Machining

ver. 1

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Old Machine Shop – Edison’s lab

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Machining = Chip formation by a tool g p y

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Big lathe with big chips

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Discontinuous chips

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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J.Continuous chips ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 6 .

S. Colton © GIT 2009 7 .Machine Tools and Processes • • • • • • • Turning g Boring Milling Planing Shaping Broaching g Drilling • • • • • • Filing Sawing Grinding Reaming Honing H i Tapping ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.

Lathe (for turning) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 8 . J.

Lathe Parts ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 9 .S. J.

Typical Insert Cutting Tool insert holder ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 10 . J.

Colton © GIT 2009 11 . J.Old Lathe ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

J.ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 12 .

Colton © GIT 2009 13 . J.S.Boring ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 14 .S.Old Boring Machine ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.

Old Planer ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 15 . J.S.

S.Shaper ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 16 .

S.Trepanning ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 17 . J.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 18 . J.Drilling (a) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 19 .S. J.Milling ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J.Face Milling ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 20 .S.

Horizontal Mill ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 21 . J.

S.Old Horizontal Mill ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 22 . J.

Vertical Mill ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 23 .S. J.

J.Milling Types g yp ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 24 .

S.Broach ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 25 .

Reamers bridge reamer ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 26 . J.

J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 27 .Honing ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J.Thread Tap and Die internal external ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 28 .

Idealized Chip-formation Process Orthogonal Cutting chip shear zone cutting tool workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 29 .S. J.

S.Chip-formation Geometry p y primary shear zone chip B to φ workpiece tc α A tool V (cutting velocity) ζ ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 30 .

Note that feed in turning is equivalent to the depth of cut in orthogonal cutting. where f is the feed rate (in./rev or mm/rev) and d is the depth of cut. no change would be needed. • Terminology used in a turning operation on a lathe. the “orthogonality” is turning orthogonality to the left in the drawing. • • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. and th th l tti d the depth of cut in turning is equivalent to the width of cut in orthogonal cutting. J. In turning. hence a change of coordinate system is needed.Turning vs Orthogonal Cutting vs. Colton © GIT 2009 31 . If you were doing a diametral cut-off (plunge cut) (p g ) operation.

Cutting Force Diagram R Fc R Fs Ns φ α β N F V Ft ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 32 .

S. M Eugene Merchant ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 33 .Merchant s Merchant’s Force Circle Fs Fc Ns Ft β R F N φ β−α β α α α V M. J.

S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 34 A Vc . V O αe i Y ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.3D Cutting (Oblique) Z αn X.

Colton © GIT 2009 35 . J.S.Typical Insert Cutting Tool insert holder ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 36 . J.

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 37 .S. J.

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 38 .S. J.

Tool Coatings ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 39 .S.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. (b) secondary shear zone at the chip-tool interface.Chip Types Basic types of chips and their photomicrographs produced in metal cutting: (a) continuous chip with narrow. (d) continuous chip with large primary shear zone. Shaw. Wright. Kalpakjian. (e) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and (f) discontinuous chip. P. (c) continuous chip with built-up edge. C. Source: After M. and S. straight primary shear zone.S. K. J. Colton © GIT 2009 40 .

Colton © GIT 2009 41 .S. J.Chip Types • (a) Continuous chip with narrow primary shear zone – ductile materials at high speed – b d f automation ( bad for t ti (use chip b k ) hi breakers) • (b) Secondary shear zone at chip-tool interface – increased energy dissipation • (c) Continuous chip with built up edge (BUE) – hi h plastic working high l ti ki – bad for automation ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 42 . J.Chip Types • (d) Continuous chip with large primary shear zone – soft metals at low speeds and low rake angles – poor surface finish – residual stresses • (e) Segmented chip – low thermal conductivity materials • (f) Discontinuous chip – low ductility materials and/or negative rake angles – good for automation ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

Colton © GIT 2009 43 . J.Segmented chips ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

Chip Breaker chip hi shear zone chip breaker cutting tool workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 44 . J.S.

Integral Chip Breakers ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 45 .

Colton © GIT 2009 46 .Tool Marks ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. J.

S.Roughness Roughness AA ≈ f 2 18 3 r f Roughnesst ≈ 8r f 2 f = feed f d r = nose radius AA = arithmetic average ith ti t = peak-to-valley r ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 47 .

Surface Marks (a) (b) Surfaces produced on steel by cutting. Source: J. Black and S. Colton © GIT 2009 48 . J. as observed with a scanning electron microscope: (a) turned surface and (b) surface produced by shaping.S. T. Ramalingam. ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

S.Formation of Built up Edge (BUE) Built-up BUE deposit cutting tool chip BUE BUE deposit workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 49 .

S. J.Chatter • Results from vibration • T lb Tool bounces i and out of th in d t f the workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 50 .

J. Colton © GIT 2009 51 .S.Glacial Chatter ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 52 .S. J.Chip / Tool Interface ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 53 .Tool Wear (a) Rake (b) (c) Flank (d) (e) ( ) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

Taylor 1856-1915 . J. C = Taylor constants (empirical) C n log V log T 1 ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.Taylor’s Equation y q VTn = C V = cutting speed T = tool life n.S. Colton © GIT 2009 54 Frederick W.

Taylor’s F W Taylor s Contributions • Metal cutting • Time / motion studies – Led to Congressional inquiry and banning of stop watch use by civil p y servants (1912-1949) • Design of shovels • Scientific management ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.W. Colton © GIT 2009 55 .F.S. J.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 56 .S.Cost components Total Tool changing Min CO OST Tool Machining Raw material Material handling CUTTING VELOCITY ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

4655 0.3495 0.14 5 14 Vtm 200 18.1463 Cg 0.1793 0.699 0.3125 0.05 0.05 0.699 Cs 0.30 5 30 Carbide Vcm 432 5.3484 0.45 3 45 57 ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.3125 0.5 43 5 Cm 3.1888 0.85 Total ($) 5.9125 0.3484 0.64 5 64 1.05 0.2657 0.35 3 35 Carbide Vcm 432 5.699 0.64 5 64 1.85 3.Cutting cost example HSS Vcm N (rpm) 183 T (min) 43.85 5.699 0.2117 Ci 0.699 0.61 3 61 all Vtm 490 3 1.1888 0.05 Cr 0.05 0.3495 0.1831 Cc 0.85 3.S.3218 0.1 18 1 2.699 0.29 3 29 Vtm 490 3 1.1603 0. Colton © GIT 2009 .85 3.85 3. J.05 0.2972 0.

Colton © GIT 2009 58 .ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S.

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