CONSUMERS· MOTIVATION IN PURCHASING GREEN PRODUCTS

ABSTRACT
With the issue of global climate change, it has not just made an active involvement of people in saving the environment but it has also emerged into another business practice. Global climate crisis has created companies to adopt into the practice of green marketing making consumers to have the choice of purchasing products that do not harm the environment. Thus, the creation of green products. This paper is exploratory in nature and has three objectives. The first objective is that to identify the types of green products consumers buy. While the second objective is to determine what indicator in each motivational factor does encourage consumers to buy green products most. Lastly, the main objective of this paper is to find out whether or not the motivational factors such as environmental concern, perceived consumer effectiveness, reference group, environmental laws and regulations, promotional tools, and consumer knowledge lead to the actual purchasing of green products by consumers. Convenience sampling has been used to gather necessary data. With the aid of t-test, results have shown that the motivational levels of each indicator in each motivational factor vary. Through the use of Pearson chi-square statistical test, results have revealed that although some consumers are highly motivated it doesn·t lead to their actual purchase of green products while others when highly motivated they lead to actual purchase. Keywords: Green products; motivational factors; green marketing; green purchasing; indicators on green purchasing;

1. INTRODUCTION
For the past years, there has been an increased emergence on the production and consumption of green products. Mazar and Bo Zhong (2009) reported that there is a remarkable growth of the global market for organic and environmentally friendly product. At the same time, as environmental issues become more important to citizens, they demand enhanced environmental performance from companies by exerting pressure on public policy makers to enact regulations, taxes, permits, and penalties that motivate companies to improve their environmental performance (Manikas and Godfrey 2010). Corporations are often, and quite justifiably, accused of harming the environment. Many of their production processes and products do degrade the environment (Geoffrey Heal ). With this, companies adapted the concept of green products in order to shift the negative impression. Green products are products that will not pollute the earth or deplore natural resources, and can be recycled or conserved. It is a product that has more environmentally sound content or packaging in reducing the environmental impact. In other words, green product refers to product that incorporates the strategies in recycling or with recycled content, reduced packaging or using less toxic materials to reduce the impact on the natural environment (Chen and Chai 2010). This research wants to identify the types of green products being purchased by the consumers. Moreover, it is the goal of the researcher to determine what indicator in each motivational factor does encourage consumers to buy green products the most. Furthermore, this research is aiming to find out

and the lack of human action to protect the environment for future generations (Bohlen et al. attitude) amd environmental friendly behavior (Roberts and Bacon 1997). environmental laws and regulations.2007b). pg.. 1991). reference group. 1993. 2003 Mostafa. et. Al (1997). this study will be a fulfillment for societal concerns and academic well-being. Previous empirical evidence emphasized that environmental concern is a major factor in the consumer decision making (Zimmer et al.1b Perceived Consumer Effectiveness Perceived consumer effectiveness refers to the extent to which individuals believe that their actions make a difference in solving a problem (Ellen. Berger and Corbin (1992) found that green consumers· behavior could be influenced by their consumer perceived effectiveness (i. Wagner. 1997. attitude) towards the protection of the environment.e. C. What people think is good idea does not always predict what they actually do. Kim and Choi. especially in the case of environmental values and behaviors. 1994. 2001).. CFC-free hairspray or unbleached coffee filters) (Bergeron et al. T. Consumers now take into consideration the concern over the environment on their purchasing decision. Weiner and Cobb-Walgren. perceived consumer effectiveness. Accordingly.1 MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS 2. principles. Over the years a majority of consumers have realized that their purchasing behavior has a direct impact on many ecological problems. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND 2.B. Bohlen. T.. Lastly. However. Predictably. the researchers would want the research to serve as useful material in future purposes specifically as a reference for future researches. Hume 2001 has a different finding on the relationship between the positive attitude of consumers on the environment and their purchasing decision. This research is set on the purpose of knowing the impact of the factors that affect the purchasing decision on green products. this research would be another future conduct in the business community. H. and practices on the subject green marketing. (1991)).. people·s level of environmental concern is linked to their interest and willingness to purchase green products ((Mainieri. Shwepker. case studies. To the corporate world. Ellen. It is defined as ´the evaluation of the self in the context of the issue (Berger and Corbin. 2. 2005). Checking if the product is wrapped in a recycled material) and by purchasing only ecological compatible products (e. 80-81. and consumer knowledge lead to the actual purchasing of green products by consumers. As students. Diamontopolous et al. 1998).1a Environmental Concern Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly environmentally conscious marketplace. biodegradable paint. This study will then be a tool for the betterment of the community and society as a whole. Customers adapted to this new threatening situation by considering environmental issues when shopping (e. 2.whether or not the motivational factors such as environmental concern. . Weiner and Cobb-Walgren (1991) demonstrate that perceived consumer effectiveness for environmental issues is distinct from environmental concerns or attitudes and contribute to the prediction of environmentally conscious behaviors. studies have found positive correlations between environmental concern (i.g. 1994. Hume(1991) concluded that consumers do not always act in accordance with their social reporting about the environment. promotional tools. Ottman. assignments and projects. as researchers. Environmental concern can be conceptualized as a general attitude that reflects the extent to which the consumers is worried about threats for the harmony of nature and future generations. 2007a. It is actually a continual effort for the researchers to add another set of knowledge on the existing theories.g.e. & Cornwell.

despite their support for policies designed to improve the environment.al. Normative reference groups include parents. Perceived consumer effectiveness affects knowledge. Kim and Choi. 2007. Product endorsements occur when the . and that certain environmental and demographic variables are significant for differentiating between the ¶greener· segment and the other segments. they will make some sort of material difference. one is left with the impression that the Portuguese sample. Bristol and Mangleburg. however. Buying brands manufactured by companies whose products and processes are more environmentally friendly enhances a desired self concept. (Knox J.g. however they are rarely associated with green products (Charter et al. when they purchase an environmental friendly product . coworkers. 2006). generally speaking. Comparative reference groups are sports heroes and entertainment figures who provide standards for. these reference groups are frequently used.1c Reference Group Social norms are important motivators of ecologically responsible behavior (Ewing. and attitudes through direct interaction (Childers and Rao. and peers who provide the individual with norms. 2005). other researchers argue that if perceived consumer effectiveness motivates a wide variety of behaviors. allowing consumers to ´feel good about itµ (Baker and Ozaki 2008). If consumer group has pro-environmental attitudes they may have self concepts of themselves as environmentally responsible. 2.K. 2004). or into a 30 second TV commercial (Prothero et al. 2. then this role may be over or understated depending on the type of behavior included (Kim.1d Environmental Laws and Regulations Dating back for the past 20 years.1e Promotional Tools Promotion is a marketing communication tool that aims to inform rather than just impress ² because communicating about environmental issues is difficult for marketers and involves complex issues without simple solutions. Consumer concerns about environmental issues may not translate into pro-environmental behaviors. 1979. Japan before have initiated the Kyoto Protocol where different countries were signatories and in order to resurrect the collaboration of the countries. series of rules and regulatory measures have been implemented throughout the world to tackle the issue of global warming. which shows that these concerns may be more closely related with economic factors than with an environmental consciousness (Paco et. 2005. 1997). 2002). direct experience and the experiences of others (Brown. 2. The pollutants implicated in the climate change models are produced by every country and virtually every sector of modern economies (Driesen. the susceptibility of the individual consumer and the coercive power of the group to which the consumer belongs (Hoyer and Maclnnis. and messages which are difficult to reduce down to fit onto label. The strength of normative influence of the consumers· family and social groups on purchasing decision depends on the characteristics of the product (e.. 1995). Conversely. luxury rather than a necessity.Peattie (2001) argued that consumers must feel that. do not translate into actions: they rarely join environmentalist associations and they do not take part in policy-making. In advertising. those individuals with a strong belief that their behavior will result in a positive outcome are likely to engage in such behaviors in support of their concerns for their environment (Kim and Choi. results show that consumers who buy green products do so for specific reasons. 2009). publicly displayed or used in private). Their participation is often based on protecting the environment by saving electricity and water.2009). values. teachers. A reference group is a group whose values and attitudes are used by an individual as a basis for his or her current behavior (Schiffman and Kanuk. 2001). 1992. Subramanian and Subramanian. Of particular interest to researchers and marketers are normative reference groups and comparative reference groups. 2006). 2002). Yet. On the study conducted using the Portuguese as the respondent.. Hawkins et al. 2005).

María Eugenia (2003) are helpful tools to improving enforcement and compliance with environmental laws and policies. environmental concern indicates ´the degree to which people are aware of problems regarding the environment and support efforts to solve them and or indicate the willingness to contribute personally to their solutionµ. 2. though none of these appeared to receive the recognition they may deserve. Perceived knowledge appears to contribute to perceived consumer effectiveness (Ellen. Amyx and colleagues found that subjective environmental knowledge was a better predictor of ecological purchasing intentions than objective knowledge. the level of perceived consumer effectiveness has been found to form an inverse relationship with the level of knowledge about a subject. Reference group theory is based upon the principle that people take the standards of significant others as a basis for making self-appraisals. nor have they been extensively utilized by industry. has often been linked to issues of social consciousness and attitudes (Ellen et al 1991. Substantial to the theory is the fact that individuals usually have the freedom to choose the reference groups they wish to join. According to Dunlap and Jones (2002). This indicates that consumer·s concern for the environment is an indicator of environmental concern. al. 1994). Chan 1999). and evaluate products (Alba and Hutchinson 1987). 1994). (1994)). Knowledge was found to be significantly related to how consumers gather. Not surprisingly then. 1991. consumers that think they know more about the environment are more likely to buy green products than those that actually knew about environmental issues. reference group. Further. Environmental laws and regulations indicators as well as compliance indicators.environmental group endorses a product after it has ensured that the product meets some set of established criteria. In other words. et. A key element of environmental conscious consumption is a desire by consumers for more information about the relationship between products and the environment. There are many private endorsement schemes operating around the world (Polonsky.2 INDICATORS OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS Environmental concern.1f Consumer Knowledge Involvement with a product and environmental issues are important constructs when assessing consumers· willingness to purchase.Perhaps no area of . comparisons. perceived consumer effectiveness. While on the part of perceived consumer effectiveness. 2. Tilikidou and Delistavrou 2008 concluded that citizens who more frequently adopt to proenvironmental non-purchasing behaviors are all highly educated people. according to Di Paola. and consumer knowledge have their own indicators. 2001). P. particularly in the environmental arena (Berger and Corbin 1992).S. it is the conviction that one·s actions can make a difference in a given situation. (1991)). Equally important is the influence and status of groups. with greater exposure to ´greenµ information sources influencing consumer purchasing decisions. These firms went on to promote themselves as being environmentally responsible because they did not use driftnets (Advertising Age. Mendleson. organize. Murell Dawson and Elfreda A. Chatman. Kinnear et al 1974). as well as being a significant predictor of environmentally friendly behavior (Vining and Ebreo 1990. and the power groups possess. Americans have shifted to a more environmentally conscious mindset. the greater people perceive their knowledge to be about buying recycled content and source reduced products. According to a study by GFK. P. promotional tools. measuring their effectiveness and efficiency.S. These indicators are set to be determinants of each of the motivational factors leading to actual purchase. because they have the ability to admit or deny membership to their group (E. the more likely they are to do so (Ellen.. with previous research emphasizing the importance of the relationship between product involvement and product knowledge. environmental laws and regulations. and moving into various social realms (Hyman & Singer: 3).

. H2: Consumers who believe that their actions will make a difference in solving environmental problem will purchase green products." "degradable. consumer kowledge is more likely to refer to product related information that is stored in consumer·s memory(M. the following hypotheses have been developed in relation to that of consumers· motivations in purchasing green products: H1: Consumers who are concern in the environment will purchase green products. H3: Consumers who are influenced by specific reference group will buy green products. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Graphic diagram showing the motivational factors together with its indicators leading to actual purchase decision: MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN y Indicators PERCEIVED CONSUMER EFFECTIVENESS y Indicators REFERENCE GROUP y Indicators ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS y Indicators ACTUAL PURCHASE DECISION PROMOTIONAL TOOLS y Indicators CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE y Indicators Based on the conceptual background. Lastly. 3.green marketing has received as much attention as promotion." and "environmentally friendly" in environmental advertising (Mark A. White. H4: Consumers who are influenced by environmental laws and regulations will buy green products. 2000). Alhabeeb. 2007) . green advertising claims grew so rapidly during the late 1980s that the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued guidelines to help reduce consumer confusion and prevent the false or misleading use of terms such as "recyclable. In fact. H5: Consumers who are exposed to promotional tools regarding green products will purchase green products.J.

Researchers floated the questionnaires in different places in Baguio City where consumers usually go. The respondents were undergraduate business students and consisted of both sexes and of different races. In order to answer this problem. and businessmen. The questionnaires for this study were administered to 400 consumers from Baguio City. These selected respondents answered a survey questionnaire structure in Likert format. Along with primary data. for the purposes of most surveys. 4. Participation was voluntary and no remuneration was offered. this research instrument allowed the research to carry out the quantitative approach effectively with the use of statistics for data interpretation.4%). Accordingly. housewives. in order to have a holistic representation of the consumers in Baguio City. 4. 5. respondents were chosen in such a way that different groups of consumers will be represented. The consumers completed the survey and were assured anonymity. of Respondents who purchase the product Percentage of Respondents who purchase the product 4. the researcher tested the questionnaire to twenty respondents. These respondents as well as their answers were not part of the actual study process and were only used for testing purpose.H6: Consumers who are aware and knowledgeable of the environmental issues will purchase green products. the researchers also made use of secondary resources in the form of published articles and literatures to support the survey results. Convenience Sampling was used as the method of distributing the questionnaires.000 or more. Specifically. the researchers opted to obtain the view of consumers in Baguio City in line with this topic. a total of 400 consumer respondents within Baguio City were randomly selected to make up the sample.The respondents were asked to rate each item on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 = strongly agree to 5 = strongly disagree. H7: All indicators in each motivational factor encourage green consumers to buy green products. METHODOLOGY This research was conducted in order to determine which motivational factor leads to actual purchase. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS .000 or more. Data gathered from this research instrument were then computed for interpretation. which should be adequate. With the above statistical jargon in mind.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The descriptive method of research was used for this study. In order to test the validity of the questionnaire used for the study. The majority of the respondents were female (67. sample sizes from 100 to 400 will be developed and implented. The Likert survey was the selected questionnaire type as this enabled the respondents to answer the survey easily. this rule of thumb makes sense: use a sample size of 400 for populations of Choice of Green Products No. To define the descriptive type of research. With convenience sampling. Creswell (1994) stated that the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. The researchers mention 100 as the low end of sample size because the sample size determinate formula will work with total populations of 4. In addition. private and public employees. The questionnaires were given to different group of consumers like students. A total of 400 completed the questionnaires (yielding a response rate of 100%) were obtained and deemed sufficiently complete to be useable.

650.732 19. Table 1 Types of Green Products Being Purchased by Consumers in Baguio City The above table shows that when it comes to the products being purchased by consumers in Baguio. p= 0.732. Table 2 Relationship between Indicators of Environmental Concern and Actual Green Purchasing Results indicated that there is a significant relationship between all the indicators of the motivational factor environmental concern and the actual purchase decision.8 with a total of 279 respondents out of 400 respondents. I am motivated to buy products because I want to protect the 48. I am motivated to buy products because I want to contribute in saving the environment. p= 0. p= 0. I am motivated to buy products because they do not harm the environment. 4.000 Toiletries and hygienic products Organic cosmetics Recycled products 170 91 270 Indicator 1.012).000). Many studies have shown (insert journal supporting the statement).523. (insert journal contradicting the results) According to Manierri T.581.5 22.011). and environment protection (X2= 48.581 0.011 0.523 0.050 19. only few of these products are available in Baguio City and these products are not affordable for most consumers. people·s level of environmental concern is linked to their interest and willingness to purchase green. the want to contribute in saving the environment (X2= 19. This if for the reason that organic vegetable and food are the products which are most available in the market and at the same time most affordable. This is for the reason that organic cosmetics are only being distributed to selected markets at Baguio. 2. This is because people who have environmental concern practices environmental friendly behaviors such as buying green products. vegetable and food are the products which are being purchased by consumers in Baguio City the most garnering a percentage of 69.8. 3. City. p= 0. it actually leads to the purchasing of green products.8 23.650 environment. Table 3 Relationship between Indicators of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness and Actual Green Purchasing . However. predictably. purchase of environment-friendly products (X2= 19.012 0. This is validated by the Pearson chi-square statistical test results which are as follows: concern for the environment (X2= 15. These significant results imply that when consumers are motivated by the indicators of environmental concern. While the product that gained the lowest percentage with regards to Baguio City consumer purchases are the Organic cosmetics which has a percentage of 22. I am concern for the environment.Vegetable and Food Clothing and apparel 279 94 69.8 67.5 Actual Purchase Decision X2 p 15.5 42.050). City and at the same time. et Al 1997.

Table 5 Relationship between Indicators of Environmental Laws and Regulations and Actual Green Purchasing Actual Purchase Decision Indicator X2 p 1. encouragement from a family could hardly be expected because it wants practicality. p= 0. thus I am motivated to purchase environment-friendly products. attitude) towards the protection of the environment.542 0. 4. such that the said reference groups can be associated to green products in order to effectively advertise these products and create purchase.561 0. the consumers· family does not have a significant impact to the actual purchasing behavior (X2 = 10. protecting and saving the environment.492 28.561. Surprisingly. I am a member of an organization which advocates caring..083 products.000 0.415 0. In line with this. co-workers (X2= 28. co-workers.950. This is maybe because green products are usually perceived more of as luxury goods. I am encouraged to buy products since I believe that I can protect the environment. p=0. This is supported by the study of Hoyer and Maclnnis. marketers can adopt the findings of this research. p=0.g. I am encouraged to buy products because I consider myself as an environmentally responsible person.e. luxury rather than a necessity).000 Consumers· belief that they can contribute in saving the environment (X2= 83.950 0. p=0. I am motivated to buy products because I believe that I can be a part of the solution on environmental problems. 2. Table 4 Relationship between Indicators of Reference Group and Actual Green Purchasing Actual Purchase Decision Indicator X2 P 1.107 11.228). Actual Purchase Decision X2 p 83. In the study of Chartel et al 2002. I am influenced by my family to purchase environment-friendly 10. 2.000) and the consideration of themselves as environmentally responsible persons (X2= 28. 3. 2004 which states that the strength of normative influence of the consumers· family purchasing decision depends on the characteristics of the product (e. it could also be said that the reason consumers are more influenced by their friends.000 4.664. I am motivated to buy products because I believe that I can contribute in saving the environment. These indicators are the ones which lead to actual buying of green products.072 0.029 .004). references groups are frequently used in advertising but rarely associated in green products.664 0.415. and co-members in pro-environment organizations (X2= 22.228 products. 0. The research of Berger and Corbin (1992) found that green consumers· behavior could be influenced by their consumer perceived effectiveness (i. My co-workers influence me to purchase green products. I am motivated to buy green products because of the sanctions imposed 17. I am influenced by my friends to purchase environment-friendly 13.000).374 5.107. I am influenced by my neighbors to purchase green products. and co-members in pro-environmental organizations is because of peer pressure. 8. With these.542.083).176 0.630 0. p=0. 3.Indicator 1. 22.004 Table 4 depicts that actual green purchasing is affected by the influences of the consumers· friends (X2=13.483 12. 28. And with this.131 0.000) have the significant relationship with actual purchasing decision.

g. This is because of the reason that people are afraid of the punishments that might be given to them if they do not follow these governmental laws and regulations. thus.000 because I am convinced by the television and radio advertisements.270. Results indicated that only three indicators of the promotional tools have significant relationship with the actual purchasing decision. I am encouraged to buy environmentally friendly products because I am 15.132 0.000 advertisements (e. I am encouraged to purchase products that are environment-friendly 16.759 12. Billboards. Table 6 Relationship between Indicators of Promotional Tools and Actual Green Purchasing Actual Purchase Decision Indicator X2 p 1. 7.467 26.001) significantly affect the decisions of consumers regarding the actual purchase. and the like. Table 7 Relationship between Indicators of Consumer Knowledge and Actual Green Purchasing Actual Purchase Decision Indicator X2 p 1.000) do not only motivate consumers to purchase but these motivations actually results to actual buying of green products.631. Since these are the promotional tools the consumers are most exposed with. I am motivated to buy green products because of the print 40. I am encouraged to purchase these products because of the online 29.677 0.543 0. I am encouraged to purchase products that do not harm the environment.820 0. newspapers.) 3. I am motivated to purchase products that are environment-friendly 11.by the government concerning environmental conservation 2.000 my knowledge about global warming. I do not want to disobey the environmental laws and regulations.000). brochures.029) and consumers· favorable response on imposed environmental laws and regulations (X2=26. p=0.481 0.457 0.855 0.173 because I am convinced by the endorsers of the product. I am motivated to purchase products that are environment-friendly because I am aware of the existing environmental laws and regulations. I am encouraged to purchase products that are safe to the environment 29. This is being supported by Polonsky.072. This means that these indicators do not only motivate consumers but actually results to actual green purchasing.481.820. 1994 where in the study stated that the exposure of consumers to the various media promoting green products affect purchase behavior. p=0.al. 3. This is being supported by the study of Paco et.2009 where in environmental laws and regulations being imposed by the government affect consumers· actual purchase of green products because of the fear of being penalized.001 Government sanctions on environmental conservation (X2=17.270 0. 3. 4. 2.000 advertisements concerning environment-friendly products. I am motivated to purchase products that do not harm the environment.043 . p=0. magazines. 2. and online advertisements (X2=29.631 0.000). Broadcast media (X2=29.965 0. print advertisements (X2=40. thus. recognition of the green products promoted through these media will be higher. 4. I agree with the imposed environmental laws and regulations. p=0.034 because I am informed with the different pollutions. I am motivated to purchase environment-friendly products because of 32. p=0.

p=0.965.198 The indicators of consumer knowledge which led to actual purchasing are the following: consumers· knowledge about global warming (X2=32. and according to another study.065 (p=0.065 0. consumers with a stronger concern for the environment are more likely to purchase products as a result of their environmental claims (Mainieri et al.00 Significant Factor Average & Statistical Results 2.68 (±0.03(± 0. These indicators significantly affect actual buying decisions. as well as being a significant predictor of environmentally friendly behavior (Vining and Ebreo 1990. 11. Table 9 Motivational Levels of the Perceived Consumer Effectiveness Indicators of Motivational Factors I am motivated to buy products because I believe that I can contribute in saving the environment Mean (±SD) Qualitative description Strongly agree neutral Factor Average & Statistical Results 2.12(± 0. Mean (±SD) 1.043). organize. and evaluate products. Table 8 Motivational Levels of the Indicators Environmental Concern Indicators of Motivational Factors I am concern for the environment I am motivated to buy products because I want to contribute in saving the environment I am motivated to buy products because they do not harm the environment I am motivated to buy products because I want to improve the environment.88) The factor average of environmental concern is 1. Knowledge was found to be significantly related to how consumers gather. This is contrast to the results on knowledge regarding segregation with Pearson chi-square value of 11..85) .89) Strongly agree-neutral (t-stat=9. the more that consumers disagree with the stated indicator.10 (±0.000).86) Qualitative description Strongly-agree ² agree Strongly agree neutral Strongly agree neutral Strongly agree ² neutral 1. This means that whether or not they are motivated by the information they have regarding segregation.198). Chan 1999). they will buy green products. (1987) stating that fundamental to environmental research is an individual·s concern for the environment . level on each indicator also differs.90) 2.98 (±.034).This could be interpreted such that the mean value equals to 1 indicates that consumers ¶strongly agree· with regards to the stated indicator and the more that the value is farther to 1.855.677. and recycling (X2=15.knowledgeable about recycling.68 and qualitative description of ¶Strongly-agree to Agree· encourages the green consumers to buy green products the most. 4.07 (±0. Among the indicators of environmental concern indicators. Moreover.98 with a qualitative description of ¶Strongly-Agree to Neutral·. the results imply that the effects of the indicators do not stop in motivation but actually heads to consumers buying green products. According to the research of Alba and Hutchinson 1987. 1997) than those who are less concerned about the environmental issues.91) 2. I am motivated to buy environmentally friendly products because I have knowledge about segregation. p=0. This finding is supported by Hines et al. the ´I am concern for the environmentµ indicator with a mean of 1. various pollutions (X2=16.58) P-value = 0. p=0.

the more that consumers disagree with the stated indicator Among the reference group indicators.85) 2.00 Significant 2. This could be interpreted such that the mean value equals to 1 indicates that consumers ¶strongly agree· with regards to the stated indicator and the more that the value is farther to 1.93) 2.90) P-value = 0. differences in PCE are shown to be associated with differences in demographics and political affiliation.11 (±0.00 Significant The factor average of perceived consumer effectiveness is 2.11 (±0. study by Wiener et al (1991) states that perceived consumer effectiveness is distinct from environmental concern and contributes uniquely to the prediction of certain pro-ecological behaviors. In addition.73 (±0.I am encouraged to buy products since I believe that I can protect the environment I am motivated to buy products I am encouraged to buy products because I consider myself as an environmentally responsible person 2.11 (±. the more that consumers disagree with the stated indicator. protecting and saving the environment. reference-group influence may vary depending on whether the influence is exercised by a peer group or by a family member.88) Strongly agree neutral Strongly agree neutral Strongly agree neutral 2.95) 2.85) Strongly agree-neutral (t-stat=67. According to Rao and Childers (1992).96) 2.67 (±1. Among the perceived consumer effectiveness indicators.94 (±0.80) 2.11 with a qualitative description of ¶StronglyAgree to Neutral·.96) 2. .75 with a qualitative description of ¶Strongly-Agree to Disagree·. thus I am motivated to purchase environmentfriendly products Mean (±SD) Qualitative description Agree ² disagree Strongly agree ² disagree Agree ² disagree Agree ² disagree Factor Average & Statistical Results 2.07 and qualitative description of ¶Strongly-agree to Neutral· encourages the green consumers to buy green products the most. The results suggest that motivating consumers to express their concern through actual behavior is to some extent a function of increasing their perception that individual actions do make a difference.48 (±0. the ´I am influenced by my family to purchase environment-friendly productsµ indicator with a mean of 2.23) strongly agree ² disagree (t-stat=29.48 and qualitative description of ¶Strongly-agree to Disagree· encourages the green consumers to buy green products the most. the ´I am motivated to buy products because I believe that I can contribute in saving the environmentµ indicator with a mean of 2. In relation with the above findings.15(± 0.11) Strongly agree ² disagree The factor average of reference group is 2.93(±0.33) P-value = 0. Table 10 Motivational Levels of the Reference Group Indicators of Motivational Factors I am influenced by my friends to purchase environment-friendly products I am influenced by my family to purchase environment-friendly products My co-workers influence me to purchase green products I am influenced by my neighbors to purchase green products I am a member of an organization which advocates caring. This could be interpreted such that the mean value equals to 1 indicates that consumers ¶strongly agree· with regards to the stated indicator and the more that the value is farther to 1.75 (±1.

and compliance with state and federal environmental regulations.68) P-value = 0.29 (±0. The importance of the factors may stem from fear of liability litigation and fines and subsequent negative publicity.94) Significant neutral I am aware of the existing environmental laws and regulations I agree with the imposed environmental laws and regulations.03) I am motivated to purchase products P-value = 0. magazines. I am encouraged to purchase neutral products that do not harm the 2. And as founded.62(± 0.90) Strongly agree ² neutral Strongly agree ² 2.Table 11 Motivational Levels of the Environmental Laws and Regulation Indicators of Motivational Factors Mean (±SD) Qualitative description Factor Average & Statistical Results I am motivated to buy green products because of the sanctions imposed by Strongly agree ² 2.87) 2. the more that consumers disagree with the stated indicator. the most important influences on supplier selection are potential liability.97) thus. Galle. Billboards.00 Strongly agree ² that are environment-friendly because 2.34 (±. brochures. newspapers and the like I am motivated to purchase products Mean (±SD) Qualitative description Factor Average & Statistical Results 2. Among the environmental laws and regulations indicators. I am motivated to purchase products that do not harm the environmentµ indicator with a mean of 2.34 with a qualitative description of ¶StronglyAgree to Neutral·. Strongly agree ² 2.30(± 0. thus.52 (±. In relation with the said findings is the research conducted by Hokey Min and William P.29 and qualitative description of ¶Stronglyagree to Neutral· encourages the green consumers to buy green products the most.95) neutral products that do not harm the environment The factor average of environmental laws and regulations is 2.50(± 0. I am motivated to purchase 2.45(± 0. followed by cost associated with the disposal of hazardousmaterial. This research examined the influence of environmental factors on supplier selection strategies. Strongly agree ² thus. This could be interpreted such that the mean value equals to 1 indicates that consumers ¶strongly agree· with regards to the stated indicator and the more that the value is farther to 1.91) Strongly agree ² neutral 2.97) the government concerning disagree environmental conservations I do not want to disobey the environmental laws and regulations.96) Strongly environment agree ² neutral (t-stat=36. Table 12 Motivational Levels of the Promotional Tools Indicators of Motivational Factors I am encouraged to purchase products that are safe to the environment because I am convinced by the television and radio advertisements I am motivated to buy green products because of the print advertisements (eg.32(± 0.91) Strongly agree ² neutral (t-stat=23.34(± 0. the ´I agree with the imposed environmental laws and regulations.00 Significant .

the more that consumers disagree with the stated indicator. Among the environmental laws and regulations indicators.15) P-value = 0. This could be interpreted such that the mean value equals to 1 indicates that consumers ¶strongly agree· with regards to the stated indicator the more that the value is farther to 1. Table 14 Level of Motivational Factors Motivational Factors Mean (±SD) Qualitative Description Highest Indicator Mean Lowest Indicator Mean t-stat P-value .04(± 0.89) The factor average of consumer knowledge is 2.88) 2.52 with a qualitative description of ¶Strongly-Agree to Neutral·. the more that consumers disagree with the stated indicator.91) Strongly agree ² neutral (t-stat=39.93) 2. the ´I am encouraged to purchase products that are safe to the environment because I am convinced by the television and radio advertisementsµ indicator with a mean of 2. This could be interpreted such that the mean value equals to 1 indicates that consumers ¶strongly agree· with regards to the stated indicator and the more that the value is farther to 1.60(± 0.95) 2. the ´I am motivated to purchase environment-friendly products because of my knowledge about global warmingµ indicator with a mean of 1. Among the consumer knowledge indicators.12(± 0. Mean (±SD) Qualitative description Strongly agree ² neutral Strongly agree ² neutral Strongly agree ² neutral Strongly agree ² neutral Factor Average & Statistical Results 1.99 (±0.06(± 0.95) Strongly agree ² disagree The factor average of promotional tools is 2.00 Significant 2.that are environment-friendly because I am convinced by the endorsers of the product I am encouraged to purchase these products because of the online advertisements concerning environment-friendly products disagree 2. Table 13 Motivational Levels of the Consumer Knowledge Indicators of Motivational Factors I am motivated to purchase environment-friendly products because of my knowledge about global warming I am encouraged to purchase products that are environment-friendly because I am informed with different pollutions I am encouraged to buy environmentally friendly products because I am knowledgeable about recycling I am motivated to buy environmentally friendly products because I have knowledge about segregation.05 (±.34 and qualitative description of ¶Strongly-agree to Neutral· encourages the green consumers to buy green products the most.99 and qualitative description of ¶Strongly-agree to Neutral· encourages the green consumers to buy green products the most.05 with a qualitative description of ¶Strongly-Agree to Neutral·.

62 (± 0. the consumers· want to contribute in saving the environment.99 (±0.48 (±0.34 (± 0.88) The table shows that motivational factors· qualitative descriptions tend to vary from strongly agree-neutral and strongly agree-disagree.90) 2. 6. The highest indicator mean shows up to what motivational level consumers· are encouraged to purchase green products.80) 2. The study has proven that although most of the indicators actually result to actual purchase.96) 1.85) 2. their purchase of environment friendly product.11 (±. while the lowest indicator mean shows up to what motivational level consumer·s are less encouraged to purchase green products.15 (± 0. the table also includes in the last two columns the Highest Indicator Mean and the Lowest Indicator Mean in order to show that different indicators per factor have different qualitative description of the consumers· motivational level.34 (±.75 (±1. However. consumers give each motivational factor a distinct degree of importance.07 (±0.e. Moreover.86) 2.95) Strongly agreedisagree Environmental Laws and Regulation 2.96) Strongly agree ² neutral (t-stat =36. The standard deviation shows however.15) P-value =0. Moreover. Consumers· belief that they can contribute in saving the environment and the consideration of themselves as environmentally responsible persons are the indicators of perceived consumer effectiveness . it was shown that the concern for the environment encourages the consumers· green purchasing the most. Base on the table. This means therefore that consumers give each motivational factor a distinct degree of importance.89) 2.00 Significant P-value =0.58) (t stat =67. Ottman. The findings of the study provide strong evidence that all indicators of environmental concern such as concern for the environment. there are indicators which determine whether or not it will lead to actual purchase.93) 2.00 Significant 1. These findings are supported by previous empirical evidence emphasized that environmental concern is a major factor in the consumer decision making (Zimmer et al.90) 2.Environmental Concern Perceived Consumer Effectiveness Reference Group 1. 1997.91) Consumer Knowledge 2. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS There are different motivational factors that consumers consider in purchasing green products and in each motivational factor. 1998) and that studies have found positive correlations between environmental concern (i. 1994.00 Significant 2.93 (±0. Wagner.05 (±.12 (± 0.12 (± 0. attitude) and environmental friendly behavior (Roberts and Bacon 1997).90) (t-stat =29.91) Strongly agree ² neutral (t-stat =39. that motivational factors have more tendencies to be neutral than otherwise.98 (±.00 Significant P-value =0. and environmental protection lead to actual purchase...33) P-value =0.00 Significant 2. the motivational factor that encourages the consumers the most is environmental concern while the motivational factor that least encourage the consumers is reference group.23) Strongly agreeneutral Strongly agreeneutral (t stat =9.85) 2.03) P-value =0.68 (±0. each motivational factor has their indicator which at the same time varies on their level of influence to the consumers· actual purchase decision.

that result to actual buying of green products. Lastly. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS This study only focused within the locality of Baguio City. Meanwhile. MCB University Press. this indicator together with government·s sanction on environmental conservation lead consumers· decision to actual purchase. their knowledge on global warming motivates them the most in purchasing green products. 7. (2007). Michel. ´Sex. Whereas. ´Do Green Products Make Us Better People?µ. pp. and reference groups such as friends. it was shown that it does not lead to actual purchase. (April 2001). among the indicators of Consumers· Knowledge. Although the influence of the consumers· family has the highest motivational level. gender. 503-520. ´Determinants of Chinese Consumers· Green Purchase Behaviorµ. Fischer. University of Pelita Harapan. Laroche. The study only covered the duration from November 2009 to September 2010. Mazar. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. And jointly with this indicator are the knowledge on various pollutions and recycling which lead consumers· to actual procurement of green products. The consumers· favorable response on imposed environmental laws and regulations encourages consumers to procure green products the most. Chen-Bo. the consumers· belief that they can contribute in saving the environment encourages green purchasing of consumers the most among the indicators of perceived consumer effectiveness. Stephen. University of Toronto. Queen·s University and York University. future study should be devoted on the hindrances why consumers did not reach to the actual purchasing of green products. and Consumer Behaviorµ. co-workers and co-members in pro-environment organizations are the ones that lead to actual buying of green products. Furthermore. Together with this broadcast media are print and online advertisements which results to consumers· actual green purchasing. Chan. environmental concern encourages consumers to buy green products the most while consumer knowledge has the lowest bearing on their actual purchasing decision. among all the motivational factors. This paper dealt with the effects of motivational factors with regard to the purchasing decision of green products. REFERENCES Sihombing. Gender Role Attitudes. Nina and Zhong. (2009). Ricky. As the current research was restricted to the investigation of the barriers in purchasing green products. (2001). For future research. ´Predicting Environmentally Purchase Behavior: A Test of the ValueAttitude-Behavior Hierarchyµ. television and radio advertisement serves to be the most influential promotional tool indicator. Furthermore. income/allowance and the like wherein for example the researcher can get the significant difference between male and female in terms of their purchasing behavior. Gender Identity. The respondents were any type of consumers who were living here in Baguio City. nationality. a study can be made focusing on the subject of demographics such as age. ´Targeting Consumers Who are Willing to Pay More for Environmentally Friendly Productsµ. . Sabrina Oktoria. Eileen and Arnold.

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