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School of Technology

_________________________________________________________________________

Assignment No 2

- Power Flow Analysis Tools

MATLAB - Power Flow Analysis Tools

Assessment No.: 2 of 2

Assessment Weighting:

Estimate of Assessment Duration: At Least 25 hours

Assessed: None

Note: Work must be handed in at the Student Information Centre.

Please note there are changes in the undergraduate regulations, more information can be

found in the module handbook.

Issue No 1 (01/11)

Introduction:

Load flow studies are used to determine the voltage, current and power, (both the active and

reactive components and their associate power factors), at all the node points in a specific power

system.

Load flow studies should indicate the likely behaviour of the system in terms of:

The flow of MW and MVAR in the various branches of the network

The precise bus-bar voltages

Effects of any partial rearrangement of the system inter-connections, or the consequences of

adding further networks

The outcome of any loss of overhead line or underground cable

The results of changes in transformer tap position

The optimum performance of the system with minimum losses

Justification for any recommended system improvements.

The complexity of obtaining a formal solution for load flow in a power system arises because of the

differences in the type of data specified for the various nodes, (bus bars), of the system.

At the SLACK BUS, (see lecture notes for definition), the voltage magnitude and angle will be

designated. At the remaining generator, (supply), nodes the usual information available is the active

power supplied and the voltage magnitude. Note, in this assignment there are no other generator

nodes except at the slack bus bar. This considerably simplifies the actual assignment work. Nodes

with output loading are usually conditioned by their active and reactive power demand. Although

the formulation of sufficient equations is not difficult, the closed form of solution is not practical.

Consequently, a digital solution of load flow problem is required. This will need to follow an iterative

process, initially requiring estimated values be assigned to the unknown bus voltages.

2

The voltage at one of the bus bars is then recalculated from the estimated values at the other

nodes.A corrected value is obtained and this is then used in performing similar calculations to obtain

a corrected voltage at the next bus. Each bus voltage is corrected in turn around the system, the

process then being repeated until sufficient convergence is obtained.

Various methods have been devised for solving this problem. In this assignment the student is

expected to adapt three separate well known iterative methods to solve the actual load flow

distribution in a given power supply network. Each of these iterative techniques will be performed

by writing suitable computer code in the powerful MATLAB program language or using power flow

simulation tools.

Iterative methods to be used are:

(1) The Jacobi Method

(2) The Gauss Seidal Method

(3) The Impedance Matrix Method.

3. Work to be undertaken:

(1) Carry out a series of computer simulations for power flow for the 5-Buse/Node - seven-line

network - Power Network shown in figure 1-A and report it. Further information and

necessary technical parameters are available on table 1 and support material available in

the assignment and UDo.

(2) Analyse the results of each simulations and provide the necessary graphical analysis of the

results

(3) Explain your own thoughts, observation for each simulations and comment on it

3

Figure 1-A: 5-Buse/Node - seven-line network - Power Network

Table 1:

From

To Busbar R (p.u.) X (p.u.) B (p.u.)

Busbar

1 2 0.05 0.11 0.02

1 3 0.05 0.11 0.02

1 5 0.03 0.08 0.02

2 4 0.04 0.09 0.02

2 5 0.04 0.09 0.02

3 4 0.06 0.13 0.03

4 5 0.04 0.09 0.02

4. In completing this assignment the student will have developed skills in:

b) Developing algorithms to describe the methodology for solving the electrical power load flow

problem in power network.

4

5. Assignment resources:

The University of Derby, Faculty of Arts Design and Technology, Electrical Power

Laboratory.

Assignment Support Material

Lecture notes available on the university black board

Reference text books available in the library

5

Assessments

In order to pass the module THIS ASSESSED WORK MUST BE ATTEMPTED AND THE WORK

SUBMITTED VIA THE STUDENT OFFICE. Assessment is based upon the achievement or non-

achievement of learning outcomes and the grade achieved. In evaluating the student’s performance

the assessor compares the product with the set of grade descriptors shown in the Assessment

Grade table in the Assessment Regulations handbook or Rights, Responsibilities and Regulations

handbook. The alpha grade, achievement or non-achievement of learning outcome(s) are reported

on the Student Assessment Record and Receipt Form

Learning outcomes for the assessed work are specified within the module in the Programme

Learning Outcomes, Module Learning Outcomes, Indicative Content, Teaching and Learning

Strategies, Resource and Assessment Methods handbook.

Assessment Criteria:

A+ to B+: Outstanding, of exceptionally high standard to a very good standard. Completion of all

parts of the work with correctly calculated results and extensive analysis as required. Your

conclusions must be comprehensive, correct and thoroughly justified. The work presented must be

of the highest standard, with appropriate diagrams and extensive numerical analysis. During the

actual laboratory period you have demonstrated a leadership in organising and interpreting

instructions, assembling the test circuits and proceeding with the test programme using safe and

efficient practices.

6

Suggested Contents

You may follow the following steps to write your assignment.

1. Executive Summary

I expect that each student is to conduct his own survey about the assignment topics and report his

own findings. The survey is to cover the assignment technology, applications, and needs. You need

also to make yourself familiar with the latest Industrial and Academic publications available related

to you assignment applications. This is to be followed by the structure of your report and main topics

that have been covered. Then explain the findings of your assignments and skills that you have

learned from the work carried out from Analysis, design, development and practical point of view.

2. Assignment Aims and Objectives

You need to specify clearly your assignment main aims and objectives.

3. Algorithm 1 & 2 and 3

Explain the basic principles of each algorithm

4. Flowchart of each Algorithm

You need to provide a flowchart for each Algorithm and CD contains your reporting and

programmes.

5. Computer Programmes and Simulations

Provide your programme using MATLAB and Simulation using Simulink and or Power Flow Tools

6. Results, graphs and Discussions

You need to explain the numerical and the graphical results of your programming. Then write your

own comments.

7. Conclusions

8. References

9. Appendices

10. Risk Assessment

a) You need to read and understand the risk Assessment for Electrical Power Laboratory MS123.

b) You need to read and understand the safety and operation of the machines test rigs available of

the Laboratory

c) You need to include a risk assessment for your assignment. A copy of the form can be obtained

from room MS123.

7

Supporting Materials

In order to provide a common basis for this series of load flow studies a 5-node network has been

configured. This will allow the relative performance of each of the load flow solution methods used

to be compared objectively. The actual network contains only a limited range of system elements

and there is only one source of generated power, which must therefore be connected to the

designated slack busbar and referred to as node (1).

At the slack busbar the voltage is made reference at 1 p.u. The remaining busbars all have connected

loads for which the values of P and Q are specified.

Table 1 gives the series impedance of the interconnecting lines. Each line is associated with

capacitive shunt admittance. This is to be BOTH ignored and included at the various stages of the

analysis. Hence, the effect of the shunt capacitance in relation to the resulting node voltage

distribution of the network will be determined.

The network base quantities are MVA base = 100 MVA and V base = 132 kV.

Table 1:

From Busbar To Busbar R (p.u.) X (p.u.) B (p.u.)

1 2 0.05 0.11 0.02

1 3 0.05 0.11 0.02

1 5 0.03 0.08 0.02

2 3 0.04 0.09 0.02

2 5 0.04 0.09 0.02

8

3 4 0.06 0.13 0.03

4 5 0.04 0.09 0.02

The method of formulation of the network admittance matrix is covered in the ‘Introductory Lecture

Notes to Load Flow Studies’. On this basis the line admittances can be calculated, see Table 2.

Table 2:

Y(1.2) 3.424658 - j 7.534247

Y(1.3) 3.424658 - j 7.534247

Y(1.5) 4.109589 - j 10.958904

Y(2.3) 4.123711 - j 9.278351

Y(2.5) 4.123711 - j 9.278351

Y(3.4) 2.926829 - j 6.341463

Y(4.5) 4.123711 - j 9.278351

The complete system admittance matrix can now be determined. In Table 3a: the effects of shunt line

admittance have not been included.

Table 3a:

Admittance

Matrix

- shunt

capacitance

10.958905 - 3.424658 - 3.424658 - 4.109589

0

- j 26.027398 + j 7.534247 + j 7.534247 + j 10.958904

- 3.424658 11.672080 - 4.123711 - 4.123711

0

+ j 7.534247 - j 26.090949 + j 9.278351 + j 9.278351

- 3.424658 - 4.123711 10.475198 - 2.926829

0

+ j 7.534247 + j 9.278351 - j 23.154061 + j 6.341463

- 2.926829 7.050541 - 4.123711

0 0

+ j 6.341463 - j 15.619814 +j 9.278351

- 4.109589 - 4.123711 - 4.123711 12.357012

0

+ j 10.958904 + j 9.278351 +j 9.278351 - j 29.515606

The effects of the shunt admittance in each line must now be included. The shunt admittance of each

line which connects to a particular node must now be added to the diagonal element of that node.

Since the shunt elements are capacitive, the result of incorporating them into the admittance matrix

will reduce the magnitude of the complex element in the diagonal terms.

9

Table 3b:

Admittance

Matrix

+ shunt

capacitance

10.958905 - 3.424658 - 3.424658 - 4.109589

0

- j 25.997397 + j 7.534247 + j 7.534247 + j 10.958904

- 3.424658 11.672080 - 4.123711 - 4.123711

0

+ j 7.534247 - j 26.060948 + j 9.278351 + j 9.278351

- 3.424658 - 4.123711 10.475198 - 2.926829

0

+ j 7.534247 + j 9.278351 - j 23.119061 + j 6.341463

- 2.926829 7.050541 - 4.123711

0 0

+ j 6.341463 - j 15.594814 +j 9.278351

- 4.109589 - 4.123711 - 4.123711 12.357012

0

+ j 10.958904 + j 9.278351 +j 9.278351 - j 29.485605

10

Method No1 - Jacobi Method:

The Jacobi method is the simplest of the iterative load-flow techniques to program. It is a straightforward

process whereby successive sets of busbar voltages are calculated using the previously obtained values. The

complete range of busbar voltages are calculated before they are then used in the next iteration.

From the introductory load-flow notes it was shown that the basis of the iterative solution is based on the

matrix form of the network’s nodal equation:

n

I k = ∑Ykj Vj ; Where k = 2, 3… n

j =1

S*k

Ik = ; k = 2, 3, …. N (1)

Vk*

Substituting for I k

S*k n S*k n

= Yk kVk + ∑ Yk jVj

Vk*

= ∑

j =1

Yk j Vj or Vk*

j= 1

j≠ k

where k = 2, 3, …. N

1

n

S*k

Vk( i +1) =

Ykk Vk* (i )

− ∑

j =1

Yk j Vj(i )

j ≠k

Calculation:

11

The solution strategy is based on all system admittances and busbar conditions being available and an initial

voltage assigned to each busbar. A flow diagram of the iterative process is indicated below.

The number of nodes n = 5

And since the voltage at node (1) is specified

The actual range of k = 2, 3, 4, 5.

The step by step process is now demonstrated by numerically solving the first set of iterations for the

network illustrated in Fig1.

12

The MATLAB program code for the JACOBI SOLUTION of the network load-flow problem can

now be written.

13

Matlab Program.

% Module 6EJ022

% Assignment No2

% YEAR 2010/11

% STUDENT ...........

% Input (1)

% Insert the Network Admittance Matrix

% (see page 2 of supplied assignment paperwork ignoring shunt capacitive

admittance)

format short

Y(1,1) = 10.958905 - 26.027398i;

Y(1,2) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,3) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,4) = 0.00;

Y(1,5) = -4.109589 + 10.958904;

Y(2,2) = 11.672080 - 26.090949i;

Y(2,3) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(2,4) = 0.00;

Y(2,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,3) = 10.457198 - 23.154061i;

Y(3,4) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(3,5) = 0.00;

Y(4,1) = 0.00;

Y(4,2) = 0.00;

Y(4,3) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(4,4) = 7.050541 - 15.619814i;

Y(4,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,3) = 0.00;

Y(5,4) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,5) = 12.357012 - 29.515606i;

% Input (2)

% Input the given node loadings .....see diagram on page 1 ....

% .... of the supplied assignment paperwork

% A positive (+ sign) is for generated power,

% The negative (- sign) indicates load taken from the network.

% Per unit loading is used with a base loading taken at 100MVA

14

P3 = - 0.25; % p.u. active power loading

P4 = - 0.4; % p.u. active power loading

P5 = - 0.5; % p.u. active power loading

Q3 = - 0.15i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q4 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q5 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

% This voltage is fixed and therefore determines the reference ....

% ... or SLACK BUSBAR must be Node(1)

% JACOBI SOLUTION

% The number of iteration will need to be set

% Set the value of 'l' the chosen number of iterations

% Typically l=40 should be sufficient for this problem.

m = l + 1; % allocates the space used to store each iteration

vector = [1:m]; % assigns a row with the appropriate spaces

row = ones(size(vector));

Vnode1 = row; % each node voltage has the required storage spaces

Vnode2 = row;

Vnode3 = row;

Vnode4 = row;

Vnode5 = row;

for n = 1:m

Vnode2(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode3(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode4(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode5(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

end

S3star = P3 - Q3;

S4star = P4 - Q4;

S5star = P5 - Q5;

% Following the same method as in the worked example

% Page 5 of the assignment notes

for n = 1:l

% SIMILAR TO THE CALCULATION PROCEDURES

% AS DETAILED ON PAGE 9 OF THE ASSIGNMENT NOTES

V3star(n) = conj(Vnode3(n)); % conjugate of V3

V4star(n) = conj(Vnode4(n)); % conjugate of V4

V5star(n) = conj(Vnode5(n)); % conjugate of V5

15

I2(n) = S2star/V2star(n);

I3(n) = S3star/V3star(n);

I4(n) = S4star/V4star(n);

I5(n) = S5star/V5star(n);

Vnode5(n));

Sum3(n) = (Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n)) + (Y(3,2) * Vnode2(n)) + (Y(3,4) *

Vnode4(n));

Sum4(n) = (Y(4,3) * Vnode3(n)) + (Y(4,5) * Vnode5(n));

Sum5(n) = (Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n)) + (Y(5,2) * Vnode2(n)) + (Y(5,4) *

Vnode4(n));

V3(n) = ( I3(n) - Sum3(n) ) / Y(3,3);

V4(n) = ( I4(n) - Sum4(n) ) / Y(4,4);

V5(n) = ( I5(n) - Sum5(n) ) / Y(5,5);

u = 1 + n;

Vnode2(u) = V2(n);

Vnode3(u) = V3(n);

Vnode4(u) = V4(n);

Vnode5(u) = V5(n);

end

disp (':')

disp (':')

disp (':')

disp (':')

disp (' Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

')

disp(':')

d = 0;

for c = 1:l

fprintf(' %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f

%1.4fi\n',...

real(Vnode2(1+d)), imag(Vnode2(1+d)), real(Vnode3(1+d)),...

imag(Vnode3(1+d)), real(Vnode4(1+d)), imag(Vnode4(1+d)),

real(Vnode5(1+d)), imag(Vnode5(1+d)));

d=d+1;

end

The Matlab output program code for the JACOBI SOLUTION of the network load-flow problem.

:

Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022

:

Jacobi Solution of Load Flow Assignment (2) 2010/11

:

Successive Iteration Values

16

:

Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

:

1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i

0.9879 -0.0099i , 0.9909 -0.0059i , 0.9798 -0.0165i , 0.9882 -0.0120i

0.9802 -0.0163i , 0.9803 -0.0144i , 0.9683 -0.0260i , 0.9778 -0.0206i

0.9726 -0.0223i , 0.9740 -0.0195i , 0.9575 -0.0345i , 0.9716 -0.0258i

0.9680 -0.0259i , 0.9679 -0.0243i , 0.9508 -0.0396i , 0.9658 -0.0305i

0.9636 -0.0293i , 0.9641 -0.0272i , 0.9446 -0.0444i , 0.9621 -0.0334i

0.9609 -0.0313i , 0.9606 -0.0298i , 0.9407 -0.0472i , 0.9587 -0.0360i

0.9584 -0.0332i , 0.9584 -0.0314i , 0.9371 -0.0499i , 0.9566 -0.0376i

0.9567 -0.0344i , 0.9563 -0.0329i , 0.9348 -0.0515i , 0.9546 -0.0391i

0.9553 -0.0354i , 0.9550 -0.0338i , 0.9327 -0.0530i , 0.9533 -0.0400i

0.9543 -0.0360i , 0.9539 -0.0346i , 0.9314 -0.0538i , 0.9522 -0.0408i

0.9535 -0.0366i , 0.9531 -0.0351i , 0.9302 -0.0547i , 0.9515 -0.0413i

0.9530 -0.0370i , 0.9524 -0.0355i , 0.9294 -0.0552i , 0.9508 -0.0418i

0.9525 -0.0373i , 0.9520 -0.0358i , 0.9287 -0.0556i , 0.9504 -0.0421i

0.9521 -0.0375i , 0.9516 -0.0361i , 0.9282 -0.0559i , 0.9500 -0.0424i

0.9519 -0.0377i , 0.9513 -0.0362i , 0.9278 -0.0562i , 0.9497 -0.0425i

0.9517 -0.0378i , 0.9511 -0.0364i , 0.9276 -0.0563i , 0.9495 -0.0427i

0.9515 -0.0379i , 0.9509 -0.0365i , 0.9273 -0.0565i , 0.9494 -0.0427i

0.9514 -0.0380i , 0.9508 -0.0366i , 0.9272 -0.0566i , 0.9492 -0.0428i

0.9513 -0.0380i , 0.9507 -0.0366i , 0.9270 -0.0566i , 0.9492 -0.0429i

0.9512 -0.0380i , 0.9506 -0.0366i , 0.9269 -0.0567i , 0.9491 -0.0429i

0.9512 -0.0381i , 0.9506 -0.0367i , 0.9269 -0.0567i , 0.9490 -0.0430i

0.9512 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9268 -0.0568i , 0.9490 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9268 -0.0568i , 0.9490 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

Whereas the Jacobi method calculates new values for all the bus bar voltages before replacing the old values

of voltage with those newly calculated, the Gauss-Seidal method updates the individual bus bar voltage

immediately after it is calculated. This leads to a faster convergence to the final solution.

17

n

I k = ∑Ykj V j where k = 2, 3, …. n

j =1

S*k

Ik = k = 2, 3, …. n

Vk*

1 S*k n

Vk = * (i ) − ∑ Yk j Vj

Ykk Vk j= 1

j≠ k

Since the Gauss-Seidal approach updates each node voltage immediately an improved value is

calculated, the actual solution strategy will need to follow steps indicated below.

S*2

(1) For node (2) I2 = *

V2

n

j =1

2j Vj this summation can be calculated using the estimated values of

j≠ 2

node voltage.

(3) Subtract the solution of the summation from (2) from the value of I 2 obtained from (1) and

dividing the result by Y22 will give a new value for V2 this then allows the node(2) voltage

to be updated.

n

S

V

*

2

2

* and ∑Y

j =1

3j Vj but

j ≠3

with the updated value of V2 obtained from Step (3) then the node(3) voltage can be updated.

(5) Subsequently, repeat the process, using the most recently calculated values of node voltages

to update the node(4) voltage.

(6) And again, repeat the process, using the most recently calculated values of node voltages to

update the node(5) voltage.

(7) Compare the latest set of voltages with the previous set. If the two sets agree within defined

limits, then the process is complete, otherwise return to Step 1.

18

This step by step process can now demonstrated by numerically solving the first set of iterations for

the network illustrated in Fig1.

19

The Matlab program code for the GAUSS SEIDAL SOLUTION of the network load-flow problem

can now be written.

Note the many copy and paste opportunities that exist between the existing Jacobi codes when

subsequently producing the Gauss Seidal code.

Matlab Program.

20

% BSc(Hons) Electrical Electronic Engineering

% Module 6EJ998

% Assignment No2

% YEAR 2010/11

% STUDENT ...........

% Input (1)

% Insert the Network Admittance Matrix

% (see page 2 of supplied assignment paperwork ignoring shunt capacitive

admittance)

format short

Y(1,1) = 10.958905 - 26.027398i;

Y(1,2) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,3) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,4) = 0.00;

Y(1,5) = -4.109589 + 10.958904;

Y(2,2) = 11.672080 - 26.090949i;

Y(2,3) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(2,4) = 0.00;

Y(2,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,3) = 10.457198 - 23.154061i;

Y(3,4) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(3,5) = 0.00;

Y(4,1) = 0.00;

Y(4,2) = 0.00;

Y(4,3) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(4,4) = 7.050541 - 15.619814i;

Y(4,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,3) = 0.00;

Y(5,4) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,5) = 12.357012 - 29.515606i;

% Input (2)

% Input the given node loadings .....see diagram on page 1 ....

% .... of the supplied assignment paperwork

% A positive (+ sign) is for generated power,

% The negative (- sign) indicates load taken from the network.

% Per unit loading is used with a base loading taken at 100MVA

P3 = - 0.25; % p.u. active power loading

21

P4 = - 0.4; % p.u. active power loading

P5 = - 0.5; % p.u. active power loading

Q3 = - 0.15i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q4 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q5 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

% This voltage is fixed and therefore determines the reference ....

% ... or SLACK BUSBAR must be Node(1)

% The number of iteration will need to be set

% Set the value of 'l' the chosen number of iterations

% l=40 will be used since this is the number used in the JACOBI solution.

m = l + 1; % allocates the space used to store each iteration

vector = [1:m]; % assigns a row with the appropriate spaces

row = ones(size(vector));

Vnode1 = row; % each node voltage has the required storage spaces

Vnode2 = row;

Vnode3 = row;

Vnode4 = row;

Vnode5 = row;

for n = 1:m

Vnode2(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode3(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode4(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode5(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

end

S3star = P3 - Q3;

S4star = P4 - Q4;

S5star = P5 - Q5;

% Following the same method as in the worked example

% Page 16 of the assignment notes

for n = 1:l

% SIMILAR TO THE CALCULATION PROCEDURES

% AS DETAILED ON PAGE 5 OF THE ASSIGNMENT NOTES

V3star(n) = conj(Vnode3(n)); % conjugate of V3

V4star(n) = conj(Vnode4(n)); % conjugate of V4

V5star(n) = conj(Vnode5(n)); % conjugate of V5

22

I2(n) = S2star/V2star(n);

Vnode2(n) = V2(n); % Immediately updates the current value of Vnode2

% (Step 4)

% Now determine the new value of Vnode3

% This calculation uses the new updated value of Vnode2

I3(n) = S3star/V3star(n);

Sum3(n) = (Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n)) + (Y(3,2) * Vnode2(n)) + (Y(3,4) *

Vnode4(n));

V3(n) = ( I3(n) - Sum3(n) ) / Y(3,3);

Vnode3(n) = V3(n); % Immediately updates the current value of Vnode3

% (Step 5)

% Now determine the new value of Vnode4

% This calculation uses the new updated value3 of Vnode2 and Vnode3

I4(n) = S4star/V4star(n);

Sum4(n) = (Y(4,3) * Vnode3(n)) + (Y(4,5) * Vnode5(n));

V4(n) = ( I4(n) - Sum4(n) ) / Y(4,4);

Vnode4(n) = V4(n); % Immediately updates the current value of

Vnode4

% (Step 5)

% Now determine the new value of Vnode5

% This calculation uses the new updated value3 of Vnode2 Vnode3 & Vnode4

I5(n) = S5star/V5star(n);

Sum5(n) = (Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n)) + (Y(5,2) * Vnode2(n)) + (Y(5,4) *

Vnode4(n));

V5(n) = ( I5(n) - Sum5(n) ) / Y(5,5);

Vnode5(n) = V5(n); % Immediately updates the current value of Vnode4

u = 1 + n;

Vnode2(u) = V2(n);

Vnode3(u) = V3(n);

Vnode4(u) = V4(n);

Vnode5(u) = V5(n);

end

disp (':')

disp (' Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022 ')

disp (':')

disp (' Gauss Seidal Solution of Load Flow Assignment(2) 2010/11 ')

disp (':')

disp (' Successive Iteration Values ')

disp (':')

disp (' Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

')

disp(':')

d = 0;

for c = 1:m

23

fprintf(' %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f

%1.4fi\n',...

real(Vnode2(1+d)), imag(Vnode2(1+d)), real(Vnode3(1+d)),...

imag(Vnode3(1+d)), real(Vnode4(1+d)), imag(Vnode4(1+d)),

real(Vnode5(1+d)), imag(Vnode5(1+d)));

d=d+1;

end

The Matlab output program code for the GAUSS SEIDAL SOLUTION of the network load-flow

problem.

:

Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022

:

Gauss Seidal Solution of Load Flow Assignment(2) 2010/11

:

Successive Iteration Values

:

Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

:

1.0000 0.0000i ,1.0000 0.0000i ,1.0000 0.0000i ,1.0000 0.0000i

0.9879 -0.0099i , 0.9860 -0.0098i , 0.9741 -0.0205i , 0.9764 -0.0219i

0.9742 -0.0212i , 0.9732 -0.0200i , 0.9540 -0.0376i , 0.9653 -0.0312i

0.9655 -0.0280i , 0.9640 -0.0274i , 0.9429 -0.0460i , 0.9588 -0.0362i

0.9597 -0.0324i , 0.9586 -0.0315i , 0.9364 -0.0506i , 0.9549 -0.0391i

0.9562 -0.0349i , 0.9553 -0.0338i , 0.9325 -0.0533i , 0.9525 -0.0408i

0.9542 -0.0363i , 0.9534 -0.0350i , 0.9302 -0.0548i , 0.9510 -0.0417i

0.9529 -0.0371i , 0.9522 -0.0358i , 0.9288 -0.0557i , 0.9502 -0.0423i

0.9522 -0.0375i , 0.9515 -0.0362i , 0.9279 -0.0562i , 0.9496 -0.0426i

0.9517 -0.0378i , 0.9510 -0.0364i , 0.9274 -0.0565i , 0.9493 -0.0428i

0.9514 -0.0380i , 0.9508 -0.0366i , 0.9271 -0.0566i , 0.9491 -0.0429i

0.9513 -0.0380i , 0.9506 -0.0367i , 0.9269 -0.0567i , 0.9490 -0.0430i

0.9512 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9268 -0.0568i , 0.9490 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i , 0.9505 -0.0367i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9267 -0.0568i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

To reduce the number of iterations required to reach a final solution, attempts have been made to speed up the

convergence process. A simple yet effective approach is to project forward each calculated voltage in the

direction of the way the iteration values are moving. If the trend indicate indicates the successive values are

reducing a factor is applied to accelerate this progression. Conversely, if there is a rising trend, then the

accelerating factor needs to project the voltage further upwards.

The acceleration factor α needs to modify the voltages according to the following considerations:

24

Clearly, as convergence is approach the acceleration becomes less pronounced. The modification is

applied immediately each busbar voltage is calculated. For large scale networks an acceleration

factor of 1.6 is often used. For the limited network being analysed, an acceleration factor of 1.25

will be more effective.

The Matlab program code for the GAUSS SEIDAL SOLUTION of the network load-flow problem

can now be modified to include a suitable ACCELERATION FACTOR.

Matlab Program.

% Module 6EJ998

% Assignment No2

25

% YEAR 2010/11

% STUDENT ...........

% Input (1)

% Insert the Network Admittance Matrix

% (see page 2 of supplied assignment paperwork ignoring shunt capacitive

admittance)

format short

Y(1,1) = 10.958905 - 26.027398i;

Y(1,2) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,3) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,4) = 0.00;

Y(1,5) = -4.109589 + 10.958904;

Y(2,2) = 11.672080 - 26.090949i;

Y(2,3) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(2,4) = 0.00;

Y(2,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,3) = 10.457198 - 23.154061i;

Y(3,4) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(3,5) = 0.00;

Y(4,1) = 0.00;

Y(4,2) = 0.00;

Y(4,3) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(4,4) = 7.050541 - 15.619814i;

Y(4,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,3) = 0.00;

Y(5,4) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,5) = 12.357012 - 29.515606i;

% Input (2)

% Input the given node loadings .....see diagram on page 1 ....

% .... of the supplied assignment paperwork

% A positive (+ sign) is for generated power,

% The negative (- sign) indicates load taken from the network.

% Per unit loading is used with a base loading taken at 100MVA

P3 = - 0.25; % p.u. active power loading

P4 = - 0.4; % p.u. active power loading

P5 = - 0.5; % p.u. active power loading

Q3 = - 0.15i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q4 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q5 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

% This voltage is fixed and therefore determines the reference ....

% ... or SLACK BUSBAR must be Node(1)

26

% GAUSS SEIDAL PLUS ACCELERATION FACTOR SOLUTION

% The number of iteration will need to be set

% Set the value of 'l' the chosen number of iterations

% l=40 will be used since this is the number in the JACOBI solution.

m = l + 1; % allocates the space used to store each iteration

vector = [1:m]; % assigns a row with the appropriate spaces

row = ones(size(vector));

Vnode1 = row; % each node voltage has the required storage spaces

Vnode2 = row;

Vnode3 = row;

Vnode4 = row;

Vnode5 = row;

for n = 1:m

Vnode2(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode3(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode4(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode5(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

end

S3star = P3 - Q3;

S4star = P4 - Q4;

S5star = P5 - Q5;

% Following the same method as in the worked example

% Page 16 of the assignment notes

for n = 1:l

% SIMILAR TO THE CALCULATION PROCEDURES

% AS DETAILED ON PAGE 5 OF THE ASSIGNMENT NOTES

V3star(n) = conj(Vnode3(n)); % conjugate of V3

V4star(n) = conj(Vnode4(n)); % conjugate of V4

V5star(n) = conj(Vnode5(n)); % conjugate of V5

I2(n) = S2star/V2star(n);

Vnode5(n));

27

Vnode2(n+1) = V2(n); % Immediately updates the current value of Vnode2

% (Step 4)

% Now determine the new value of Vnode3

% This calculation uses the new updated value of Vnode2

I3(n) = S3star/V3star(n);

Sum3(n) = (Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n)) + (Y(3,2) * Vnode2(n+1)) + (Y(3,4) *

Vnode4(n));

V3(n) = ( I3(n) - Sum3(n) ) / Y(3,3);

Vnode3(n+1) = V3(n); % Immediately updates the current value of Vnode3

% (Step 5)

% Now determine the new value of Vnode4

% This calculation uses the new updated value3 of Vnode2 and Vnode3

I4(n) = S4star/V4star(n);

Sum4(n) = (Y(4,3) * Vnode3(n+1)) + (Y(4,5) * Vnode5(n));

V4(n) = ( I4(n) - Sum4(n) ) / Y(4,4);

Vnode4

% (Step 5)

% Now determine the new value of Vnode5

% This calculation uses the new updated value3 of Vnode2 Vnode3 & Vnode4

I5(n) = S5star/V5star(n);

Sum5(n) = (Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n)) + (Y(5,2) * Vnode2(n+1)) + (Y(5,4) *

Vnode4(n+1));

V5(n) = ( I5(n) - Sum5(n) ) / Y(5,5);

alpha = 1.25;

Vacc2(1) = 1;

Vacc2(n+1) = Vnode2(n) + alpha * (Vnode2(n+1) - Vnode2(n));

Vacc3(n+1) = Vnode3(n) + alpha * (Vnode3(n+1) - Vnode3(n));

Vacc4(n+1) = Vnode4(n) + alpha * (Vnode4(n+1) - Vnode4(n));

Vacc5(n+1) = Vnode5(n) + alpha * (Vnode5(n+1) - Vnode5(n));

Vnode2(n+1) = Vacc2(n+1);

Vnode3(n+1) = Vacc3(n+1);

Vnode4(n+1) = Vacc4(n+1);

Vnode5(n+1) = Vacc5(n+1);

end

disp (':')

disp (' Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022 ')

disp (':')

disp (' Gauss Seidal Plus Acceleration Factor Solution of Load Flow

Assignment(2) 2010/11')

disp (':')

disp (' Successive Iteration Values ')

disp (':')

disp (' Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

')

disp(':')

d = 0;

for c = 1:m

28

fprintf(' %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f

%1.4fi\n',...

real(Vnode2(1+d)), imag(Vnode2(1+d)), real(Vnode3(1+d)),...

imag(Vnode3(1+d)), real(Vnode4(1+d)), imag(Vnode4(1+d)),

real(Vnode5(1+d)), imag(Vnode5(1+d)));

d=d+1;

end

The Matlab program output code for the GAUSS SEIDAL with ACCELERATION FACTOR

solution of the network load-flow problem.

: Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022

: Gauss Seidal Solution of Load Flow Assignment (2) 2010/11

: Successive Iteration Values

:

Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

:

1.0000 0.0000i ,1.0000 0.0000i ,1.0000 0.0000i ,1.0000 0.0000i

0.9849 -0.0124i ,0.9825 -0.0123i ,0.9676 -0.0257i ,0.9704 -0.0274i

0.9673 -0.0269i ,0.9669 -0.0251i ,0.9442 -0.0459i ,0.9605 -0.0350i

0.9599 -0.0322i ,0.9578 -0.0324i ,0.9363 -0.0507i ,0.9547 -0.0392i

0.9549 -0.0360i ,0.9545 -0.0343i ,0.9314 -0.0541i ,0.9517 -0.0414i

0.9532 -0.0368i ,0.9524 -0.0357i ,0.9290 -0.0556i ,0.9503 -0.0422i

0.9521 -0.0377i ,0.9514 -0.0363i ,0.9278 -0.0562i ,0.9496 -0.0427i

0.9516 -0.0379i ,0.9509 -0.0365i ,0.9272 -0.0566i ,0.9492 -0.0429i

0.9513 -0.0380i ,0.9507 -0.0367i ,0.9269 -0.0567i ,0.9490 -0.0430i

0.9512 -0.0381i ,0.9505 -0.0367i ,0.9268 -0.0568i ,0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0381i ,0.9505 -0.0367i ,0.9267 -0.0568i ,0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9511 -0.0382i ,0.9504 -0.0368i ,0.9267 -0.0568i ,0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i ,0.9504 -0.0368i ,0.9266 -0.0569i ,0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i ,0.9504 -0.0368i ,0.9266 -0.0569i ,0.9489 -0.0430i

Gauss Seidal Plus Accelerating Factor Note even faster convergence after Twelve Iterations

The Y-matrix methods used with the Jacobi and the Gauss Seidal techniques generally have a poor

convergence and in some cases the success iteration values may actually diverge. Much work has been

undertaken in an attempt to overcome the problem, but generally with inconclusive results.

Another approach to the solution of this problem is to use the Z-matrix method.

In the Y-matrix methods the network relationships are expressed in the form of an admittance matrix.

I = Y⋅ V

By inverting the Y-matrix equation we can derive an equation of the form

−1

V = Z⋅ I ….. where Z = Y

The Y-matrix is generally a sparse matrix, i.e. contains a significant number of zeros. On the other hand the

Z-matrix is always full and therefore provides an improved mathematical linkage between V and I.

It would appear that the system node voltages could be calculated in a more direct manner from the set of Z-

matrix equations. Unfortunately, no direct solution is possible. Once more an iterative strategy must be

adopted which will again produce a convergence to the required set of system voltages.

29

Since busbar 1 is taken as the slack busbar, for which the voltage conditions are fully specified, the remaining

nodal admittance equations will have the form:

I3 = Y31 V1 + Y32 V2 + Y33 V3 + Y34 V4 + Y35 V5

I4 = Y41 V1 + Y42 V2 + Y43 V3 + Y44 V4 + Y45 V5

I5 = Y51 V1 + Y52 V2 + Y53 V3 + Y54 V4 + Y55 V5

In this form the Y-matrix is not square and therefore cannot be inverted. Rearranging:

I3 − Y31 V1 = Y32 V2 + Y33 V3 + Y34 V4 + Y35 V5

I4 − Y41 V1 = Y42 V2 + Y43 V3 + Y44 V4 + Y45 V5

I5 − Y51 V1 = Y52 V2 + Y53 V3 + Y54 V4 + Y55 V5

′ ′ ′

Which can be written as I = Y ⋅ V where Y ' is square and non-singular and can be

inverted.

After inversion the following equation is obtained:

′ ′ ′ ′

V = Z ⋅ I where for the k th busbar I k = Ik − Yk1 V1

V3 = Z32 ( I2 − Y21 V1 ) + Z33 ( I3 − Y31 V1 ) + Z34 ( I4 − Y41 V1 ) + Z35 ( I5 − Y51 V1 )

V4 = Z42 ( I2 − Y21 V1 ) + Z43 ( I3 − Y31 V1 ) + Z44 ( I4 − Y41 V1 ) + Z45 ( I5 − Y51 V1 )

V5 = Z52 ( I2 − Y21 V1 ) + Z53 ( I3 − Y31 V1 ) + Z54 ( I4 − Y41 V1 ) + Z55 ( I5 − Y51 V1 )

n n

Vk = ∑Z kj I j

j=2

− ∑Z

j=2

kj Yj1 V1

and

S*j

Ij =

V j*

The required computational strategy is one that uses these last two equations iteratively until a converged

′

voltage solution is obtained. Any Matlab code must be careful to designate the correct suffixes to the Z

′

which results from the inversion of Y matrix. The form of the computer program is illustrated below.

This program uses a block substitution technique similar to procedure followed in the Jacobi solution.

30

The step by step process of the Z-matrix method with block substation illustrated above can now

demonstrated by numerically solving the first set of iterations for the network shown in Fig1 on page 5.

Admittance Matrix but with the first row and column removed.

31

32

The Matlab program code for the Z-MATRIX WITH BLOCK SUBSTITUTION method of solution

for the given network load-flow problem can now be written.

Matlab Program.

% Module 6EJ998

% Assignment No2

% YEAR 2010/11

% STUDENT ...........

% Insert the Network Admittance Matrix

% (see page 2 of supplied assignment paperwork ignoring shunt capacitive

admittance)

33

format short

Y(1,1) = 10.958905 - 26.027398i;

Y(1,2) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,3) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,4) = 0.00;

Y(1,5) = -4.109589 + 10.958904;

Y(2,2) = 11.672080 - 26.090949i;

Y(2,3) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(2,4) = 0.00;

Y(2,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,3) = 10.457198 - 23.154061i;

Y(3,4) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(3,5) = 0.00;

Y(4,2) = 0.00;

Y(4,3) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(4,4) = 7.050541 - 15.619814i;

Y(4,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,3) = 0.00;

Y(5,4) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,5) = 12.357012 - 29.515606i;

% Input the given node loadings .....see diagram on page 1 ....

% .... of the supplied assignment paperwork

% A positive (+ sign) is for generated power,

% The negative (- sign) indicates load taken from the network.

% Per unit loading is used with a base loading taken at 100MVA

P3 = - 0.25; % p.u. active power loading

P4 = - 0.4; % p.u. active power loading

P5 = - 0.5; % p.u. active power loading

Q3 = - 0.15i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q4 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q5 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

% This voltage is fixed and therefore determines the reference ....

% ... or SLACK BUSBAR must be Node(1)

% Z-MATRX SOLUTION

% The sub-matrix of the actual 5x5 network admittances (Y) ....

% but with the first row and column removed now needs to be obtained

% This sub-matrix is called Ysub and is easily derived from ....

% the network admittance matrix by using the following command

Ysub = Y(2:5,2:5);

34

Z = inv(Ysub);

% This can now be rectified by adding a further ....

% row(1) and column(1) of zeros to the Z-matrix.

% Note the pime (') after the matrix is a transpose command

% Rows are changed columns and columns become rows

A = [0;0;0;0];

Z = [A Z];

B = [0;0;0;0;0];

Zt = [B Z'];

% for the first row and column

% A further transposition brings back the modified Z-matrix

Z = Zt';

% Set the value of 'l' the chosen number of iterations

% l=40 will be used since this is the number in the JACOBI solution.

m = l + 1; % allocates the space used to store each iteration

vector = [1:m]; % assigns a row with the appropriate spaces

row = ones(size(vector));

Vnode2 = row;

Vnode3 = row;

Vnode4 = row;

Vnode5 = row;

for n = 1:m

Vnode2(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode3(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode4(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode5(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

end

S3star = P3 - Q3;

S4star = P4 - Q4;

S5star = P5 - Q5;

% Following the same method as in the worked example

% Pages 28 and 29 of the assignment notes

% STEP 1.

% Obtain the values of the constant terms ....

% from the summation of Z(kj)Y(j1)V(1)

for n = 1 : m

Const2 = Z(2,2) * Y(2,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(2,3) * Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(2,4) *

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(2,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

35

Const3 = Z(3,2) * Y(2,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(3,3) * Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(3,4) *

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(3,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

Const4 = Z(4,2) * Y(2,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(4,3) * Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(4,4) *

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(4,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

Const5 = Z(5,2) * Y(2,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(5,3) * Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(5,4) *

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(5,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

% STEP 2.

% Obtain the values of the node current input terms ....

% from Skstar/Vkstar

V2star(n) = conj(Vnode2(n));

V3star(n) = conj(Vnode3(n));

V4star(n) = conj(Vnode4(n));

V5star(n) = conj(Vnode5(n));

I3(n) = S3star / V3star(n);

I4(n) = S4star / V4star(n);

I5(n) = S5star / V5star(n);

% STEP 3

% Calculate the new (update) value of node Voltage

Const2;

V3(n) = Z(3,2) * I2(n) + Z(3,3) * I3(n) + Z(3,4) * I4(n) + Z(3,5) * I5(n) -

Const3;

V4(n) = Z(4,2) * I2(n) + Z(4,3) * I3(n) + Z(4,4) * I4(n) + Z(4,5) * I5(n) -

Const4;

V5(n) = Z(5,2) * I2(n) + Z(5,3) * I3(n) + Z(5,4) * I4(n) + Z(5,5) * I5(n) -

Const5;

u = 1 + n;

Vnode2(u) = V2(n);

Vnode3(u) = V3(n);

Vnode4(u) = V4(n);

Vnode5(u) = V5(n);

end

disp (':')

disp (' Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022 ')

disp (':')

disp (' Z-MATRIX Solution of Load Flow Assignment(2) 2010/11')

disp (':')

disp (' Successive Iteration Values ')

disp (':')

disp (' Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

')

disp(':')

d = 0;

for c = 1:m

fprintf(' %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f

%1.4fi\n',...

real(Vnode2(1+d)), imag(Vnode2(1+d)), real(Vnode3(1+d)),...

imag(Vnode3(1+d)), real(Vnode4(1+d)), imag(Vnode4(1+d)),

real(Vnode5(1+d)), imag(Vnode5(1+d)));

d=d+1;

end

36

The Matlab program output code for the Z-MATRIX WITH BLOCK SUBSTITUTION method of solution

for the network load-flow problem.

:

Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022

:

Z-MATRIX Solution of Load Flow Assignment (2) 2010/11

:

Successive Iteration Values

:

Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

:

1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i

0.9554 -0.0382i , 0.9549 -0.0368i , 0.9340 -0.0569i , 0.9538 -0.0429i

0.9513 -0.0380i , 0.9507 -0.0366i , 0.9271 -0.0565i , 0.9492 -0.0428i

0.9511 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9267 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

Z-MATRIX with BLOCK SUBSTITUTION Note even faster convergence after Four Iterations

The block substitution procedure used in Method 4 is similar to some extent with the method used in the

Jacobi solution.

Possibly, by using a forward substation technique similar to that adopted in the Gauss Seidal method the

number of iterations in the Z-Matrix method can be reduced still further.

Using this approach, each value of node voltage must be immediately revised after each new calculated

update.

The Matlab program code for the Z-MATRIX SOLUTION WITH FORWARD SUBSTITUTION can easily

be produce by simple modification of the block substitution method, see program code below:

Matlab Program.

% Module 6EJ998

% Assignment No2

% YEAR 2010/11

% STUDENT ...........

37

% NETWORK (see Fig 1)

% Insert the Network Admittance Matrix

% (see page 2 of supplied assignment paperwork ignoring shunt capacitive

admittance)

Y(1,1) = 10.958905 - 26.027398i;

Y(1,2) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,3) = -3.424658 + 7.534247i;

Y(1,4) = 0.00;

Y(1,5) = -4.109589 + 10.958904;

Y(2,2) = 11.672080 - 26.090949i;

Y(2,3) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(2,4) = 0.00;

Y(2,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(3,3) = 10.457198 - 23.154061i;

Y(3,4) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(3,5) = 0.00;

Y(4,2) = 0.00;

Y(4,3) = -2.926829 + 6.341463i;

Y(4,4) = 7.050541 - 15.619814i;

Y(4,5) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,2) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,3) = 0.00;

Y(5,4) = -4.123711 + 9.278351i;

Y(5,5) = 12.357012 - 29.515606i;

% Input the given node loadings .....see diagram on page 1 ....

% .... of the supplied assignment paperwork

% A positive (+ sign) is for generated power,

% The negative (- sign) indicates load taken from the network.

% Per unit loading is used with a base loading taken at 100MVA

P3 = - 0.25; % p.u. active power loading

P4 = - 0.4; % p.u. active power loading

P5 = - 0.5; % p.u. active power loading

Q3 = - 0.15i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q4 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

Q5 = - 0.2i; % p.u. reactive power loading

% This voltage is fixed and therefore determines the reference ....

% ... or SLACK BUSBAR must be Node(1)

% Z-MATRX SOLUTION

% The sub-matrix of the actual 5x5 network admittances (Y) ....

38

% but with the first row and column removed now needs to be obtained

% This sub-matrix is called Ysub and is easily derived from ....

% the network admittance matrix by using the following command

Ysub = Y(2:5,2:5);

Z = inv(Ysub);

% This can now be rectified by adding a further ....

% row(1) and column(1) of zeros to the Z-matrix.

% Note the pime (') after the matrix is a transpose command

% Rows are changed columns and columns become rows

A = [0;0;0;0];

Z = [A Z];

B = [0;0;0;0;0];

Zt = [B Z'];

% for the first row and column

% A further transposition brings back the modified Z-matrix

Z = Zt';

% Set the value of 'l' the chosen number of iterations

% l=40 will be used since this is the number in the JACOBI solution.

m = l + 1; % allocates the space used to store each iteration

vector = [1:m]; % assigns a row with the appropriate spaces

row = ones(size(vector));

Vnode2 = row;

Vnode3 = row;

Vnode4 = row;

Vnode5 = row;

for n = 1:m

Vnode2(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode3(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode4(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

Vnode5(n) = 1.0 + 0.00i;

end

S3star = P3 - Q3;

S4star = P4 - Q4;

S5star = P5 - Q5;

% Following the same method as in the worked example

% Pages 28 and 29 of the assignment notes

% STEP 1.

39

% Obtain the values of the constant terms ....

% from the summation of Z(kj)Y(j1)V(1)

for n = 1 : m

Const2 = Z(2,2) * Y(2,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(2,3) * Y(3,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(2,4) *

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(2,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

V2star(n) = conj(Vnode2(n));

I2(n) = S2star / V2star(n);

V2(n) = Z(2,2) * I2(n) + Z(2,3) * I3(n) + Z(2,4) * I4(n) + Z(2,5) * I5(n) -

Const2;

V2star(n) = conj(V2(n));

I2(n) = S2star / V2star(n);

V2(n) = Z(2,2) * I2(n) + Z(2,3) * I3(n) + Z(2,4) * I4(n) + Z(2,5) * I5(n) -

Const2;

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(3,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

V3star(n) = conj(Vnode3(n));

I3(n) = S3star / V3star(n);

V3(n) = Z(3,2) * I2(n) + Z(3,3) * I3(n) + Z(3,4) * I4(n) + Z(3,5) * I5(n) -

Const3;

V3star(n) = conj(V3(n));

I3(n) = S3star / V3star(n);

V3(n) = Z(3,2) * I2(n) + Z(3,3) * I3(n) + Z(3,4) * I4(n) + Z(3,5) * I5(n) -

Const3;

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(4,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

V4star(n) = conj(Vnode4(n));

I4(n) = S4star / V4star(n);

V4(n) = Z(4,2) * I2(n) + Z(4,3) * I3(n) + Z(4,4) * I4(n) + Z(4,5) * I5(n) -

Const4;

V4star(n) = conj(V4(n));

I4(n) = S4star / V4star(n);

V4(n) = Z(4,2) * I2(n) + Z(4,3) * I3(n) + Z(4,4) * I4(n) + Z(4,5) * I5(n) -

Const4;

Y(4,1) * Vnode1(n) + Z(5,5) * Y(5,1) * Vnode1(n);

V5star(n) = conj(Vnode5(n));

I5(n) = S5star / V5star(n);

V5(n) = Z(5,2) * I2(n) + Z(5,3) * I3(n) + Z(5,4) * I4(n) + Z(5,5) * I5(n) -

Const5;

V5star(n) = conj(V5(n));

I5(n) = S5star / V5star(n);

V5(n) = Z(5,2) * I2(n) + Z(5,3) * I3(n) + Z(5,4) * I4(n) + Z(5,5) * I5(n) -

Const5;

u = 1 + n;

40

Vnode2(u) = V2(n);

Vnode3(u) = V3(n);

Vnode4(u) = V4(n);

Vnode5(u) = V5(n);

end

disp (':')

disp (' Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022 ')

disp (':')

disp (' Z-MATRIX Solution of Load Flow Assignment(2) 2010/11 ')

disp (':')

disp (' Successive Iteration Values ')

disp (':')

disp (' Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

')

disp(':')

d = 0;

for c = 1:m

fprintf(' %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f %1.4fi\t, %1.4f

%1.4fi\n',...

real(Vnode2(1+d)), imag(Vnode2(1+d)), real(Vnode3(1+d)),...

imag(Vnode3(1+d)), real(Vnode4(1+d)), imag(Vnode4(1+d)),

real(Vnode5(1+d)), imag(Vnode5(1+d)));

d=d+1;

end

The Matlab program output code for the Z-MATRIX WITH FORWARD SUBSTITUTION

method of solution for the network load-flow problem.

:

Electrical Power Utilisation 6EJ022

:

Z-MATRIX Solution of Load Flow Assignment (2) 20010/11

:

Successive Iteration Values

:

Vnode2 Vnode3 Vnode4 Vnode5

:

1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i , 1.0000 0.0000i

0.9512 -0.0381i , 0.9506 -0.0367i , 0.9269 -0.0567i , 0.9490 -0.0429i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

0.9510 -0.0382i , 0.9504 -0.0368i , 0.9266 -0.0569i , 0.9489 -0.0430i

Z-MATRIX with FORWARD SUBSTITUTION Now even faster convergence only Two Iterations

41

The solution of the network load flow problem network illustrated on page 5 has been solved using

the Matlab computer code supplied, (see pages 6 to 41).

For the 2010/11 second assignment the network connections have now been modified, see figure

1A below. The network base quantities are still MVA base = 100 MVA and V base = 132 kV. The node

loadings are shown on the modified diagram and the inter-connecting line impedances are given in

Table 1A. By modifying the given admittance data to suit the new conditions, solve the new Load

Flow Problem by the same methods as used in the procedures (pages 6-41) of the above notes.

This gives the values of the voltages at each node.

Using the node voltage results calculate the current flow in each of the interlinking cables in the

network of FIG 1A. A computer programme solution of this problem would be preferred.

Table 1A

From

To Busbar R (p.u.) X (p.u.) B (p.u.)

Busbar

1 2 0.05 0.11 0.02

1 3 0.05 0.11 0.02

1 5 0.03 0.08 0.02

2 4 0.04 0.09 0.02

2 5 0.04 0.09 0.02

3 4 0.06 0.13 0.03

4 5 0.04 0.09 0.02

42

Figure 1

43

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