the dynamic interplay between water policy, residential water use, the urban landscape, and plant & bird

diversity
Madhusudan Katti*, Andrew Jones, Henry Delcore, Derya Ozgoc-Caglar, Tom Holyoke California State University, Fresno
Resilience 2011 Conference, March 12, 2011

Water management and urban resilience:

Urban Long-Term Research Area Fresno And Clovis Ecosocial Study

Water: a key resource & ecosystem service in any urban Socio-Ecological System (SES)

What drives water consumption?

What drives water consumption?

Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption

What drives water consumption?

Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption

at individual/household scale as well as larger social units

What drives water consumption?

Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption

at individual/household scale as well as larger social units

As both a good and a service, water is usually priced at a low rate in industrialized and post-industrial countries

What drives water consumption?

Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption

at individual/household scale as well as larger social units

As both a good and a service, water is usually priced at a low rate in industrialized and post-industrial countries

as it is deemed essential to human survival;

What drives water consumption?

Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption

at individual/household scale as well as larger social units

As both a good and a service, water is usually priced at a low rate in industrialized and post-industrial countries

as it is deemed essential to human survival; and therefore, often priced for delivery of service rather than for the resource itself

Water pricing as a regulatory tool?

Water pricing as a regulatory tool?

Water pricing may reduce water consumption under certain conditions

Water pricing as a regulatory tool?

Water pricing may reduce water consumption under certain conditions

but most municipal water departments avoid water pricing policies that could encourage conservation

Water pricing as a regulatory tool?

Water pricing may reduce water consumption under certain conditions

but most municipal water departments avoid water pricing policies that could encourage conservation

The cost of water is negligible for budgetary decision making in most households - particularly true in the US

What shapes water consumption?

What shapes water consumption?

Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by

What shapes water consumption?

Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by

home design (age of house, irrigation technology)

What shapes water consumption?

Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by

home design (age of house, irrigation technology) residential landscape design (type of plants, yard layout)

What shapes water consumption?

Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by

home design (age of house, irrigation technology) residential landscape design (type of plants, yard layout) status honor gained by conspicuous consumption of resources

What shapes water consumption?

Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by

home design (age of house, irrigation technology) residential landscape design (type of plants, yard layout) status honor gained by conspicuous consumption of resources or, by decreased consumption through newer technology and design that may be linked to greater environmental awareness

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity

plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity

plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions

Water availability, plant diversity & cover, landscape structure and heterogeneity drive animal diversity

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity

plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions

Water availability, plant diversity & cover, landscape structure and heterogeneity drive animal diversity

birds freely choose to inhabit/abandon urban habitats,

Consequences of human water consumption on urban biodiversity

Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity

plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions

Water availability, plant diversity & cover, landscape structure and heterogeneity drive animal diversity

birds freely choose to inhabit/abandon urban habitats, therefore they are good indicators of biodiversity outcomes

How much water do we use in the Cadillac Desert?

How much water do we use in the Cadillac Desert?

How much water do we use in the Cadillac Desert?
Gallons of water / person / day
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Albuquerque Fresno Las Vegas Phoenix Tucson

Poverty in Fresno
% of population below the poverty line Fresno 30 24 18 12 6 0 Families Individuals U.S.

26.2 20.5 12.4 9.2

Household Water Use in Fresno

Household Water Use in Fresno

Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially

Household Water Use in Fresno

Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially

70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation

Household Water Use in Fresno

Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially

70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation

No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate

Household Water Use in Fresno

Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially

70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation

No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate

Neighboring Clovis has metered water since 1910

Household Water Use in Fresno

Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially

70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation

No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate

Neighboring Clovis has metered water since 1910 Fresno rejected metering in early 1990s referendum

Household Water Use in Fresno

Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially

70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation

No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate

Neighboring Clovis has metered water since 1910 Fresno rejected metering in early 1990s referendum

Meters now being installed; target date for full implementation of metering: 2013 (we hope...)

Experimental opportunity

Experimental opportunity

The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment”

Experimental opportunity

The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment” Clovis provides a “control” as an adjacent city with similar socioeconomics /demographics but >100 yrs of metering

Experimental opportunity

The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment” Clovis provides a “control” as an adjacent city with similar socioeconomics /demographics but >100 yrs of metering We have an opportunity to examine the socioecological dynamics of water use in a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design.

Experimental opportunity

The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment” Clovis provides a “control” as an adjacent city with similar socioeconomics /demographics but >100 yrs of metering We have an opportunity to examine the socioecological dynamics of water use in a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design. Currently in the Before phase, establishing baseline data

Urban Long-Term Research Area Fresno And Clovis Ecosocial Study

External Drivers Socioeconomic / Political Factors Ecological Factors

Q5
Biotic Structure Institutional
Water use policies, land use decisions, metering Animal Diversity

Disturbance Regimes

Q1

Long-term Press
Global Climate Change

Q2

Q4
LULC / Plant Diversity

Short-term Pulses
Water use and availability

Individual
Civic-mindedness, identity, socioeconomic status

Q3

Ecosystem Function
water cycles and dynamics

Ecosystem Services
water supply, quality
Source for model: Integrative Science for Society and Environment: A Strategic Research Initiative

Main Research Questions

Main Research Questions
1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES?

Main Research Questions
1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES? 2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/landcover) & plant diversity?

Main Research Questions
1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES? 2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/landcover) & plant diversity? 3. How are institutional & individual factors related to land cover & plant diversity at broader scales?

Main Research Questions
1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES? 2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/landcover) & plant diversity? 3. How are institutional & individual factors related to land cover & plant diversity at broader scales? 4. How does land use & plant diversity affect bird diversity in cities?

Main Research Questions
1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES? 2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/landcover) & plant diversity? 3. How are institutional & individual factors related to land cover & plant diversity at broader scales? 4. How does land use & plant diversity affect bird diversity in cities? 5. More broadly, how do the dynamic interactions & feedback between institutional/individual actors and an ecosystem service (water) affect ecological outcomes (i.e., plant & bird diversity)?

Study Area & Sampling Design
Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area
Madera  County

Fresno  Bird  Count  Study  Area
California Clovis

Fresno  County

Fresno
Fresno  County

FBC  site   (N=460)

Censused  in  2008   (N=184)

Habitat  surveyed   in  2008  (N=38)

One set of pathways examined

One set of pathways examined

Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood.

One set of pathways examined

Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood. Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation.

One set of pathways examined

Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood. Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation. Bird species richness will be partially positively correlated with areas containing increased vegetative cover.

One set of pathways examined

Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood. Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation. Bird species richness will be partially positively correlated with areas containing increased vegetative cover. Foraging guild richness will be partially correlated to areas of higher irrigation.

One set of pathways examined

Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood. Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation. Bird species richness will be partially positively correlated with areas containing increased vegetative cover. Foraging guild richness will be partially correlated to areas of higher irrigation.

Bird Species Richness in the FCMA

• In 2008 • 186 points surveyed by 30
volunteers

• 68 bird species recorded • 3,263 total birds • Average species richness
per site 5.13 ± 0.16 SE
!"#$%&&$ #"'$%&&$ '"($%&&$ ("!)$%&&$

Multivariate drivers of bird diversity
Model based inference based on comparison of 56 models. Best model (lowest AICc = 119.67): 8 parameters, 3 interaction terms Whole model R2=0.68 (adj. R2=0.52), F(12,25)=4.47, P=0.0008

Source
Mode of Irrigation * %Population Below Poverty % Grass Cover * % Population Below Poverty Mean Grass Height * % Population Below Poverty Mean Irrigation Score % Open Canopy % Building % Grass Mean Irrigation * Mode of Irrigation Mean Grass Height Mode of Irrigation % Population below Poverty

+ve/-ve +
+ + + + -

F-ratio 8.28 7.71
3.16 3.03 2.85 2.28 1.56 1.12 1.01 0.75 0.50

P value 0.008 0.01
0.09 0.09 0.10 0.14 0.22 0.29 0.32 0.45 0.48

Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity

Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity

Residential irrigation decreased significantly with increased % poverty.

Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity
✤ ✤

Residential irrigation decreased significantly with increased % poverty. Species Diversity: Multivariate results indicate that poverty has strong indirect effects on bird species diversity through intermediate variables including irrigation, % grass, % open canopy, and mean grass height.

Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity
✤ ✤

Residential irrigation decreased significantly with increased % poverty. Species Diversity: Multivariate results indicate that poverty has strong indirect effects on bird species diversity through intermediate variables including irrigation, % grass, % open canopy, and mean grass height. Guild Diversity: Poverty and Irrigation significantly affects bird guild diversity. Multivariate results show that both poverty and irrigation have strong effects on bird guild diversity through intermediate variables including mean grass height and % grass.

Other pathways being studied
✤ ✤

Same sampling scheme as FBC Tree Diversity and Cover survey (in progress) Social Survey of individual households (mailed this week!) Interviews of institutional actors (key policy makers & implementers in city govt; summer 2011) Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analysis (preliminary)

It takes a village to study the city...

Paying the bills:

National Science Foundation & U.S. Forest Service (ULTRA-Ex Award # 0949036) CSU Fresno: Provost, College of Science and Mathematics, Division of Graduate Studies Robert and Norma Craig Foundation Fresno Audubon Society

Tucson Bird Count, NiJeL for database management Graduate students: Bradley Schleder, Seth Reid City of Fresno, City of Clovis, Fresno County Citizen Scientists of the Fresno Bird Count!

NiJeL!

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