c c

        c   EJERCICIOS RESUELTOS ૛ૡሻන ࢚૜ ࢊ࢚ ξࢇ૝ ൅ ࢚૝  ൌ  ξࢇ૝ ൅ ࢚૝ ൅ ࡯V ૛ න ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ݀‫ݐ‬ ξܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ൌ න ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ݀‫ݐ‬ ଵ ଷ ସ ସ ିଶ ଵ  ൌ න ‫ ݐ‬ሺܽ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ݀‫ݐ‬V ሺܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ሻଶ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V ͳ A ൌ ܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ  ՜ ݀A ൌ Ͷ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ݀‫ݐ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െ V ʹ න ଵ ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ݀‫ݐ‬ ξܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ൌ න A  ଵ  ൌ න ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሺܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ሻିଶ ݀‫ݐ‬V ݀A ͳ ͳ A ାଵ ൌ  න A ݀A ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V Ͷ Ͷ Ͷ ݊൅ͳ ଵ ଵ ͳ ሺܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ሻିଶାଵ ͳ ሺܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ሻଶ ʹ ͳ ൌ ቌ ቍ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቌ ቍ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ሺܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ሻଶ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ඥܽ ସ ൅ ‫ ݐ‬ସ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬V ͳ ͳ Ͷ Ͷ Ͷ ʹ െ ൅ͳ ʹ ʹ ૛ૢሻන ‫׵‬න ࢚૜ ࢊ࢚ ξࢇ૝ ൅ ࢚૝  ൌ  ૚ ࢊ࢟  ൌ  െ ൅ ࡯ ૜ ૛࢈ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢟ሻ૛ ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢟ሻ න ξࢇ૝ ൅ ࢚૝ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖Ǥ ૛ ݀‫ݕ‬  ൌ නሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻିଷ ݀‫ݕ‬V ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻଷ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݕ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ܾ݀‫ݕ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െ͵V         .

c c .

        c   ݀‫ݕ‬ න  ൌ නሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻିଷ ݀‫ݕ‬V ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻଷ ͳ A ାଵ ݀A ͳ ൌ නA  ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ܾ ݊൅ͳ ܾ ܾ ൌ ൌ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻିଷାଵ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V െ͵ ൅ ͳ ܾ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻିଶ ͳ ͳ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻିଶ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ െ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ܾ െʹܾ ʹܾሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݕ‬ሻଶ െʹ ‫׵‬න ૚ ࢊ࢟  ൌ  െ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૛࢈ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢟ሻ૛ ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢟ሻ૜ V V ૜૙ሻ න ࢞ࢊ࢞ ૚  ൌ  െ ൅ ࡯ ૛ ૜ ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞ ሻ ૝࢈ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞૛ ሻ૛ න ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬  ൌ න ‫ݔ‬ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻିଷ ݀‫ݔ‬V ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻଷ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ  ՜ ݀A ൌ ʹܾ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െ͵V න ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬  ൌ න ‫ݔ‬ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻିଷ ݀‫ݔ‬V ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻଷ ൌ න A ൌ  ͳ A ାଵ ݀A ͳ න A ݀A ൌ  ቆ ൌ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ʹܾ ݊ ൅ ͳ ʹܾ ʹܾ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻିଷାଵ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻିଶ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ  ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ʹܾ ʹܾ െ͵ ൅ ͳ െʹ ൌ ͳ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻିଶ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ െ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V Ͷܾሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻଶ െͶܾ         .

c c .

        c   ࢞ࢊ࢞ ૚ ‫׵‬න  ൌ  െ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૛ ૜ ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞ ሻ ૝࢈ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞૛ ሻ૛ V V ૜૚ሻන ࢚૛ ࢊ࢚ ૚  ൌ  െ ൅ ࡯ ૜ ૛ ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚ ሻ ૜࢈ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚૜ ሻ න ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݀‫ݐ‬ ൌ න ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻିଶ ݀‫ݐ‬V ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻଶ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ  ՜ ݀A ൌ ͵ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݀‫ݐ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െʹV න ൌ නA ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݀‫ݐ‬ ൌ න ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻିଶ ݀‫ݐ‬V ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻଶ ͳ ݀A ͳ A݊൅ͳ න A ݀A ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ൌ ͵ܾ ͵ܾ ͵ܾ ݊ ൅ ͳ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻିଵ ͳ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻିଶାଵ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ െ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ͵ܾ ͵ܾሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሻ െʹ ൅ ͳ െͳ ͵ܾ ‫׵‬න ࢚૛ ࢊ࢚ ૚  ൌ  െ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖Ǥ ૜ ૛ ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚ ሻ ૜࢈ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚૜ ሻ V ૛ ૜૛ሻ න ࢠሺࢇ ൅ ࢈ࢠ૜ ሻ ࢊࢠ ൌ  ଶ ࢇ૛ ࢠ૛ ૛ࢇ࢈ࢠ૞ ࢈૛ ࢠૡ ൅ ൅ ൅ ࡯ ૞ ૡ ૛ න ‫ݖ‬ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ሻ ݀‫ ݖ‬ൌ න ‫ ݖ‬ሺܽ ଶ ൅ ʹܾܽ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ൅ ܾ ଶ ‫ ଺ ݖ‬ሻ݀‫ ݖ‬ൌ නሺ‫ ܽݖ‬ଶ ൅ ʹܾܽ‫ ݖ‬ସ ൅ ܾ ଶ ‫ ଻ ݖ‬ሻ ݀‫ ݖ‬ൌV ൌ න ܽ ଶ ‫ ݖ݀ ݖ‬൅ න ʹܾܽ‫ ݖ‬ସ ݀‫ ݖ‬൅ න ܾ ଶ ‫ ݖ݀ ଻ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ ଶ න ‫ ݖ݀ ݖ‬൅ ʹܾܽ න ‫ ݖ‬ସ ݀‫ ݖ‬൅ ܾ ଶ න ‫ݖ݀ ଻ ݖ‬V V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚         .

c c .

entonces la  de la formula convertimos a mayúscula para no confundirnos.        c   ଶ න ‫ݖ‬ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ሻ ݀‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ ଶ න ‫ ݖ݀ ݖ‬൅ ʹܾܽ න ‫ ݖ‬ସ ݀‫ ݖ‬൅ ܾ ଶ න ‫ݖ݀ ଻ ݖ‬V ൌ ܽଶ ቆ ൌ ܽଶ ቆ ‫ ݖ‬ସାଵ ‫଻ ݖ‬ାଵ ‫ݖ‬ଵାଵ ቇ ൅ ʹܾܽ ቆ ቇ ൅ ܾଶ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V Ͷ൅ͳ ͹൅ͳ ͳ൅ͳ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ହ ‫଼ݖ‬ ܽ ଶ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ ʹܾܽ‫ ݖ‬ହ ܾ ଶ ‫଼ ݖ‬ ቇ ൅ ʹܾܽ ቆ ቇ ൅ ܾ ଶ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ʹ ͷ ͺ ʹ ͷ ͺ ૛ ‫ ׵‬න ࢠሺࢇ ൅ ࢈ࢠ૜ ሻ ࢊࢠ ൌ  V ૜૜ሻ න ࢞࢔ି૚ ξࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞࢔ ࢊ࢞ ൌ න‫ݔ‬ ࢇ૛ ࢠ૛ ૛ࢇ࢈ࢠ૞ ࢈૛ ࢠૡ ൅ ൅ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૛ ૞ ૡ ૛ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞࢔ ሻ૜Ȁ૛ ൅࡯ ૜࢔࢈ ିଵ ξܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ݀ ݔ‬ൌ න ‫ݔ‬ ିଵ ଵ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻଶ ݀‫ ݔ‬V V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ Como en la ecuación trae como variable la letra Â. A ൌ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫  ݔ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ܾ݊‫ݔ‬ න‫ݔ‬ ିଵ ξܽ ൌ න A ିଵ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ݀ ݔ‬ൌ න ‫ݔ‬ ͳ ݀‫ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ܰ ൌ V ʹ ିଵ ଵ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻଶ ݀‫ ݔ‬V ͳ Aାଵ ݀A ͳ න A ݀A ൌ ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ܾ݊ ܰ ൅ ͳ ܾ݊ ܾ݊ ଵ ଷ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻଶ ͳ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻଶାଵ ቌ ቍ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቌ ቍ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ൌ ͵ ͳ ܾ݊ ܾ݊ ൅ͳ ʹ ʹ ଷ ଷ ʹ ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻଶ ʹሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻଶ ൌ ቌ ቍ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ܾ݊ ͵ ͵ܾ݊ ૜ ૛ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞࢔ ሻ૛ ‫ ׵‬න ࢞࢔ି૚ ξࢇ ൅ ࢈࢞࢔ ࢊ࢞ ൌ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૜࢔࢈         .

c c .

        c   V V ૜૝ሻන ሺ૛࢞ ൅ ૜ሻࢊ࢞ ඥ࢞ ૛ ൅ ૜࢞ න  ൌ ૛ඥ࢞૛ ൅ ૜࢞ ൅ ࡯ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ξ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ ൌන ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ଵ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ଵ ൌ නሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻିଶ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ݔ‬V ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V ͳ A ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െ V ʹ න ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ξ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ ଵ ൌ නሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻିଶ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ݔ‬V ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ଵ ଵ A ାଵ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ݊൅ͳ ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻିଶାଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻଶ ൌ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ʹሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻଶ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ʹඥ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ ܥ‬V ͳ ͳ െ ൅ͳ ʹ ʹ ‫׵‬න ሺ૛࢞ ൅ ૜ሻࢊ࢞ ඥ࢞૛ ൅ ૜࢞  ൌ ૛ඥ࢞૛ ൅ ૜࢞ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖Ǥ V ૜૞ሻන ൫࢞૛ ൅ ૚൯ࢊ࢞ ඥ ࢞૜ ൅ ૜࢞ න  ൌ  ૛ඥ࢞૜ ൅ ૜࢞ ൅ ࡯ ૜ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ξ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬  ൌ න ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻଶ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ଵ ଷ ሻିଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݀‫ݔ‬V ଵ  ൌ නሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚         .

c c .

        c   ÷ V .

V  .

V ͳ A ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ሺ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͵ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݀‫ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െ V ʹ න ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ξ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ ൌ නA ଵ  ൌ නሺ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻିଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݀‫ݔ‬V ݀A ͳ ͳ A ାଵ ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ͵ ͵ ݊൅ͳ ͵ ଵ ଵ ͳ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻଶ ʹ ʹ ͳ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻିଶାଵ ቍ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቌ ቍ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻଶ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ඥ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ ܥ‬V ൌ ቌ ͳ ͳ ͵ ͵ ͵ ͵ െ ൅ͳ ʹ ʹ ൫࢞૛ ൅ ૚൯ࢊ࢞ ‫׵‬න ඥ࢞૜ ൅ ૜࢞  ൌ  ૛ඥ࢞૜ ൅ ૜࢞ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૜ V ૜૟ሻ න ሺ૛ ൅ ‫࢞ ܖܔ‬ሻࢊ࢞ ሺ૛ ൅ ࢒࢔࢞ሻ૛  ൌ  ൅ ࡯ ࢞ ૛ න V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ݀‫ݔ‬ ሺʹ ൅ Ž ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬  ൌ න V ‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ʹ ൅ Ž ‫  ݔ‬՜ ݀A ൌ න ൌ ‫׵‬න ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ ͳV ‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬ ሺʹ ൅ Ž ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬  ൌ නሺʹ ൅ Ž ‫ݔ‬ሻ V ‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬ ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ሺʹ ൅ Ž ‫ݔ‬ሻଵାଵ ͳ൅ͳ A ାଵ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ݊൅ͳ ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ሺʹ ൅ Ž ‫ݔ‬ሻଶ ʹ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ሺ૛ ൅ ‫࢞ ܖܔ‬ሻࢊ࢞ ሺ૛ ൅ ࢒࢔࢞ሻ૛  ൌ  ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ࢞ ૛         .

c c .

        c   V ሺ࢙ࢋ࢔࢞ሻ૜ ࢙ࢋ࢔૜ ࢞ ൅ ࡯ ൌ ൅ ࡯ ૜ ૜ ૜ૠሻ න ࢙ࢋ࢔૛ ࢞ ‫ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ܛܗ܋‬ൌ  නሺ࢙ࢋ࢔࢞ሻ૛ ‫ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ܛܗ܋‬ൌ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ‫ ݔ݊݁ݏ‬՜ ݀A ൌ …‘• ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ ʹV න ‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ •‘… ݔ‬ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ൌ ሺ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଶାଵ ʹ൅ͳ ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ‫ ׵‬න ࢙ࢋ࢔૛ ࢞ ‫ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ܛܗ܋‬ൌ  ૜ૡሻ න ࢙ࢋ࢔ࢇ࢞ ‫ ࢞ࢊ ࢞ࢇ ܛܗ܋‬ൌ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢙ࢋ࢔૛ ࢇ࢞ ൅࡯ ૛ࢇ Aଶାଵ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ʹ൅ͳ ሺ‫ݔ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଷ ͵ ൅‫ܥ‬ ሺ࢙ࢋ࢔࢞ሻ૜ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૜ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ‫ ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ܽ …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ ͳV න ‫ ݔ݀ݔܽ •‘… ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ൌ න A ൌ ͳ A ାଵ ݀A ͳ න A ݀A ൌ ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ܽ ݊൅ͳ ܽ ܽ ሺ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଶ ͳ ሺ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଶ ‫݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ܽ‫ݔ‬ ͳ ሺ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଵାଵ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅‫ܥ‬ ܽ ʹܽ ͳ൅ͳ ʹ ʹܽ ܽ ‫ ׵‬න ࢙ࢋ࢔ࢇ࢞ ‫ ࢞ࢊ ࢞ࢇ ܛܗ܋‬ൌ ૜ૢሻ න ࢙ࢋ࢔૛࢞ࢉ࢕࢙૛ ૛࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ  െ V ࢉ࢕࢙૜ ૛࢞ ൅࡯ ૟ ࢙ࢋ࢔૛ ࢇ࢞ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૛ࢇ         .

c c .

        c   න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ܿ‫ ݔʹݏ݋‬՜ ݀A ൌ െʹ •‡ ʹ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ ʹV න ‫ •‘… ݔʹ݊݁ݏ‬ଶ ʹ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ න A ൌ ͳ A ାଵ ݀A ͳ න A ݀A ൌ ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ െʹ ݊ ൅ ͳ െʹ െʹ ሺܿ‫ݔʹݏ݋‬ሻଷ ͳ ሺܿ‫ݔʹݏ݋‬ሻଷ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ଷ ʹ‫ݔ‬ ͳ ሺܿ‫ݔʹݏ݋‬ሻଶାଵ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቆ ቇ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌെ ൅‫ܥ‬ െʹ ͸ ʹ൅ͳ ͵ െ͸ െʹ ‫ ׵‬න ࢙ࢋ࢔૛࢞ࢉ࢕࢙૛ ૛࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ  െ ࢞ ࢞ ࢞ ૝૙ሻ න ࢚ࢍ ࢙ࢋࢉ૛ ࢊ࢞ ൌ  ࢚ࢍ૛ ൅ ࡯ ૛ ૛ ૛ ࢉ࢕࢙૜ ૛࢞ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૟ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V ‫ݔ‬ ͳ ‫ݔ‬ A ൌ ‫  ݃ݐ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ‫ ܿ݁ݏ‬ଶ ݀‫ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ ͳV ʹ ʹ ʹ ‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬ A ାଵ න ‫ ܿ݁ݏ ݃ݐ‬ଶ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ʹ න A݀A ൌ ʹ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ʹ ʹ ݊൅ͳ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ‬ଵାଵ ቀ‫ ݃ݐ‬ቁ ቀ‫ ݃ݐ‬ቁ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ‬ ʹ ʹ ቍ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ʹቌ ቍ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቀ‫ ݃ݐ‬ቁ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ‫ ݃ݐ‬ଶ  ൅ ‫ ܥ‬V ൌ ʹቌ ʹ ʹ ͳ൅ͳ ʹ ࢞ ࢞ ࢞ ‫ ׵‬න ࢚ࢍ ࢙ࢋࢉ૛ ࢊ࢞ ൌ  ࢚ࢍ૛ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૛ ૛ ૛ V ૝૚ሻ න ‫࢞ࢊ࢞ࢇ ܛܗ܋‬ ξ࢈ ൅ ࢙ࢋ࢔ࢇ࢞ න  ൌ ૛ξ࢈ ൅ ࢙ࢋ࢔ࢇ࢞ ൅࡯ ࢇ …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ ξܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ ൌන …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ ଵ ሻିଶ …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬V ଵ  ൌ නሺܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ ሺܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଶ         .

c c .

        c   V V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V ͳ A ൌ ܾ ൅ ‫ ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ܽ …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ െ V ʹ න …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ ξܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ ൌ නA ଵ ଵ  ൌ නሺܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻିଶ …‘• ܽ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬V ݀A ͳ ͳ A ାଵ ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ቆ ቇ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ܽ ܽ ݊൅ͳ ܽ ଵ ଵ ͳ ሺܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଶ ʹሺܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻଶ ͳ ሺܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ሻȂଶାଵ ቍ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ቌ ቍ൅‫ ܥ‬ൌ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ൌ ቌ ͳ ͳ ܽ ܽ ܽ െ ൅ͳ ʹ ʹ ‫׵‬න ૝૛ න ൬ ൌ ‫࢞ࢊ࢞ࢇ ܛܗ܋‬ ʹξܾ ൅ ‫ݔܽ݊݁ݏ‬ ൅‫ܥ‬ ܽ ξ࢈ ൅ ࢙ࢋ࢔ࢇ࢞  ൌ ૚ ‫ ࢞ ܋܍ܛ‬૛ ൰  ࢊ࢞ ൌ െ  ൅࡯ ૚ ൅ ࢚ࢍ࢞ ૚ ൅ ࢚ࢍ࢞ ૛ξ࢈ ൅ ࢙ࢋ࢔ࢇ࢞ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ࢇ •‡… ‫ ݔ‬ଶ •‡… ଶ ‫ݔ‬ න൬ ൰  ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ  න  ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ නሺͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ሻିଶ •‡… ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ ݔ‬V ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ሻଶ  ͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ V න ࢛࢔ ࢊ࢛ ൌ ࢛࢔ା૚ ൅ ࡯Ǣ ࢔ ് ૙ ࢔൅૚ ÷ V .

V  .

V A ൌ ͳ ൅ ‫ ݔ݃ݐ‬՜ ݀A ൌ  ‫ ܿ݁ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬Ǣ Ǣ Ǣ ݊ ൌ  െʹV න൬ •‡… ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൰  ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ නሺͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ሻିଶ •‡… ଶ ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬V ͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬         .

ൌ c c .

        c   A ାଵ ൌ න A ݀A ൌ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ݊൅ͳ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ሻିଶାଵ െʹ ൅ ͳ ‫ ׵‬න൬ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ሻିଵ െͳ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ െ ͳ ൅ ‫ܥ‬V ͳ ൅ ‫ݔ݃ݐ‬ ‫ ࢞ ܋܍ܛ‬૛ ૚ ൰  ࢊ࢞ ൌ െ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૚ ൅ ࢚ࢍ࢞ ૚ ൅ ࢚ࢍ࢞ V V V ૝૜ሻ න ࢊ࢞ ‫ܖܔ‬ሺ૛ ൅ ૜࢞ሻ  ൌ ൅࡯ ૛ ൅ ૜࢞ ૜ V න ࢊ࢛ ൌ ‫ ࢛ ܖܔ‬൅ ࡯ ࢛ ÷ V .

V  .

V න V A ൌ ʹ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬՜ ݀A ൌ ͵݀‫ ݔ‬V ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ ݀A ͳ ͳ ൌ න ൌ Ž A ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ Žሺʹ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ʹ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ ͵ A ͵ ͵ ‫׵‬න ‫ܖܔ‬ሺ૛ ൅ ૜࢞ሻ ࢊ࢞  ൌ ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૜ ૛ ൅ ૜࢞ ࢞૛ ࢊ࢞ ‫ܖܔ‬ሺ૛ ൅ ࢞૜ ሻ ૝૝ሻ න  ൌ ൅࡯ ૛ ൅ ࢞૜ ૜ V න ࢊ࢛ ൌ ‫ ࢛ ܖܔ‬൅ ࡯ ࢛ ÷ V .

V  .

V න A ൌ ʹ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ  ՜ ݀A ൌ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݀‫ݔ‬V ͳ ݀A ͳ ͳ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݀‫ݔ‬ ൌ න ൌ Ž A ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ Žሺʹ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ଷ ͵ A ͵ ͵ ʹ൅‫ݔ‬         .

૝૞ሻ න c c .

        c   ૛ ࢞ ࢊ࢞ ‫ܖܔ‬ሺ૛ ൅ ࢞૜ ሻ ‫׵‬න  ൌ  ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ૛ ൅ ࢞૜ ૜ ࢚ࢊ࢚ ‫ܖܔ‬ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚૛ ሻ  ൌ  ൅࡯ ࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚૛ ૛࢈ V න ࢊ࢛ ൌ ‫ ࢛ ܖܔ‬൅ ࡯ ࢛ ÷ V .

V  .

V න A ൌ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଶ  ՜ ݀A ൌ ʹܾ‫ݐ݀ݐ‬V ‫ݐ݀ݐ‬ ͳ ݀A ͳ ͳ න ൌ ൌ Ž A ൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ Žሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ଶ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݐ‬ ʹܾ A ʹܾ ʹܾ ‫׵‬න ࢚ࢊ࢚ ‫ܖܔ‬ሺࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚૛ ሻ  ൌ  ൅ ࡯ࡾࢋ࢙࢖ǤV ࢇ ൅ ࢈࢚૛ ૛࢈ V         .

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