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Mortality Rates

Crude Death Rate = (total deaths, all causes/ ave. population) x K

Cause Specific Death Rate = (total deaths, particular cause/ ave. population) x K

Age Specific Death Rate = (total deaths, all causes, particular age group/ ave. population) x K

Sex Specific Death Ratio = (total deaths, all causes, particular sex group/ ave. population) x K

Proportionate Mortality Rate (PMR)

PMR, cause = (total deaths, particular cause/ total deaths, all causes) x K

PMR, age group = (total deaths, all causes, particular age group/ total deaths, all causes) x K

Swaroop’s Index = (total deaths, all causes among 50 year old and above/ total deaths, all causes) x K

Infant Mortality Rate (common) = (no. of deaths less than 1 year old/ total no. of livebirths) x K

Infant Mortality Rate (absolute) = (no. of deaths less than 1 year old among infants followed up/ total infants followed up) x K

Neonatal Mortality Rates = (no. of deaths below 28 days old/ total no. of livebirths) x K

Post- Neonatal Mortality Rate = (no. of deaths from 28 days old to less than 1 yr. old/ total no. of livebirths) x K

Fetal Death Ratio (Still Birth Rate) = (fetal deaths 28 weeks & over gestation/ total no. of livebirths) x K

Maternal Mortality Rate = (deaths among women directly due to pregnancy, labor & puerperium/ total no. of livebirths) x K

Case Fatality Rate = (no. of deaths from a particular disease/ no. of cases of the same disease) x K

Fertility Rates

Crude Birth Rate = (no. of livebirths in a year/ ave. population) x K

General Fertility Rate = (no. of livebirths in a year/ no. of women 15-44 yrs. old) x K

Morbidity Measures

Prevalence Rates

Point Prevalence = (existing cases of a disease at a point in time/ total population at that point in time) x K

Period Prevalence = (existing cases of a disease during a period/ ave. population during the period) x K

* Period Prevalence = Point Prevalence + New Cases (incidence) and Recurrences during the succeeding time period

Incidence Rates

Cumulative Incidence = (no. of cases who develop the disease during a period/ no. of individuals free of the disease at the beginning
of the period) x K

Attack Rate = (no. of developing cases during specific time period/ no. of persons exposed to the risk of illness during the same
period) x K

Incidence Density = (no. of new cases developing during the interval/ total person time of observations) x K

*Person time = sum of individual observation periods for each subject in the population
*Person time = ave. population size x length of follow- up

Age Composition

Median Age of the Population = age below which 50% of the population fall and above which the other 50% fall

Dependency Ratio = [ {pop’n (0-14) + pop’n (65+)} / pop’n (15-64) ] x 100

Sex Composition

mll. 08/12/10. :D
Sex Ratio = (no. males/ no. of females) x 100

Sex Structure = sex ratio for each age group

Population Density = total pop’n size/ total land area

Change in Population Size

Natural Increase = no. of births- no. of deaths (during specified period)

Rate of Natural Increase = CBR- CDR (of an area during specified period)

Relative Increase in Population Size (RI) = [(Pt – Po) / Po] x 100

Absolute increase in Population per year (b) = [(Pt – Po) / t]

Component Method = survived population + no. of births + net migration


*net migration = emigrants – immigrants

Arithmetic Method - Pt = Po + td

Geometric Method – Pt = Po rt

Exponential Method – Pt = Po e kt

mll. 08/12/10. :D