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ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE ABOUT



WELDS AND THEIR DEFECTS ULTRASONIC INSPECTION PRACTICES IMPLEMENTING CODES

BY

DR. MA TTHEW J. GOl/S, PE

ADVANCED QUALITY CONCEPTS

PO BOX 141388 COLUMBUS, OH 43214 VOICE: 614.268.0518

FAX: 614.267.6288

E-MAIL: mattgolis@columbus.rr.com

COURSE OUTLINE

1. INTRODUCTION AND BASIC ISSUES

TERMINOLOGY CRITICALITY MATERIAL BEHAVIOR

2. WELDS AND THEIR DEFECTS

SOME CONFIGURATIONS

COMMON DISCONTINUITIES (flaws?)

3. ULTRASONIC INSPECTION PRACTICES PROS & CONS

THE DETAILS

4. IMPLEMENTING CODES ASTM

ASME

AWS

5. LET'S WRAP IT UP

MATTGOLlS~~ _

____ PAGE 1

INTRODUCTORY ISSUES

1. WHO ARE WE, AND WHY ARE WE HERE?

2. TERMINOLOGY

NOT - NOI - NDE - NOE

DISCONTINUITIES, ANOMALIES, IMPERFECTIONS

INDICATIONS RELEVANT

NONRELEVANT

FLAWS & DEFECTS

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

1ATT GOLlS ~ ~ ~PAGE 2

3. CRITICALITY (or WHY BOTHER?) DESIGN ISSUES

LOADING (STATIC VS DYNAMIC?) APPLIED

RESIDUAL

SAFETY ISSUES

RISK FACTORS

LIVES

MONEY

SAFETY MARGINS

LIFE-CYCLE ISSUES

INITIAL FABRICATION

IN-SERVICE MONITORING

~ TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS _

. PAGE 3

4. MATERIAL BEHAVIOR BRITTLE

RAPID CRACK GROWTH STRESS RISERS

SHARP vs. BLUNT SURFACE (ON & BELOW)

DUCTILE DISTORTION

CORROSION RESISTANCE

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

ATT GOLlS~ PAGE 4

VELDS & THEIR DEFECTS

1. SOME CONFIGURATIONS

Single- V ·groove wakI

Single-V.groon _Id (wIth lIIIr.kin1l1

SINGLE-WELDED JOINTS

==-~:---------------~---~---.------

,TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS.~ ~ PAGE 5

DOUBLE-WELDED JOINTS

Double U'Y",oo'Ve w~ld

Doublebevelgrcove wel,1

Do"hle·J g'oov. weld

FILLET-WELDED JOINTS

~ ~__l

fl - I-Lf

Est, MIN -~fl- ["

(NOT LESS THAN 1 in. [25 mrn))

UL TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

Noles:

1 . s = as required 2. I ;> II

A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLIS __ ~ __

.~~_PAGE 6

TUBES ARE TOUGH GEOMETRIES

WELDED FROM ONE SIDE [ODOFTUBE ~

+ 2 { Lf \(~_____,+

l- . --'tJ~-7---:r---...J £: 1/8 in. (3 mm) MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE IN

CONSTANT 10 PREFERRED RADII BEFORE TAPER WELD IS REQUIRED

(A)

(B)

REBEVEL AFTER WELD BUILDUP

~-----~ ( + +..___--....wV

--~

2.5

(C) TRANSITION BY TAPER WELD

. L 00 OF TUBE L 00 OF TUBE

f v- t f Q---...t

----r ---- 112 In. (" mm).1 17~---

MACHINE, GRIND, OR THERMAL 1 ~ MACHINE BEFORE 1 Ys

CUT SMOOTH BEFORE WELDING 2.5 WELDING

(D) TRANSmON BY TAPER BORE OF THICKER TUBE

(E) TRANSITION BY STRAIGHT AND TAPER BORE AT THICKER TUBE

~ g:=

CONSTAr<T ID PREF~Eo

2.5

~

1

.i

\

-. ~

\

TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS~~ ~

____ PAGE 7

INTERSECTIONS ARE TOUGHER

(A) CIRCULAR SECTIONS

MAXIMUM LIMIT OF T~CONNECTIONS

Ie) T-CONNECnON

(E) K-CONNECTION

_i

MAIN MEMBER

TOE ZONE 90' T

CD K(T-K)

BRANCH MEMBER

(8) BOX SECTIONS

I

,t,

, ,

. , , ,

I

(D) V-CONNECTION

IF} K-COMBINATION CONNECTIONS

® KiT-V)

GAP 9 MEASURED

ALONG THE SURFACE

OF THE CHORD

BETWEEN PROJECTIONS OF THE BRANCH MEMBER OUTSIDE SURFACE AT THE NEAREST APPROACH

Nole: Relevant gap is between braces whose loads are essentially balanced. IYml-0..iJ; also referred to as an N-connection.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS~_~ ~ __ ~_~ ~ YAGE 8

2. COMMON WELD DISCONTINUITIES i.e., FLAWS

Cracks - most critical

Locations

Throat, root, toe, crater, underbead, HAl, base metal

Types

Hot (formed as metal solidifies and shrinkage stresses prevail)

Cold (delayed formation due to residual, hydrogen or fatigue stresses)

Orientation

Longitudinal, Transverse, Other

\

1

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT rOURSE

i

MATT GOLlS, .~~ .. _

__ PAGE 9

(1) era ter crack in weld metal. (2) Transverse crack in weld metal. (3) Transverse crack in heat-affected zone. (4) Longitudinal crack in weld metal, (5) Toe crack in base metal. (()) Underbead crack in base metal. (7) Fusionline crack. (8) Root crack in weld metal. (9) Hat cracks in weld metal.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

fTGOLlS ~

PAGE 10

~--.~-

LONGITUDINAL CRACK

_-- TRANSVER~E CRACK

LONGI TUDINAL CRACK

Underbead cracks

Toe crilCk,

Und .. rbcad c ,,,,,k~

~---~--.---~--

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPFCTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS,~ ~ " , __ ~ ~_~

Incomplete Fusion - also critical

Locations

Groove Face (side wall) In-between Passes

Root (incomplete penetration)

Causes

, I nsufficient Heat I n put Manipulation Configuration Contamination

A SHORT COllRSE

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTlON

':,':j

~!

'"

PAGE II

MATT GOLlS_~~~_

Incomplete fusion

{BI

I ncornplete fUSion

Incomplete fusion

~s~4/V

"~ Incomplete fusion

r6f.¥~~~/i/ .

u"L TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

PAGE 12

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS~ .. _~ ~~ PAGE 13

Undercut, Overlap and U nderfi II - StiJl critical as stress risers

UC - located at toe/root in Base Metal - caused by excessive heat (tech)

OL - located at toe/root

- caused by slow technique, position/filler metal flow mismatch

UF - located at face and root (suck back) - caused by excessive speed, hot second pass

..

Underfill

~

Und"rcut

/""ovefldP

Overlap

ULTRASON1C WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

GOLIS~~_~~ ~ PAGE 14

Inclusions - modestly critical

Locations - within weld and between passes

Causes - incomplete removal of slag - Tungsten drop-off into puddle

'L TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS ~_~ _

PAGE 15

Lamellar Tear - may become critical

Location - Base metal

(parallel to fusion surface)

Causes - Joint Design

Base metal inclusions

ARC Strikes - site for crack initiation

Locations - Base metal

Causes - Careless weld/MT (prod) techniques

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

-_

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS ~ _

__ PAGE 16

Laminations and Spatter - interfer with testing

Location - Base Metal

, J , , f) ( ~"_ L ( D l_ A ... , " A • I' ' ,j

.--" ( A L ~ l' t 1 Y

l_ .... M , ~j A T I fJ N , .', II IJ

\ _tn \7;1 ~

/1 ~ @

--- L-- ;-~l

-

LAMINATION SPLIT OPEN

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLlS~_

. PAGE 17

ULTRASONIC INSPECTION - (the topic for today) RATIONALE - The Pros

High Sensitivity, particularly to Critical Flaws Portable, Inexpensive, Immediate Results

RATIONALE - The Cons

Relies on Operator Capabilities and Attitudes Limited to Simple Geometries

Approaches to Inspection

Base Metal - verify homogeneous material or expected thickness is present using Longitudinal (pressure wave) straight beam techniques.

Weld Metal - Detect and size discontinuities using Transverse (shear wave) angle beam techniques.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLlS __ ~_

_~PAGE 18

Angle beam testing permits variable angles of attack that assist in defining a reflector's location and orientation. The precise nature of the reflector is less definite and is subject to interpretation by the inspector.

Although weld geometries can be examined using either direct contact techniques or highly instrumented immersion techniques (or its surrogates), most structures, tanks and pipelines are inspected using manual, contact techniques.

Industry sectors such as the nuclear power and aerospace industries are known for their use of graphical renditions of ultrasonic interpretations of regions of interest, including that of welded joints, but these approaches are only used in special situations. Fortunately, these approaches are finding more and more use in weld integrity testing, but they have not yet become common-place in general welding practice.

The issue of inspector reliability is a popular topic for discussion, particularly when some undesirable weld condition has been discovered and the inspector "missed" it during an inspection.

What is necessary regarding a particular structure's weld acceptance criteria is often a matter of mutual agreement between the designer, fabricator, erector and eventual owner. The Codes and Standards evallable to the community were created to set recommended baseline conditions for general use in each industry sector, but these conditions can be subject to interpretation in accordance with the procurement documents used to contract each specific job.

LTRASONICWELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS_~_

_____ ~ ~ PAGE 19

THE DETAILS OF ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

Overview

A self-contained portable instrument, equipped with a display screen and ancillary cables and probes (transducers), is used to probe the entire volume of a weld in order to detennine if there are any areas that contain unacceptable "discontinuities. II The probing medium is comprised of sound waves that travel through metal, much like light travels through a room being "probed" with a flash light. Typical resonant frequencies for the transducers range from 2.25 to 5 MHz, although both lower and higher-frequency transducers are available.

It is the operator's responsibility to assure that the instrument is properly calibrated (accurately displays the distances between the transducer and detected discontinuities) and that the sound "beam" emitted by the transducer is thoroughly traversed throughout the volume of the weld. Poor calibrations can lead to the registering of incorrect positional and size data while incomplete scanning leads to part of the weld being uninspected.

The following pages address the nature of the instruments, transducers, calibration schemes and scanning protocols used to assure that total coverage of each weld is achieved and with a properly adjusted inspection system.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MA TT GOLlS __ ~

______ . PAGE 20

Transducers

Longitudinal - Compression, Straight Beam, 0°

Base Metal, Thickness, Weld Flaws

Epoxy POl ling

.r-BacklflO rnotericl

:~~,---t-~Eleclrical contact (+1

CooxiOI connecter

Piezoele cl r ic element

'-( a) StraighT-beam (longitudinal-wave) contcct->'

Electrical contact

H

Weof"-resistant faceplate

Transverse - Shear, Angle Beam (usually)

Discontinuities Within and Near Welds

Electrical conroe! (+)

COOliOI conoecror

P'''luelectric element

------~- Epoxy

Plcs tic wedge potting

~--( b) Angle-beam (shear-wave) contact ~--_,

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHOIt 1 UJUK.SE

MATT GOLlS,_~_. __ . . PAGE 21

Instruments

Pulser + Receiver + Display

If

'-'"

Pulser energizes transducer (Xducer)

Receiver amplifies (and modifies) signals from Xducer

Display gives visual rendering of time/space relationships

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

OLlS

.~ ~ __ PAGE 22

-he A Scan (Echo Strength vs. Travel Time, or "Distance")

.'., .... .- "':.' .... '

100

100% Full Screen

80

20

Peak. Pulse Height

; \ -J

:\

I

o

6 7 8 9 10 Time (~Sec.) or

Distance (mm)

60

\ J i I , \ ' I
I I :
I ;
i \ \
I I
_lJJ \ t~-
--
I \ \ I \ \:
J
I , ! I
I \ I,
A I HIO

o I z 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

Thickness "Distance"

Slant "Distance"

rRASONlC WELD lNSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS

~ ~ ~ PAGE 23

Transducer Calibration

Angle-beam search unit, -,

,Surface

/ A

Exit (Index) Point

SOund beam

Block

(a) Determinotion of IndeK point ----'

Angle-beam search urlll-

___ Index »< painl

Exit (Beam) Angle Block

~ __ {bl Determlnotion 01 beam angle -_- --____./

0_600

d+-------G-

1.400--1

\_ R." 1.000

IIW Reference Block (Type 1)

-. -~

UL TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION.

A SHORT COURSE

at!

-N'

N

MATT GOLlS

__________________________ ~ PAGE 24

Ultrasonic System Calibration

The ultrasonic instrument, transducer and interconnecting cables are considered an integrated system, and as such, are configured as a single entity. Note: The electronic adequacy, linearity, and related performance characteristics are treated independently from the concept of general system calibration.

Angle Beam Horizontal Scale Calibration

Using IIW Block

o 1 2 ~

5 6 7 8 OJ 10

Using MAS Block

100

--I - - - - -.-.... I 1

--r-- .-... -----j-- :

- 1-- -- -- I ill

--\ .-- -

80

60

---------------~~---

UL TRASONlC WELD INSPECTION

Angle -becm search un,1

Surface A-;

- (c) Cahbrolion of Instrumenl lime bose ---~.

--------_-. ~ ------

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS ~~

____ PAGE 2S

Using DSC (Distance & Sensitivity Calibration) Block

IndeIlMlr~·~t-I---SC8Iex -l

100

80 ---

60

40

20

6 7 8 9 10

A SIIORT COURSE

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

TOOLlS _

--------~-----~_-- -_-

Depth Resolution

PACE 26

Longitudinal (Straight Beam) using IIW Block

Straight-beam search unit

Sound beam--

S ... r!oee E [NotCh S\lrf~

'-----I dl Determination of st rtnqht-becrn r esoluuo»

Shear (Angle Beam) using AWS RC Reference Block

8

o

s>

o

... 0

'0 o

-- --=----~~--~-----~-----------~-----___c__~

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPFCTION A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLlS __ ~_

.~~--~-.---- --

___ PAGE 27

Scanning for Base Material Integrity

The integrity (absence of flaws) of a weld, using ultrasonic means, is determined by passing a sound beam throughout the volume of the weld and its immediate surroundings (HAl). While scanning, the inspector looks for indications of internal and external reflectors. Once it has been determined that all reflectors can be accounted for by known geometrical or metallurgical discontinuities, the weld is considered free of possible flaws.

When using angle beam transducers, the sound beam travels throughout a relatively large expanse of base material. The surrounding base material must also be free of internal reflectors. Laminations in plate are of most concern. That is why a straight beam transducer is used to survey the base metal for the presence of laminations BEFORE the angle beam testing is done.

ULTRASUNIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS

__ ~ PAGE 28

Scanning Using Angle Beams for the Presence of Weld Flaws

Since discontinuities within and around welds occur with numerous shapes and dominant orientations, the scanning of the weld must comprise transverse displacements, longitudinal displacements, both augmented with rotational movements to maximize the probability of detecting existing reflectors.

Ali'll" 1":<1111 Irdll"II"U~1

T,:<,IIIII:I:l; P,tliJ or

II;" ISllllU:1

A" ~jll" -I H!'" II II dl",1 1111;1;1

Weld

(h)

AII'III: I"'dlll 1",",;",,, 1;1

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SI tORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS ~ ~~ ~

PAGE 29

Manipulating Transducers

Transducers are often manipulated into different orientations and positions to classify reflectors beyond that of merely detecting their presence. For example. flat reflectors have a strong specular reflection echo from the perpendicular position. Similarly, the manner by which the signal on the A-Scan changes with changes in position is also used to assist in identifying the nature of reflectors.

Table 4.1. Signal Interpretation Schemes

Characteristic Action ApScan Response

Orientation (Front Surface) Rotate, Approach Maximize signal

Vertical Trnnalate, Acrose "Walking signal"

Flatness Rotate, Unidirectional

Spherical Rotate, Omnidirectional

Thickness Both (many) sides Thin if one side predominates Graphical plot

Length (large) Tl-allsltltt! ill major direction Drop-off at ends

Depth/width (large)

Translate in minor direction Drop-off at edges Graphical plot Tip diffraction

Surface Text.ure Smooth Rough

Crisp, fast rise Jagged, wide pulse

Multi-echoes

Cuntents

RF' phase reversal

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

--~----.-.---~

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS __

PAGE 30

Orientation - Rotate to Maximize Signal Response

[DOD

A

c

B

Amplitude drops 011 rapidly as the search unit position is changed from 8 normBI incident Bnijlo with the di$continuity.

Vertical Size - Translate (In & Out), Look for a Walking Signal

B

A

c

u 'I .. ,
I, II \
f 1 " \
J 1 ~ I I \
A: I I ~
1 1
A B C Amplitude drops slightly at lirst movement of search unit t~en dr.ops rapidly. An envelope of movement along the base line s~ dlscontl~u. ity height as search is moved towards and away 'rom Ihedlscontlnulty.

Flat, Linear Reflector - Rotate about source, Look for Drop Off

- - .~ .. -------

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

mOJO]

ABC

Amplitude drops off rapidly ~. thl! ~I!~reh unil I'",,,'il"ln I!: r.hanglld from a normal incident angle with the discontinuity.

A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLlS~~~_

___ ~PAGE 31

Spherical Reflector - Constant response regardless of angles

wwUJ

A

B

c

Nole: Amplitude and depth are unchanged when the search unit is maintained at II constant distance from and moved around Ihe discontinuity.

www

45· SOD 70·

Amplitude remains unchanged (assuming equal sensitivity calibration and adjustment for attenuation), distance changes with angle [unless calibrated to be the same) as sound is moved around the discontinuity.

Spherical Reflector - Rapid drop-off with linear translation

8 A C
SAME ANGLE
m
" '"
'I I, '
: I ' I ~
r I "
I I I
~ I I ~ I , ,
I, ' , 1 h
SIDE VIEW
A B C Ampfitude drops ropidly showing little or no discontinuity indication with Ihe same angle bul distance chunqes as tho search unit ia moved towards and away from Ihe discontinuity.

~-:----=-=::-::-::-:-=~----,----------.~---~ .-- .. -- ..... -----~-~----

UL TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS_~ _

____ PAGE n

Dimension Measurement using 6dS Drop Method

El

A

c

A

BO---r----

1

_ Mo:lmize indication height and adjust to 1\ k.nown value.

B

so ----,,...----

I ,

C
80 I ~ ....
I ,
, Ii
I jl'l
I, Move search unit towards discontinuity until point where indication drops rapidly to the base line. Mark or note the location.

Move search unit away from the discontinuity until point where indication drops rapidly to Ihe base line. Mark or note location.

DisconUnuity location Is from scanning surtace as measured atonq the CRT.

h = Discontinuity hei!,lht dimension.

REFERENCE MARK

L" Total iength of discontinuity

A

-,-

,- 1

,

B

Determine discontinuily orientation and mintmum/maximum indication hoight.

Move search unilto end B until indication drops to 112 of height near Ihe end. Mark scanning surface adjacent to search unit reference cenler beam reference mark.

T

,

, ,

c

Move search unil to end C and repeat B, above. Indication length (L) is the distance between both marks.

Discontinuity localion along lhe weld is Irom the weldmanl reference mark.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS

. . ~~ ~ ~ PAGE 33

Signal Response Changes with Reflector Roughness (Morphology)

Defect types

Flaw Reflectors Compared

.... Direction of Primary UT Sound Beam

Lack of Fusion Type Flaw,

Very good sound reflector almost 100% Reflection

Almost no sound scatter when perpenoicutar to Sound Beam

Crack Type Flaw,

Very good sound reflector greater than 90% Reflection Some sound scatter from fracture face irregularities

Slag Type Flaw,

Medium Sound Reflector often 30 - 70% Renection

Porosity Type Flaw, may be Solid or Gas filled voids,

Poor Sound Reflectors with less than 50% reflection per void.

Cracks, LOF, Porosities with. sound incident angles greater than 15 Degrees to defect.

Very Poor Reflectors with less than 5% sound reflection. Typically are not detected during UT Inspection

CRT Indication Images

I

.~ __ ___._"l~-~~_._

Spiked Reflector sharp junction with Baseline

!

I

!

. L. ._ ..

Spiked reflector with some broildening 01 Baseline

!

~ ..

Broadened Baseline and reduced height



. [ .'

Clustered Small Reflectors

Very small Baseline lndicatlona

UL TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS _

PAGE 34

The Art and Science of UT Instrument Interpretation

At actual inspection time:

(1) the horizontal sweep has been calibrated,

(in terms of sound path distance and using the IIW Block or some equivalent),

(2) the transducer exit point and exit angle are known, (3) and, a scanning/marking/reporting process agreed to.

But, what info does the inspector have available to him in order to determine the location of reflectors within the weld?

1. The precise path along which the sound travels within the material. (As identified through the calibration process)

2. The precise distance from the exit point of the transducer to the location of the reflector, as measured along the sound path displayed on the A-Scan display.

3. The precise distance from the exit point of the transducer and the centerline of the weld, as measured along the surface of the weld/base-metal.

4. A somewhat qualitative indication of the surface roughness of the reflector.

This quantitative information is often displayed in a graphical manner using various plotting aids and templates.

2 3

... - o·

~ - .r Il/ :

_ _ _ II

" .

UL TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A,-S::-H-O-R-T-C-OU-R-S-E

MATT GOLIS

PAGE 35

----------------~----------------

The Inspection Process Detects the Presence of Reflectors.

The sensitivity of the instrument is set to a level that historically has been successful in finding discontinuities of engineering significance. Standard reflectors such as flat-bottomed holes (FBH) have been used for this purpose when detection of internal flaws in plate, forgings, and castings is of interest.

Side-drilled holes (SDH) are commonly used for weld inspection. A single hole can be used in establishing the sensitivity of a system regardless of the specific angle of incidence being used. In both cases, the heavier the wall thickness involved, the larger is the deSignated hole size to be used.

Matelial All..,. -----+- tUiri~ HoirSIu lDiamelerx 1164 In.,

l'tI.tal Distan.e II.~ In.l

Flat Bollom Te.lllol.

Plug

L"htulJgll Clad ll,ic\mc," 2% t Deep into Ihe Rase Melal

Clad INitIo (4)1

By consistently using these types of precision reflectors, the overall sensitivity of the UT process remains constant from one inspection to another and from one organization to the next. The setting of a sensitivity level is analogous to setting the volume of a radio. It will play the same each time, even though the information being processed varies from one moment to the next.

tn, TRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOI.IS

PAGE 3()

Refining the Issue of Sensitivity

The strength of a sound wave decreases with increasing distance from it source. Thus, the further a reflector (of a given size) is moved away from the transducer, the weaker will be its received echo signaL This distance-dependent decrease in echo signal amplitude can be compensated for through empirical measurement (using a calibration block). It is visually portrayed as a series of pulse amplitudes that generally decrease with increased distance from the transducer.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS

__ ~ ~~_PAGE 37

The lnspection Process Yields the Location of Reflectors.

The location of a detected reflector can be deduced either by use of a graphical tool or through use of some well-used trigonometric relationships such as those listed below.

BEAM INDEX POINT

SKIP D!STANCE

I \ V PATH

Skip Distance = 2T * TanOR

VPath= 2T COS()R

~U~LT=R~A~S~O~Nl~C~W~:E~L~D~IN~S~P~EC=T~IO~N----------------~-A-S-H-OR-T-C--OU--IKSE

MATT GOLlS __

.~----~~ --~~----

PAGE 38

Calculating Discontinuity Location Involves the following based on the Sound Path Distance (Se) observed on the Calibrated A-Scan and the physical position of the Transducer:

Horizontal Distance as measured from the Index Point of the transducer to the detected Reflector (Surface Distance).

SQIJ"};OPA TH ______.,

Surface Distance= Sr * SinOR

Vertical Distance as measured from the top surface to the Reflector.

DEPTII

~~~:-:-:-=-----::----------~---~---.-- -.--.-.-.---~--

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION A SHORT CO!JRSF

MATT GOLlS . .. ~ ~ ~_

__ PAGE 39

When the reflector indication lies in the 2nd leg of the V Path, an alternative Depth Equation is used.

DEP'rn

70° SEARCH UNIT

DEFECT LOCATION CHART

~

1--' __ ) - 023

.5 ui u

<J:

~ 0.5

::J (/)

6

...J W co

r ra,

w

o

2~~~~--~--~~

5 4 3 2 a

HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM POINT 5, tn.

oSp

ASH 6 R:-::T::-C-:-O-U-: R-S-E

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

l\1A 1 I (jULl~

---~-- -----------

PAGE 4U

IMPLEMENTING CODES & STANDARDS

The specific way a weld inspection is to be conducted is usually captured in the rules, regulations, guidelines, standard practices expressed in documents published by technical organizations such as ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and AWS (American Welding Society) to name a few.

ASTM E 164: Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weldments, for example, has established many of the basic guidelines used throughout the welding inspection industrial sector. It uses both the IIW block and blocks with SDHs as basic references. It uses an empirical approach to DAC curve development and lists specific examination procedures recommended for common weld configurations. It discusses "Reflector Evaluation" (using signal drop, indication appearance and transducer rotation) but is silent on weld acceptance. It uses a philosophy of moderate setting of controls, leaving many of the details to the judgement of the inspector, engineer, and purchaser.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - Section V:

Nondestructive Examination, Article 5: Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Materials and Fabrication, on the other hand, defines its own approach to calibrations and calibration block development and their use. Through reference to other Code sections, the Code defines acceptance criteria suitable for each product form (plates, pipes, forgings, castings) and their intended purpose (nuclear, boiler, pressure vessel). It sets approaches to dealing with curved parts, clad components and different classes of steel found in the pressure vessel industrial sector. It liberally draws on Ultrasonic Standards developed by ASTM and which, by reference, are adopted into the structure of the code, often with additional provisions unique to the approaches mandated by the Code bodies.

-~----~--

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

t\ SHOI{T COURSE

MATTGOLlS __ ~~~_~ ~ PAGE 41

AWS 01.1 :2000 Structural Welding Code - Steel, covers the welding requirements for any type of welded structure made from the commonly used carbon and low-alloy constructional steels including the use of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection. Section 6. Inspection, contains all of the requirements for the Inspector's qualifications, acceptance criteria for discontinuities and procedures for NDT. 6.13 defines acceptance criteria for statically and cyclically loaded joints in either tension or compression. Tables 6.2 and 6.3 quantify these criteria in terms of "Indication Ratings" and allowable lengths of indications. Part F, Ultrasonic Testing of Groove Welds, defines the procedures and standards to be used in welds and their HAZs in the thickness range of 5/16 - 8 inches.

Outlined in Part F are qualification requirements for instruments, transducers, reference standards (IIW) as welf as how they are to be set up and used. Procedures call for marking of regions to be inspected, extent of testing, sensitivity settings during scanning and analysis, and specific transducer angles and positions to be used based on material thickness as identified in Table 6.6. The matter of Tubular T -, Y -, and K-connections is handled as a separate matter due to their difficult geometrical access requirements. Reports and calibration details are also addressed.

The procedure used to assess flaw size is based on relative gain settings between echoes from the discontinuity's reflection and the reference SOH in the IIW block, suitably modified to account for ultrasonic beam spread and typical attenuation found in steels.

This degree of prescriptive instruction represents an approach intended to assure consistent performance both from equipment and from inspectors in the detection and assessment of severity of discontinuities found in common welded structu res _

. f

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPFCTION

A SHORT ror fRSF

MATTGOLlS~~_

PAGE 42

The AWS D1.1 :2000 Code in Brief (for ultrasonic inspection)

6.0 Inspection

Part A - General Requirements

Definitions - Roles & Responsibilities

Part 8 - Contractor Responsibilities

Supply Info and Correct Problems

Part C - Acceptance Criteria

Pass Visual Inspection 6.9

Delayed Cracking Mtls after 48hrs .. 6.11 UT Criteria

(Static Loading - Table 6.2) (Cyclical Loading

Tension - Table 6.3 Compression - Table 6.2)

(Beware of Planar Reflectors/alternative looks)

Tubular Connections 6.13.3

Use alternative sizing approach Lower sensitivity, Length Based

Part 0 - Nondestructive Testing Procedures

Comply with Part F Personnel Qualification

SNT-TC-1A, Levels II, Supervised Is Extent of Testing

Full, Partial, Spot (by contract) .

1\ SHORT COl.IRSF

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

MATT GOLIS

~ __ PAGE 43

Tabla 6_1

Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria 1 (see 6.9)

Statically Cyclically
Loaded Lo~dcJ Tubu lar
Nontubular Nontubular Connections
Discontinuity Catcgory and Inspection Criteria Connections Connections (All Loads)
(1) Crack Prohibition x X X
An~ crack is unaccc!!lablc, regardless of size or local inn.
(2) W"ld/8ase-Mdal Fusion
Thorough fusion shall exist between adjacent layers of weld metal and between weld melal X X X
and "a"" metal.
(3) Crater Cross Sectiou
All craters shall be filled to provide the specified weld size. excepl [or the ends of X X X
intermittent fillet welds outside of their effective length.
(4) Weld Proliles X X X
Weld profiles shall be in conformance wilh :;_24_
(5) Time of Inspection
Visual inspection of welds in all steels may begin immediately after the cnmpl .. lc.t wd.l<
have cooled to ambient temperature. Acceptance criteria for ASTM A S14. A 517, and X X X
A 709 Grade 100 and 100 W steels shall be based on visual inspection performed not less
than 48 hours after completion of the weld.
(6) Und"'-"'"a1 Wdd~
The size of a fillet weld in an~ continuous weld ma~ be less than the sl2!:cified nominal
size (L} without correction Ill: the following amounts {V):
b 1&
sl?:!:cificd nominal weld size, in.lmm} allowable decrease from L, in. (mm)
s 3116 (S) slf1lim X X X
.!H..® s3(.12 (2.5)
2:5/16 (8) ~
In all cases, the undersize (llJrlion of the shall not exceed 10% of the weld lenglh.
On web-to-flange welds on girders, no underrun is permitted at the ellds fur a length
equal 10 twice the width of the flange.
(7) Undercut
(A) For material less than tin. (25 mm) thick, undercut shall not exceed 1/32 in. (I mm),
except that a maximum 1/16 in. (2 mm) is pcrnuued for an accumulated length of 2 in. X
(50 mm) in any 12 in, (300 mm). For material equal to or greater than I in. thick,
undetcut sh,lI not exceed 1/16 in. (2 mm) rot "oy length or we ld l.
(S) In primary members, undercut shall be no more than 0.01 in. (0.25 mm) deep when
the weld is transverse 10 tensile stress under any design loading condition. Undercut shall X X
he no more than 1/32 in. (I mm) deep for all other cases . . .1

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLlS~ __

PAGE 44

-~---

Table 6.2

Ultrasonic Acceptance-Rejection Criteria (Statically Loaded Nontubular Connections) (see 6.13.1)

Weld Thickness" in in. (0101) and Search Urut Angle
:lflh{ts) ;;> j/4lZUj
through through
Discontinuity 3/4 (20) 1·1(2 (38) ;;> 1·1/2 (38) through 2·1/2 (65) ;;> 2·112 «(,S) through 4 (lOU) ;;> 4 (IUU) Ihrnugh!\ (200)
Severity
Class 70· 70' 7U' (,U' 45' 70' (,1)" 45' 70" (,0' 45°
+5 & +2& -2& +1& +3& -5& -2& 0& -7 &. -4& -I .~
Class A lower lower lower lower lower lower lower lower lower lower lower
~6 ~3 -I ~2 +4 -4 -I +1 -(, -3 II
Class B 0 +J +s -3 0 +2 -5 -2 +1
+7 +4 +1 +4 +6 -210 +1 +J -410 -iitl +2
crass C +2 +5 +7 +2 +2 +4 +2 +2 +.1
+8 +S +3 +6 +8 +3 +:1 +S +J +~ +4
Class 0 & up &up & up & up & up &.up &. up &up &. up &. up
&up Notes:

I. Cia" U and C disconunuuies shall he ~pataled by al leasl 2L, L heing the lenglh u[ Ihe longer discontinuity. Cllccpllhal when IWI' "' "!HIe ,u~h discontinuities arc not separated by al least 2L, but the combined length or distunlilluilk, "nd their sepanuiou di,I,,",'< is c<juill II> or Ie" th;11I the maximum allowable len!!th under the provisions or CIllo ... s U or C. the discontinuity ,h.,11 he considered a ,illl\le a~~cfltahle <Ij,wnlinuity.

2. Class U and C discontinuilies .han nul begin al a distance Ie,," than 2L from weld end, ~arryi,,!; IITimilly tcnxilc we". l. h<j"g Ihe di,mn!"Iuily lenglh.

J. Diocontinui!ic. detected at ·scanning level" in the root [ace area of complete joint pcnclllIli"" ""uhle gmnve weill joints ,h;,11 he evaluated usinll an indicaling rating 4 dB more sensmve Ihan dc~cribcd in (,.26.6.5 when such welds arc designillctl a, "tension welds" 0" the ,1"I"'i"g (,,,hllaC! <I dll hnm I~ tndir-:litnn ralina. .. tf ... )

4 r.lectro~I~.g or C'leclfoga!;; welds: Uis(_"NHinuilie,:; ucteclcc.I at "scanning Ic v e~ ... whkh c!(ceru 2 in. (50 rum) in lenglh ~h,,11 he ~il!"o~c.'l~d ;I~ hcing pipil1!;, puro"ly and shall be furlher evaluated with radiography.

5. I'm indication, Ihal remain on the di'play as the search uni] i. moved, refer In (,.13.1.

Cla: ... , A (large discnntinuitics}

Any ~ndi(,,:;I.i(_1n in Int'" !:':::II,r:gory !ilh!ltl he r~j~["I~tI (reg:ullir_ .... !I;. or tll"nglh)

Scanning Levels

Cla~~ II (medium discommuiues]

Any indi~ation in this category having a length greater Ihan 3/4 inch (20 mm) ~hall be rejected.

Sound path" ill in. (mm)

AI1I1YC Zero Reference, .. m

Class C (small disconunuuies]

Any indication in Ihi. calegory having. lenglh greater than 2 inches {SI! rnm) shall be rejected,

Class U (mini" Llisconltnulltcs)

An)' inlJicalil,n in this category shall be accepted Icganllc,,", of lenglh or locillion in the weld.

through 2·1/2 «(,5 mm)

> 2·112 through 5 {(,5-125 mill) > 5 through IO(12S-25Dmrn) > 10lh",ugh IS (2S0-:HHI 1T1ITI)

14 14 21) .W

"This column fC[US III sound path tliStilnCC; NOT Illil!ni'lithld"",,.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS

________________ PAGE 45

Table 6.3

Ultrasonic Acceptance-Rejection Criteria (Cyclically Loaded Nontubular Connections) (see 6.13.2)

Weld Thickness' in in. (mm) and Search. Unil Angle
5/16 (8) > 3/4 (20)
throunh through
Discontinuity .1/4 (20) 1-1/2 (31l) > 1-1/2 (3R) througb 2-1/2 (65) > 2-1/2 (65) through. 4 (100) > 4 (1!)Q)lluough 8 (200)
Severity
Class 70· 70· 70" (><1· 45· 70' 1>(1" 45" 70" 60' 4~'
+10& +11 & +4& +7 & +9& tl & +4& +6& -2& +1 & +3 &
CI;,.5 A lower lower luwcr lower lower lower lower lower lower lower lower
Class 11 til +9 +5 +8 +10 +2 t5 +7 -I +2 +4
+11 +9 +11 +J t6 t8 0 +) +5
Class C +12 +10 +7 +10 +12 +4 +7 +9 +1 +4 +6
+8 +1] +13 +5 +8 +10 +2 +5 +7
Class D +1) +11 +'1 +12 +14 +6 +9 +11 +3 +6 +8
&up & up & up & up & up & up &' lip &up & up & up & up Notes:

t. c."J.a~m n eed C di5cnnlinuili.e;s .shall tM;: :M;rar.olcd by ill. leas ... ' 2L... L Ip\;in~ the lenglh of the. tnnger lll.s4xmHnlJily. CXil..~pI thai when two or more- such uiscomtnuuies arc not separated by al lea\1 21., bUI the combined lenglh or disconlinuilies and their 5ep:lralion distance is equal 10 or I,,", than lI>e maximum allowable Icnglh under the provisions Il( 0'1. ... s Il (If C, Ih. tlisconlinuily shall be considered a single acceptable di"Conlinuily.

2. Cia", II and C di""llntinuilies sholl nUl!>rgin 81 a distance le ss than lL from weld ends currying prim~ry len.~ile .Ires., L !>ring the discontinuity length.

J. Di:iCOll'i"n'Uiti~;, dcrccacd it' "':Kil-Aning l~vc:I" ill II .... nxrt race area er cempiese JOi", penetrauoa douh.Je groove weld jnints shall he evaluated using lin indie,'ing raring 4 dll mil'" se nsui ... Ihan described in 6.26.6.5 When such welds are designated as "tension welds" on the d •• wing (subtraci 4 dU from the indic.,in" raling "d"].

ot For indications lh., remain on Ihe display as the sea rch unit is moved, refer 10 6.13.2.1.

·Wdd Ihick"c» ,hall h<; uertneu a.' me noml"al ,"ICk"es., nt tne thinner "f the two p •• t, being joined.

Class A (large discontinuities)

Any i"dicu.l~on iM Ihtl-: c:J,(egory ~h.:!.IIIt1.~ rejected (rc;&an.uc~:t of knglh).

Scanning Levels

Cia," U (medium discontinuities)

Any indication in Ihi, c.lcgory having a length greater than 3/4 inch (111 mm) .hall be rejected.

Ct;, .. , C (small discontinuilies)

Any indicunon in this category having a length greater than 2 in. (50 mm} in the middle half or 3/4 inch (20 mm) length in Ihe mp or ",,"om quarter of weld thickness shall be rejected,

Sound path" in in. (mm)

Above Zero Reference. d13

Cl","i:'i D (minm .J;!'Il.~]minuiljl;~)

Any indicallon in this category shall be accepted regardless of length Or location in the weld.

through 2-1/2 (65 mm)

;> 2-ln through 5 (65-125 mm) > 5 through 10(125-250 mm)

> 10 Ih"'''Sh 15 (~50--:lBO 111111)

20 25 35 45

"Thi, column refers to sound path distance; NOT material thicknes s.

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS. __ ~~_

.~~_~ PAGE 46

Part F - Ultrasonic Testing of Groove Welds

Thickness Range 5/16 - 8 Inches

Outside of range, use Annex K (Alternatives)

Ultrasonic Equipment , 6.22

A Scan, 1-6 MHz, ±1 dB stability, alarmed Gain in 2dB steps, over 60dB range

Transducers

Straight-Beam, 1/2 - 1 In2 in area, 2 - 2.25 MHz Angle-Beam, (5/8 - 1") X (5/8 - 13/16"), 1-1.2: 1 Angles 70, 60, 45 degrees, ±2 degrees Internal Reflections Limited (20dB hot) Leading Edge to Index Point, 1 Inch

Reference Standards , 6.23

IIW Reference Block - Distance, Sensitivity Portables OK with "Adjustment"

No Corner Reflectors

"System" Resolution by RC (3-hole sets) block

Equipment Qualification 6.24

Horizontal Linearity, 40 Hrs. of use

Gain Control, 2 Mo. Intervals

Internal Reflections, 40 Hrs. of use Transducers, 8 Hrs. (flat, index pt.,angle) Reject Control/clippingl suppression "OFF"

On-Location Calibration

Distance & Sensitivity, Every 30 Minutes! Disruptions - Xducer, battery, outlet, cable

-- - ----~,~--~-~--~.-----~--.----------~------.-~---

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLIS

PAGE 47

---.-.----~--~

Testing Procedures 6.26

Markings

"X" Line, Parallel to Weld Axis, Centerline "Y" Line, End of weld, ± Ref, Weld 10

Base Metal Scan .

t.oss of Back Reflection Report Size, Location

Triggers Alternate Weld Scan Approach Grind flush I other faces or angles

Weld Metal Scan

Sound Beam Approach - Per Table 6.6 By Weld Type, Thickness, and Zone

Increased Sensitivity - Per Tables 6.2, 6.3

Scan Patterns Per Fig. 6.24

Entire Volume (+HAZ), Cross Directions

.~

---~------

(II.TRASONIC WFLD INSPFCTION

A SliGHT COURSE

MATT GOLIS PAGE 48

Table 6.6
Testing Angle (see 6.26.5.2)
.-.~---
rroccllurc Chart
Material Thickness, in. (mm)
5/16 (8) > 1-1/2(311) > 1-3/4(45) >2-1/2(60) >3-1/2 (YO) >4-1/2(11U} >5 {lJU} >6-1/2 (1(.0) > 7 (1110)
to to 10 10 10 10 to 10 to
Weld Type 1-112 (38) 1-3/4 (45) 2-1/2 (60) 3-1/2 (IJO) 4-1/2 (HO) 5 (13U) 6-112 (160) 7 (l1l0) II (200)

lG lG 6 8 'I 12
l3ull 0 F or F or F or F or F or F or F 12. F
4 5 7 10 II IJ
F F F F F F F
T- O or 4 or 5 or 7 or 111 or II or 13 or
XI' XI' XI' XF XI' XI' XI'
F IG F IG F (, F 8 F 4 F 13 F
Cornet 0 or or or or or or or Or or or <If ur ur
XF 4 XI' 5 XF 7 XF 10 XI' II XI' 14 XF
10 10 rl fI II 11 II II
Electrogas & 0 0 or I·· or or or P3 or P3 or 1'3 or 1'3 or PJ
Electroslag 4 3 1'3 7 15 15 15 15" FACE C

FACE C

T-JOINT

PITCH-AND-CATCH

BUTIJOINT

I X

CORNER JOINT

GROUND FLUSH

Noles:

I. Where possible, all u~minaUons shall be made Irom r-ace A and in Leg I, unles otherwise src<.:ific<l in this Table.

2. Root areas of single groove weld joinls which have backing not requiring removal by connect, shall be tested in ug I, where possible. with Face A being Ihal opposile the backing. (Grinding of the weld tacc or resting frum addiuonal weld faces may be nc,essary til permit complete scanning of Ihe weld root.)

3. Examination in leI II 01 III ~h.1l be made onlv 10 s"li~fy nrovisiuns nf this table or when neccssarv lu Icsl weld mca, millie luaccessible by an ungroend weld .u.face, or io'erference with other portions of the wcldmcut, or 10 meet the requirements nl (,2(,(,2

4. A maximum of Leg III shall be used only where thickness Or gcollleiry prevent, scanning of complete weld arc", and hcat alfcctcd zones in Leg I or ugll.

5. On tension welds in cyclically loaded structures, the top quarter of lhickness sh~11 be leSltd with the final lep. Ilr sound progressing from race U IOWDfd Peee A. the bottom q\Jutct of Ih.ic'kn-c.:lo'i sh all be 1C:'IIc:d whh tbe fini,1 kg of ~nunJ pll'~n:;.:-.i,,~ frorn Fc:....:1C A IUWdlU FOiL'!;; U~ i.c., rhe rop quauer of Ihic~ncs., shall he le,leu either fum' Face A in Leg II ur from l'ace Il in Leg I ut the contrucrors "Pi ion, unlcvs olhnwi," 'pccificll in Ihe contract documents.

Ii. The weld face indicated shall be ground Ilush bcfnre using procedure IG. (I. R, 9, 12. t4. or I~. !'acc A fur both connected OIcIIII.<" .,1>;,11 he i" the same plane.

ULTKASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATTGOLlS~ _

PAGE 49

Table 6.6 (Continued)

LegcmJ;

X -Check. frum Face "c."

G -Grind weld face [lush.

D -Not required.

A Face -tile face of the material from which the initial scanning is done (on T- and corner joints, follow above sketches).

B Face -opposite the "A" face (same plale).

e Face -Ihe face opposite the weld on the connecting member or a T- OT COTner joint.

- Required only where display reference height indication of discontinuity is noted at the weld metal-base metal interface while searching at scanning level with primary procedures selected from first column. - Use 15 in. (400 mm) or 20 in. (500 mm) screen distance calihration .

_ Pitch and catch shall be conducted for further discontinuity evaluation in only the middle half of the

matcrtat rhickness with only 45' or 70' transducers of equal specification, hoth facing Ihe weld. (Transducers must he held in a fixture to control positioning-sec skctch.) Amplitude calibration fOT pitch and catch is normally made hy calibrating a single search unit. When switching to dual search units for pitCh and catch inspection, there should he assurance that this calibration docs not change as a result of instrument variables.

- Weld metal-base metal interface indications shall be further evaluated with either 70·, 60·, or 45· transducer-e-whichcver sound path is nearest to being perpendicular to the suspected fusion surface.

••

I'

F

Procedure Legend
Area or Weld Thickness
Top Middle Bottom
No. Quarter Half Quarter
70' 70° 70·
2 (,0' 60' 60'
:I 45' 45' 45"
4 1'10· 70" 70°
5 45" 70' 70'
h 70"0 A 70' 6f1°
7 (.0· n 70" 60"
B 70'(; A 60· 60'
Ij 70·0 A 60· 45·
10 60· B 60· 60"
II 45" B 70"" 45'
12 70"0 A 45" 700G B
13 45' B 45' 45"
14 700GA 45' 45"
15 70'0 A 70'11 13 711"G n ,

. .1

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

MATT GOLlS~-'-------,~~ ~_

P"GE 50

PATTERN 0

...

PAnE-RN E

~c--j ---,,--1\-1\-

'\ 1\ 1\

I I \+" +-\

10- --I

I \ I ... I

S!li

..

- --

I--c-j

-, "1

1 rh

- --+- -+------ ---

t-l-J

" .....

... U

I I

rio ·t ~ ..

MOVEMENTS

MOVEMENT A

MOVEMENTC

Notes:

1. Testing patterns are all symmetrical around the weld axis with tho exception of pattern o whick is conduotod directly over the weld axis.

2. Testing from both sides of the weld axis is 10 be made wherever mechanically possible.

Figure 6.24-Plan View of UT Scanning Patterns (see 6.32)

Scanning Movements

Rotation Angle A = 10 degrees Movement B = cover entire weld Progression C = one half transducer width

All done together as one scanning pattern.

--~ ------------_

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS -- _

PAGE ) I

Assessing Flaw Severity - Amplitude & Length

Indication Ratings =

Indication Level (dB) from reflector

~ Reference Level (dB) from 0.060" SOH

~ Attenuation Correction (dB) ... .fr. estimate

Note: Atten. Corr. Based on soundpath distance with near field estimate of 1" and a beam spread of 2dB/inch.

Reflector Length based on 6dB drop points

UL TRASONl(' WELD INSPECTION

~- ------------- .- .. ----.-------~- ---

A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS _

PAGE 52

REPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING OF WELDS

Project _

Report no. _

x

Weld idenlilication ~ ~ _

Maleriallhickness _

Wekljoint AWS _

Walding procasB _

Quality requirements-seclion no. _

Remarks __

x +

y

Decibels Discontinuity
'" c:
... <: U .9 I:: ~ ~
IV Qj .2 I:: iU .g E Q.I
.c II) iU ~ Eo ·s c
E c u u ~O> o o
.2 ~ :l If u- <11- ~<IIQ_ .t:~ .!; 0
::J .- <II _OJ lIIU ._ c: .g~
lP~ '0 ~~ <116i 'O+> s: 10O"
c ~~ E ~J!! ..se c, -scc: .c ::J Distance
IV ._ E • a::_ ell!! ::J ~UJ u2
~ C 2'<.:
.!;; '2=> $ffi ~ III ~.~ ~ ., '"
...J _I:: ...J a b c d ....J '0 ~ 0, From X From Y oil) Remarks
1
2
-'--_ .. -
3
4
5
.. _--
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
16
19
20
_- -------------~---~---------:-----=---------

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION A SHORT COURSE

MATT GOLlS _

PAGE 5:;

References of Particular Interest

General Ultrasonic Inspection

Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, Metals Handbook, 9th Ed., Vol. 17, ASM International, 1989.

Krautkramer, J. and H., Ultrasonic Testing of Materia/s, 4th Ed., Springer-Verlag, 1990.

Ultrasonic Testing, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, 2nd Ed., Vol. 7, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 1991.

Welding Handbook, 8th Ed., Welding Technology, Vol. 1" American Welding Society, 1987.

Inspection of Welds-Related Codes and Standards

Nondestructive Testing, Vol 3.03, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section 3 on Metals Test Methods and Analytical Procedures, 1998.

Structural Welding Code - Steel, AWS D1.1 :2000, 1 yth Ed., American Welding Society, 2000.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Nondestructive Examination, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Current Edition.

- -~~-

ULTRASONIC WELD INSPECTION

---_ ----_-------

A SHORT COURSE

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