NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier


next science frontier



NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier

21st FEBRUARY 2011


The field on nanotechnology is still in its infancy but continues to Progress at a much faster rate than any other field. Many methods to synthesize nano particles, disperse them in a carrying fluid to form a composite and exploit its extraordinary properties is the goal and dream of many researchers engaged in this field. It is not possible to cover every nano particulate matter and its role in materials revolution. The approach adopted here was to focus on carbon nanotubes and nano clays and explore their importance and their role in composites. Hence the report presented in this material address processing, rheology, mechanical properties and their interaction with fibre composites.

NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier


I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. K.Manjunathachari, Prof. and Head, Department of Electronics and Communicatin Engineering, Gitam University, Rudraram, for his cooperation and encouragement. I would also like to thank my seminar guide Ms.Sabitha Kumari Francis (Department of English), Asst. Prof. Shyam Sunder Sagar ( Department of ECE) for their invaluable advice and wholehearted cooperation without which this seminar would not have seen the light of day. Gracious gratitude to all the faculty of the department of ECE and friends for their valuable advice and encouragement.

more simply. Nanotechnology proposes the construction of novel molecular devices possessing extraordinary properties. surface-to-orbit spacecraft no larger or more expensive than the family car. Nanotechnology is molecular manufacturing or. The goal of early nanotechnology is to produce the first nano-sized robot Arm capable of manipulating atoms and molecules into a useful product or Copies of itself. These are just a few products expected from Nanotechnology. Imagine a four-person. The trick is to manipulate atoms Individually and place them exactly where needed to produce the desired Structure. This paper deals with the various possible applications of nanotechnology and the process involved. Imagine attaining immortality by drinking a medicine. Nanotechnology will arrive with the development of the first "Universal Assembler" that has the ability to build with single atoms anything one's software defines. building things one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier ABSTRACT Imagine a supercomputer no bigger than a human cell. .


Internet and now the next big thing is Nanotechnology. . It is also defined as the ability by which we can arrange atoms by given each its place and thus forms the structure in nanometer scale. computers. Technically Nanotechnology is defined as an anticipated manufacturing technique by which one can be given thorough and inexpensive control over the structure of matter. The term nano is derived from Greek word dwarf. Nanotechnology puts the power of creation in human hands. The term Nanotechnology was first introduced by Richard Feynman in 1959 and K Eric Drexler popularized it in 1986 in the book ‘Engines of Creation’. Nanotechnology deals with matter at atomic levels. electricity. These structures are known as nanostructures.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier INTRODUCTION The industrial revolution. Here it refers to one billionth of a meter or (10-9). The central thesis of Nanotechnology is that almost all chemically stable structures that can be specified can also built.

Usually nanostructures are built. These fundamental building blocks are created from atoms of 91 naturally occurring elements. but they can then self assemble into larger Nanoscale structures. Nanoscientists are very interested in them because when rolled into tubes they exhibit some amazing properties. It is formed out of sheets of carbon atoms linked together hexagonally like chicken wire. Nanotubes are the first . Nanostructures are new semi molecular building blocks to assemble Nanostructures. These cylinders of graphite are called carbon Nanotubes.When the roll is only one sheet of carbon atoms thick they are called single walled carbon Nanotubes.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier NANOSTRUCTURE Nanostructures must be assembled from some building blocks. These Nanorods are made using clever solution chemistry methods. or even insulators.Two of these Nanostructures are Nanotubes & Nanorods that can be made out of silicon. Nanotubes and Nanowires Graphite is used as a lubricant and in pencils. It is inefficient to start with individual atoms due to the slowness and less strength of materials. starting with larger building blocks or molecules as components. metals. other semiconductors.

Carbon NanoTube Nanotubes show tensile strength greater than 60 times to highgrade steel. They are used in aeroplane design. Nanotubes are not only strong but they are also very light and flexible. and they exhibit physical and chemical properties that are truly breathtaking.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier nanomaterials engineered at the molecular level. Scientists tested Nanotubes and found that they behaved like superconductors. Nanotubes show excellent electrical properties. . Current theory holds that they can act as either superconductors or semiconductors based depending on the exact proportions of the tube and which materials other than carbon are introduced into the tube matrix.

. Silicon Nanotubes are also common though Nanotubes of silicon are called as Nanowires. Nanotube and Nanowire research are hot topics both for science and industry.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Not all Nanotubes are manufactured out of carbon. IBM have already used nanotubes to craft usable transistors with properties exceeding those of their pure silicon cousins and some nanotubes based logic gates have been produced.

NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier TOOLS TO MAKE NANOSTRUCTURES…. There are mainly two approaches for the development of Nanostructures.The scanning probe instruments form the basis of these. Bottom-Up approach deals with building up a Nanostructure by starting from a single atom. Scanning probe instruments cannot only be used to see Nanostructure but also to manipulate them. They are: • • Top-Down Approach Bottom-Up approach Top-down approach is an engineering approach for the construction of Nanoscopic devices. Just as we scratch a soft surface we can modify the structure. Scanning probe instruments Creating structures at Nanoscale required them to be manipulated at Nanoscale. Similarly with the tip of the scanning probe we manipulate the structure by dragging the tip above the surface.For these various instruments were used . The principle is used as dragging finger. Here we take a large structure and divide it into smaller structures iteratively. .

inking the stone and then pushing the inked stone onto the paper. so structures smaller than that are difficult to make directly using it. but it suffers three limitations: • • • It is relatively expensive It is relatively slow. A lithograph is an image that is produced by carving a pattern on the stone. Nanoscale Lithography The word lithography originally referred to making objects from stones. Scanning probe surface assembly is inherently very elegant. electrical interactions and magnetic behaviors.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Scanning probes are used to demonstrate and test some fundamental scientific concepts ranging through structural chemistry. It cannot satisfy mass demand. . This is one of the reasons that continuing Moiré’s law into the nanoscale will require entirely new preparation methods. Nanoscale lithography really can’t use visible light because the wavelength of visible light is at least 400 nanometers.

Dip pen nanolithography is named after the old-fashioned dip pen that was used in schoolrooms in the 19th century.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Dip Pen Nanolithography One way to construct arbitrary structures on surfaces is to write them in exactly the same way that we write ink lines using a fountain pen. In DPN a reservoir of ‘ink’ (atoms or molecules) is stored on the top of the scanning probe tip. which is manipulated across the surface. The principle of DPN is shown in the figure. . To make such lines at the nanoscale it is necessary to have a nanopen. Fortunately AFM tips are ideal nanopens. leaving lines and patterns behind. This fact makes DPN the technique of choice for creating new and complex structures in small volumes the disadvantage of this technique is that it is very slow. Using this technique any complex structure can be realized because AFM tips are relatively easy to manupulate.

E-beam lithography also has applications in current microelectronics manufacturing and is one approach that will be used to keep Moore’s law on track until size-dependent properties truly assert themselves. Figure shows two electrodes that are made using E-beam lithography to align platinum nanowires. this solution can generate other problems. so it can have nasty side effects like blowing the feature we are trying to create right off the surface. Even though we can in principle get around this restriction by using light of smaller wavelengths. Nanosphere Liftoff Lithography . a carbon nanotube. An alternate way of getting around the problem is to use electrons instead of light. The structure lying across the nanoscale electrodes is a single molecule.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier E-Beam Lithography We mentioned that current light based industrial lithography is limited to creating features no smaller than the wavelength used. Smallerwavelength light has higher energy. This E-beam lithography can be used to make structures at the nanoscale.

NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier If marbles are placed together on a board as tightly as possible. Self-Assembly . so are the painted dots. unlike DPN or scanning probe but like nanostamp. Importantly. Now if the marbles are nanoscale marbles. Many nanosphers can be placed on the surface. so that regular arrays of many dots can be prepared. is parallel. The paint would appear as a set of painted dots each shaped like a triangle with concave edges. this liftoff nanolithography. The technique is called nanosphere liftoff lithography. If this array was spray-painted from the top and then the marbles were tipped off the board. they will form a tight group with each marble surrounded by six others.

inorder to minimize the total energy. Self-assembly is not limited to electronics applications. If bonding to an adjacent molecule accomplishes this. the nano builder introduces particular atoms or molecules onto a surface or onto a preconstructed nanostructure. Selfassembled structures can be used for something as mundane as protecting a surface against corrosion or making a surface slippery. they will bond. One of the huge advantages of such assembly is that large structures can be prepared in this way. wet.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier The problems with most of the techniques for assembling nanostructures that we have seen so far is that are too munch like work. They correspond to weaker aspects of Coloumbic interactions and are found in many places throughout nature.The idea behind self-assembly is that molecules will always seek the lowest energy level available to them. It is called self-asseembly. If reorienting their physical positions does the trick. One approach to nanofabrication attempts to do exactly this. or dry. sticky. The molecules then align themselves into particular positions. It is glorious if we could just mix chemicals together and get nanostructures by letting the molecules sort themselves out. In self-assembly. . The forces involved in self-assembly are generally weaker than the bonding forces that hold molecules together. so it is not necessary to tailor individually the specific nanostructures. sometimes forming weak bonds and sometimes forming strong covalent ones. then they will reorient.

Crystal growth is partly art. . and those made of molecules are called molecular crystals. So salt is an ionic crystal and sugar is a molecular crystal. Nanoscale Crystal Growth Crystal growth is another sort of self-assembly. partly science. Silicon boules.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Self-assembly is probably the most important of the nanoscale fabrication techniques because of its generality. Crystals like salt that are made of ions are called ionic crystals. and its low cost. which involves putting a small crystal into the presence of more of its component materials and allowing those components to mimic the pattern of the small crystal or seed. Those made of atoms are called atomic crystals. its ability to produce structures at different length scales. are made or ‘drawn’ in this way. the blocks used for making microchips. Crystals can be grown from solution using seed crystals.

Controlled polymerization.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Polymerization Polymers are very large molecules. Polymerization is a very commonly used scheme for making nanoscale materials and even much larger ones-epoxy adhesives work by making extended polymers upon mixing the two components of the epoxy. made by repetitive formation of the bond from one small molecular unit to the next. in which one manometer at a time is added to the next. . is very important for specific elegant structures. They can be upward of millions atoms in size.

NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier TOOLS FOR MEASURING THE PROPERTIES OF NANOSTUCTURES Scanning Probe Instruments Some of the first tools to help launch the nanoscience revolution were the so-called scanning probe instruments. AFM . As the probe slides. The idea is a simple one: if you rub your finger along a surface. In scanning probe measurements. In these experiments your finger acts like a force measurement structure. each of which corresponds to a different scanning probe measurement. The probe is of nanoscale dimensions. it is easy to distinguish velvet from steel or wood from tar. also called a tip. It is easy to slide across a satin sheet than across warm tar because the warm tar exerts a stronger force dragging back the finger. it can measure several different properties. one of the common types of scanning probe. in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). often only a single atom in size where it scans the target. the probe. slides along a surface in the same way your finger does. For example. This is the idea of the scanning force microscope. The different materials exert different forces on your finger as you drag it along the different surfaces.

STM can be used either to test the local geometry or the local electrical conducting characteristics. magnetic drag. chemical identity. .NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier electronics are used to measure the force exerted on the probe tip as it moves along the surface. the important idea is that a nanoscale tip that slides or scans over the surface is used to investigate nanoscale structure by measuring forces.In all of them. the amount of electric current flowing between a scanning tip and a surface is measured. or other specific properties. In Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Depending on the way the measurement is done. currents. The tip that scans across the surface is magnetic. In Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). They are referred to as scanning probe microscopy’s because all are based on the general idea of the STM. The MFM tip works in a similar way to the reading head on a hard disk drive or audio cassette player. Other types of scanning microscopy’s also exist. It is used to sense the local magnetic structure on the surface.

Electrochemistry Electrochemistry deals with how the chemical processes can be changed by the application of electrical currents. more general t than scanning probes microscopy and it offers many complementary insights. wherein metals are made to form on surfaces because positively charged metal ions absorb . Spectroscopy is of great importance for characterising nanostructure en masse. Spectroscopy is a much older. Visible light cannot be used for the spectroscopy analysis of nanostructures because the wavelength of light is between 400nm and 900nm. or MRI is another type of Spectroscopy that may be familiar from its medical applications.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Spectroscopy Spectroscopy refers to shining light of a specific color on a sample and observing the absorbtion. and how electric currents can be generated from chemical reactions. scattering or other properties under those conditions.So light of lesser wavelength is used for analysis. The opposite process is seen in electroplating. The most common Electrochemistry devices are batteries that produce energy from chemical reactions. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Many sorts of Spectroscopy using different energies of light are used in the analysis of nanostructures. but most types of Spectroscopy do not tell us about structures on the nanoscale of nanometers.

Electron Microscopy has many uses and is broadly used in nanostructure analysis and interpretation. but it can also be used in their analysis. they scatter. This is called Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Electron Microscopy These methods are based on the use of electrons rather than light to examine the structure and behavior of the material. The nature of the surface atoms in an array can be measured directly using Electrochemistry. There are different types of Electron Microscopy. . not forces like those from magnetic or electric fields. By collecting the electrons we can construct an image that describes where the particles were that scattered the electrons did not make it through. Additionally TEM can only measure physical structure. and advanced electrochemical technique scanning are often used both to construct and to investigate nanostructures. TEM images can have resolution sufficient to see individual atoms.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier electrons from the current flowing through the surface to be neutral plated and become neural metals. Electrochemistry is broadly used in the manufacturing of nanostructure. As the electrons encounter nuclei and other electrons. Electrons are accelerated passed through samples. but samples must often be stained before they can be imaged. Still. but they are all based on the same general idea.

Nanotechnology offers convenience to bulk technology.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier APPLICATIONS With the development of Nanotechnology it expects to find applications in various fields. Pervasive computing is an area where a lot of Nanotechnology projects are currently active. This is where Nanotechnology steps in. The various applications of Nanotechnology are: Nano Computers Nanotechnology is focusing on projects. . If we want to design a chip to fit into our fingertip controlling a music system then solution lies with Nanotechnology. which can be implemented in bettering our lives.13 microns it is very difficult to etch the circuits precisely and effectively on the silicon substrate.13 microns. After 0. Present day lithographic technologies are at 0. While making a microprocessor we handle big groups of semiconductor molecules and structure them into the form we need. This form of handling of matter produces severe limitations as to how small these circuits can be made.

which can suit precise mechanical and electrical properties. A nanotube is one such innovation. Each tip writes a bit of 50nm on the polymer. . which will be affected by Nanotechnology. which can change almost all the areas that we are familiar with. other than the small sizes. Electrical and other properties of materials made using nanotubes can be made to fit precise specifications. which stores data. Today’s best storage devices are capable of storing data up to 2Giga bits per square cm where as Nanotechnology increases the memory to 80Giga bits per square cm using a single AFM tip.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Computing giant IBM has come up with a new kind of memory using a technology called ‘Millipede Technology’ which makes use of an array of AFM probes to make marks on a polymer surface for storing data. Material Technology It is another major area. The main advantage of using such technology. One company has already reengineered cotton with an outer structure resistant to wrinkles and stains. Scientists have begun to mix and match the attractive properties of certain chemicals to produce materials and fabrics that are stronger or more resistant. Nanotubes are also innovations of material technology. is the power consumption. The advantage of using nanotubes is that it is possible to control the way these crystals are developed for applications.

Using bucky balls medicines could be delivered to the body orally and then the body eliminates it without any side effects . .NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Medicine With the development of Nanotechnology we can even replace operations. Bucky balls were discovered by Richard Smalley. In capsules a mixture of drugs is delivered into the body. This is much easier and effective than the conventional capsule approach. a major part of which is eliminated by the body. are supplied to patient body. The concept used here is ‘Micro encapsulation’ a Nanotechnology technique. Another exciting property that Nanotechnology presents is the ability to have minute machines traveling inside our body protecting us from the inside. which will help doctors to control precisely the rate at which medicine.The main advantage of using bucky balls are that they are extremely small (1nm long) and non-toxic. which make them perfect as drug delivery mechanisms. One of the major medicinal breaks through in the area of Nanotechnology is the discovery of composite structure of carbon called ‘Bucky balls’ or C60 molecules. The body easily excretes them. These spherical particles are very smooth.It is possible to attach the needed drugs on the bucky balls.

For this to be possible molecular assemblers with better capabilities than the current STM are needed.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier These nanodoctors will be able to find and repair damage at the cellular level. The concept of Nanotechnology powered has a long way to go before it can become a reality. This technology is mainly aimed to treat cancer cells and sometimes even suggest cures. Nanorobots are also similar to Nanodoctors. .

it consumes only 15 watts compared to traditional traffic lights which consume 150 watts and so can be used for traffic lights which are expected to burn for more than a decade continuously. Nano LED This is a novel light source system that uses LED to produce a pulse of 50pico sec to 2nano sec between wavelength of 370nm and 660nm. More over they are compact. Applications of Nano LED Illumination: It is highly efficient than conventional light build. have low power consumption and low heat.Today nanoled emits blue. red. Nanoelectronics will be able to down size transistors producing tera scale integrated chips containing more than a trillion transistors. amber light.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Nanoelectronics Instead of burning features on to a Si chip nanolectronics are built atom by atom through carefully controlled chemical reactions that will eventually allow for faster information processing. . UV.

NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier Replacement of Flash lamps: Flash lamps which are heavier and cost more will be replaced by Nano LED in their applications because of their low cost and portability. It can be used in Nanodevices where Ultra fast clocks are required for faster computation and for running the device at rates greater than 1GHz. . Optical Devices: Nano LED based on silicon is used in telecommunication industry for long and medium range data transmission via glass optical fibres by conducting pulses of laser light. In Computing and electronic devices: Further miniaturization in circuits is done to increase processing power and speed of devices. Nano LED is more flexible than conventional sensors because the chemical substance can alter the surface structure of LED. Sensors: Sensors are highly sensitive systems that can be used to warn of presence of chemicals in air or water.

the crucial convergence of biology.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier FUTURE APPLICATIONS Scientist are just beginning to explore and manipulate the inner workings of an atomic universe using Nanotechnology. The applications of Nanotechnology in future are expected to be in the areas of: • • • • • • • Medicine Environmental Robotics Nano Electronics Material Innovations Pharmaceuticals IT field . chemistry and electronics that is poised to revolutionize science. In future with the invention of Robotic arm Nanotechnology will evolve into reality.

The only difference being that it will come in a silent subdued manner much like how we used and embraced artificial fibres over the years without knowing it & it will make a tremendous impact on our lives. Nanotechnology is nearer than we can think.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier CONCLUSION Many of the concepts that Nanotechnology presents may look impossible now but they may not be so far away. . The Nano storm will catch us quietly.

edu/me372/Spring2001/ Web.NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier REFERENCES  Nanotechnology – The Next Big Idea By Mark Ratner Daniel Ratner    Presentation from www.

NanoTechnology-The Next Science Frontier .

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