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Fluid Statics

Accelerated fluid masses

Lecture 10

Acceleration of liquid bodies

 Assume the element shown moving with an acceleration as


 Appling Newton's law
p . dA
ds z
dA

  p   dAds
 p  ds  dA
  s  ds
 dz
as
s
 p  
p dA   p  ds dA   dA ds cos   dA ds as
 s  g

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Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

p 
   cos   a s
s g p.dA
z
ds
p  dz  
       as dA
s  ds  g
 p   dAds
p ds  dA
 1  p dz  a s  s 
ds
     
   s ds  g  dz
as
  p  a s
  z    s
s   g

Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

p
is called pressure head [ L ]

z is called elevation head [ L ]
p
 z  h which is called piezometric head

h a
 s
s g

p 
in statics  as = 0.0    z  p
   0.0   z  Constant

s

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Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

I- Vertical acceleration of an open tank of liquid at the rate az


h a
 z
z g
 p  a
  z    z
 z  g

by integration
p az
z z
 g

Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)


z
p0 hz
p  a  p  h
 1  z  z
  g  h az
p c hc
h = -z
p  a 
 1  z  h
  g  a 
 a  p   h 1  z 
p   h  1  z   g
 g 
 a 
p   h 1  z  p  h
 g 

Acceleration in +z Deceleration in +z

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Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

II-Horizontal acceleration of an open tank of liquid


at the rate ax

 p  a
  z    x
 x  g

at liquid surface p = 0.0


z a
 x
x g
a
tan    x
g

Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

Lines of equal pressure

p0 h z p 0

h1 ax
h2
p h1 p  h 2

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Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

If the tank is closed


If ax is increased the slope of the liquid surface is
increased but the space volume is constant

a e b
volume abcd
d c = volume efcb

Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)


III- Rotation of an open cylindrical tank of liquid about
its vertical axis at the constant angular velocity ω

p0 h z

v r
pc
an = centrifugal acceleration
an   2 r w
h a
 n
n g
 h  2r v r
 n
r g

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Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

2
 h  g  rdr h z
p0 revolution
paraboloid of revelution
 r
2 2 the volume = 1/2 volume
h  const of common cylinder
g 2 pc ho = z o ( forced vortix )

at r = 0.0 h=ho w
 2r 2 v2
h  ho  
2g 2g
r
n

Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

at liquid surface
 2r 2
z  zo 
2g

By knowing ω, ho we can draw the paraboloid by putting


any value of r and getting the corresponding value of h

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Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

p0 h z

3 >2 > 1

Acceleration of liquid bodies (cont.)

For closed tank


When ω increases the ba
acceleration increases and
then the height of the
parabola is increased.

The volume of liquid (or the


volume of the empty space)
remains constant.
w