Machining

ver. 1

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Old Machine Shop – Edison’s lab

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Machining = Chip formation by a tool g p y

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Big lathe with big chips

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Discontinuous chips

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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S. Colton © GIT 2009 6 . J.Continuous chips ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 7 . J.S.Machine Tools and Processes • • • • • • • Turning g Boring Milling Planing Shaping Broaching g Drilling • • • • • • Filing Sawing Grinding Reaming Honing H i Tapping ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

S. J.Lathe (for turning) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 8 .

J.Lathe Parts ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 9 .S.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 10 . J.Typical Insert Cutting Tool insert holder ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 11 .Old Lathe ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 12 .

S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 13 .Boring ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 14 . J.Old Boring Machine ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 15 .S.Old Planer ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 16 .Shaper ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 17 .Trepanning ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

S.Drilling (a) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 18 . J.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 19 .Milling ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

Face Milling ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 20 . J.S.

J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 21 .Horizontal Mill ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 22 .S.Old Horizontal Mill ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Vertical Mill ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 23 .

Milling Types g yp ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 24 . J.S.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 25 . J.Broach ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J.Reamers bridge reamer ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 26 .

Honing ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 27 .S. J.

S. J.Thread Tap and Die internal external ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 28 .

Idealized Chip-formation Process Orthogonal Cutting chip shear zone cutting tool workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 29 .

Chip-formation Geometry p y primary shear zone chip B to φ workpiece tc α A tool V (cutting velocity) ζ ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 30 . J.

Colton © GIT 2009 31 . If you were doing a diametral cut-off (plunge cut) (p g ) operation. and th th l tti d the depth of cut in turning is equivalent to the width of cut in orthogonal cutting. • • ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.Turning vs Orthogonal Cutting vs. In turning. Note that feed in turning is equivalent to the depth of cut in orthogonal cutting.S. J. no change would be needed. where f is the feed rate (in. the “orthogonality” is turning orthogonality to the left in the drawing. hence a change of coordinate system is needed./rev or mm/rev) and d is the depth of cut. • Terminology used in a turning operation on a lathe.

S.Cutting Force Diagram R Fc R Fs Ns φ α β N F V Ft ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 32 . J.

Colton © GIT 2009 33 .Merchant s Merchant’s Force Circle Fs Fc Ns Ft β R F N φ β−α β α α α V M. J.S. M Eugene Merchant ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 34 A Vc .S. V O αe i Y ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.3D Cutting (Oblique) Z αn X.

Typical Insert Cutting Tool insert holder ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 35 . J.

Colton © GIT 2009 36 .S.ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 37 . J.ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 38 .ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 39 . J.S.Tool Coatings ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

(e) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and (f) discontinuous chip. J. K. Wright. and S. (b) secondary shear zone at the chip-tool interface. straight primary shear zone. C. (d) continuous chip with large primary shear zone. (c) continuous chip with built-up edge.Chip Types Basic types of chips and their photomicrographs produced in metal cutting: (a) continuous chip with narrow. Source: After M. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 40 .S. P. Shaw. Kalpakjian.

S. J.Chip Types • (a) Continuous chip with narrow primary shear zone – ductile materials at high speed – b d f automation ( bad for t ti (use chip b k ) hi breakers) • (b) Secondary shear zone at chip-tool interface – increased energy dissipation • (c) Continuous chip with built up edge (BUE) – hi h plastic working high l ti ki – bad for automation ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 41 .

Chip Types • (d) Continuous chip with large primary shear zone – soft metals at low speeds and low rake angles – poor surface finish – residual stresses • (e) Segmented chip – low thermal conductivity materials • (f) Discontinuous chip – low ductility materials and/or negative rake angles – good for automation ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 42 . J.S.

Segmented chips ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 43 .

J.Chip Breaker chip hi shear zone chip breaker cutting tool workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 44 .

Integral Chip Breakers ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 45 .S.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 46 . J.Tool Marks ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

J.Roughness Roughness AA ≈ f 2 18 3 r f Roughnesst ≈ 8r f 2 f = feed f d r = nose radius AA = arithmetic average ith ti t = peak-to-valley r ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 47 .

as observed with a scanning electron microscope: (a) turned surface and (b) surface produced by shaping. Ramalingam. T. Source: J. J.S. Black and S. ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.Surface Marks (a) (b) Surfaces produced on steel by cutting. Colton © GIT 2009 48 .

Colton © GIT 2009 49 .Formation of Built up Edge (BUE) Built-up BUE deposit cutting tool chip BUE BUE deposit workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. J.

S.Chatter • Results from vibration • T lb Tool bounces i and out of th in d t f the workpiece ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 50 . J.

S.Glacial Chatter ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 51 .

Colton © GIT 2009 52 . J.Chip / Tool Interface ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 53 .S.Tool Wear (a) Rake (b) (c) Flank (d) (e) ( ) ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 54 Frederick W.S. C = Taylor constants (empirical) C n log V log T 1 ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.Taylor’s Equation y q VTn = C V = cutting speed T = tool life n. Taylor 1856-1915 .

F.W.S. Colton © GIT 2009 55 . J. Taylor’s F W Taylor s Contributions • Metal cutting • Time / motion studies – Led to Congressional inquiry and banning of stop watch use by civil p y servants (1912-1949) • Design of shovels • Scientific management ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.

Cost components Total Tool changing Min CO OST Tool Machining Raw material Material handling CUTTING VELOCITY ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 56 . J.

3125 0.85 3.699 0.85 Total ($) 5.85 3.29 3 29 Vtm 490 3 1.699 0.35 3 35 Carbide Vcm 432 5.2657 0.9125 0.699 0.S.Cutting cost example HSS Vcm N (rpm) 183 T (min) 43.1831 Cc 0.4655 0.1888 0.3125 0.699 0.64 5 64 1.2117 Ci 0.05 0.05 0.85 3.05 0.699 0.3495 0.14 5 14 Vtm 200 18.3484 0.1 18 1 2.85 5.45 3 45 57 ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.5 43 5 Cm 3.05 Cr 0.1888 0.1463 Cg 0.05 0.3484 0.85 3.3495 0.05 0.61 3 61 all Vtm 490 3 1.1793 0.3218 0.30 5 30 Carbide Vcm 432 5. Colton © GIT 2009 .64 5 64 1.699 Cs 0.2972 0.1603 0.

Colton © GIT 2009 58 .S.ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.

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