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1.1 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
It is well known fact that software companies undertake huge projects, more than at a time. Hence there is a profound need for the organizations to manage all the projects effectively and also ensure that projects cycle goes on smoothly and they are completed on time. During the life time of a project, the organization has to commemorate all the projects. This tool makes it easier for the organization to monitor the projects. It maintains the records and tracks various parameters that influence software project development to take decisions at various stages of the product development. This product will assist the organization in maintaining records of every project it undertakes. All the information relevant to the projects like size, time, effort, departments involved, etc is maintained by this tool. Throughout this project dealt with the three modules-Masters, Transactions, Reports. Masters is a place where we maintain the record of the entire project undertaken, the project employee involved with the project. Transactions is a place where we carry out required operations with respect to parameters like size estimate, effort estimate, reports generated, for the operations we committed, in the reports module. Problem Definition Manual system uses huge amounts papers and stores. Difficulty in tracking and retrieving data from the abundant papers is quite difficult. Time consuming process. Objective 1. Define and highlight importance of software project management. 2. Describe the software project management activities. 3. Gives details of project managers and other individuals involved in software 1
About Software Project Management Tool
project. Planning oversight in the implementation of the software project management process.
• • • •
PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
Manual work is reduced. Retrieval and access of information is easy. Transactions are processed quickly. Easy tracking and communication of exigencies in monetary transactions
CHAPTER - 2
After analyzing the requirements of the task to be performed, the next step
is to analyze the problem and understand its context. The first activity in the phase is studying the existing system and other is to understand the requirements and domain of the new system. Both the activities are equally important, but the first activity serves as a basis of giving the functional specifications and then successful design of the proposed system. Understanding the properties and requirements of a new system is more difficult and requires creative thinking and understanding of existing running system is also difficult, improper understanding of present system can lead diversion from solution.
The model that is basically being followed is the WATER FALL
MODEL, which states that the phases are organized in a linear order. First of all the feasibility study is done. Once that part is over the requirement analysis and project planning begins. If system exists one modification and addition of new module is needed, analysis of present system can be used as basic model. The design starts after the requirement analysis is complete and the coding begins after the design is complete. Once the programming is completed, the testing is done. In this model the sequence of activities performed in a software development project are: 1 Requirement Analysis 2 Project Planning 3 System design 4 Detail design 5 Coding 3
6 Unit testing 7 System integration & testing Here the linear ordering of these activities is critical at the end of the phase and the output of one phase is the input of other phase. Changed Requirements Communicated Requirements Requirements Engineering Requirements Specification Design Design Specification Programming Executable Software Modules Maintenance Process Integrated Software Product Integration Product Product Input Output Delivery Delivered Software Product Fig 2. WATER FALL MODEL was being chosen because all requirements were known beforehand and the objective of our software development is the computerization/automation of an already existing manual working system’s system. The output of each phase is to be consistent with the overall requirement of the system. Some of the qualities of spiral model are also incorporated like after the people concerned with the project review completion of each of the phase the work done.3 STUDY OF THE SYSTEM GUI’S In the flexibility of the users the interface has been developed a graphics 4 .1: Water Fall Model 2.
To achieve strategic alignment. part of the organizational activities and which needs proper authentication for the data collection. Data deletion and Date updating along with the extensive data search capabilities. Administrative user interface 2. The interfaces help the administrations with all the transactional states like Data insertion. The operational or generic user interface helps the users upon the system in transactions through the existing data and required services. reduce cycle’s times. organizations can respond with greater ability to the demands of fast changing business environment. The operational user interface also helps the ordinary users in managing their own information in a customized manner as per the assisted flexibilities. The Microsoft office Enterprise Project Management (EPM) is one of the existing tools that are helpful for software project management. decrease costs and increase Quality. Making strategic goals or reality requires technology that is robust enough to support your core business and yet flexible enough to accommodate your existing processes.concept in mind. By planning and tracking projects with clarity and precession. 2. projecting their business –to monitor performance more closely and make better business decision above their overall work portfolio.5 PROPOSED SYSTEM 5 . The primary purpose of any tool is to improve productivity. The GUI’S at the top level have been categorized as 1. associated through a browses interface.4 EXISTING SYSTEM AND DISADVANTAGES In a competitive business climate organizations ability to efficiently align resources and business activities with strategic objectives can mean the difference between succeeding and just surviving. The operational or generic user interface The administrative user interface concentrates on the consistent information that is practically. 2. organizations are increasingly managing their activities and processes as projectsin essence.
and technologies to project activities to meet project requirements. buildings etc Outputs: 6 . Hence the organization which implements such a process can produce better results. Buyer can view all details about sites like apartments. size. skills. The entire process is built upon just one or two parameters which do not gives us complete and desired results. and effort. So we need a system where we can deliver the correct results that would ultimately lead to a position where the overall cost and time will be consolidated. outputs and major functions of the system are as follows Inputs: • • • • Sellers can register themselves by providing all their details like address and the site photograph. Project management is the application of knowledge.6 INPUT AND OUTPUT The main inputs. Seller can receive their user Id and site Id. 2. tools. The existing tools do not consider all the factors that affect a project directly. Buyers can register themselves by providing all necessary details.For any software project the primary parameters that should be taken into account are time.
1 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Operating System Programming Language Front End Tool Web Applications User Interface Client side Script Back End Tool : Windows : Java : Java Server Pages : Jdbc.CHAPTER .3 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS 3. Servlets : HTML : Java script : Oracle 9i 3.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Processor RAM Hard Disk : Pentium III : 256MB : 40GB 7 .
the likelihood the system will be useful to the organization. Thus it provides an easy access to the users.CHAPTER . The main objective of the feasibility study is to test the Technical. regardless of the number or location of users? 4 Can the system be upgraded if developed? 5 Are there technical guarantees of accuracy. The database’s purpose is to 8 . ease of access and data security? Earlier no system existed to cater to the needs of ‘Secure Infrastructure Implementation System’. The current system developed is technically feasible. reliability.1 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY The technical issue usually raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation includes the following: 1 Does the necessary technology exist to do what is suggested? 2 Do the proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system? 3 Will the proposed system provide adequate response to inquiries. The system is feasible if they are unlimited resources and infinite time. Operational and Economical feasibility for adding new modules and debugging old running system.4 FEASIBILITY REPORT Preliminary investigation examine project feasibility. It is a web based user interface for audit workflow at NIC-CSD. There are aspects in the feasibility study portion of the preliminary investigation: 1 Technical Feasibility 2 Operation Feasibility 3 Economical Feasibility 4.
Java Virtual Machine (JVM) – a program. including: A high level language – the Java language is a high level one that at a glance looks very similar to C and C++ but offers many unique features of its own. The work for the project is done with the current equipment and existing software technology. Permission to the users would be granted based on the roles specified. 9 . that runs on a given platform and takes the byte code programs as input and interprets them just as if it were a physical processor executing machine code. such as Sun's javac. Necessary bandwidth exists for providing a fast feedback to the users irrespective of the number of users using the system. Java encompasses several parts.1. Java byte code . transforms the Java language source code to byte code that runs in the JVM.1 About Java: The term Java actual refers to more than just a particular language like Core Pascal. Therefore. 4.a compiler. establish and maintain a workflow among various entities in order to facilitate all concerned users in their various capacities or roles. such as Sun's java. The software and hard requirements for the development of this project are not many and are already available in-house at NIC or are available as free as open source. reliability and security.create. it provides the technical guarantee of accuracy.
but closer than with other languages.memory management handled by JVM No memory pointers A program runs inside the virtual machines and box.1 Features of Java: Platform Independence o The Write-Once-Run-Anywhere ideal has not been achieved (tuning for different platforms usually required). An extensive class library available in the core language packages. Several dangerous features of C & C++ eliminated o o o o o o o o No memory pointers No preprocessor Array index limit checking Automatic garbage collection . Array index limit checking Code pathologies reduced by Compiler/Interpreter Combo Automatic Memory Management Security 10 .no coding outside of class definitions.1. Object Oriented o o o o o Object oriented throughout .Fig 4. Code is compiled to byte codes that are interpreted by Java virtual machines (JVM). including main (). local variables must be initialized. The two steps of compilation and interpretation allow for extensive code checking and improved security.1. Robust o Exception handling built-in.1: Architecture of Java Virtual Machine 4. This provides portability to any machine for which a virtual machine has been written. all data must be declared an explicit type). strong type checking (that is.
Security manager .1. Linking is done on the fly. fast way to create 11 . Even if libraries are recompiled. Can take advantage of multiprocessors where available Great for multimedia displays. there is no need to recompile code that uses classes in those libraries. o o o New classes can be loaded while a program is running.lang. 4. This differs from C++. This can result in fragile classes for cases where linked code is changed and memory pointers then point to the wrong addresses Good Performance o Interpretation of byte codes slowed performance in early versions.1.2 Java server pages: Introduction to JSP: JSP (Java Server Pages) technology provides a simplified. Dynamic Binding The linking of data and methods to where they are located is done at run-time. byte code verifier .determines what resources a class can access such as reading and writing to the local disk. Prevents loading a hacked "java. Threading o o o Lightweight processes.SecurityManager" class. but advanced virtual machines with adaptive and just-in-time compilation and other techniques now typically provide performance up to 50% to 100% the speed of C++ programs. can easily be spun off to perform multiprocessing.confines objects to unique namespaces. which uses static binding. called threads.checks classes after loading Class loader . for example.
CLIENT Request JSP Text IS VAL ID No Yes Response COMPILE SERVLET Class Fig 4. JSP is being turned into a Java file. the file doesn't take long to load anymore. it will be re-compiled again. JSP technology enables rapid development of web-based applications that are server-independent and platform-independent. compiled and loaded. Every time you change the JSP file. This compilation only happens once. JSP simply puts Java inside HTML pages. so after the first load.2: Block Diagram for JSP 12 . Every JSP page will have a corresponding servlet which is generated by ‘JSP Engine’ (which is a part of web container and itself is a servlet) Corresponding servlet for JSP is generated only once when JSP is requested for the first time.dynamic web content.
and determining configuration information. for example).1. TYPE OF SYNTAX <% code %> <%= and %> <%! Java code %> DESCRIPTION These are inserted into the servlets service () method encloses java expressions.1: The used JSP tags 4. such as running queries. Because JDBC applications are written in Java. applications work on any platform. The JDBC API makes it possible to do three things: • • Establish a connection with a database or access any tabular data source Send SQL statements 13 . It isn't necessary to write separate applications to access different database systems (Oracle and Sybase. The JDBC API defines a set of Java interfaces that encapsulate major database functionality. ignored by jsp <!-.1. processing results. Table 4.Comment --> to script let translator A HTML comment.The following are the jsp tags that are used for the implementation of the current project. which are evaluated at run time for processing the request TAG Script let tags Expression tags Declaration tags Comments outside of the service() method <%--comment-. SQL is the standard language for accessing relational databases.3 Introduction to JDBC: JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is an API developed by Sun Microsystems that provides a standard way to access data using the Java programming language. Using JDBC allows you to write one application that can send SQL statements to different database systems. an application can access a variety of databases and run on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine. Using JDBC.%> A jsp comment.
Of the these classes conform to the JavaBeans component architecture Static Web content (HTML. Native-protocol/all-java driver: The native-protocol/all-Java driver (JDBC driver type 4) converts JDBC calls into the vendor-specific database management system (DBMS) protocol so that client applications can communicate directly with the database server. including the following: • • • • Server-side utility classes (database beans and so on). In addition to Web components. a Web application archive usually contains other files. The 14 . and sound files. The top-level directory of a WAR is the document root of the application. and so on). Level 4 drivers are completely implemented in Java to achieve platform independence and eliminate deployment administration issues. image. Client-side classes (applets and utility classes).3: Native-protocol/all-Java driver Web Application Archives: Web clients are packaged in web application archives.• Process the results Jdbc Drivers: Today. there are four types of JDBC drivers in use: • • • • Type 1: JDBC-ODBC bridge Type 2: partial Java driver Type 3: pure Java driver for database middleware Type 4: pure Java driver for direct-to-database In this project we are using Type4 driver which provides best database connectivity for internet based application. Client Machine Netprotocol/ all-Java driver Server Machine Data Base Server Fig 4.
relational systems for all the applications. and static Web resources are stored. data integrity and data manipulation. to deliver unmatched performance. utility Classes and JavaBeans components. Classes: A directory that contains server-side classes: servlets. • • • • web.1 Distinct features of oracle: Oracle is Portable: The Oracle RDBMS is available on wide range of platforms ranging from PCs to super computers and as a multi user loadable module for Novel NetWare. price performance and scalability. Oracle is Compatible: Oracle commands can be used for communicating with IBM DB2 mainframe RDBMS that is different from Oracle that is Oracle compatible with DB2. which contains the following files and directories. With oracle cooperative server technology we can realize the benefits of open.xml: The Web application deployment descriptor Tag library descriptor files.2. on all hardware architecture. client-side classes and archives.1. which organizes data in the form of tables.2 About Oracle: Oracle is a relational database management system. Lib: A directory that contains JAR archives of libraries (tag libraries and any utility libraries called by server-side classes). 4. War file is created like this way Jar cvf archiveName. The document root contains a subdirectory called WEB-INF. if you develop application on system you can run the same application on other systems without any modifications.1. Oracle makes efficient use of all systems resources.war. which manages a seer of data that attends three specific things-data structures. Oracle 15 . 4. Oracle is one of many database servers based on RDBMS model.document root is JSP pages.
For this purpose a normalization technique has been applied here exhaustively to design the databases. I/O. 4. Parallel processing support for speed up data entry and online transaction processing used for applications. DB procedures. Performance is achieved by eliminating CPU.RDBMS is a high performance fault tolerant DBMS. Data independence.2 Features of oracle: Most popular RDBMS in the market because of its ease of use • • • • • Client/server architecture. Managing data concurrency. memory and operating system bottlenecks and by optimizing the Oracle DBMS server code to eliminate all internal bottlenecks. which is specially designed for online transaction processing and for handling large database applications. Multithreaded Server Architecture: Oracle adaptable multithreaded server architecture delivers scalable high performance for very large number of users on all hardware architecture including symmetric multiprocessors (sumps) and loosely coupled multiprocessors. • Database Design: Database design is an important phase in designing a system. Ensuring data integrity and data security.1. since it leads to wastage of memory space. functions and packages. Normalization: Normalization is a process of simplifying the relationship between data elements in a record. Through normalization a collection of data in a record structure is replaced by successive record structures that are simpler and more predictable and therefore more manageable. 16 . During this phase care should be taken to avoid redundancy of information storing into a database.2.
e.Inability to add data to the database due to absence of other data. Second Normal Form Second normal form is achieved when a record is in first normal form and each item in the record is fully dependant on the primary key distinguishes the records. the recurrence of a data item or group of data items with in a record is actually another relation. updating. First Normal Form A repeating group. Third Normal Form 17 By this we mean simply that no attribute value can be a set of values or. a repeating . The process is used to handle the problems that can arise due to data redundancy i. Insertion anomaly .Unintended loss of data due to deletion of other data. as it is sometimes expressed. deletion anomalies.Data inconsistency resulting from data redundancy and partial update Normal Forms: These are the rules for structuring relations that eliminate anomalies. A relation is said to be in first normal form if the values in the relation are atomic for every attribute in the relation. maintain data integrity as well as handling problems that can arise due to insertion. Update anomaly . 1) Primary key is a not a composite primary key 2) No non key attributes are present 3) Every non key attribute is fully functionally dependent on full set of primary key. A relation is said to be in second Normal form is it is in first normal form and it should satisfy any one of the following rules. repetition of data in the database. Deletion anomaly .It is a process of converting a relation to a standard form. Decomposing is the process of splitting relations into multiple relations to eliminate anomalies and maintain anomalies and maintain data integrity. To do this we use normal forms or rules for structuring relation. group.
view or index definition(DDL) COMMIT-Make all recent changes permanent(DML-transitional) CREATE-Create new database objects such as tables or views DELETE-Delete a rows from a database table(DML) DROP-Drop a database object such as tables. the management issues and user requirements have been 18 . Some of the important issues raised are to test the operational feasibility of a project includes the following: 1 Is there sufficient support for the management from the users? 2 Will the system be used and work properly if it is being developed and implemented? 3 Will there be any resistance from the user that will undermine the possible application benefits? This system is targeted to be in accordance with the above-mentioned issues. view or index(DDL) INSERT-Insert new data into a database table(DML) SELECT-Retrieve data from a database table(DML) UPDATE-Change the values of some data items in the database table (DML) 4. A relation is said to be in third normal form if their exits no transitive dependencies.Third normal form is achieved when transitive dependencies are removed from a record design. Operational feasibility aspects of the project are to be taken as an important part of the project implementation. Transitive Dependency: If two non key attributes depend on each other as well as on the primary key then they are said to be transitively dependent.2 OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY Proposed projects are beneficial only if they can be turned out into information system. That will meet the organization’s operating requirements. The above normalization principles were applied to decompose the data in multiple tables thereby making the data to be maintained in a consistent state. Beforehand. List of SQL statements that can be issued against an Oracle database schema are: • • • • • • • • ALTER-Change an existing table.
So there is no question of resistance from the users that can undermine the possible application benefits.1 Input design: 19 . The well-planned design would ensure the optimal utilization of the computer resources and would help in the improvement of performance status. the development cost in creating the system is evaluated against the ultimate benefit derived from the new systems. It does not require any addition hardware or software. In the economical feasibility. Since the interface for this system is developed using the existing resources and technologies available at NIC. CHAPTER-5 DESIGN ANALYSIS 5.3 ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY A system can be developed technically and that will be used if installed must still be a good investment for the organization.taken into consideration. The system is economically feasible. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 5. 4.1. There is nominal expenditure and economical feasibility for certain.
The main objective during the input design is as given below: To produce a cost-effective method of input. Type of input Flexibility of format Speed Accuracy Verification methods Rejection rates Ease of correction 20 . which are prime inputs for the system.Input design is a part of overall system design. which are computer department’s communications to the system? Interactive. To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user. which are inputs entered during a dialogue. Internal inputs. To conclude about the input media consideration has to be given to. Input media: At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. Input stages: The main input stages can be listed as below: Data recording Data transcription Data conversion Data verification Data control Data transmission Data validation Data correction Input types: It is necessary to determine the various types of inputs. To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy. Inputs can be categorized as follows: External inputs. which are user communications with the system. Operational.
Output Media: 21 . The various types of outputs in general are: 1 External Outputs. whose destination is within organization and they are the user’s main interface with the computer. whose destination is outside the organization 2 Internal Outputs. Output Definition: The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points: Type of the output Content of the output Format of the output Location of the output Frequency of the output Volume of the output Sequence of the output It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer.1. 3 Operational outputs whose use is purely within the computer department. the keyboard can be considered to be the most suitable input device. As Input data is to be the directly keyed in by the user. it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. which involve the user in communicating directly. It should be decided as which form of the output is the most suitable. They are also used to provide a permanent copy of the results for later consultation.2 Output design: Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to users. 5. Storage and handling requirements Security Easy to use Portability Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media. 4 Interface outputs. For Example Will decimal points need to be inserted Should leading zeros be suppressed.
Whenever an invalid data is keyed in.1. the system immediately prompts the user and the user has to again key in the data and the system will accept the data only if the data is correct. still a small proportion of errors are always likely to occur. 4 The location of the users 5 The software and hardware available. the format for the output is taken from the outputs. 3 The response time required. The main outputs desired according to the requirement specification are: The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. which are currently being obtained after manual processing. 5. The system will not accept invalid data. these types of errors can be discovered by using validations to check the input data. Data validations have been included in the system in almost every area where there is a possibility for the user to commit errors.4 Data validation: Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level of detail.3 Error Avoidance and Detection: At this stage care is to be taken to ensure that input data remains accurate form the stage at which it is recorded up to the stage in which the data is accepted by the system.1. 5. Keeping in view these outputs.In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the output. Validations have been included where 22 . Error detection: Even though every effort is make to avoid the occurrence of errors. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are: 1 The suitability for the device to the particular application. 2 The need for a hard copy. This can be achieved only by means of careful control each time the data is handled. Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly coming under the category of internal outputs. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.
It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on the other hand designing a system. 23 . In other words the system has been designed to communicate effectively with the user. The system has been designed with popup menus. Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of a system. which will fit into required environment.necessary.3 NUMBER OF MODULES Administrator process Project manager view Report generation Display Status Initially to sign in the user whether it is administrator or project manager he /she are to use his username and password. is of no use. This is because the requirements have to be known during the initial stages so that the system can be designed according to those requirements. it is possible to design a system. which does not cater to the requirements of the user. It rests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give the requirement specifications because they are the people who finally use the system.2 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS Performance is measured in terms of the output provided by the application. The system is designed to be a user friendly one. The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated as given below: The system should be able to interface with the existing system The system should be accurate The system should be better than the existing system The existing system is completely dependent on the user to perform all the duties. 5. 5. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given.
Software design sits at the technical kernel of the software engineering process and is applied regardless of the development paradigm and area of application. Design is the first step in the development phase for any engineered product or system. The designer’s goal is to produce a model or representation of an entity that will later be built. Beginning, once system requirement have been 24
specified and analyzed, system design is the first of the three technical activities -design, code and test that is required to build and verify software. The importance can be stated with a single word “Quality”. Design is the place where quality is fostered in software development. Design provides us with representations of software that can assess for quality. Design is the only way that we can accurately translate a customer’s view into a finished software product or system. Software design serves as a foundation for all the software engineering steps that follow. Without a strong design we risk building an unstable system – one that will be difficult to test, one whose quality cannot be assessed until the last stage. During design, progressive refinement of data structure, program structure, and procedural details are developed reviewed and documented. System design can be viewed from either technical or project management perspective. From the technical point of view, design is comprised of four activities – architectural design, data structure design, interface design and procedural design.
SYSTEM WORKFLOW - CONTEXT DIAGRAM
Login Login Change Password Submits Details View Allocated Project
A D M I N I S T R A T O R
Add Manager Allocate Project
Software Project Management Tool
Select Technology And Team Members
P R O J E C T M A N A G E R
View Project Status View All Projects
Assign task to Team Members View Project Status
L o g i n
V i e w T a s k
U p d a t e S t a t u s
L o g O u t
Fig 6.1: System Work Flow – Context Diagram
6.3.1 Use-Case diagrams:
3.Login <<uses>> <<uses>> <<uses>> <<uses>> View project status <<uses>> Administrator <<uses>> View all projects <<include>> login <<uses>> <<uses>> <<uses>> <<uses>> <<uses>> <<uses>> Assigns task Select technology and team members Changes password Id number View project details <<include>> Adds manager Allocates project <<include>> Project Manager <<uses>> Team Member <<uses>> Views project Status Login Views task <<uses>> <<uses>> Updates Projects Status Logout Fig 6.2: Use-Case Diagram 6.2 Class diagram: customer 27 .
3.Administrator Project Manager + Project Manager Id + New Project +Project Details + Project Id + Team Id + Adds new manager () +Adds new project () +Views Project () +Build Team Team Member +Task Id +Project Status +Views Task () +Update Project Status Fig 6.3 Activity diagram: 28 .3: Class Diagram 6.
4: Activity Diagram 6.4 E – R DIAGRAMS 29 .Start Login Verif y YES NO Project Manager Change Password Project Manager Change Password View Task Administrator Adds New Manager Views Project Select Technology and Team Members Adds New Project View Project Details Update Project Status Views Project Status Assign Task View Project Status Stop Fig 6.
The relation upon the system is structure through a conceptual ER-Diagram.5: Administrator E-R Diagram 30 . Relationships various types of indicators. The primary purpose of the ERD is to represent data objects and their Assigns project Manager Id Manager name Adds project Views Project Details Administrator Manager Project Details Fig 6. The entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) depicts the relationship between the data objects. The ERD is the notation that is used to conduct the date modeling activity the attributes of each data object noted is the ERD can be described resign a data object descriptions. The set of primary components that are identified by the ERD are Data object attributes relationships. which not only specifics the existential entities but also the standard relations through which the system exists and the cardinalities that are necessary for the system state to continue.
Build team Change Password Select technology View Project Status Project Manager Manager Project Details Fig 6.7: Team Member E-R Diagram 6.5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS 1) A Data Flow has only one direction of flow between symbols. It may flow in 31 .6: Project Manager E-R Diagram Change Password Views Task Update Project Status Team Member Member Project Details Fig 6.
Data cannot move directly from a source to sink it must be moved by a process. Source or Sink The origin and/or destination of data. Data Store 1) Data cannot move directly from one data store to another data store. a process. 4) A Data flow to a data store means update (delete or change). a process must move data. There must be at least one other process that handles the data flow produce some other data flow returns the original data into the beginning process. A source and /or sink has a noun phrase land 32 . 2) Data cannot move directly from an outside source to a data store. 5) A data Flow from a data store means retrieve or use.both directions between a process and a data store to show a read before an update. A data flow has a noun phrase label more than one data flow noun phrase can appear on a single arrow as long as all of the flows on the same arrow move together as one package. which receives. must move data from the source and place the data into data store 3) A data store has a noun phrase label. 2) A join in DFD means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or more different processes data store or sink to a common location. The later is usually indicated however by two separate arrows since these happen at different type. 3) A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leads.
9: Project Manager Data Flow Diagram 33 .Login Administrator Login Details Apartment Add Manager Add New Project Project Manager Data Base Project Data Base Project Fig 6.8: Administrator Data Flow Diagram Login Manager Manager Details Views Project Project Projects Data Base Task Data Base Adds Team Members Team Data Base Task Views Task Status Fig 6.
6 DATA DICTIONARY After carefully understanding the requirements of the client the entire data storage requirements are divided into tables. The below tables are normalized to avoid any anomalies during the course of data entry.1: pmanager Data Type VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(15) Column Name PID Constraint NOT NULL 34 Data Type VARCHAR2(10) .10: Team Member Data Flow Diagram 6.Login Buyer Details Apartment Views Apartment Views Building Sitereg Data Base Building Sitereg Data Base Fig 6. Column Name PMID PMNAME PASSWORD Constraint NOT NULL Table 6.
5: tt (select group) Column Name RID TID RNAME Data Type VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(20) Table 6.3: source Column Name TAID RID PMID DOA DESCRIP PRIORITY EHOC STATUS Constraint Data Type VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(10) DATE VARCHAR2(400) VARCHAR2(15) NUMBER(3) VARCHAR2(15) Table 6.2: project VARCHAR2(25) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(3) NUMBER(12) DATE VARCHAR2(15) DATE Column Name RID RNAME TECHNO REXP STATUS PASSWORD Constraint NOT NULL Data Type VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(3) VARCHAR2(15) VARCHAR2(10) Table 6.PNAME PMID PDURATION PCOST DIT STAGE DOC Table 6.4: Task Column Name TID PNAME TECHNO TSIZE PMID Constraint NOT NULL Data Type VARCHAR2(10) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(3) VARCHAR2(10) Table 6.6: ttt (update task status) 35 Constraint .
1 Module description: 36 .CHAPTER-7 IMPLEMENTATION 7.1 NUMBER OF MODULES Administrator process Project manager view Report generation Display Status Initially to sign in the user whether it is administrator or project manager he /she are to use his username and password. 7.1.
effort.Administration process: In this process Administrator will add a new project to the existing list of projects . the computer selects the next stage in the interaction. 2.2 USER INTERFACE DESIGN It is essential to consult the system users and discuss their needs while designing the user interface: User interface systems can be broadly classified as: 1. Computer initiated interfaces In the computer initiated interfaces the computer guides the progress of the user/computer dialogue. This product will assist the organization in maintaining records of every project it undertakes. Project manager view: In this the project manager can assign a project to a group with some team id where this team of crew will be set only for that project. Project manger can also view the present status of all the projects under him. User-initiated interfaces: User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes: 1. In the computer-initiated interface. controlling the progress of the user/computer dialogue. else gives information in response to the date of checking status. Command driven interfaces: In this type of interface the user inputs commands or queries which are interpreted by the computer. 7. All the information relevant to the projects like size. Display Status: This process is for checking the project status at the time of project construction. The administrator can add new manager to the list of managers. User initiated interface the user is in charge. This shows the days left for completion if not completed.Here he /she can also open an existing project for viewing the details of projects along with the teams working for that project including its present status. time. etc is maintained by this tool. Information is displayed and the user response of the computer takes action or displays further information. 37 . and departments involved.
Forms oriented interface: The user calls up an image of the form to his/her screen and fills in the form. System Security can be divided into four related issues: 1 Security 2 Integrity 3 Privacy 38 . The menu system for the user is presented with a list of alternatives and the user chooses one. As user is bound to commit some errors or other while designing a system the system should be designed to be helpful by providing the user with information regarding the error he/she has committed. This application must be able to produce output at different modules for different inputs. Error message design: The design of error messages is an important part of the user interface design. Computer-initiated interfaces: The following computer – initiated interfaces were used: 1. procedures and people against unauthorized use or natural Disaster is known as System Security. software. of alternatives.2. data. The forms oriented interface is chosen because it is the best choice. CHAPTER-8 SECURITY SYSTEM 8. Right from the start the system is going to be menu driven.1 INTRODUCTION The protection of computer based resources that includes hardware. 2. Questions – answer type dialog system where the computer asks question and takes action based on the basis of the users reply. Choosing one option gives another popup menu with more options. In this way every option leads the users to data entry form where the user can key in the data. the opening menu displays the available options.
unfair or excessive dissemination of information about it. It is an attribute of information that characterizes its need for protection. 3 Tab-indexes are set according to the need and taking into account the ease of 39 . Client side validation saves server time and load to handle invalid data. It is always important to ensure that only valid data is entered and only valid operations are performed on the system. Some checks imposed are: 1 VBScript in used to ensure those required fields are filled with suitable data only. Privacy defines the rights of the user or organizations to determine what information they are willing to share with or accept from others and how the organization can be protected against unwelcome. Data Security is the protection of data from loss. The system employees two types of checks and controls: System security refers to various validations on data in form of checks and Client Side Validation Various client side validations are used to ensure on the client side that only valid data is entered. modification and destruction. System Integrity refers to the power functioning of hardware and programs. appropriate physical security and safety against external threats such as eavesdropping and wiretapping. 8.4 Confidentiality System Security refers to the technical innovations and procedures applied to the hardware and operation systems to protect against deliberate or accidental damage from a defined threat. disclosure. Maximum lengths of the fields of the forms are appropriately defined. Confidentiality is a special status given to sensitive information in a database to minimize the possible invasion of privacy. 2 Forms cannot be submitted without filling up the mandatory data so that manual mistakes of submitting empty fields that are mandatory can be sorted out at the client side to save the server time and load.2 SECURITY IN SOFTWARE controls to avoid the system from failing.
user while working with the system. A primary key value cannot be duplicated. Some of the server side checks imposed is: 1 Server side constraint has been imposed to check for the validity of primary key and foreign key. Access permissions to various types of users are controlled according to the organizational structure. CHAPTER-9 SYSTEM TESTING 9. Server side checks are necessary to save the system from failing and intimating the user that some invalid operation has been performed or the performed operation is restricted. constraints on several restricted operations are imposed. passwords and permissions are controlled o the server side. The underlying motivation of program 40 . In fact. Username. Only permitted users can log on to the system and can have access according to their category. A strategy for software testing integrates software test case design methods into a well-planned series of steps that result in the successful construction of software. Server Side Validation Some checks cannot be applied at client side. design and coding. 2 User is intimating through appropriate messages about the successful operations or exceptions occurring at server side. testing is the one step in the software engineering process that could be viewed as destructive rather than constructive. Testing is the set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. 4 Using server side validation.1 INTRODUCTION Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification. 3 Various Access Control Mechanisms have been built so that one user may not agitate upon another. Any attempt to duplicate the primary value results into a message intimating the user about those values through the forms using foreign key can be updated only of the existing foreign key values.
To develop computer software we spiral in along streamlines that decrease the level of abstraction on each turn. Initially system engineering defines the role of software and leads to software requirement analysis where the information domain. where the focus is on the design and the construction of the software architecture. Finally we arrive at system testing. 1. The unit testing we have is white box oriented and some modules the steps are conducted in parallel.we have 41 . we come to design and finally to coding.3 UNIT TESTING Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design. Moving inward along the spiral. 9. the module. functions. White Box Testing This type of testing ensures that 1 All independent paths have been exercised at least once 2 All logical decisions have been exercised on their true and false sides 3 All loops are executed at their boundaries and within their operational bounds 4 All internal data structures have been exercised to assure their validity. where the software and other elements are tested as a whole.testing is to affirm software quality with methods that can economically and effectively apply to both strategic to both large and small-scale systems. behavior. constraints and validation criteria for software are established. Unit testing begins at the vertex of the spiral and concentrates on each unit of the software as implemented in source code.2 STRATEGIC APPROACH TO SOFTWARE TESTING The software engineering process can be viewed as a spiral. To follow the concept of white box testing we have tested each form . Testing progress by moving outward along the spiral to integration testing. 9. Talking another turn on outward on the spiral we encounter validation testing where requirements established as part of software requirements analysis are validated against the software that has been constructed. A strategy for software testing may also be viewed in the context of the spiral. performance.
The following exercise was adopted for all loops: 1 All the loops were tested at their limits. P is the number of predicate nodes. This kind of testing was used only when some local variable were declared. Loop Testing In this type of testing all the loops are tested to all the limits possible. And all the resulting paths were tested. Basic Path Testing Established technique of flow graph with Cyclamate complexity was used to derive test cases for all the functions. The definition-use chain method was used in this type of testing. Determine the basis of set of linearly independent paths. All loops are executed on their boundaries. 5 Unstructured loops were resolved into nested loops or concatenated loops and 42 . just above them and just below them. 5. E is the number of edges. Conditional Testing In this part of the testing each of the conditions were tested to both true and false aspects. 4. using formula: V (G) =E-N+2 or V (G) =P+1 or V (G) =Number of Regions Where V (G) is Cyclamate complexity. 3 For nested loops test the inner most loop first and then work outwards. 3. Data Flow Testing This type of testing selects the path of the program according to the location of definition and use of variables.created independently to verify that Data flow is correct. 4 For concatenated loops the values of dependent loops were set with the help of connected loop. 2. Determine the Cyclamate complexity of resultant flow graph. These were particularly useful in nested statements. All conditions are exercised to check their validity. The main steps in deriving test cases were: Use the design of the code and draw correspondent flow graph. 2 All the loops were skipped at least once. So that each path that may be generate on particular condition is traced to uncover any possible errors. N is the number of flow graph nodes.
tested as above. CHAPTER-10 OUTPUT SCREENS 43 . Each unit has been separately tested by the development team itself and all the input have been validated.
CHAPTER-11 CONCLUSION Software project management tool is a fundamental part of the Software Engineering lifecycle process. Effective use of a tool is will lead to a more structured approach throughout the development lifecycle. 64 . resulting in a higher quality product while also reducing development and support costs.
CHAPTER-12 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT Now by making use of software project management tool we are able to deal the projects in small companies and institutions. but in future we can adopt this tool for MNC’s with further resources according to future requirements. 65 .
CHAPTER-13 BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • Java Server Programming By Subramanyam Allamaraju. ORACLE By Evan Byross HTML Black Book By Steven Holzner. HTML Complete Reference Software Engineering By Pressman 66 . Cedric Buest.
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