ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR

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Behaviour is defined as the action which is expressed in an organism in response to the stimuli. It s actually for particular stimulus at a given situation the way the animal responds is its behaviour. When we explain behavioural activity of an animal, it should start with the Stimulus and end with the Response. Now what is stimulus: Stimulus is the change in the environment in which the animal lives, the change is whether in biotic or abiotic environment is capable of causing the animal to react or to respond. Different Stimuli in Abiotic environment are: change in Pressure, temperature, gravity. Stimuli in Biotic environment are for example: The activities of other organisms in the surrounding environment.

Animal Behaviour is of two types: 1. Innate: the behaviour which is inherited, thus it is automatic and consistent. They have fixed action patterns, which generally do not change. Some innate responses are even directed like Taxis, kinesis. There are even some complex innate behaviours for example Migration; due to change in season or for the reproduction purpose the animals navigate and its truly innate. Innate behavioural pattern also includes the learning to form social attachments for a critical time period like reproduction, this type of condition is known as Imprinting. 2. Learned: This type of behaviour is acquired from the experiences and they are variable that means they can change with time and environment. In such cases the conditioning may change their responses. Various t ests and experiments are carried out to check how the animal responds to particular stimuli with different experiments carried out for different time periods. For example Operant conditions, classical conditioning are carried out to check their associative learning process. Operant learning is Trial and Error method for example response of an animal towards reward or punishment. Classical conditioning associates a neutral stimulus with a significant stimulus. Habituation is also type of learning in which the animal gets habituated and thus do not respond to a stimuli. Whereas problem solving is a type of learning in which animals can reason a response to a problem.

Social behaviours: Animals exhibit different types of social behaviour Agonistic: Threatening response or some time seven submissive response is observed. The competitive behaviour with the other species in the habitat may stimulate such response Territoriality is such kind of response aggravated to threaten the other species. Dominance Hierarchy: Animals decide their social ranking among themselves this is also called as Pecking order. It Means the dominant are kept higher class in the hierarchical order. Cooperation: involves the working in coordination. The animals generally tend to travel in groups or packs for the safety purpose and reproductive purpose and work in coordination. Altruistic behaviour: in which the animal tend to increase the survival of close relative, passing their genes to the next generation. It may reduce the fitness of that animal itself, but may increase survival of the recipient.

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