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C o n t e n t s Poetry
Victoria Walters p.7
Richard Ferron p.22

The Nation: Myth or Reality?
Keith Cameron p.6
Crash Cultures
Jane Arthurs and Iain Grant p.10
The |Death of Rock?
Sean Albiez p.24

Rite of Passage
Anthony Nanson p.8

Bangers & Smash
Sarah Chapman p.18
Streetstyle in |Devon p.28

te © 2003 Intellect Ltd. No part of this
publication may be reproduced,
copied or transmitted in any form or
by any means without permission of
the publisher. Intellect accept no
responsibility for views expressed by
contributors to iQ; or for unsolicited

rly manuscripts, photographs or illus-
trations; or for errors in articles or

Volume 1 Number 2, November 2003
ISSN 1478-7350
Printed at Emtone - 01225 330894
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Dear Reader

It has been a tremendous oppertunity to publish this issue of iQ! New to magazine publishing,
Kate and I have liased with contributors, arts centres and lecturers to make this possible.
Issue 1 of iQ was published in February 2003 by Intellect from their base in the Bristol and
Bath area of the South West. Following the suggestion of its editor we decided to produce,
as part of our Publishing course, an edition from our base in Exeter and Plymouth. As we are
based at the University of Plymouth, we wanted to reflect our university’s enthusiasm for
experimental design, and so recruited the expertise of Visual Arts students. A big thank you to
Mike Endacott for his support. He has listened attentively to our suggestions and turned them
into this new exciting magazine!

We hope iQ’s fiction, poetry, debate and scene will inspire you to engage in the arts, both
theoretically and visually. Using cutting edge photography and digital techniques, we have
tried to present information in an original way. We hope you enjoy this first Devon edition,
and if you have any comments on how to advance iQ please do get in touch.

Many thanks
Emma Catherall

Guest Editors
Emma Catherall, PgDip/MA Publishing
Kate Macefield, PgDip/MA Publishing

Guest Art Director
Mike Endacott, Visual Arts

Pete Langdon, Visual Arts
Sarah Chapman, Lecturer for Visual Arts

All are at the University of Plymouth

Editor and Publisher
Masoud Yazdani
Intellect Ltd
PO Box 862
Bristol BS99 1DE
Tel: 0117 958 9910
Fax: 0117 958 9911

Design Support Gabriel Solomons
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The Nation: By Keith Cameron

Myth or Reality?
In a Europe, which over uber alles’. Yet what constitutes a nation? Is it an eth-
the last decade has seen nic division? Is it a political one? a geographical one?
the demise of totalitarian a linguistic one? a combination of all these?
regimes and subsequent-
ly splintered up into new The term is certainly loaded with political force. In
states, the concept of times of threat, when a group of individuals feels in
nationhood and what it danger from another, then it would seem that the spir-
really signifies has it of the nation is revived and fomented as a unifying
become one of burning factor of defence. Since time immemorial, ancestors
relevance. Britons, have been invoked as an encouragement to the living.
Bosnians, Ukrainians and Where no knowledge of ancestors has existed then
Russians have at least leaders or would-be leaders have not hesitated to
one thing in common, invent them. During the Renaissance in Europe fami-
their wish to keep their lies employed men of letters to invent a genealogy for
distinct identity and to them and their followers, a legacy from the Emperor
distance themselves from Augustus who found a worthy singer of Rome’s past in
those of another nation. Virgil.
The British, while wishing
for closer ties between There is a strong correlation between political
the member states of the demands made by minority groups and their economic
European Community, and political standing within the greater community.
are still anxious not to Linguistic autonomy or rather movements which have
lose their sovereignty. as their avowed aim the maintenance of a minority
language are often associated with political ambitions
The word nation is which once they are achieved or palliated can lead to
bandied about consider- minority languages being left to fend for themselves
ably; we talk of the and, ironically, to perish. In the former Soviet Union,
French nation, the Stalin realised the unifying factor of a single language
Spanish nation, etc. In and tried to impose Russian upon the whole country to
many continental coun- the detriment of local languages. This led to the right
tries the concept of the to speak one’s own language becoming one of the pro-
‘patrie’ is part of their claimed aims of the emergent independent states. It
cultural heritage. will be interesting to see how they fare in the future.
President de Gaulle when Should we be like Dr Johnson and feel ‘sorry when any
addressing the nation language is lost, because languages are the pedigree
would virtually always of nations’?
allude, in the course of
his allocution, to Is the ‘nation’ therefore myth or reality? Are our own
‘Francaises, Francais’, British characteristics a result of our society or part of
thereby reminding his lis- a pattern which has been imposed on us? The bound-
teners of their national aries of a nation, can they be justified? Or are they the
affiliation. How many result of political activity, which subsequently tries to
countries have allusions provide a raison d’être for their existence? We all
to common national ori- believe that it exists, but is it just a socially accepted
gins in their national paradox?
anthems? e.g. ‘Land of
my fathers’, ‘Enfants de To read more about this topic go to:
la patrie’, ‘Deutschland

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Template Poem
By Victoria Walters
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ripteasosfage By Anthony Nanson

The last dance of child-
hood, the sun going whiskered one's madness and away she and her little
down, the drumbeat driv- one go, over the ridge and never return; no longer will
ing it down, and you boys they chant to the moon or swing their hips in the
who would be men dance dance, they are lost and no longer belong. You must do
to the beat, your six what is done: the dance of boys, and then the cutting,
heartbeats, your twelve and then the dance of men, down the valley's length,
feet stamping on the stamp with your spear and kill the wild beasts.
earth, the whole valley
spinning, its black edge Dance till the whole world is spinning, up and
spiked with thorn tree sil- down and round and round, till there is stillness at its
houettes upon the fading centre, your heart, your soul, your manhood to be, spin-
red. And in the east the ning so fast you know not where you are, you are one
purple night rises, the ter- with the valley, and rough hands are guiding you away
ror the night brings of from the women, the girls, and little boys; gone now
becoming a man in blood your last childhood day. Come to the forest you who
and pain, red pain like would be men, six hearts pumping in fear, twelve feet
fire, throbbing in your treading the broken leaves, as frogs scream like
loins. You stamp and crazed demons in the night and stars flash through the
leap, animal skins flap- tangled trees; but then the frogs go silent and there is
ping round you, as the only the rushing of the stream from the mountain, and
fires' heat strikes your the trees dark, the sky dark, the water flowing dark,
dangling organs and the men's masked faces dark. They are more than men
brightens the beads now, they are lords of destiny and bear the secret of
strung by slim-fingered new life. Sixteen long rains past, women gave you
girls, now dancing in the birth; now is the men's turn.
darkness, chanting,
taunting your courage to Rip off your animal hides, your beads, let your
be men. flesh feel the night air, your cold baptism in the moun-
tain-born stream, then kneel dripping upon the earth
There is no other and, as the wind slices through the trees, wait for the
way, no choice; no place knife to slice away your child flesh, a sacrifice to the
for you in the otherland of wild beasts you will hunt. Let the knife cut, let the
the soul stealer, the blood spurt on the earth; but do not scream, do not
whiskered one who rides flinch, for you who would be a man must not act like
when the sun is high, who a child – unless you would be a child always, never to
speaks strange tales in nourish a woman with your seed as now you must
nasal tones, and his nourish the earth with your blood.
woman and his daughter
with their stiff white Here comes the knife, it cuts, it cuts, you hear
clothes, so tightly the sharp intake of breath, the barely inheld scream.
wrapped you wonder how Three times the knife cuts. Three men and three boys.
they breathe, and medi- Then the fourth. You feel your whole being in this
cine that sometimes drooping flesh. Is there no other way? The fifth, you
saves an infant's life – hear his almost gasp, you see his blood streaming,
saved at the cost of its your head is spinning, the dark spiky forest of the earth
soul should the mother is spinning and insect shrieking, you want to dance but
succumb to the you are on your knees, waiting for the knife, the pain —
Suddenly you stand and men like gods are

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S houting,
grab a branch,
and dive running into
thorn bushes, arms
back, slept the whole day, have you woken in some land of
the dead where the sun rises where it should set?
You push yourself upright and your heart floods
earthward with the memory of what is lost and can-
not be redeemed. Shiver in the ridge-grazing wind,
hardness of rock, soft-
ness of flesh, the
crawling dance, push-
thrashing ahead for the ing forward, ever for-
avenues of deepest then freeze; a figure plods up the grassy slope, run- ward, squeeze upward
black. You must not flee, ning her fingers through the flowerheads, her face and on, breath shorter
not now, at this moment pink and tear streaked: the soul stealer's daughter, and harder like your
of moments, but you are she looks up with glinting alien eyes the colour of the hearts' pulse, thrust-
fleeing, you encompass sky. An instant of comprehension: the sun is rising ing, pushing, rhythm
the world with your after all and this valley before you is the soul steal- rocking to the beat,
bounding feet, your flesh er's land, see the pink sunglint on his metal roofs. please trust me, have
presses through the for- Two valleys back to back, like worlds reflected in no fear, just stretch
est mesh, thorns score water. and pull and twist up
your skin, but your legs and in and through,
are pumping, dancing, The girl is alone, no other soul in sight but like pain tense and tin-
uphill you run – till you two circling larks, and she keeps walking towards gling, let the tears
have left behind the may- you, nervous like you, greets you in a nasal tone, and come for what is gone,
hem of shouting and you she is trying to smile, but so sad, tears trembling in let go now, let go and
can slow down, alone her eyes. She tries to talk with you, looks at your be free, see the light
now, find a more careful wounds, but she has no medicine, she cannot steal ahead glowing,
way through the thorns, your soul, offers only a thin white cloth to clean your through this moment
but flinching in fear from cuts, all the time talking and you can hardly under- for ever . . .
every squeak and grunt stand what she is saying, only that she is fleeing like
and patter, for there are you are fleeing, she is running from the whiskered Face the daz-
wild beasts here and no one who will not let her spirit breathe. Her eyes like zling daylight, stumble
men to fight them. the sky seem to see your soul and to see beyond the out blinking, clutching
two valleys to a third, other world. the other, to the green
You climb the grass of morning, the
valley wall, but there is Come this way, let me show you. Along the sun high, and gaze at
nowhere to go beyond the ridge to the mountain's spur, to crags and caves the slopes descending,
world's thorn-crested where wild cats lair. This one, she says, I've never the streams converg-
rim; you are too drained gone inside, but sometimes I've felt a breath of air ing into sinuous loops
of strength to keep walk- blowing through. It is true, a breeze comes from the across a great plain,
ing and at last you flop cave's maw, its odour organic but not the stench of and beyond the plain,
down in long grass, a soft decay. its scattered hills and
bed for sleep or death, woods and vales,
too tired to care any She pauses at the threshold, so it is you beyond an immeasura-
more whether wild beasts who must step ahead into the darkness, then hold ble distance a deep
come, for there can be no out your hand to lead her between the dank rocky infinite blue that
belonging now, no being, walls; but she cannot follow with her long skirt drag- merges with the sky.
only dying. ging in the mud and trammelling her legs, she can- You lie down in the
not climb or crawl or dance, so unwrap the binding grass, no dancing now,
Sunrays on your fabric, let her body breathe like yours, let her reach and stare in terrified
bare skin wake you, the with her arms, thrust her legs, clamber over boulders wonder.
sun rising on the wrong and squeeze through gaps; together through the
side of the world. Is it darkness, the slimy wetness on skin, and ease a way
sunset already, have you through, with hands clasping, whispered encourage-
ment, heartbeats thumping inside the mountain,
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Iain Grant: There are two ways of
dealing with a crash.

One, the cars are obliterated, the road
is resurfaced, stratums to be discov-
ered by future archaeologists. This is
what happened in May 1997 on a
section of the M42 in dense fog when
the biggest road traffic accident in UK
held on 25
This is the transcript of a debate
history took place. One-hundred-and-
d, Bristol
November 2002 at the Watershe
sixty cars were involved in this pile up,
es edited by they burst into flames, and the heat
inspired by the book Crash Cultur was so intense the cars melted into the
Jane Arthurs and Iain Grant. tarmac. By six o’clock the next morning
the road had been cleared and the road

Two, it’s emphasised, it’s made
obvious, it becomes a race to acquire a
death. It becomes a race to die in
some spectacular fashion. Three days
after Diana’s death in 1997 Daihatsu
began an advertising campaign in the
UK. It pictured their car, their latest
model. Underneath it had this slogan,
‘there are three steps to heaven’,
which took me by surprise, but maybe
they had grasped, getting into a car
and hurtling down the motorway was
the risk of death. Perhaps this is what
driving is all about, perhaps getting into
a car was never innocent, perhaps

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For an audio recording of this debate go to:
racing down the motorway knowing Iain: The Crash is a fertilizing event for
that could happen around the next all kinds of reasons, there’s the obvious
bend, maybe that’s part of it. Maybe in connection between death and
other words, the heaven that Daihatsu sexuality which is played out in it.
said there were three steps to was not There’s the idea of truly bizarre trans-
the heaven you enter by way of death, species copulation which sends me into
but by hurtling at uncontrollable speeds a frenzy and turns my legs to jelly,
down a concrete ribbon to a more or quite apart from that it is something
less certain death. Maybe the heaven that has a certain life span, it’s a
was here on earth. collision, it’s chance.

You’ll notice that neither of these ways Ben Highmore: Ballard chooses to
belong to the way in which our culture couch his Crash in an archaic religious
pays attention to crashes at all. It’s language. And I was wondering, what
bizarre. In an industrial civilisation, in a does a culture, a secular culture, look
technological civilisation, the only for that is out of control with its
address we have to the phenomenon of surroundings having to rely on belief
a crash, which happens every day on that has no religious form to it? The
every section of road on every highway culture we have, look to the television
on every surface of the globe, the only and the ‘dumbest car chase ever part
way we have of paying attention to this three’, it’s kind of a staple diet.
is through the scandal of the accident Something like the dumbest car crash
investigation. You know what happens ever, is normally couched in road safety
when there’s a crash. rhetoric, but nobody watches it for that,
do they? We watch it because we
You get a flurry of people. It’s like a know we are living on the edge of a
magnet. Everyone races towards the fragile world held together by belief.
crash scene, grieving relatives,
emergency services, insurance people Iain: It’s fascinatingly put, but the
working for the corporate people who whole idea of an anthropology of a
must be responsible somewhere down culture, that there’s nothing but belief.
the line. Everyone rushes to the crash. Our belief really has nothing to do with
Once they get there their sole voiced it. In a sense the increase in powerful-
concern is let’s learn all the lessons we ness of the technologies around us is
can, let’s find out why this happens and quite simply the recognition that this is
lets make sure it never happens again. truly a secular age, that the belief
And there’s a bizarreness in this. Of systems by which we sought to justify
course this is every day that we recog- our hold on the world have shattered
nise, this must never happen again. and left nothing in their place. In their
What, however, is behind it is the idea stead, however, comes a power wholly
that an accident, the crash, is not an invested in the machines themselves,
accident at all. It happened for a rea- which is physical. There is for the first
son! time, if you like since extremely
primitive times, a world which is
Jane Arthurs: What would happen if controlled by fates, by necessary laws,
you started from an event rather than by unalterable things, where our beliefs
from a set of theories of how we deal don’t matter. The only thing that makes
with crashes? What about the crash as a difference is that now we are more
an event as witnessed in Crash films powerless than the primitives were,
by Cronenberg and Ballard? because we no longer believe in magic.
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not only a collision between the culture
David Roden: I want to move to models of abject passivity on the one hand and
of agency, the relation of the subject impossibility of the concept of agency
with the technology. I suppose the through the grounding of freedom. So
major ethical question is, if in a sense instead of looking to explain the crash,
technology enlists us in some kind of in terms of these things, we go for the
desire in action, which we can’t articu- passive view that you have suggested.
late, are our actions are built into the
relationship? Karin Littau: One thing one could do is
to look at different moments when
Iain: One reason that crashes are the technologies are invented and see what
significant things that they are, i.e. one kinds of effects they have had, rather
of the reasons why people bother to than seeing those technologies as a
resurface roads so quickly, is that they great human achievement but seeing
do take place in a conjunction of two how they changed the ways in which
powerful symbols of modernity. Ballard we see, the ways in which we think, in
goes on about the car, but the car is which we write. If you look at the
more than symbolic of modernity; car is effect of print technology on the indi-
symbolic of freedom, car is symbolic of vidualisation of us and how this is in
reasoning determining our actions. turn linked with Lutheranism and equal-
ly then with the internet, the effects of
The car makes us the cause of our own those technologies, how they changed
effects as it were. A vehicle like any the way we are, the way we feel, how
technology makes it possible for in effect they change our bodies.
humans to have massive effects on the
world. Place is no longer subject to Michelle Henning: I’m not connecting
whim or accident, but absolutely this in any clear way but the relation-
subject to determination and direction, ship about gender in that sense, in
and therefore grounds agency. When a terms of sensory responses to the film
crash occurs, it’s a collision between a image or to the experience of crashing
sense of agency, between the possibili- has been left out. Also what about the
ty of an idea of freedom and a kind of Ballard film? When he talked about
animism attaching to objects. Did I those car designs, they were predomi-
crash because I wasn’t fully in control nantly designed by men, and based on
or did I crash because this car took on certain images of both male and
a life of its own? I suppose my position female bodies. But the whole thing of
on this is fundamentally opposed to the camera tracking the car and the
that conception of agency. eroticisation of the car, what you could
read from that was actually a lot about
Our essential passivity in the face of himself...
events has vanished from discourse
surrounding our politics and our ethics, A member of audience: What I’ve
precisely because it’s an embarrass- heard today is this idea of technology
ment to their very possibility. How can interacting with us, as a society. We
we found a politics based on passivity? seem somehow to be at its mercy. I
Since when is doing nothing an accept- completely disagree with this. I just
able response to anything? The very turn it off! I’m in control of it, it is not
criteria of legal responsibility presup- in control of me!
pose the efficacy of our individual
responsibility. So in part the crash is Iain: I have never heard of a clearer

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statement of that position. There are over into something, which is a kind of
several things that I think are so keenly collective madness? It’s very easy in
important about what you suggest. Yes one’s individual life to believe that you
we can turn things off but the scope of can turn it off, but in our collective life
our arms is restricted, i.e. the whole it’s not so easy.
thing can’t be turned off unless, as it
were, we blow up the lot, in which case Iain: Is it broaching madness to
do we fulfil our own will or the suggest that we really have no control
catastrophic will of the machine? It whatsoever, the car crashed me so on
does become circular at a point. Either and so forth, whether the extension of
we blind ourselves to what’s going on that concept constitutes mass psychosis,
immediately beyond arms reach or we or is it simply a question of realism?
allow the technology to take us places And I think these two questions are
that technophobes tell us it inevitably connected in the following way:
will or where it’s inevitably going as a
matter of physics. One reason why belief is effective is
because there is no doubt when there’s
Tom Gunnig: This brings up a number of belief, so that for example, the explana-
things, that are key. One is that there’s tions that anthropologists give of
not just one technological environment primitive religions in so far as they are
but that it’s multiple and that one of animistic, in so far as they are magical,
the ways that I think we deal with one is not the belief as Freud said in the
technology is by mediating it through omnipotence of thought, it’s the belief
another. It struck me that one of the that thought is a component of the
most interesting things in the Ballard world around us, thought is a naturalis-
film is that he looks at the car and he tic event to be naturalistically
goes ‘and so we realise that we eter- explained. And this is fascinating in so
nally think the future has fins’. There’s far as it both mirrors and is distinct
this realm of historical change and from our own view of the accident.
actual fashion change where always
the future is what wasn’t last week, it The primitive explanation of the
is always going to be reacting against accident is that it is no accident at all
itself. I think you’re absolutely right, we but a highly bizarre and improbable
can never turn the system off, but the collision of two necessary tracks of
idea that it’s a totalising system, which objects. How else could a crash have
interacts and changes within itself, is occurred unless something had caused
something that is really important to these two entities to come together in
keep in mind. this very space at that very moment, to
think otherwise is to think the absolute-
Michael: My friend who’s a psychoana- ly improbable. So the primitive view of
lyst said that if he had somebody who the crash is that ‘something’ caused
came to him for therapy and thought this buffalo, in this place, running at
that they were really having a conversa- that speed, towards this man, moving
tion with a computer, he’d say he at that speed, at this time. What ‘that
couldn’t help him. He would need something’ is we don’t know.
somebody who knows about madness!
So in the analogy with cars, ‘did I In so far as ‘that something’ is an ele-
crash that car or did it crash me’, at ment of the natural world, in so far as
what point actually does our unarticu- it is necessary and deterministic, then
lated relationship to technology pass you know the only way that you can
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affect it is by encouraging or discouraging it. When it works it’s THE
called magic, when it fails it’s also called magic! What persists BOOK
in both instances is belief.

In so far as we occupy a secular world we tend to think that
politics is the very contrary of theology, what is theological can
have no effects on politics, as it belongs to theories of another
world and other classes of entity. It’s absolutely not true to any
political theologian. The conjunction of politics and belief, the
conjunction of politics and religion provides a way of tackling
the world which is infinitely more imaginative but not at all
imaginary. This is the contrary side of belief. This is belief that
overrides reason. This is belief that says the world is reshape- Crash Cultures:
able and what’s more we’re going to do it. There is no hesitation Modernity Mediation
there. This is a question of belief we are not prepared to and the Material
tolerate. So in so far as we live in a culture that is not prepared Edited by Jane Arthurs
and Iain Grant
to tolerate that conjunction of irrationality coupled with politics
Paperback: £14.95
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Jean: There are plenty of forms of belief that can coexist with
doubt, so I don’t think you are at all right. I’m worried about
technology with a capital T, I simply don’t know what it means.
What is or what is not a Technology and they’re so different,
and sometimes contradictory in their implications, and the idea
that there’s some kind of grinding logic that we are just
irresistibly carried along this tide by it, is one that doesn’t seem
to make any sense to me. How do we talk about car crashes
and build good wells in villages in Africa and say the same thing
about all of them? I think you have to be really careful here.

But it’s also agency. I decide not to drink and drive but if we
just completely give up on the idea of any kind of intermediate
level of agency which is neither not drinking and driving, nor
some global active resistance which supposes that you can just
switch it off, then I think one thing that goes completely out of
the window is politics. I think unless we find some space which
raises all the philosophical differences about agency, I think we
are just in danger of losing any possibility of any rationale for
any politics, call it political theology if you like, but we need
something in there and for me that was one of the things that
cultural studies used to think it was about. I wouldn’t want it to

Iain: Just a question in response, it’s rhetorical but is addressed
to everyone. Do we think if we really stop believing in agency it
will disappear if it’s a real thing?

Jane: Anybody want to take up the challenge?

IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:25 pm Page 17

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of all the necessary rules of second part looks to the future the first truly international position in the world which
design, and uses these rules to and the effects of the anthology of its kind. It records may lead ultimately to (as
cast a critical eye over a computer on icons and symbol a very new kind of poetry, in some have put it) ‘The End of
selection of contemporary systems. The role of the which language is catapulted Man’. The Posthuman
high-street magazines. designers is discussed, beyond the confines of the Condition argues that such
stressing the need for them to printed page and into issues are difficult to tackle
Contents include: collaborate with practitioners cyberspace. given the concepts of human
• Stepping up to the and consider multi-cultural existence that we have
Interface aspects, in an ever-changing Contents include: inherited from humanism,
• Underlying Principles situation. • Introduction many of which can no longer
• Setting up the Page • Digital Poetry be sustained.
• Manipulating the Page Contents include: • Multimedia Poetics
• Understanding Type • Culture and Policy • Historical and Critical
• Potential Problems • Place Identity • Perspectives
• Case Studies •l Cultural Practices
IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:25 pm Page 19

PO Box 862, Bristol BS99 1DE, UK
Fax: 0117 958 9911

Cultural Studies Education Education


Architectures Learning for Innovation ICT for Curriculum
of Illusion: in the Global Knowledge Enhancement
From Motion Pictures to Economy: A European Edited by Moira Monteith
Navigable Interactive and Southeast Asian £19.95 | Paper, 210 pp
Environments Perspective (6th Edition) 1-84150-061-5
Edited by Maureen Thomas By Dimitrios Konstadakopulos This book considers the

Expiry Date:
and François Penz £14.95 | Paper, 150 pp cognitive nature of courses
£19.95 | Cloth, 250 pp 1-84150-085-2 connected with ICT or using Payment enclosed (Cheques payable to intellect Ltd.)
1-84150-045-3 This book is a major step ICT as an integral part of the
The Cambridge University forward in understanding the course, including some views
Moving Image Studio’s learning behaviour of on the associated learning
(CUMIS) concern with clustered technology- and teaching styles. Which
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ensuring that traditional intensive small and medium- factors lead to learning
excellence informs the sized enterprises (SMEs). outcomes and are these
development of new Drawing upon qualitative and intended or fortuitous?
modalities of research and quantitative research methods Factors may include ones
expression in the field of and sampling techniques, it specific to particular subject
digital media is focused on identifies how learning for areas and their relationship
three main areas – research, innovation is stimulated or with ICT, motivation
education and production. inhibited. An informative, associated with ICT usage, the
This book, incorporates all challenging and interest which
these aspects, and is suitable comprehensive empirical teachers, pupils and students
for educationalists, study and analysis, this book who enjoy using ICT bring to
practitioners, students and will be useful to scholars and the learning context.
general readers, in creative students of regional

media and architectural study development, European and Contents include:
and practice. Asian relations, development • Remodelling Education
economics, and management • ICT Capability and Initial
studies. Teacher Training
IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:25 pm Page 20

Bangers &
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In the middle of a rural landscape stock-
car enthusiasts have carved out a tarmac
heaven where old write-offs are given a
colourful new lease of life. These petroleum
fuelled occasions are full of fraternity and
robust competition in equal measure.
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Sarah Chapman, photographer and artist, teaches part
time on the Visual Arts programme at the University of
Plymouth. The work illustrated here is drawn from a
recent photographic documentary which explores the
culture of stockcar racing and aims to capture the fre-
netic atmosphere and sheer visual impact of this vivid
and entertaining sport. Recent exhibitions include
‘Essential Maintainance’ at the Exeter Phoenix gallery
(April 28th - May 24th) and a summer 2003 show at
the Blink gallery in Soho, London.

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The Death of Rock?
Sean Albiez
Is rock dead?
Not according to the
tered with revolutionary rhetoric around key historical
moments. Whenever rock (and roll) seemed to be limp-
NME. In November 2002 ing to an early and deserved grave, upstart musicians
the paper included a free forged a new sound that reinvigorated rock music.
CD, ‘The New Rock
Revolution’, which herald- When revolutionary Elvis joined up and turned out to be
ed a new dawn for ‘rock’. an all-American-God-fearing-boy after all (the first
NME editor Conor ‘death of rock’!), a bunch of scouse lads took black
McNicholas wrote ‘Once rhythm and blues and the cool of Gene Vincent to
in a generation some- Hamburg, and returned with a sound that was to shake
thing so revolutionary up the USA and inspired the 60s British invasion. This
happens in music that ‘Britishification’ of US culture by a mutant Anglo-
afterwards nothing is American music seemed revolutionary in itself, but the
ever the same again. greatest rock revolution is said (by rock journalists and
Right now, that’s exactly academics then and since) to be when the Anglo-
what’s happening’. American axis transformed rock and roll into ‘Rock’.

Is it? Anybody noticed? This transformation occurred when the cultural weight
The bands featured on placed on the shoulders of showbiz rock and roll
the compilation included became too great and required an intellectual anti-
some half-decent US and mainstream ordination. By the late 1960s, rock music,
UK bands (The Von through The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan et al was
Bondies, Radio 4, Black said to have caused a ‘revolution in the head’. That is,
Rebel Motorcycle Club, youth culture had the false consciousness of con-
The Coral, The Music) as sumer society, parent culture and mainstream politics
well as New Zealanders lifted from it - by opening the doors of perception a
The Datsuns. The music new society could not only be imagined, but also built.
was neither new (being Rock, it has been argued, was central to this revelato-
variously ‘sourced’ from ry cultural moment, but others suggest that it merely
PiL, The Jesus and Mary soundtracked social transitions and changes that were
Chain, NY post-punk ‘no- happening anyway. Whatever, Psychedelia and protest
wave’ and ‘mutant disco’) music became associated with revolutionary counter-
nor revolutionary. Despite culture. With the increasing amplification of rock, the
the NMEs attempts to sell growth of festivals, increasing numbers of music mag-
this idea (literally, azines and papers, and the introduction of rock radio,
through t-shirts) the rock became increasingly audible and visible through-
‘rock’ public remained out the 1960s. It did so on the back of frenzied com-
unmoved. Everything was mercial exploitation that did not sit easily with rock
still the same, the mar- artists (who had greatly benefited from it!). The anti-
keting hype failed, and music industry and anti-mainstream rhetoric of rock
NME sales fell inexorably (borrowed from the 1960s political folk movement) has
while Kerrang!’s rose. been a feature of rock ever since, but one that each
generation feels it has discovered for itself.
But what constitutes a
‘rock revolution’? The his- Pop and rock music has also been viewed by cultural
tory of rock music since critics as a mere product of a mind-numbing corporate
the 1950s has been lit- music industry. Despite some suggesting 1960s rock

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much later Kurt
marked a revolution of Cobain) who produced
perception, others argued awkward and incendi-
On the other hand Yes, Genesis, Emerson Lake & ary music that was as
the music industry had Palmer and other rock bands of the 1970s felt that
figured out how to sell far removed from Yes
rock should be about conceptualism, complexity and as can be imagined,
revolution to consumers have an art aesthetic - it should aspire to be a new
who had grown out of the and yet is still called
revolutionary ‘classical’ music that replaced the old. ‘prog’.
rock and roll of their Progressive rock therefore had competing and con-
youth, and who were hun- tradictory drives - both to ‘smash the system’ of old
gry for more weighty Arguably punk didn’t
cultural values while employing the tools and atti- aim to destroy ‘prog’
music that they could call tudes of elitist culture (such as the symphony
their own. So the revolu- as such, but wanted to
orchestra). Progressive rock intended to have a revo- destroy the compla-
tion of 60s rock was also lutionary project, and some bands more than others
marked by a revolution in cency of the ‘Old Grey
(Van Der Graaf Generator, King Crimson) did make Whistle Test’ school of
the music industry. The 7” music that assaulted the audience and mainstream
single was no longer the rock (Nils Lofgren,
culture. However, it was felt by rock critic Lester Peter Frampton) and
primary format - album Bangs that progressive rock betrayed everything that
orientated rock became the pomposity of sta-
rock was supposed to be about. In the film ‘Almost dium rock - with Led
the vehicle for music that Famous’, ‘Bangs’ suggests that the early 1970s
maybe took itself far too Zeppelin (non-Prog) as
marked the death of rock. guilty as ELP (uber-
John Rockwell in the Rolling Stone Illustrated
Early rock and roll had a History of Rock and Roll elaborates on this suggest-
certain ‘authenticity by Punk reinvigorated
ing ‘There is a morphology to artistic movements. rock music by simpli-
association’ for the rock They begin with a rude and innocent vigour, pass into
audience - it had a her- fying it and speaking
a healthy adulthood and finally decline into an over- to the audience in a
itage in black rhythm and wrought, feeble old age. Something of this process
blues and country, and prosaic and direct
can be observed in the passage of Rock & Roll from way. The poetic
this heritage was reaf- the 3-chord primitivism of the 50s through the bur-
firmed in the late 1960s romanticism of prog
geoning vitality and experimentation of the 60s to was implicitly
when The Band, Neil the hollow emptiness of much of the so called pro-
Young, The Beatles, The ridiculed by punk, and
gressive or ‘art’ rock of the 70s’. However, progres- the music bore little
Byrds and others turned sive rock itself contained the seeds of the next rev-
away from Psychedelia to relation to symphonic
olution that for some resulted in the undisputed rock. However, it was
a simpler blues and coun- death of rock music, and for others marked its
try based rock. In some far from a working-
rebirth. class rebellion against
respects, ‘gutter pure’
rock was felt to have the middle-class occu-
Punk Rock, it has been suggested, looked at the pation of rock by prog-
been sullied by the LSD walking corpse of rock music as represented in pro-
fuelled manic drive gers. The Sex Pistols
gressive rock, and decided to emphasise the may have been work-
towards innovation and Dionysian rather than cerebral pleasures of rock.
the celebration of individ- ing class Londoners,
And yet, some areas of progressive rock contained but the organising
ual genius. Rock was such desires. Van Der Graaf Generator’s Peter
supposed to be about ‘the forces behind punk
Hammill released the solo album ‘Nadir’s Big and its spread were
street’ - or at least about Chance’ in 1975. It was a call to arms that not only
music created from middle-class Art
questioned the excesses of progressive rock, but school and higher edu-
‘three chords and the also did so with a proto-punk noise that seems now
truth’. cated entrepreneurs
astoundingly prescient. King Crimson, through (whether Malcolm
Robert Fripp, influenced many artists (including McLaren, Vivienne
IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:27 pm Page 28

Westwood or, outside the capital Tony Wilson and the
Buzzcocks). Their predecessors were equally a mixed as well as ska, reggae,
bunch of college kids slumming in the rock dives of Motown, northern soul
New York - whether Patti Smith, Television or the and funk, had been cen-
Talking Heads. And Johnny Rotten/Lydon was a prog tral to club and dance
rock (Peter Hammill), dub reggae and Neil Young fan culture that was all but
whose musical tastes were not dictated by his working ignored by rock critics
class background. (unless, that is, a rock
artist (Bowie and Young
Punk, through the Pistols, momentarily shocked some Americans) showed an
of the UK public in 1977, and later the USA - but by interest in these forms).
1978 punk had been fully co-opted by the music indus- From the 1950s onwards
try with novelty punk hits such as Jilted John’s ‘Gordon pop and dance music had
is a Moron’ (a precursor of Linkin Park) outselling punk been sidelined as inau-
bands who were ‘keeping it real’. And sadly for those thentic music industry
who believe that punk changed the world, it has to be ephemera, and yet was
noted that despite Morat’s claims in the 2000 Kerrang the experience of the
Punk special that ‘way back when dinosaurs (Emerson, majority of the record
Lake and Palmer, Genesis et al) ruled the earth, it was buying public. Rock, by
the Pistols who drove them to extinction’, the only placing itself at the pin-
thing dead in 1978 was punk. nacle of popular music,
had reduced large
Far from the whole world going punk in 1976-77, punk swathes of music culture
was a minority taste. Punk could not commercially to footnotes in the histo-
compete with Pink Floyd, Genesis or Yes, pop/rock ries of rock.
artists ELO, Abba and David Soul, and disco in the late
70s and early 80s - The Pistols were extinct well When NY Electro, Detroit
before Pink Floyd. The progressive dinosaurs remained, Techno and Chicago
on the whole, undefeated and arguably reinvigorated House hit the clubs and
by punk. Yes, Genesis and Phil Collins (regrettably or streets of Britain in the
otherwise) in one way or another found their greatest 1980s, British youth was
commercial success in the 1980s. Therefore, the long- continuing its long term
term impact of punk in Britain is arguably over-ampli- obsession with music
fied and ironically, in the post-punk era, Johnny from these contexts (New
Rotten/Lydon and his new band PiL pursued a dis- York Disco, Chicago elec-
tinctly ‘progressive’ path in an attempt to bury punk. tric blues, Detroit
So in what sense was punk a revolution? Like the Motown and soul) - this
1960s counter-culture, maybe punk propagated for was not a ‘dance revolu-
some a new ‘revolution in the head’ which only played tion’. What was revolu-
itself out in the 1980s through the growth of indie and tionary was that there
alternative rock - and many bands inspired by punk were magazines such as
(The Smiths, New Order and the Cocteau Twins) did not The Face and ID who
actually play punk rock. were documenting the
fleeting club scenes, and
By the 1980s, any claim that rock was the primary bringing them to a
experience and vehicle for youth cultural expression national audience. In the
became unsustainable. As suggested previously, disco, 1970s, sociological stud-
ies suggested that dance
IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:27 pm Page 29

musics, since the 1960s, had appealed to British work-
ing class youth, whereas rock was the primary experi-
ence of middle-class youth and students. By the 1980s, Kerrang may now be the
this social stratification of tastes was unclear (if it biggest selling weekly maga-
was ever really true). Bands such as New Order enact- zine, guitars may be flying out
ed the shift from guitar based rock into music that of music shops (and DJ decks
could encompass aspects of Hi NRG and Electro. It and groove boxes left lan-
could be argued that Manchester club the Hacienda guishing on the shelves) but
educated its audience into an acceptance that rock this does not necessarily
and dance boundaries were meaningless, resulting in mean this recent revival of
the cross-over music of the Happy Monday’s ‘rock’ is a vital authentic
‘Madchester’. Dance culture, through house, techno, expression of an oppositional
acid and rave became a mass movement by the early culture, as opposed to dance
1990s (that is, mass because of the scale of its organ- or any other culture. It is a
isation - 10,000 people dancing in a field), and it lifestyle choice. Rock may
seemed apparent that youth culture had diversified have kidded itself that it was
into a range of lifestyle choices. Rock no longer could once the voice of a genera-
claim to be the central experience of youth - as tion, but in the present it is
Lawrence Grossberg suggests ‘people no longer the inarticulate voice of a gen-
danced to the music the liked, they liked the music eration without a script. Punk
they danced to’. (at least punk not represented
by Blink 182 and Sum 41) may
In the 1990s rock seemed to gain a new lease of life remain as an oppositional
in the US and UK through Nirvana and ‘grunge’ but it space with its own independ-
became difficult for these artists to come to terms ent network, and there may
with the fact that the challenging music they were well be evidence that in the
making was given the corporate tag ‘alternative rock’, field of electronic music there
and by 1992 was the mainstream rock format of the are ‘dance’ artists creating
US music industry and MTV. The British response to independently minded work
grunge was the guitar orientated Britpop ‘movement’ (Alec Empire) that ask difficult
which was deeply nostalgic, retrogressively nationalis- political questions. But we
tic and a throwback to 1960s British rock. In the USA, first need to work out what it
after the breakthrough success of Korn and the means for rock to be alive
Deftones a new form of hard rock that embraced ele- before we can suggest it is
ments of Hip Hop culture became the primary format dead. Maybe rock was never
of American rock as Nu-Metal. Through carefully honed about politics anyway, but was
marketing and presentation, these bands seemed to always really about the pleas-
represent a new anger, an alternative to mainstream ures of noise, dance and
thought and lifestyles, but in the final analysis are cor- youthful insolence. In this
porate rock for the noughties. Nu-Metal is sanctioned sense, it still fulfils the same
rebellion - in the case of bands such as System of a pleasures enjoyed by the kids
Down, anti-capitalist anger marketed through a capi- who trashed cinemas in the
talist corporation - capitalism will sell anything as long 1950s while watching ‘Rock
as it can be packaged with a free sticker and fold-out Around the Clock’, and isn’t
poster for the teen-angster. quite yet on its way to the
emergency resuscitation unit.

SEAN ALBIEZ is subject leader of BA Popular Culture, University of Plymouth. Forthcoming publications
include: 'Know History: Lydon, Cultural Capital and the Prog/Punk Dialectic' in the journal Popular Music
(Summer 2003); 'The Day the Music Died Laughing: Madonna & Country' in Madonna's Drowned Worlds:
New Approaches to Her Cultural Transformations (UK, Ashgate 2004); 'Sounds of Future Past: from Neu! to
Numan' in Pop Sounds (Germany, Transcript Verlag, Autumn, 2003). Main research interest is the history of
electronic popular music in the UK, US, France & Germany from progressive rock to techno.
IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:27 pm Page 30

in Devon
illustration by Mike.E

Bill, 20
Studying Popular Culture
at the University of Plymouth

Popular Culture
Popular Culture will be useful for those exploring
employment opportunities in the creative and
cultural industries (music, film, arts, television
etc.) by providing a contextual understanding of
the contemporary cultural terrain. It will also
support practical work in other areas by provid-
ing a broad grounding in issues and debates at
the heart of the investigation of contemportary
popular culture.

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Bob, 21
Studying Visual Arts
at the University of Plymouth

Visual Arts
Recent graduates have exhibited photographic
artwork nationally, for example at the ‘Five
Princelet Street Gallery, E1’. Another has recently
become an in-house designer for Tate Modern. The
Visual Arts course has also seen many graduates
become website creators, including a recent grad-
uate who now works for ‘Sony Complete
Entertainment’, while others have progressed to
higher degrees and further research.
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Doris, 20
Studying Art History
at University of Plymouth

Art History
A degree in Art History combines the best
of both worlds. As a subject in the
humanities, it appeals to the employers in
business and industry who value commu-
nication skills, intellectual creativity, self-
reliance and powers of analysis.
Vocationally, it helps prepare students for
work in galleries and museums, auction
houses, arts publishing, heritage and
related arts organisations. Many of our
graduates have found jobs in all of these
fields; some have gone into teaching and
30 others have undertaken higher degrees.
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The University of Plymouth is planning a number of exiting new developments,
including the concentration of it’s academic activities on to the Plymouth
campus in the city centre. This will bring together related disciplines and provide
enhanced facilities to enrich the student experience. Arts & Humanities courses,
currently based at the Exeter & Exmouth campuses, will be moved to the
Plymouth campus in September 2004. The University, however, has a specialist
theatre teaching space in Exmouth, and so Theatre & Performance will not be
moving until 2006, when new facilities will be ready. We will be working very hard
to ensure the transition to Plymouth is smooth: for instance, there will be
orientation visits and assistance with finding suitable accomodation.

The School of Arts and Humanities is a significant provider of humanities and creative arts
courses in the reigon. It offers a wide variety of subjects and a range of different approaches to
undergraduate and postgraduate study and research. Undergraduate courses in the School of Arts
and Humanities are organised in a group of subjects known collectively as the combined arts
scheme. This is uniquely different from many you will find in higher education. It is
I I a modular scheme in which you can negotiate your own pattern of study. We
offer a wide range of choices, and guidance to help you make those choices.


Admissions, University of Plymouth, Faculty of Arts & Education


Tel: 01392 475009 / 475010

Fax: 01392 475012


M O U W eb:
IQ_layout_3 17/9/03 1:24 pm Page 2

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