Milk protein | Allele | Phenotypic Trait

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(6), pp. 1044-1048, 7 February, 2011 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.

org/AJB ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Association between milk protein polymorphism and milk production traits in Black and White dairy cattle in Turkey
Eser Kemal Gurcan
Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Faculty, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, 59030, Turkey. Email:egurcan@nku.edu.tr.
Accepted 7 January, 2011

Milk protein polymorphism such as αs1-casein (αs1-Cn), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), β-casein (β-Cn) and κα β β casein (κ-Cn) of Black and White dairy cattle were investigated in this study. The genetic structure of κ herd was examined for these loci. At the sametime the relationships between milk protein types and some milk production traits were determined. Milk production traits were chosen as milk yield, average daily milk yield and lactation length. These traits were associated with milk protein types. Genetic variants of milk protein were identified by starch gel electrophoresis containing mercaptoethanol and urea. The allele gene frequencies of A, B, and C of αs1-Cn loci and A, B of β-Cn were found to be 0.01; 0.97; 0.02 and 0.95; 0.05 respectively. Furthermore, the allele frequencies of A, B of κ-Cn and A, B of βLg were found to be 0.68; 0.32 and 0.55; 0.45 respectively. For αs1-Cn BB phenotype was found to have higher milk yield than those of αs1-Cn AB and αs1-Cn BC phenotypes, and β-Lg AA phenotype was detected to have higher milk yield than those of β-Lg AB and β -Lg BB types but were not statistically important. It was concluded that the genetic structure of the four loci were determined in Black and White cattle, but there was no significant association between the milk protein types and milk production traits in the study. Key words: Milk protein polymorphism, casein, lactoglobulin, Black and White dairy cattle.

INTRODUCTION It is the interest of animal breeders to identify the animal genotypes from the milk, blood and tissue variations with respect to such genetic variants which might be used as a tool to clarify the phylogenetic relationship. Since these traits show polymorphic structures, any association between production characteristics and genetically inherited phenotypes could be the starting point of indirect selection. Milk protein polymorphism has an advantage to follow a co-dominant inheritance and to determine the relatively small number of alleles, and also data is obtainable easily. Milk protein phenotypes also have advantage of directly reflecting genotypes of individuals due to lack of environmental effects. Milk protein polymorphism was firstly reported by Aschaffenburg and Drewry (1957). Especially, some evidences have been found between genetic variant of milk protein and production traits for livestock animal by Hall in 1974. After that many investigations were completed by several researchers in this area. The genetic causes of this relationship between milk protein polymorphism and production traits were thought to be due to pleiotropy, linkage and heterosis (Soysal, 1983). Milk proteins are the mixture of several of proteins (alfa-laktalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and casein). The complex of casein is a main structure of milk protein and the ratio of casein is 2.63% in bovine milk. Bovine milk proteins are classified by two groups; one group is soluble at pH 4.6, on the other hand, the other group is not soluble at pH 4.6. The soluble part is called whey protein such as α- laktalbumin (α-La) and β- lactoglobulin (β-Lg). However, the insoluble part constitutes four casein protein such as αs1-casein ( αs1-Cn ), αs2-casein ( αs2-Cn ), β-casein (β-Cn) and κ-casein (κ-Cn) (Sekerden et al.,1993; Demirci, 1995; Ulutas and Yildirim, 2009).

were used for the study. b(SG1)= the regression of lactation length on production traits.05) in Black and White animal. (1984) reported that α-Cn BC locus had the highest ratio of milk protein than the other loci. The A and B allele frequencies of β-Lg loci were found as 0. (1991) and NG-Kwai-Hang et al.Cn phenotype in Jersey cattle. except αs1-Cn. 0. Especially. For instance. Cornberg et al.Gurcan 1045 Milk protein polymorphism and its relationship with economical traits in livestock animal were studied by many researchers and were argued in their papers. Similarly. respectively.05) and κ-Cn phenotypes caused significant differences on daily average milk yield and actual fat yield (P<0. κ-Cn and β-Lg phenotypes of the milk proteins alleles from the expected frequencies under the assumption of genetic equilibrium were investigated by chi-square test (χ2) (Soysal. After electrophoresis. (1999) reported that milk protein polymorphism had no significant effect on milk production traits. Soysal. (1993) reported that the relationship with milk protein loci and production traits such as milk yield. summer. Eidrigevich et al. Starch-urea gel electropho- . µ= overall population mean. 1982. gene frequencies and their standard errors for genetic variants of the four milk protein systems are given Table 2. RESULTS Genetic polymorphisms of αs1-Cn. Nakayama et al. β-Cn and κ-Cn phenotypes were studied in this work.02. 2000. The distribution of αs1-casein (αs1-Cn).05). β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg). B and C allele frequencies of αs1-Cn loci were found as 0. the number of lactation and production year. respectively. autumn and winter. Macha et al. This study showed that κ-Cn A gene (0.45 respectively. All milk samples were C centrifuged at the rate of 1300 rpm for 20 min in order to separate the milk fat layer from milk samples and whole studies were conducted with milk samples without fat. milk fat yield was not significant related with the α.68) frequency was higher than B gene (0. Some researchers reported that this relationship was not important for milk production traits (Ustdal et al. PFk=fixed effect of milk protein genotypes. β-Cn A gene (0. 1998). Ulutas and Yildirim. Moreover. Ii= randomized effect individuals. YMLSj= fixed effect of calving season. (1984) found an association of β-Lg AA phenotype with milk yield. eijklm= random error. The following mathematical model was used: Yijklm = µ + Ii + YMLSj + PFk + b(SG1) + eijklm Where Yijklm= is the dependent variable (avarage daily milk yield. Wegner et al. Sekerden et al. Zogg (1990) and Sekerden et al. Lactation milk yields records were adjusted according to Anonymous (1976). and β-Cn. lactation length and milk yield for milk production traits were investigated by Least Square Analysis of SAS (1992). β-Cn. Dogru and Dayioglu (1996) reported that α.01. (1980).01). β-Lg. Statistical methods The variation of average daily milk yield. Four calving season were included. β-lactoglobulin. β-Cn.55 and 0.32) in Black and White cows. (1990) (P<0. (1974). Likewise. (1996). Five groups for number of lactations were included in the model.95 and 0. Totally 209 production records.05. 2009). β-Lg AA and β-Lg BB phenotypes were found as higher milk yield than β-Lg AB for Black and White cattle breed by Mayer et al. In this study. The deviations observed gene frequencies of αs1Cn.(1991) recommended that genetic variant of milk protein could be a criteria of selection for the improvement of dairy cattle production.68 and 0. Ulutas and Yildirim (2009) did not report any relationship between milk yield. MATERIALS AND METHODS The research material consisted of 90 Black and White dairy cattle and their milk samples.32. Conversely. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic structure of herd in terms of αs1-casein.05). AA and AB phenotypes of β-Cn were observed but BB phenotype was not found in the study. respectively. (1982).Cn phenotypes on milk yield were not significant but β-Cn BB phenotypes on actual milk yield were significant (P<0. but rennet clotting time of milk was found to be significant related with genotype of β-Lg . κ-Cn and β-Lg phenotypes of the milk proteins according to Aschaffenburg and Thymann (1965). Gene frequencies with standard errors were calculated by direct counting method for genetic variant of milk proteins according to Soysal (2000). the gels were coloured with amido black 10 B for about 20 min and was discoloured according to Aschaffenburg and Machalak (1968). The calving year was evaluated as production year for the 11 years of production records obtained between 1989 and 2000. covering the period from 1989 to 2000. Moreover. The Black and White cows were reared in Tahirova State Farm. β-Lg BB phenotype was related to higher milk and fat yields than the other phenotypes by Kriventsov and Prozorov (1975). Khaertdinov (1990). milk yield and lactation length). the A and B allele frequencies of κ-Cn loci were detected as 0. In addition. βcasein and κ-casein genotype and also to investigate some relationship between milk protein types and some production traits.. Mclean et al. Whereas. Janicki et al.05). the population was balanced in the HardyWeinberg equilibrium. β-Cn and αs1-Cn (P>0. The A and B Milk samples were taken into 10 ml sterilized tubes and stored at -20° until electrophoresis in deep freeze.95) frequency was higher than B gene (0. Dayioglu and Dogru (1997) found an effect of β-Lg AA phenotypes on milk fat percentage in Brown Swiss cattle (P<0. Rensburg et al. resis was used to identify αs1-Cn. The A. (1985). (1964) and Samarineanu et al. β-casein (βCn) and κ-casein (κ-Cn) phenotypes and their percentages are showed in Table 1.97 and 0. fat content and genotypes of β-Lg. such that every three months of the year starting from the last month of the previous year were considered as one group of seasons as spring. Also the A and B allele frequencies of β-Cn loci were determined as 0.

In this study.01 A 0. Locus Genotype BB AB BC AA AB AA AB BB AA AB BB Number 200 4 5 193 13 90 27 22 92 68 49 Average Daily Milk Yield (kg) 16.44 303 ± 8. Locus Genotype Number Percentage (%) BB 85 95 αs1-Cn AB 2 2 BC 3 3 AA 82 91 β-Cn AB 8 9 BB --- AA 46 51 κ-Cn AB 32 36 BB 12 13 AA 33 37 β-Lg AB 34 38 BB 23 25 Table 2.60 285 ± 6. Locus Allele Frequency Standard error A 0.59 4119 ± 191. β-Lg. In general.22 ± 0. This study showed that κ-Cn A gene frequency was higher than B gene in Black and White cows.35 ± 0.07 277 ± 27.36 17. number of lactation and production yield were found as the very important factor for the milk production traits (P < 0.01 κ-Cn B 0.70 17. βLg.. Statistical results are summarized in Table 3 for the production traits according to the phenotype of αs1-Cn. Likewise.05 0. 1989. AA and AB genotypes of β-Cn was observed but BB genotype was not found in the study.78 5142 ± 275.45.30 5481 ± 191.08 5393 ± 219. respectively in the study but the all differences were not important statistically (P>0. Anne-Marie and Kristiansen. DISCUSSION Gene frequencies were compared with some previous studies.70 4984 ± 157. (1985) found A allele frequency to be higher (0.01) but genotype of milk protein was not detected to be statistically important.09 Lactation length (day) 298 ± 5.59 17.05).85 287 ± 19. the distributions of gene frequencies were in accordance with other researchers (Dogru and Dayioglu.35 15.22 16. 1989). Fixed effect of calving season.32 0.87 Milk yield (kg) 5071 ± 156.97 0.15 18.14 ± 0.45 0. Biotechnol.52 ± 0.10 ± 0.68 0. Samorineanu et al. The highest and lowest κ-Cn phenotypes for milk yield was obtained from κ-Cn BB and κ-Cn AB.09 5445 ± 187.30 5510 ± 361. The distributions of allele frequencies for protein genotypes.03 0.03 β-Lg B 0..03 5104 ± 319.52 16.82 ± 1. the highest milk production was obtained from αs1-Cn BB phenotype. Mariani. β-Cn and κ-Cn.60 αs1-Cn β-Cn κ-Cn β-Lg allele frequencies of β-Lg loci were found as 0.44 327 ± 16. Exceptionally. 1996.03 A β-Cn B 0.01 Table 3.85 305 ± 8. J. the relationship between αs1-Cn phenotypes and production traits was not statistically significant.94) than the others for the αs1-Cn loci. Han et al.0078 αs1-Cn B 0.15 301 ± 12. Association between αs1-Cn. Least square means with standard error for protein genotypes and various production traits. Table 1. β-Lg phenotype when compared with milk production traits and β-Lg phenotypes had no relationship.09 ± 1.1046 Afr.19 ± 0.80 296 ± 5.27 ± 1.74 ± 0.62 4590 ± 354.01 0. β-Cn and κ-Cn phenotypes and some production traits was investigated.02 0.45 309 ± 8.45 307 ± 10. Only two phenotypes of β-Cn loci were observed (AA and AB) and β-Cn AB was higher than β-Cn AA for the milk yield. Similar observations were obtained by Mariani (1989) and Anne- .59 17.55 0. Quinteros et al.03 5226 ± 187.55 and 0. The distribution of protein genotypes and their percentages (%).70 ± 1.61 17.57 18. Similar results were reported by Mariani (1989) and Anne-Marie and Kristiansen (1989). 1983. respectively.95 0.03 A 0.012 C 0. 1984.

Abst. 50: p..Cn phenotypes and milk yield. J. Ozdemir and Dogru (2005) reported that κ-Cn B gene frequency was higher than A gene. Similar results were also reported by Stasio et al. Polymorphic protein systems in the selection of animals. Lee KM. Dogru and Dayioglu (1996) did not report any relationship between α. 58: p. Correspondingly. Breed.. The relationship between betalaktoglobulin types and lactation traits for Swiss.U. Identically. respectively. Anim. Jang KJ (1985).Gurcan 1047 Marie and Kristiansen (1989) in Black and White cattle breed. 4 . Milk Technology. There was no relationship between β-Lg phenotype and milk production traits. Milk protein polymorphism in Danish dairy cattle and the influence of genetic variants on milk yield. Abst. Breed. Similarly. (1974). Relationship between milk protein genotypes and milk production in Holstein and Jersey cattle. 574. On the other hand. (1999). Eggen A. J.05). (1991) suggested that genetic variants of milk protein was related with production trait. Macha J. Growing M (1964). Macha L. respectively. Nature.55 and 0. Khaertdinov RA (1990). (1991) and Ng-Kwai-Hang et al. 1985. Kitazawa K (1982). Genetics of the beta-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk. Rensburg et al. 53: p. Ozdemir and Dogru (2005) suggested that κ-Cn BB and κ-Cn AB genotypes might be selective advantage for some milk production traits. Eggen and Fries. Zogg (1990) . The effect of genotype on milk protein in Kholmogor and Ayrshire cows. 1425. 1992). Anim.(In Turkish). (1984) found an association of β-Lg AA phenotype with milk yield in Black and White cattle and Brown Swiss cattle breeds. Simultaneous phenotyping procedure for the principal proteins of cow’s milk. The highest and lowest κ-Cn phenotypes for milk yield were obtained from κ-Cn BB and κ-Cn AB respectively in this study (P>0. β-Cn and αs1-Cn. milk fat yield and 305-days milk yield in Black and White cattle breed (Ozdemir and Dogru. Conclusion It was concluded that the genetic structure of herd was determined by this study in terms of αs1-Cn. Breed. (1982) also reported that milk protein polymorphism had no significant effect on milk production traits. A. Relationship between milk casein phenotypes with several milk traits at. 28: 170-180. However.05). Anim. Khaertdinov (1990). 504. Faculty. Fries R (1990). 68. 1990. β-Cn A gene frequency was higher than B gene in Black and White cattle. Thymann M (1965). Dayıoglu H (1996). 310 . 180: 376-378. Similar observations were found by Han et al. (1985) and Mariani (1989).(1990) (P<0. some other studies by Mclean et al. Janicki C (1980). Anim. β-Lactoglobulin polymorphism in Kholmogor cattle. there were significant relationships between milk production traits and κ-Cn loci in Black and White cattle breed (Komatsu et al. Aschaffenburg R. Breed. Chung EY. Tekirdag. 58: p. Abst. (In Turkish).05). Prozorov AA (1975). this relationship may be significant or not based on examined production trait. Anim. 36: 248-255 . β-Cn and κ-Cn loci. Cornberg et al (1964) and Samarineanu et al. Thus.. Also. 2007). 51: 1319-1320. Kappa casein as a selection criterion in the breeding of dairy cattle. Karnozhitskii V (1982). (1985). Ulutas and Yildirim (2009) did not find any relationship between milk yield. Pedersen. 50: p. Kriventsov Yu M. Phenotypes of milk protein were not found to be statistically important in this study. Agricultural Faculty. Likewise. Zuchtungskunde. Polymorphism of β-Lactoglobulin in Polish Red and White Lowland cattle. Anonymous (1976). U..05). Kristiansen KR (1989). fat content and genotypes of β-Lg. the highest milk production was obtained from αs1-Cn BB phenotype. It is possible that the results are changeable for different breeds or herd within same breed according to genetic structure of these loci in the population. J.Ustdal et al. βLg AA and β-Lg AB genotypes may have selective advantage in terms of some milk production traits (Ozdemir and Dogru. Simultaneous phenotyping procedure for milk proteins improved resolution of the Beta Lactoglobulin. 48: p. Abst. Die beziehungerder BetaLaktoglobulin typen beim rind zu erstkol healter. Breed. Moreover. Whereas. Public No: 105. REFERENCES Anne-Marie B. Wagner et al. 48: 1524-1526. Nakayama et al. In this study. (1996). β-Lg. Drewry J (1957). Abst. J. (1982) and Eidrigevich et al. NKU. Meyer H. Prozonov (1973) and Macha et al. J. Anim. Genetic . Also. Aschaffenburg R. Aschaffenburg R. Abe TT. Abst. Agric. Sekerden et al. Eidrigevich E. Cornberg G. Likewise. Internationales komitee zur ermittlung der wirtschaflichkeit von milctieren. Dogru U. Dogru and Dayioglu 1996) also in Simmental cattle (Putz et al. Demirci M (1995).. Faculty. Dairy Sci. Dogru U (1997). Agric. genotypes of αs1-Cn were found to be significant for milk yield. Similarly. Masek N.45. Yokouchi K. 57: 53-62. Dogru and Dayioglu (1996) reported that β-Cn BB phenotypes on actual milk yield were significant (P<0. 165 . (1982). Abst. Das Teirzuctrecht in der Bundesrepublik Deusschland Ntb. Sadkova Z (1984). Komatsu M. 7175 . the associations between αs1-Cn phenotypes and production traits were not significant statistically. 1991. Janicki et al (1980). Anim. β-Lg AA and β-Lg BB phenotypes were associated with higher milk yield than β-Lg AB for Black and White cattle breed by Mayer et al. Petrenko V. Ozawa S. 27: 226-241. 2004) (P<0. Breed. Holstein and Yellow White cattle breds. Studies on the genetic polymorphism in milk proteins I genetic variants of αs1-Csein and κCasein. A. (1984) reported that α-Cn BC locus was associated with milk protein percentage. 1368. Dairy Sci. milcmange und fettgehalt. Machalak W (1968). Dayıoglu H. No significant relationship was detected between milk yield. 44: p.05). Dvonak J. The A and B allele frequencies of β-Lg loci were detected as 0. The only two phenotypes of β-Cn loci were observed (AA and AB) and β-Cn AB was found to be higher than βCn AA for milk yield (P>0. Han SK. Pavlyuchnko and Pubkova. (In Turkish). 1982. average daily milk yield and lactation length with genetic variant of milk protein. Breed. Munro (1979) reported highly significant differences among β-Lg phenotypes for milk protein percentage. Dairy Res.

Cary. Breed. 5040. 6109. Kosugiyama M (1996). 50: p. Pancani I. NC. Cristoori F. Mayer F. Onedera M. 108: 434-445. Appl. Relationship between milk and blood protein polymorphism with several prduction traits for Simmentals breed in Turkey. No: 48. Anim. 2593. Konya J.1048 Afr. Anim. Erdem H (1999). 52: p. Inc. Anim. (In Turkish). Breed. Association between genetic polymorphism of milk protein and production traits during three lactations. Averdung G. J. Statistical Methods.(In Turkish). Anim. Abst. J.The genetic methods of animal improvement. Anim. Anim. Paz FZ (1983). 3: 43-47. 58: p. Erturan M (1982). Anim. J. Ng-Kwai-Hang KF. Dogru U (2004). Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty Public No: 95. Abst. Yamamota T. Relationship between β-Lactoglobulin and β-Casein polymorphisms and production traits in Brown Swiss and Holstein. De Gindra A (1991). 58: p. Res. 59: p. Monardes HG. Selection to increase frequency of κ-Casein variant B in dairy cattle. 1464 . Dogrul F. Altuntas A.U. Graham ERB. Anim. Between breed variation of Black Pied cattle at the β-Lactoglobulin locus. Sci. Breed. Notice No: 64. 6557. 968. Putz M. Soysal MI (2000). Relationship between κ-Casein polymorphisms and production traits in Brown Swiss and Holstein J. Vet. 6206. Breed. Investigation on the relationship between milk yield udder health. Anim. Anim. Reetz I. Relationship of transferrin and milk protein types with milk fat and milk yield in Brown Mountain and Holstein Dairy Cows at the Çifteler and Karacabey Breeding Station. Segregation of transferrins in Creole cattle in Argentina. Ozdemir M. Ozdemir M. Spulber M. Anim. 51: p. Anim. Bakır A. The result of electrphoretic studies of some proteins in the blood and milk of Romanian Brown cows in Moldavia. Breed. Soysal MI (1998). Granciu I. II polymorphic systems and performance. Miller WJ. Stasio LD. Planned mating with respect to κ-Casein. Sotu N (1984). Rensburg L. (In Turkish). Bortolozzi J. Effect of κ-Casein genotype on milk in yield in Japanese Shorthorn Cows. Abst. 5965. Abst. Abst. Genetic variants of β-Lactoglobulin. Buchberger J (1992).. 150. Abst. Relationship between α-Casein polymorphisms and production traits in Brown Swiss and Holstein J. Anim. Pedersen J (1991). Breed. Abst. Samorineanu M. 53: p. Tekirdag. Res. fat content and rennet clotting time o milk. αs1Casein and β-Casein of milk in East Anatolian Red Cattle breed and it’s association with milk yield. Breed. Tejedor DE. 60: p. Ascherman G and Plischke R (1974). Mariani P (1989). 42: p. Erzurum. The relationship between blood protein polymorphism with several yield traits in sheep population of Ataturk University. 64: p. Feder H. Nakayashi K. 53: 3495. 2589. Soysal MI (1983). Anim. Aumann J. Breed.(In Turkish). The polymorphic protein system in cows milk: II the phenotype frequencies of whey proteins in different herds of Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows in the republic of south Africa. Breed. Do a Bilim Dergisi. Ulutas Z. 58: p. Ponzoni RW. Chem. Nakamura K. Effect of genetic variants of milk proteins on yield and composition of milk.Anim. Anim. Abst. Pubkova GV (1985). Anim. Breed. Anim. SAS Ins. SAS. 25: 5-8. Breed. SAS/STAD(R) User’s Guide (Version 6. Breed. Erdem H (1993). Anim.. Abst. Abst. Erhardt G. Pavlyuchnko TA. Agricultural Faculty Public. Notice No: 40. Genetic polymorphism of caseins in Italia Brown cows: frequency of the C variants at the κ.07) (1992). Genetic polymorphism in a Somali Zebu population. Breed. . Mckenzie HA (1985). Dogru U (2005). Breed. Wegner W. Abst. Trend J. Abst. Anim. Dogrul F. Abst. Munro GL (1979). 8211. Sekerden O. Ataturk University PhD. Abst. Some qualitive and quantative characters and their relationship with each other in Germany Black Pied cattle populations. 23: 87-93. Asian J. Milk protein genotypes in German Simmental cattle in Bavaria. Quinteros IR. Sponer H. Milk protein polymorphisms and milk protein genetic variants effect on various production traits in Jersey cows. Abst. Anim. 52: 13. Kikkawa A. Ozdemir M. Sartore G (1982). Res. 5936. Ustdal M. milk protein and blood protein polymorphism in cattle. Breed. Thesis . Effects of milk protein genetic variants on milk yield and composition. Merlin P. Zogg M (1990). Stametescu F. 27: 101-104. 47: p. Sekerden Ö. Appl. Nakayama O. Yıldırım M (2009). T. 31: 165-168. NKU. 6: 65-73 . Failing K. Biotechnol. Arai K. Hayes JF (1991). Mclean DM. Breed. Appl. Senfti B (1990). 59: p. Poli MA. Res. Lange DJ. Hines EC.casein lokus. analysis of characters of dams of potential sires and of their contemporaries. 4614 . Dogru U (2007). 21(1): 795-801. Genet.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful