst firms have attempted to list and categorize the major social software vendors in the marketplace. telephone. . video chat) or nearsynchronous (IM. Some examples are imeem. such as voice. peer-to-peer social networks generally allow users to share blogs.[2] Independent analyst firm CMS Watch has categorized what it calls "the 30 most significant" Social Software vendors. [edit] Virtual presence Widely viewed. collaboration bias. The organization of texts and providing access to archived contributions differs from the facilitation of interpersonal interactions between contributors enough to warrant the distinction in media. but with more of a work-based. Collanos. SpinXpress. speech or writing. a communication tool may want to make access and searching of text both simple and powerful. Groove. Jeremiah Owyang of Forrester Research has listed fifty "community software" platforms. it can denote apparent physical appearance. Project management and e-learning applications are among these. performance and presence as possible. files (especially photographs) and instant messages. In addition. [citation needed] [edit] Emerging technologies Emerging technological capabilities to more widely distribute hosting and support much higher bandwidth in real time are bypassing central content arbiters in some cases.[3] [edit] Comparison of communication and interactive tools Communication tools are generally asynchronous. which it evaluates head-to-head. Also. An interactive tool may want to present as much of a user's expression. Bouillon. whereas interaction involves the interest users establish in one another as individuals. WiredReach and Kerika have similar functionality. instant messaging technologies and peer-to-peer connectivity and file sharing. television or the internet. Communication involve the content of talk.[citation needed] [edit] Peer-to-peer social networks A hybrid of web-based social networks. net phone. usually radio. interactive tools are generally synchronous. allowing users to communicate in real time (phone. Wirehog and Soulseek.

reputations are earned by winning the trust of other members and the community’s missions and governance are defined by the members themselves[8]. email and instant messaging). The ownership and control of these links . Given small differences in policies. However. these links are functional. but I might not link to you[9]. determine which groups can view. most users of this term restrict its meaning to more recent software genres such as blogs and wikis."[6] In this view. rather than any particular list of tools. there are many older media such as mailing lists and Usenet fora that qualify as "social". For instance.[7]. Through these persistent links.is in the hands of the user.More narrowly. for example. edit or view the history. By design.who is linked and who isn't . Communities formed by "bottom-up" processes are often contrasted to the less vibrant collectivities formed by "top-down" software. Broadly conceived. Wikipedia user pages are a very good example and often contain extremely detailed information about the person who constructed them. a permanent community can be formed out of a formerly epistemic community.you can choose not to receive any content from people you are not connected to. All social software systems create links between users. not decorative . including everything from their mother tongue to their moral purchasing preferences. as persistent as the identity those users choose. Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware has a fine-grained permission system of detailed access control so the site administrator can. to keep most pages editable by most users and puts more information about users currently editing in its recent changes pages. in which users' roles are determined by an external authority and circumscribed by rigidly conceived software mechanisms (such as access rights). but rather to the use of two or more modes of computer-mediated communication that result in "community formation. Membership is voluntary. Virtual presence is a social software in the sense that people meet on the web by chance or intentionally. social software reflects the traits of social networks and is designed very consciously to let social network analysis work with a very compatible database. Research[4] has demonstrated effects[5] of online indicators [edit] Debates or design choices Social software may be better understood as a set of debates or design choices. on a page-by-page basis.g. Some groups schedule real life meetings and so become "real" communities of people that share physical lives. By contrast. mediawiki avoids per-user controls. the same type of software can produce radically different social outcomes. Most definers of social software agree that they seem to facilitate "bottom-up" community development. Others suggest that the term social software is best used not to refer to a single type of software. one-tomany (Web pages and blogs) and many-to-many (wikis) communication modes. The result is that Tiki can be used both by community groups who embrace the social paradigm of mediawiki and by groups who prefer to have more content control. the term virtual presence denotes presence on World Wide Web locations which are identified by URLs. people form online communities by combining one-to-one (e. these links are asymmetrical . The ubiquitous (in the web space) communication transfers behavior patterns from the real world and virtual worlds to the web. Thus. People who are browsing a web site are considered to be virtually present at web locations.you might link to me. Also. The system is classless and promotes those with abilities. .

An N+1 entity requests services from the N entity. A Service Data Unit (SDU) is a specific unit of data that has been passed down from an OSI layer to a lower layer. That is. Methods and tools for the development of social software are sometimes summarized under the term Social Software Engineering.[10]. transforming it into a PDU of layer N-1. an instance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below. performed by the lower layer. the process of changing a SDU to a PDU. consists of an encapsulation process. or both. It is a way of subdividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. The added headers or footers are part of the process used to make it possible to get data from a source to a destination. The layer N-1 adds headers or footers. On each layer. The PDU at any given layer. In effect the SDU is the 'payload' of a given PDU. and is transmitted semantically unchanged to a peer service user. An SDU is a set of data that is sent by a user of the services of a given layer. a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it. and which the lower layer has not yet encapsulated into a protocol data unit (PDU).200. Description of OSI layers According to recommendation X. while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path.In late 2008. to the SDU. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. layer N. independent analyst firm CMS Watch argued that a scenario-based (use-case) approach to examining social software would provide a useful way to evaluate tools and align business and technology needs. two entities (N-entity peers) interact by means of the N protocol by transmitting protocol data units (PDU). layer N-1. At each level. there are seven layers. The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. All the data contained in the SDU becomes encapsulated within the PDU. is the SDU of the layer below. Conceptually two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal protocol connection on that layer. each generically known as an N layer. For example. However. this term is also used to describe lightweight and community-oriented development practices[11]. OSI Model Data Layer Function . Most network protocols used in the market today are based on TCP/IP stacks.

as defined by ITU-T X. signal and binary transmission Some orthogonal aspects. involve every layer. Actually the availability of communication service is determined by network design and/or network management protocols. Data Link Physical addressing 1. such as a copper or optical cable. [edit] Layer 1: Physical Layer The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. Network Path determination and logical addressing 2. such as management and security. contrast it with the functions of the Data Link Layer. host bus adapters (HBA used in storage area networks) and more. To understand the function of the Physical Layer.unit 7. Appropriate choices for these are needed to protect against denial of service. network adapters. This includes the layout of pins. Transport End-to-end connections and reliability.flow control Packet Media Frame layers Bit 3. Standards such as RS-232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium. In particular. Network process to application Application Host layers Data 6. at least two) with a shared medium. voltages.[3] These services are aimed to improve the CIA triad (i.confidentiality. Think of the Physical Layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single device with a medium.800 Recommendation. encryption and decryption. Physical Media. Security services are not related to a specific layer: they can be related by a number of layers. cable specifications. Session Interhost communication Segments 4. hubs.. it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium. integrity.e. availability) of transmitted data. Data representation.e. The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: • Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. . convert machine dependent Presentation data to machine independent data 5. whereas the Data Link Layer is concerned more with the interactions of multiple devices (i. repeaters.

is present in data link protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). In modern practice. Both WAN and LAN service arrange bits. only error detection. For example.hn standard. The same applies to other local-area networks.hn and IEEE 802. although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a Transport Layer protocol that runs over this bus. but is still used in niches where X. that is the case for SDLC and HDLC. as some of these bits are purely intended for Physical Layer functions. phone lines and coaxial cables). was developed independently of the ISO work in IEEE Project 802. such as token ring. The ITU-T G. which included broadcast-capable multiaccess media. into logical sequences called frames. IEEE work assumed sublayering and management functions not required for WAN use. detect and may correct errors. includes a complete Data Link Layer which provides both error correction and flow control by means of a selective repeat Sliding Window Protocol. [edit] Layer 2: Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer.2 LLC layer is not used for most protocols on the Ethernet. not flow control using sliding window. from the Physical Layer. FDDI. which provides high-speed local area networking over existing wires (power lines. Not all Physical Layer bits necessarily go into frames. and on other local area networks. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link. on local area networks. and derivatives of HDLC such as LAPB and LAPD. For example. as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802. A WAN Data Link Layer might implement a sliding window flow control and acknowledgment mechanism to provide reliable delivery of frames.15. ITU-T G. this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media. and. [edit] WAN Protocol architecture Connection-oriented WAN data link protocols.• • Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. They are also capable of controlling the rate of transmission. in addition to framing. Various Physical Layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer. contention resolution and flow control.4. characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. Modulation. the IEEE 802.25 offers performance advantages. or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. Originally. its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used.11. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the Transport Layer by protocols such as TCP. Local area network architecture. every fifth bit of the FDDI bit stream is not used by the Layer. Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the Data Link Layer. Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer. .

3. ISO 7498/4.3 is the dominant wired LAN protocol and IEEE 802. and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly. Subnetwork Dependent Convergence . which deals with addressing and multiplexing on multiaccess media. belong to the Network Layer. Subnetwork Independent Convergence . and from egress router to destination end system.when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side. while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network). The addressing scheme is not hierarchical. The MAC sublayer detects but does not correct errors. such as X. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. and Network Layer address assignment. IPv4 and IPv6 would have to be classed with X. or IPv7 ISO 8473. These include routing protocols.that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks. A number of layer management protocols. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer. [edit] Layer 3: Network Layer The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network. but only for the detection of erroneous packets so they may be discarded. Network Layer information and error.3. It is the function of the payload that makes these belong to the Network Layer. connectionless LANs began with the pre-IEEE Ethernet specification. router to router.[edit] IEEE 802 LAN architecture Practical. The Network Layer performs network routing functions. [edit] Layer 4: Transport Layer . 2. a function defined in the Management Annex. and report delivery errors.25 as subnet access protocols because they carry interface addresses rather than node addresses. multicast group management. which is the ancestor of IEEE 802. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop.which handles transfer across multiple networks. not the protocol that carries them. Careful analysis of the Network Layer indicated that the Network Layer could have at least three sublayers: 1.25.11 the wireless LAN protocol. from end system to ingress router. While IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer. obsolescent MAC layers include Token Ring and FDDI. The best example of this latter case is CLNP. Above this MAC sublayer is the media-independent IEEE 802. In this scheme. Subnetwork Access . which is the function of a Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer. It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time. This layer manages the interaction of devices with a shared medium.

although TCP contains functions. that a post office manages the outer envelope of mail. which OSI assigns to the Session Layer. Do remember. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packet. Roughly speaking. While Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) might seem to be a Network Layer protocol. tunneling protocols operate at the Transport Layer. Class 0 contains no error recovery. Also. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control. Class 4 is closest to TCP. which deals with the dispatch and classification of mail and parcels sent. such as cryptographic presentation services that can be read by the addressee only. both of which TCP is incapable. if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint. all OSI TP connection-mode protocol classes provide expedited data and preservation of record boundaries. there are five classes of connection-mode transport protocols ranging from class 0 (which is also known as TP0 and provides the least features) to class 4 (TP4. Higher layers may have the equivalent of double envelopes. and error control. such as carrying non-IP protocols such as IBM's SNA or Novell's IPX over an IP network. Detailed characteristics of TP0-4 classes are shown in the following table:[4] Feature Name Connection oriented network Connectionless network Concatenation and separation Segmentation and reassembly Error Recovery Reinitiate connection (if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged) Multiplexing and demultiplexing over a single virtual circuit Explicit flow control Retransmission on timeout Reliable Transport Service TP0 TP1 TP2 TP3 TP4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Perhaps an easy way to visualize the Transport Layer is to compare it with a Post Office. Some protocols are state and connection oriented. such as the graceful close. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. and was designed for use on network layers that provide error-free connections. Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the Transport Layer. typical examples of Layer 4 are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). This means that the Transport Layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. segmentation/desegmentation. however.The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users. [edit] Layer 5: Session Layer . or end-to-end encryption with IPsec. Of the actual OSI protocols. designed for less reliable networks. The Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. GRE becomes closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to deliver to an endpoint. similar to the Internet).

1). [edit] Layer 7: Application Layer The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user. the application layer must decide whether sufficient network or the requested communication exist. and restart procedures. or simplex operation. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners. which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. encryption) by translating between application and network formats. It establishes. When identifying communication partners. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. and synchronizing communication. and also for session checkpointing and recovery. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions. If a mapping is available. In synchronizing communication.. which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol. in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. or serialization of objects and other data structures from and to XML. When determining resource availability. [edit] Layer 6: Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities. with capabilities such as converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCIIcoded file. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls.g.[citation needed] The original presentation structure used the basic encoding rules of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. The presentation layer transforms data into the form that the application accepts. manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units. adjournment. Some examples of application layer implementations include: • • On OSI stack: o FTAM File Transfer and Access Management Protocol o X. half-duplex. and establishes checkpointing. and passed down the stack. This layer provides independence from data representation (e. . determining resource availability. It provides for full-duplex. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer.400 Mail o Common management information protocol (CMIP) On TCP/IP stack: o Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. o File Transfer Protocol (FTP). termination.

Its endto-end Transport Layer includes the graceful close function of the OSI Session Layer as well as the OSI Transport Layer. TCP/IP does recognize four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols. NDIS and ODI are interfaces between the media (Layer 2) and the network protocol (Layer 3). monitor.e functions that permit to configure. while the Link Layer includes the OSI Data Link and Physical . protocols are deliberately not as rigidly designed into strict layers as the OSI model. are interfaces between applications (Layer 5 and above) and the transport (Layer 4). the internetworking range. but they can affect more than one layer. instantiate.o o Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) [edit] Cross Layer Functions There are some functions or services that are not tied to a given layer. The internetworking layer (Internet Layer) is a subset of the OSI Network Layer (see above).800 Recommendation. Presentation Layer. Comparison with TCP/IP In the TCP/IP model of the Internet. but the software interfaces inside computers are implementation-specific. and lastly the scope of the direct links to other nodes on the local network. i. management functions. these layers are nevertheless often compared with the OSI layering scheme in the following way: The Internet Application Layer includes the OSI Application Layer. except for the Physical Layer to media. For example Microsoft Windows' Winsock. Interface standards." However. and Unix's Berkeley sockets and System V Transport Layer Interface. other than as deliberately abstract service specifications. Examples are • • security service (telecommunication)[5] as defined by ITU-T X. they need to interact with every layer in order to deal with their instances. [edit] Interfaces Neither the OSI Reference Model nor OSI protocols specify any programming interfaces. Protocol specifications precisely define the interfaces between different computers. terminate the communications of two or more entities: there is a specific application layer protocol Common management information protocol (CMIP) and its corresponding service common management information service (CMIS). and most of the Session Layer. the end-to-end transport connection. namely the scope of the software application. Even though the concept is different from the OSI model. are approximate implementations of OSI Service Specifications.[10] RFC 3439 contains a section entitled "Layering considered harmful.

k. The presumably strict peer layering of the OSI model as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP. a formal agreement between nation states (cf: treaty). OSPF).. Protocol may also refer to: [edit] Procedures for human behavior • • • • • • Protocol (diplomacy) Protocol (politics). These comparisons are based on the original seven-layer protocol model as defined in ISO 7498. or in the description of tunneling protocols.g. Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e. although the tunnel host protocol may well be a Transport or even an Application Layer protocol in its own right.k. a. Protocol.a.Layers. a. guideline (medical) Research methods: o Protocol (natural sciences) o Clinical trial protocol Voice procedure a protocol for voice communications . which provide a Link Layer for an application. as well as parts of OSI's Network Layer. as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. rather than refinements in such things as the internal organization of the Network Layer document. A protocol is a set of guidelines or rules. etiquette Clinical protocol.a.

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