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Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing. typically by the minute or the hour.a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time. have accelerated interest in cloud computing. It is sold on demand.   is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). http://searchcloudcomputing. The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams. A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional    . as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy. it is elastic -.techtarget. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS).

"It is a vision that sounds a lot like what we are calling cloud computing.0 being the most recent evolution. from anywhere. cloud computing has developed along a number of lines. explained Margaret Lewis. with Web 2. who was responsible for enabling the development of   !    " #$ %&'& His vision was for everyone on the globe to be interconnected and accessing programs and data at any site. cloud computing for the masses has been something of a late developer. similar to the service bureaus which date back to the in 1999. However. since the internet only started to offer significant bandwidth in the nineties. . One of the first milestones for cloud computing was the arrival of Salesforce. which pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via a simple website.   The idea of an "intergalactic computer network" was introduced in the sixties by   . The services firm paved the way for both specialist and mainstream software firms to deliver applications over the internet. product marketing director at AMD." Other experts attribute the cloud concept to computer scientist   (  who proposed the idea of computation being delivered as a public utility. Since the sixties.

Then in 2006. and universal software interoperability standards. When these companies deliver services in a way that is reliable and easy to consume. "Amazon EC2/S3 was the first widely accessible cloud computing infrastructure service. chief technology officer at IT service provider Cobweb Solutions. Another big milestone came in 2009.0 hit its stride. Amazon launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their own computer applications. we can only begin to imagine its scope and reach." said Dan Germain. which provides its SaaS online video platform to UK TV stations and newspapers. the development of universal high-speed bandwidth. said UK cloud computing pioneer Jamie Turner. Pretty much anything can be delivered from the cloud.The next development was Amazon Web Services in 2002." Š     . "As cloud computing extends its reach beyond a handful of early-adopter Google Docs users." said Jeremy Allaire. Other key factors that have enabled cloud computing to evolve include the maturing of virtualisation technology. as Web 2. the knock-on effect to the industry as a whole is a wider general acceptance of online services. CEO of Brightcove. though services such as Google Apps. "The most important contribution to cloud computing has been the emergence of "killer apps" from leading technology giants such as Microsoft and Google. and Google and others started to offer browser-based enterprise applications. which provided a suite of cloud- based services including storage. computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk. Turner added.

network performance and economics are likely to lead to a mix of cloud computing centres both within the company firewall and outside of it. This means that it will be 2010 at the earliest before cloud adoption sees increased growth. flexibility and cost reduction. a specialist in emerging technologies. "Considerations such as security." He added that today's applications will naturally move towards a cloud model as they become more pervasively available through the web. "Many IT professionals recognise the benefits cloud computing offers in terms of increased storage. and span the boundaries of multiple devices. But he added that IT directors still have concerns about the security of their corporate data in the cloud. data privacy. Julian Friedman. . chief executive officer of Platform Computing. require more data processing. said that security and other concerns will soon be resolved." said Songnian Zhou.

http://www. cloud computing services "can enable an enterprise to expand its infrastructure." It is clear that cloud computing can bring enormous benefits for IT users. add capacity on demand. resulting in greater flexibility.Experts seem to agree that cloud computing will ultimately transform today's computing landscape. Andreas Asander. a wider choice of computing resources and significant cost savings.htm     . However. vice-principal of product management at virtualisation security specialist Clavister. whilst learning how to secure. manage and monitor the growing range of external resources residing in the cloud. or outsource the whole infrastructure.computerweekly. said that once the security issues are computing. the bottom line for IT directors is that they will need to continue to manage their internal computing environments.


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The consolidation provided by virtualization. it must be virtualized. virtualized environments leverage server virtualization (typically from VMware. These services need to be easily provisioned and de-provisioned via software automation. The foundation for the dynamic infrastructure is a standardized.      Cloud computing requires a dynamic computing infrastructure. o. Microsoft. The infrastructure must deliver business value over and above the investment. this infrastructure should be highly utilized. scalable. or Xen) as the basis for running services. without requiring architecture rework. A dynamic computing infrastructure is critical to effectively supporting the elastic nature of service provisioning and de-provisioning as requested by users while maintaining high levels of reliability and security. ultimately yielding a very effective use of capital equipment. Today. creates a high level of utilization and reuse. coupled with provisioning automation. Next. These service workloads need to be moved from one physical server to another as capacity demands increase or decrease. There should be levels of redundancy to ensure high levels of availability. but mostly it must be easy to extend as usage growth demands it. whether provided by an external cloud provider or an internal IT department. and secure physical infrastructure. Finally.

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centric models. In most cases.or server. Cloud computing is IT (or business) service-centric. users of the cloud generally . This is in stark contrast to more traditional system.

An IT Service Centric approach enables user adoption and business agility ± the easier and faster a user can perform an administrative task the more expedient the business moves. they don¶t want to get bogged down in the system and network administration of the environment. want to run some business service or application for a specific. o. timely purpose. By abstracting away the server-centric view of the infrastructure. reducing costs or driving revenue. system users can easily access powerful pre-defined computing environments designed specifically around their service. They would prefer to quickly and easily access a dedicated instance of an application or service.

o. the less administrative involvement is necessary. manage. high-valued responsibilities. The benefit of self service from the users¶ perspective is a level of empowerment and independence that yields significant business agility. This saves time and money and allows administrative staff to focus on more strategic. and report on their business services on demand. schedule. build. deploy. intuitive user interfaces that equip users to productively manage the service delivery lifecycle. Self-service cloud offerings must provide easy-to- use. O)!*     Interacting with the cloud requires some level of user self-service. Best of breed self- service provides users the ability to upload. One benefit often overlooked from the service provider¶s or IT team¶s perspective is that the more self service that can be delegated to users.

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leveraging the following capabilities: `. In order for an IT team or a service provider to efficiently provide a cloud for its constituents. they must leverage a technology platform that is self managed. Best-of- breed clouds enable self-management via software automation.

A provisioning engine for deploying services and tearing them down recovering resources for high levels of reuse `.

Mechanisms for scheduling and reserving resource capacity `.

and reporting to ensure resources can be allocated and reallocated to multiple groups of users `. managing. Capabilities for configuring.

This balance of control and delegation maintains security and uptime. and keeps operating expenses low. Tools for controlling access to resources and policies for how resources can be used or operations can be performed All of these capabilities enable business agility while simultaneously enacting critical and necessary administrative control. o. freeing up resources to focus on higher value projects. minimizes the level of IT administrative effort.


. Cloud computing platforms must provide mechanisms to capture usage information that enables chargeback reporting and/or integration with billing systems. )* *  Finally. cloud computing is usage-driven. Consumers pay for only what resources they use and therefore are charged or billed on a consumption-based model.

ultimately helping them keep their costs down. In summary. it allows them to track usage for charge back and billing purposes. From a provider¶s perspective. and significantly increased business agility. The value here from a user¶s perspective is the ability for them to pay only for the resources they use. reduced support costs. all of these defining characteristics are necessary in producing an enterprise private cloud capable of achieving compelling business value which includes savings on capital equipment and operating costs. All of these enable corporations to improve their profit margins and competitiveness in the markets they serve.    O!(    ù.

vendor makes the required software available to a business on subscription basis. SaaS model can save companies the expense on buying hardware and software and it removes the maintenance costs. With SaaS. ù. O  O  OO  SaaS is a software model provided by the vendor through an online service. and charges are based on the product usage. User doesn¶t have to install or maintain SaaS application. Software is running on a provider¶s cloud infrastructure and a user can access it via web browser.

 O  O  PaaS enables companies to develop applications more quickly and efficiently in a cloud environment using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. and operating systems. servers. The provider is responsible for maintenance and control of the underlying cloud infrastructure including network. ù. PaaS services provide a great deal of flexibility allowing companies to build PaaS environments on demand with no capital expenditures.

and improves the agility of IT services by instantly adding computing processing power and storage capacity when needed. a company can rent fundamental computing resources for deploying and running applications or storing data. á       O   áO  With IaaS. It enables companies to deliver applications more efficiently by removing the complexities involved with managing their own infrastructure. IaaS enables fast deployment of applications.      .


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    ." But criticisms are starting to pop up regarding Amazon's reliability and service-level agreements. In addition to these core offerings.   + . was previously a financial analyst. well before most of its competitors. /+ Jeffrey Bezos. the CloudFront (a Web service for content delivery). Amazon offers the SimpleDB (a database Web service).  -  + 1994  + Seattle c #. # . offering pay-as-you-go access to virtual servers and data storage space. By launching the Elastic Compute Cloud in 2006. Amazon's founder. and the Simple Queue Service (a hosted service for storing messages as they travel between computers).#  + Amazon is one of the true innovators in Web-based computing. Amazon has become almost synonymous with "cloud computing.

enterprises and individual users.  + One of the largest Web properties in existence. . c   !+ Tens of thousands of small businesses. Offering raw computing capacity over the Internet was perhaps a natural step for Amazon. which had only to leverage its own expertise and massive data center infrastructure in order to become one of the earliest major cloud providers. Amazon always excelled at delivering computing capacity at a large scale to its own employees and to consumers via the Amazon shopping site. Prominent customers include the _  .

 .   and Eli Lilly.

connectivity and billing." Pund-IT analyst Charles King says. "The service providers already have those infrastructures in place ± the data center assets. but don't discount the built-in advantage telcos have when it comes to infrastructure. "Building publicly accessible cloud infrastructure is not inexpensive or uncomplicated.   +0 -  + 1983  + Dallas   + Synaptic Hosting. c #. an application hosting service that offers pay-as-you-go access to virtual servers and storage integrated with security and networking functions.#  + Amazon and Google may be the biggest names in cloud computing today." .

/+ Randall Stephenson. appointed in 2007 after three years as AT&T's COO. rival Verizon offers cloud-based security services and seems poised to make a larger run at the cloud market later this year.While AT&T has a head start. #0   .

  . which will act as regional gateways to the AT&T cloud network.S. Olympic Committee.  + AT&T's foray into the cloud began in 2006 with its purchase of the USinternetworking. AT&T said it had combined USi technology's five "super Internet Data Centers" in the United States. an application service provider with enterprise customers in more than 30 countries. c   !+ Synaptic is powering major Web properties such as the official Web site of the U. When announcing Synaptic in August 2008. Europe and Asia.

but later developed an open source management tool that runs on top of the Xen hypervisor. Best Buy. the Canadian government. while making it easy to move virtual machines from one data center to another. But its software could prove crucial as enterprises grapple with the problem of managing a wide array of computing resources that live both inside and outside the firewall. NBC. and several universities. letting IT pros manage and govern both internal and external resources from a single console. /+ Richard Reiner. Enomaly dropped its consulting business for good last year to focus on cloud management software. Reiner was founder and CEO of Assurent. called out of semi-retirement to become Enomaly CEO this year. including Business Objects. #  +Enomaly was born five years ago as a consulting business.   +   -  + 2004  + Toronto   + Enomaly's Elastic Computing Platform (ECP) is software that integrates enterprise data centers with commercial cloud computing offerings. Deutsche Bank.   . a software-as-a-service company acquired by Telus in 2006. Most recently. France Telecom. c #.#  + Unlike the other nine vendors on this list. which focuses heavily on managing the various hypervisors used both within enterprises and by cloud providers. Enomaly doesn't offer services of its own over the Web. c   !+ More than two dozen customers have been named publicly. bankrolling the company's product development. Intel has recognized Enomaly's promise.


c #. word processing and a simple Web site creation tool. #1   . a platform-as-a-service offering that lets developers build applications and host them on Google's infrastructure. and the Google App Engine. Postini. Calif. former CTO of Sun and former CEO of Novell. calendaring. and App Engine provides a credible alternative in the platform-as-a-service market. While the company's main focus is crawling the Web and delivering advertising-supported search results. a set of e-mail and Web security services.   + Google Apps. a set of online office productivity tools including e-mail.#  + No one knows the Internet quite like Google.   +1 -  + 1998  + Mountain View. Google's foray into software-as-a-service applications for businesses is hastening the industry's move from packaged software to Web-hosted services. /+ Eric Schmidt. took the helm in 2001.

 . Google unveiled the enterprise version of Apps in February 2007 in a competitive strike against rival Microsoft. c   !+ Lots of small businesses. and followed up by releasing App Engine in April 2008. enterprises and colleges including Arizona State University and Northwestern University.  + Google Apps was the company's attempt to branch out beyond the consumer search market and become a player in the enterprise.

plus a few big names like SAP and Novell who are running pilots or small test projects on the GoGrid service. #11 + Executives at ServePath. Microsoft SQL and MySQL. created GoGrid after deciding that inefficiencies within the standard hosting model could be alleviated with a self-service. GoGrid. distinguishes itself from Amazon in a couple ways. Web 2. GoGrid development began in 2006)  + San Francisco   + The GoGrid platform offers Web-based storage and the ability to quickly deploy Windows.0 and SaaS companies.   +11   ! O! $    + March 2008 (ServePath was founded in 2001.9% for storage). GoGrid offers Windows Server 2008 instances (Amazon offers only Windows Server 2003) and 100% uptime service-level agreements (Amazon offers 99. c   !+ Mostly start-ups.95% for compute and 99. with preinstalled software including Apache. a dedicated server hosting company. the CEO and founder of ServePath. one of Amazon's chief competitors in the cloud storage and compute markets. built and sold several ISPs in the decade prior to starting ServePath. /+ John Keagy.and Linux-based virtual servers onto the cloud. PHP. pay-as-you-go infrastructure. .


/+ Steve Ballmer. For example. Azure is in beta until the second half of 2009. will it be easy to move existing applications onto the Azure platform.#  + Because this is Microsoft's first big foray into the cloud.   +( -  + 1975  + Redmond. appointed CEO in 2000 after 20 years with the company. Wash.   + Azure. #(   . it is still a new player in the cloud market and has questions to answer. But for all of Microsoft's might. a Windows-as-a-service platform consisting of the operating system and developer services that can be used to build and enhance Web-hosted applications. c #. and will Microsoft avoid the tendency toward vendor lock-in ± which is bad for users but has been tremendously profitable for Microsoft in the world of packaged software.

  . Office Communications Server. SharePoint. Microsoft also provides a set of business services over the Web. including Exchange. it's no surprise Microsoft would make Windows available over the cloud. But with all forms of applications moving to the Web-hosted model. CRM and Live Meeting.  + Microsoft made its name by developing the operating system for home and work computers. S3Edge and Micro Focus are among the early customers using Azure to develop cloud apps. c   !+ Software companies Epicor.

accounting and ERP tools. . CRM. NetSuite recently promised 50% discounts to Sage Software customers who switch to NetSuite.   + A business software suite including e-commerce.#  + One of the industry's most successful online business software providers. appointed in 2002 after holding executive positions at companies such as Oracle and Sun. NetSuite has a tendency to make competitive moves that are both entertaining and potentially profitable for customers. NetSuite will even integrate with rivals' technology. a move designed to lure Salesforce customers by enabling new business processes. and made a similar offer to Salesforce.   +O  -  + 1998  + San Mateo. Calif. c and SAP customers last year. /+ Zach Nelson. for example by connecting its ERP suite to Salesforce's CRM tools.

originally called NetLedger. NetSuite and Oracle had tight go-to-market partnerships in the company'searly years but Ellison's official influence over the company has diminished since NetSuitewent public late in 2007. Wrigleyville Sports and Isuzu. was founded by Oracle CEO Larry Ellison and NetSuite CTO Evan Goldberg to make Web-based applications for small businesses. c   !+ Thousands of small business and enterprise customers worldwide including Wolfgang Puck Coffee.  .#O + NetSuite.


With Mosso. Rackspace is taking aim at the platform-as- a-service and infrastructure-as-a-service markets. #. -  + 1998  + San Antonio   + The Rackspace Cloud.#  + Rackspace has a long history of offering hosted data center services and is a trusted name in the enterprise. a storage service." consists of three major services: Cloud sites. joined Rackspace as CFO in 2000 and became CEO in 2006. the two key areas for customers looking to build Web-hosted applications. Cloud Files. c #. a platform for building Web sites. an Amazon EC2-like service that provides access to virtualized server instances. and Cloud Servers. /+ Lanham Napier. also known as "Mosso.


which uses Mosso to deliver an online productivity tool. c   !+ Web developers and software-as-a-service providers such as Zapproved.  + Rackspace has always focused on providing dedicated. until a small team in the company said. "There has to be a better way for Web designers to build Web sites rather than getting a dedicated server" that requires extensive management. "Cloud looks a lot like our business today." Engates says. Rackspace can offer as-needed access to computing resources for one-off projects. With a multi-tenant cloud service. it's just changing how it's sold. That is.   . rather than shared. according to Rackspace CTO John Engates. data center resources.

   + O -  + 2006  + Santa Barbara.   + The RightScale Platform. Calif. performs load balancing . RightScale helps customers build and clone virtual servers for the cloud. software-as-a-service that helps customers manage the IT processes they have outsourced to cloud providers such as Amazon and GoGrid.

deploying new virtual servers and applications in the cloud requires work on the part of the IT department. Building data centers should be for "other people who have a core competency in that. particularly if a customer is using multiple cloud services. "I build SaaS services and there's no reason to go out and build a data center again. DoInk. c response to changing needs. TagCow. and offers monitoring and error reporting. who decided that software providers shouldn't be burdened with the enormous task of building and maintaining data centers. including CTO Thorsten von Eicken. RightScale is automating the grunt work required to use the cloud most effectively." c   !+ Social networking vendors and other companies that need help managing cloud-based servers. # O+ Two of RightScale's three founders come from Citrix Online." he says. automates storage backups. RightScale co-founder who was held executive positions at software- as-a-service companies including eFax and Celebros.#  + Because for all of the cloud's promises of simplicity. including ShareThis. and iWidgets.  . /+ Michael Crandell.

sales and product development the company says.   +O  -  + 1999  + San Francisco   + Salesforce. spent 13 years at Oracle in a variety of executive. /+ Marc Benioff. healthcare and with the goal of creating an information management service that could replace traditional business software technology.400 customers in many industries including financial analytics. energy. which has now been lumped into the umbrella term "cloud computing. #O + Benioff founded Salesforce. c #. Salesforce is moving beyond SaaS into the platform-as-a-service's flagship is a set of CRM tools including salesforce automation. c   !+ 55. which could revolutionize the way businesses build and deliver applications to end users and customers. a platform for building Web applications and hosting them on the Salesforce A second major offering is Force.#  + Salesforce. communications and media. marketing and social networking tools. Initial funding was provided by investors including Oracle CEO Larry Ellison. also the founder and chairman of Salesforce." With Force. .com helped pioneer the software-as-a-service market.

http://www.networkworld.html?page=1  - ±.com/su_pp/2009/ndc3/051809-cloud-companies-to- watch.

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 Also known as external cloud or multi-tenant cloud. this model essentially represents a cloud environment that is openly accessible. It generally provides an IT infrastructure in a third-party physical data center that can be utilized to deliver services without having to be concerned with the underlying technical complexities.   .

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  + ‡ homogeneous infrastructure ‡ common policies ‡ shared resources and multi-tenant ‡ leased or rented infrastructure. operational expenditure cost model ‡ economies of scale Note that public clouds can host individual services or collections of services. allow for the deployment of service compositions and even entire service inventories.   .

In other words. privacy. a private cloud intentionally limits access to its resources to service consumers that belong to the same organization that owns the cloud. the infrastructure that is managed and operated for one organization only. primarily to maintain a consistent level of control over security. Also referred to as internal cloud or on-premise cloud.   . and governance.

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  + ‡ heterogeneous infrastructure ‡ customized and tailored policies .

‡ dedicated resources ‡ in-house infrastructure (capital expenditure cost model) ‡ end-to-end control    .

 This deployment model typically refers to special-purpose cloud computing environments shared and managed by a number of related organizations participating in a common domain or vertical market. i á   .



. intercloud refers to an inter-connected global cloud of clouds. Also like the World Wide Web. we can look at the intercloud as an on-demand SOA environment where useful services managed by other organizations can be leveraged and composed. From a service consumer's perspective. Just like the Internet. In other words. intercloud represents a massive collection of services that organizations can explore and consume. services that are outside of an organization's own boundaries and operated and managed by others can become a part of the aggregate portfolio of services of those same organizations. which is a network of networks.  The intercloud is not as much a deployment model as it is a concept based on the aggregation of deployed clouds.



In the case of the former. others may only offer specific software services. like the Windows Azure Platform. locally-hosted applications would interface with cloud applications. While some cloud offerings may include the entire operating system. In both cases. A hybrid model for cloud computing combines both in-house servers and cloud services. This allows you to expand your web presence and still maintain some level of autonomy and privacy.      . The advantage of a hybrid model is that you still have your dedicated serverand all of the flexibility that it gives you. there is a mix of cloud and traditional software. In the latter case. a hybrid situation would have the user¶s locally-hosted applications interface with the remote cloud platform. but you also reap the benefits of having access to hosted services and applications from cloud hosting providers.

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`. Security concerns arising because both customer data and program are residing in Provider Premises.

Security is always a major concern in Open System Architectures .

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Disrupts Services. ß.

Theft of Information. ß.

ß. Loss of Privacy.

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ß. Hostile people giving instructions to good programs.

Bad guys corrupting or eavesdropping on communications   O 2    .

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Server access security `.

Internet access security `.

Database access security `.

Data privacy security `.

Program access Security   .