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g GE Energy GEI-100604

Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for

Retrofit Applications

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor
to provide for every possible contingency to be met during installation, operation,
and maintenance. The information is supplied for informational purposes only, and
GE makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the information included herein.
Changes, modifications, and/or improvements to equipment and specifications are
made periodically and these changes may or may not be reflected herein. It is
understood that GE may make changes, modifications, or improvements to the
equipment referenced herein or to the document itself at any time. This document is
intended for trained personnel familiar with the GE products referenced herein.
GE may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this
document. The furnishing of this document does not provide any license whatsoever
to any of these patents. All license inquiries should be directed to the address below.
If further information is desired, or if particular problems arise that are not covered
sufficiently for the purchaser’s purpose, the matter should be referred to:
GE Energy
Post Sales Service
1501 Roanoke Blvd.
Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA
Phone: 1 888 GE4 SERV (888 434 7378, United States)
+ 1 540 378 3280 (International)
Fax: + 1 540 387 8606 (All)
( + indicates the international access code required when calling from outside
the USA)
This document contains proprietary information of General Electric Company, USA
and is furnished to its customer solely to assist that customer in the installation,
testing, operation, and/or maintenance of the equipment described. This document
shall not be reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents be disclosed to any
third party without the written approval of GE Energy.

GE provides the following document and the information included therein as is and
without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including but not limited to any
implied statutory warranty of merchantability or fitness for particular purpose.

Issue date: 2004-06-07

 2004 by General Electric Company, USA.

All rights reserved

CIMPLICITY is a registered trademark of GE Fanuc Automation North America, Inc.

CompactPCI is a registered trademark of PICMG.
Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation.
Honeywell is a registered trademark of Honeywell International Inc.
McGraw Edison is a registered trademark of Cooper Industries Inc.
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
NEMA is a registered trademark of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
QNX is a registered trademark of QNX Software Systems, Ltd.
Reuter Stokes is a trademark of GE Energy.
Proximitor is a registered trademark of Bently Nevada.
ToolboxST is a trademark of General Electric Company, USA.

2 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Section Page
Acronyms and Abbreviations ...................................................................................... 3
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 4
Compatibility............................................................................................................... 4
Product Options........................................................................................................... 5
Architecture ................................................................................................................. 6
Redundancy ................................................................................................................. 7
Hardware Description.................................................................................................. 9
I/O Interface .............................................................................................................. 12
Control Functions ...................................................................................................... 14
Operator and Maintenance Tools .............................................................................. 17
System Monitoring .................................................................................................... 21
Codes and Standards.................................................................................................. 22

Acronyms and Abbreviations

PCI Compact Peripheral Component Interconnection (also Compact PCI)
DCS Distributed Control System
EGD Ethernet Global Data
FSR Fuel Stroke Reference
GSM GE Standard Messages
GUI Graphical User Interface
HMI Human-Machine Interface
IEC International Electro-technical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IO Net Input-Output Network
LED Light Emitting Diode
LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transformer
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
PDH Plant Data Highway
RMS Root Mean Square
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
TMR Triple Modular Redundant
UDH Unit Data Highway
UDP/IP User Datagram Protocol / Internet Protocol
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 3

The Mark VIe is a fully programmable control system that is well suited for retrofit
of previous generations of GE and non-GE gas turbine control systems. A high-
speed Ethernet IO Network (IO Net) allows distributed I/O and connects distributed
I/O cabinets to the Mark VIe controller cabinet. The Mark VIe control can also be
designed to provide simplex, dual or triple redundant operation. The simplex and
dual architecture options are well suited to the upgrade of existing non-redundant
turbine control systems from any manufacturer.
ToolboxSTTM is the software tools specifically for programming, configuring,
trending and analyzing diagnostics for a gas turbine. ToolboxST can operate on the
same pc as the graphical user interface to provide the user with an engineering
workstation and Human Machine Interface capabilities on a single pc.

The control is designed to install in the existing cabinet location or in distributed
locations. A variety of cabinets are available to optimize replacement of existing
enclosures. These include standard NEMA® 1 IP20, convection cooled cabinets with
front or front and rear access and top and/or bottom cable entrances. Optional custom
packaging is also available.
Existing field wiring can be retained or replaced. Barrier type terminal blocks are
supplied that support two 3.0mm2 (#12AWG) wires with spade or ring lugs per point
for a one-to-one match with the existing wiring. Compression type terminations are
also available to meet the scale requirements of dual or simplex turbine control
Mark VIe is designed to It may be desirable to separate existing contact inputs that are currently wired in
interface with most of the parallel to the annunciator since there is no longer any practical limit to the number
original sensors and replace of drops. Instead of having one alarm for lube oil system trouble, there can now be
the existing field wires with several alarms to pinpoint the specific origin of the problem. In addition, each
remote I/O, if needed. contact has a standard 1ms sequence of events (SOE) time stamp to assist
troubleshooting. Remote annunciators and meters can be supported with either
remote I/O to interface with the existing devices or by replacing them with a monitor
or a complete operator station.
Type J (Mark I) and type K (Mark II) thermocouples are supported as well as 10 Ω
copper, 100 Ω platinum, and a variety of other RTDs from the generator (grounded)
or the load compressor (ungrounded). Analog inputs are provided for 4-20 mA
inputs, 0-1 mA generator transducers, and ± 5 or 10 V dc inputs from the original
four-wire compressor discharge and fuel gas pressure transducers. Any existing
McGraw Edison® flame scanners should be replaced with Reuter Stokes® or
Honeywell® scanners.
A primary design feature of GE’s gas turbine controls is the reduction of single point
failures by providing a direct interface to the sensors and actuators on the turbine.
Besides avoiding single point failures, this practice reduces spare parts, decreases
long-term maintenance, and enables advanced diagnostics since the control system
can directly monitor sensors. For example, Mark I-IV controls used seismic probes
for vibration protection, but separate vibration monitors for Proximitors®. Radial and
axial Proximitors can be monitored directly in the Mark VIe with the composite, 1X,
and 2X vibration and phase angle data integrated with the rest of the signal database.

4 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Product Options
The Mark VIe architecture is well suited for gas turbine control retrofits due to its
scalable hardware and software capability. It can be built in a single control cabinet
or distributed I/O configuration.
Simplex and redundant are built in versions of the Mark VIe control have equivalent
control and turbine protection capabilities. The primary difference between simplex
and redundant control systems is running reliability. Control system running
reliability is based upon the percent of total I/O used in the system, the percent of
used I/O classified as critical and the amount of redundancy built into the control
system. Therefore critical devices should be considered for redundancy.
Applications suited to a redundant control system solution include:
• Co-Generation (CoGen) plants where the gas turbine exhaust is the only source
of heat to generate steam for the production process.
• Combined cycle plants where plant efficiency requirements are tied to the
availability of gas turbine exhaust as the only source of heat to generate steam
for steam turbines.
• Customer requires controller or power supply redundancy.
• Generator drive applications where continuous base load operation is required.
• Mechanical drive applications where compressors or pumps are critical to the
production process.
Applications suited to a non-redundant control system include:
• Plants where the gas turbine operation is not critical to other plant processes.
• Peaking units where starting reliability is the primary system requirement and
continuous long-term operation is not anticipated.
Redundant or non-redundant applications requiring electronic backup protection
• Electronic over speed, deceleration, acceleration and locked rotor detection.
• Primary control watchdog with speed difference and stale speed detection.
• Backup sync check for generator drive units.

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 5

The Mark VIe communicates with networked I/O over one or multiple Ethernet
networks. The controller rack consists of a main processor and one or two power
supplies. A QNX® real-time, multitasking operating system is used for the main
processor and I/O. Application software is provided in a configurable control block
language and is stored in non-volatile memory. Data conforms to IEEE-854 32-bit
floating-point format.
The IO Net is a dedicated, full-duplex, point-to-point protocol that provides a
deterministic, high-speed 100 MB communications network suitable for local or
remote I/O with a fiber interface. It is used to communicate between the main
processor(s) and networked I/O blocks, called I/O packs.
100 MB Ethernet is used for Each I/O pack is mounted on a terminal board with barrier or box type terminal
communication to local and blocks. The I/O pack contains two Ethernet ports, a power supply, a local processor,
remote I/O packs. The IO Net and a data acquisition board.
is available in single, dual,
and triple configuration.

Plant Data Highway

Operator & Maintenance

Unit Data Highway


I/O Network - 100 MB

Speed Vibration Servos Flame Combustion Turbine

/ DLE Auxiliaries Driven Load
• Generator
• Compressor
r • Pump
I —4

r sr N

Remaining Process
M • Power Island
• Balance of Plant

Networked I/O for Turbine Control Retrofits

(Distributed or in a Single Cabinet)

6 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Every application has different requirements for redundancy depending on the
criticality of the process. Three standard product offerings for gas turbine control and
monitoring with the Mark VIe control are summarized below:

Basic Simplex Configuration

Controller Switch Pack

Basic Dual Configuration

Controller Switch IO
Controller Switch

Basic Triple Configuration

Controller Switch IO Pack

Controller Switch IO Pack

Controller Switch ck
IO Pack

Table of Standard Mark VIe Control Redundancy Offerings for Gas Turbine Control

Triple Dual Simplex

Internal power Triple Dual Single
Controllers Triple Dual Single
I/O networks Triple Dual Single
I/O electronics Single, dual or triple Single Single
I/O pack Ethernet ports Single Dual Single
Relative reliability Highest level of running Control/network Lowest level of
reliability with superior redundancy to reduce running reliability with
fault detection control system fault trips good starting reliability

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 7

Available redundancy options:
• Internal power distribution - This includes the capability to convert external ac
or dc sources to 28 V dc. N+1 power distribution redundancy is also available
as an option.
• Controller redundancy - Multiple controllers can be in a single controller rack
to separate fuel control from compressor control or to separate auxiliary systems
control from turbine control, etc. For example, in a TMR system, two processors
per controller rack yields two separate TMR systems connected to their own set
of I/O packs.
• I/O pack redundancy - Variable on TMR systems based upon the criticality of
the I/O. An option for triple redundancy on I/O packs is also available in dual
systems to provide additional output reliability.

System Architecture
Control system redundancy is provided for internal power distribution as well as
controller, I/O pack and Ethernet networking. Power distribution and Ethernet
network redundancy is repeated in accordance with the level of system redundancy
when I/O distribution is required. Although simplex systems are illustrated below,
the number of Ethernet switches and power supplies is dependent upon system

Controller Cabinet
Controller TB
U IO Net - Cat. 5 IO Net - Cat. 5 Field Wire
C Switch Field Device
C 100 m / 328' 100 m / 328' 300 m / 984'

28 V dc Power

System with Mark VIe Electronics in One Cabinet

Controller Cabinet Distributed IO Cabinet TB

I/ONet - Cat. 5 Pack
U IO Net - Cat. 5 100m / 328' IO Net - Cat. 5 Field Wire
C Switch Switch Field Device
C 100 m / 328' or 100 m / 328' 300 m / 984'
A 100FX Fiber
2,000 m /
28 V dc Power 6,600' 28 V dc Power
Distribution Distribution

System with Mark VIe Electronics Distributed

8 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Hardware Description
The Mark VIe uses The Mark VIe controller runs the application code and is the IO Net bus master for
CompactPCI architecture and communication with the I/O packs. The controller communicates with I/O packs
runs the QNX realtime solely via IO Net.
operating system.
The rack and its contents are rated for NFPA Class 1, Div. 2 with an operating range
of 0 to 60°C. Boards are front-loaded, vertical, and held in position by their
connectors with guides on both sides and a faceplate that screws into the rack.
A 28 V dc power supply is located on the right side of the rack, with an on-off switch
directly above. If redundant supplies are required, a second supply can be provided
in the location of the on-off switch. Either supply can be inserted or removed from
the rack without disturbing controller operation.
Optional controllers can be added to separate the application software for different
pieces of equipment. For example, the fuel control can run in one controller and the
compressor control can run in a second controller, if required to meet customer
specifications to use multiple processors.


Mark VIe Compact PCI Controller Rack

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 9

IO Net
Switches manage the Communication between the controller and the I/O packs is performed with the
communication traffic to internal IO Net. This is a 100 MB Ethernet network available in simplex, dual, and
eliminate collisions and triple configurations. Ethernet Global Data (EGD) and other protocols are used for
increase network communication. EGD is based on the UDP/IP standard (RFC 768). EGD packets are
determinism. broadcast at the system frame rate from the controller to the I/O packs, which
respond with input data.
Industrial grade switches are used for the IO Net that meet the codes, standards,
performance, and environmental criteria for industrial applications, including an
operating temperature of -30 to 65°C (-22 to 149°F). Switches have provision for
redundant 10 to 30 V dc power sources (200/400 mA) and are DIN rail-mounted.
LEDs indicate the status of the IO Net link, speed, activity, and duplex.

I/O Packs
An on-board temperature sensor I/O packs with the Mark VIe controller have a processor board and a data acquisition
provides continuous monitoring of board that is unique to the type of device to which it is connected. I/O packs on each
the environment in remote terminal board digitize the signal, perform algorithms, and communicate with Mark
locations. VIe controller. The I/O processor board (BPPB) and data acquisition board are rated
for NFPA Class 1, Div. 2 with an operating range of -30 to 65°C (-22 to 149°F).
The I/O pack has a temperature sensor that is accurate to within ±2°C (±3.6°F).
Every I/O pack temperature is available in the database and can be used to generate
an alarm.

I/O pack

Power Supply
2 Ethernets


General Purpose I/O Turbine-Specific I/O

Discrete Speed and overspeed

Analog Servo control
Thermocouple Vibration and position
RTD Synchronizing

10 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Mark VIe architecture A power supply provides a regulated 28 V dc power feed to each I/O pack. The
provides online replacement negative side of the 28 V dc is grounded through the I/O pack metal enclosure and
capability for I/O packs. This its mounting base. The positive side has solid-state circuit protection built-into the
is equivalent to "hot swap" in I/O pack with a nominal 2 A trip point. Every I/O pack communicates directly on
rock-based systems. IO Net, which enables each I/O pack to be replaced individually without affecting
any other I/O in the system. Also, the I/O pack can be replaced without
disconnecting any field wiring.
Terminal Blocks
Signal flow begins with a sensor connected to a terminal block on a board. Two
types of Mark VIe terminal boards are available: T and S type. Mark VIe terminal
boards are normally arranged in vertical columns of high and low level wiring that
can be accessed from top and/or bottom cable entrances. A shield strip can be
provided to the left of the metal base where the board is mounted.
Terminations support the T type boards contain two 24-point, barrier type, removable terminal blocks. Each
existing #12 AWG (3.0 mm2) point can accept two 3.0 mm2 (#12AWG) wires with 300 V insulation per point with
wires at site with barrier type spade or ring type lugs. In addition, captive clamps are provided for terminating bare
terminal blocks for ease of wires. Screw spacing is 9.53 mm (0.375 in.) minimum, center-to-center.
S type boards allow only one I/O pack. Three versions of S type boards are available:
fixed terminal blocks, removable terminal blocks and a version is available for
mounting of custom blocks such as spring-cage or insulation displacement. S type
boards have box type terminal blocks that accept one 3.0 mm2 (#12AWG) wire or
two 2.0 mm2 (#14AWG) wires with 300 V insulation per point. Screw spacing is
5.08 mm (0.2 in.) minimum, center-to-center.

S Type Box Terminal Board

with One I/O Pack

T Type Barrier Terminal Board

with Three I/O Packs

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 11

I/O Interface
The Mark VIe control is designed for direct interface to turbine and generator
devices such as vibration sensors, flame scanners, linear variable differential
transformers (LVDT), magnetic speed pickups, thermocouples, and resistance
temperature detectors (RTD). Direct monitoring of these sensors reduces the need
for interposing devices with their associated single-point failures. Direct connection
to a field device reduces long-term maintenance, and enables diagnostics to directly
monitor the health of devices mounted on the machinery.
Contact input and output IO Contact inputs are powered from the 125 V dc battery bus (optional 24 or 48 V dc)
packs have LED open/closed through the Mark VIe terminal boards. Each contact input is optically isolated and
status indicators. has a 1ms time stamp for sequence of events monitoring.
Terminations for existing contact inputs can be replaced one-for-one or split up for
greater alarm resolution. For example, instead of having several field contacts wired
to a single contact input, they can be separated into multiple contact inputs to provide
a separate alarm message for each problem in the lube oil system.
Other solenoid power option Contact outputs are from plug-in, magnetic relays with dry, Form-C, contacting
are also available. outputs (optional solid state outputs). Turbine solenoids are normally powered from
the 125 V dc battery bus with suppression for each solenoid with a 3.2 A slow-blow
fuse on each side of the feeder circuit.
Analog inputs monitor 4 – 20 mA (250 Ω), which can be configured for self-
powered, differential inputs, or as sensors that use a +24 V dc supply from the Mark
VIe control. Selected inputs can be configured for 0 – 1mA inputs (5,000 Ω) or ±5,
10 V dc inputs. This interfaces to
• Existing 0 – 1mA generator MW and MVAR transducers
• Existing 0 – 5 V dc gas fuel and compressor discharge pressure transducers
Most Mark II generator drive systems already have these transducers; however,
Mark I systems do not. Compressor discharge pressure biases the temperature
control system to improve turbine operation.
Analog outputs can be configured for 4 – 20 mA output (500 Ω maximum) or 0 –
200 mA output (50 Ω maximum).
Temperature input linear Thermocouple inputs can be grounded or ungrounded. Software linearization is
equation tables are assigned provided for type J and K thermocouples used on GE gas turbines plus types E, S, or
on per channel basis for T thermocouples. Existing control and over temperature thermocouples are retained
thermocouple and RTDs. and divided between the Mark VIe controller and the backup protection module for
temperature control and over temperature protection, respectively.
RTD inputs can be grounded or ungrounded. Software linearization is provided for
10 Ω copper, 100/200 Ω platinum, or 120 Ω nickel RTDs. The generator or load
compressor RTDs can be monitored directly by the Mark VIe with all turbine and
driven-load temperatures being collected in a common database with other turbine-
generator parameters.

12 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Direct interface to turbine Speed input direct interface provides redundant, magnetic speed sensor inputs to the
specific devices provide the controllers for speed control and overspeed protection. Backup protection is
user with improved visibility provided with separate processors, and terminal boards to automatically de-energize
to sensors and turbine the fuel solenoids.
Flame input direct interface is provided for ultra-violet flame scanners that produce
a pulsed output. This eliminates any interposing transducers and enables the
diagnostics to monitor the actual light level. An alarm is initiated if the light level
diminishes below an acceptable level due to carbon or other deposits on the scanner
Integrating servos have a direct interface to the bipolar servo actuator and LVDT
valve position feedback. Bi-polar servo current outputs are provided in 10, 20, 40,
80, and 120 mA ranges for fuel valves and Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) control. Mark
VIe LVDT excitation is 7.0 Vrms at 3.2 kHz. Pulse rate inputs are also provided for
servo control loops using liquid fuel-flow, pulse-rate feedback.
Vibration protection has a direct interface for vibration protection sensors. This
includes seismic (velocity) type sensors used on heavy-duty gas turbines and
accelerometers on aircraft-derivative gas turbines. This eliminates the single-point
failure of a separate monitoring system, and allows Mark VIe diagnostics to monitor
seismic sensors when the turbine is running or stopped. The Mark VIe contains
accelerometer speed-tracking filters to isolate the appropriate vibration frequencies
of each shaft for the display, alarm, and protection.
Proximitor input direct interface for monitoring keyphasor, radial proximitor, and
axial proximitor data is available in a common database with all turbine parameters.
The fundamental (1X), first harmonic (2X), and composite vibration signals are
collected by the Mark VIe and displayed with both magnitude and phase angle on the
Human-Machine Interface (HMI). Active isolators provide buffered outputs to BNC
connectors on the Mark VIe terminal boards for temporary connection to portable
vibration analysis equipment.
Redundant backup synch Synchronizing interface uses generator and line potential transformers to match the
check protection is available generator frequency (turbine speed) to the line frequency and match the generator
through a separate Mark VIe voltage to the line voltage through commands to the generator excitation control.
I/O pack. The Mark VIe provides backup sync check protection, closes the generator breaker,
and monitors actual breaker closure time.

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 13

Control Functions
The control functions below are typical and individual applications may vary.
Nozzle control for two-shaft machines and load compressor controls are also
supported by Mark VIe control.
Startup control is an open-loop system that increases the fuel stroke reference as the
turbine startup sequence progresses to preassigned plateaus.
Acceleration control adjusts the fuel stroke reference according to the rate of
change of the turbine speed to reduce the thermal shock to the hot gas path parts of
the turbine.
Speed control uses the median speed from three speed sensors and separate shaft
speed-control algorithms for each shaft in multi-shaft machine applications. The
Mark VIe varies shaft speed reference to control real power (megawatt) output in
mechanical and generator drive application.
Generator load control compares the load setpoint with the MW feedback and
adjusts the speed setpoint to regulate load. Mark VIe maintains a constant generator
shaft speed to meet the electrical power demand and also controls the generator field
through the use of VAR/Power Factor (PF) control algorithms to generate excitation
raise and lower commands. A spinning reserve selection allows the machine to start
automatically and await an operator input to synchronize to the grid. Selection of fast
load start or pre-selected load raises the output to the pre-selected load setpoint limit.
Selection of base or peak raises this setpoint to the maximum limit.
Compressor load control uses the concept of Integrated Turbine Compressor
Control (ITCC) and combines turbine prime mover and load compressor surge
controls in a single control system. Mark VIe is capable of load sharing single stage
and multiple stage compressors; as well as providing process controller capability for
pressure, temperature, level or flow parameters. The surge control and protection
algorithms allow operation closer to the surge line by anticipating surge events and
taking corrective action to prevent surge events before they occur.
Exhaust temperature control algorithms sort the input from each thermocouple
from the highest to the lowest temperature. They automatically reject bad
thermocouple data, average the remaining data values, and execute the control
algorithm based upon the average calculated temperature. Redundant transducers
monitor the compressor discharge pressure and bias the temperature control to
correct for ambient conditions and the corresponding variations in mass flow.
Inlet guide vane control modulates the position of the compressor stator vanes to
provide optimum compressor and unit operation. During startup, the guide vanes
open as the turbine speed increases. When the unit is online, the guide vanes
modulate to control turbine airflow temperature to optimize combustion system and
combined cycle performance.
Emissions control is available with diluent (water or steam) injection via a multi-
nozzle quiet combustor to quench flame temperature and reduce thermal NOx
formation. Dry Low Nox (DLN) control using lean-burning, pre-mixed flame
combustors is available without the need for water or steam injection.

14 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Fuel control is a reference from the governor and feedback of the fuel control
valves. The Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) is determined by the turbine parameter
(speed, temperature, and so on) calling for the least fuel. Liquid fuel control
establishes the FSR of the bypass valve and is proportional to turbine speed (Fuel
Flow = Speed X FSR). Gas fuel control uses a Gas Control Valve (GCV), where fuel
flow is a function of pressure (Fuel Flow = Fuel Pressure X FSR). A Speed Ratio
Valve (SRV) opens as a turbine speed function, so gas fuel pressure becomes a
function of speed. This allows the liquid and gas fuel control systems to have the
same characteristic. The fuel control also supports single electric gas fuel metering
valve operation for Frame 3 and Frame 5 gas turbines, as well as aero derivative gas
Gas Fuel
Controller IONet Terminal Boards
Main Processor PSVO Board
Ratio Valve
Software Servo
Logic D/A
Regulator TSVC 90SR
TNH (Speed) +

Gas Fuel
D/A 96FG

Gas Control
PSVO Board
Software Servo
Regulator TSVC 65GC


Logic Chamber
FSR Splitter

Fuel Flow
FSR1 Pulse Flow
77FD Divider


FSROUT Liquid Fuel
TNH (Speed) Control Valve
Logic Software Servo
Regulator 65FP

Liquid Fuel

Typical Dual Fuel Control System

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 15

Turbine control can include automated startup and shutdown sequences customized
to meet operator requirements, as well as control and monitoring of all gas turbine
auxiliary and support systems. Operators can have the turbine automatically start and
synchronize or sequence to intermediate hold points by selecting Crank, Fire, or
Auto without enabling automatic synchronization. All ramp rates and time delays are
pre-programmed for optimum performance. Timers and counters record long-term
turbine operating information that can include:
• Total fired time
• Separate DLN operating mode timers
• Manually initiated starts
• Total starts
• Fast load starts
• Fired starts
• Emergency trips
This automation enables operation from a remote site with the assurance that the
turbine is fully protected. Diagnostics capture a record of abnormal conditions.

Turbine control initiates an alarm if an abnormal condition is detected. If the
condition exceeds a predefined trip level, the turbine control drives the gas/liquid
control valves to a zero-flow position and de-energizes the fuel shut-off solenoids.
Diagnostics monitor the speed and acceleration, and then verify that all sensors are
active. Primary protection is implemented by the controller(s), while backup
protection is provided by backup protection I/O packs and terminal boards.

Typical Gas Turbine Trip Protection System

Pre-ignition Post-ignition Protective Status

Auxiliary check (Servos) Loss of flame Starting device trouble

Seal oil dc motor undervoltage High exhaust temperature Inlet guide vane trouble
Dc lube oil pump undervoltage Exhaust thermocouples open Manual trip
Startup fuel flow excessive Compressor bleed valve position Control speed signal lost
Failure to ignite Exhaust pressure high
Load tunnel temperature high
Protective speed signal trouble
Gas fuel hydraulic pressure low
Control speed signal trouble
Turbine lube oil header temperature
Breaker failure trip lockout
Vibration trip
Turbine electronic overspeed
Loss of protection HP speed inputs
Customer trip
Control system fault
Low lube oil pressure
Fire indication
Generator lockout trip

16 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Operator and Maintenance Tools
Operator Interface
The HMI is the operator interface. It is a pc with a Microsoft® Windows®-based
operating system, client/server capability, CIMPLICITY® Graphical User Interface
(GUI) and software maintenance tools (ToolboxST). It can be applied as:
• Primary operator station for one unit or the entire plant
• Maintenance station gateway
• Engineers station
• Gateway for communications
All local and remote data in The HMI communicates with the main processor board in the Mark VIe controller(s)
the Mark VIe is accessible for through the Unit Data Highway (UDH) and to third party control and monitoring
screens with high-resolution systems via the Plant Data Highway (PDH). All control and protection is resident in
time tags for alarms and the Mark VIe controller, which allows the HMI to be a non-essential component.
events. With the turbine running, the HMI can be reinitialized or replaced with no impact on
the controller.
System (process) alarms for fault conditions are time tagged at frame rate in the
controller(s) and transmitted to the HMI alarm management system. System events
are time tagged at frame rate, and sequence of events (SOE) for contact inputs are
time tagged at 1ms in the I/O packs. Alarms can be sorted according to ID, resource,
device, time, and priority. Operators can add comments to alarm messages or link
specific alarm messages to supporting graphics. A standard alarm/event log stores
data for 30 days and can be sorted in chronological order or according to the
frequency of occurrence.
A trip history function stores key control parameters, alarms, and events for the last
30 trips. A configurable set of data is collected continuously in the controller and
saved automatically for upload and analysis. Data is displayed in English or Metric
engineering units with a one second update rate and one second to repaint a typical
display graphic. Operator commands can be issued to increment/decrement a setpoint
or a numerical value can be entered for a new setpoint.
Gas turbine control screens display a diagram of the turbine with the primary control
parameters. The diagram is repeated on most of the screens to provide a visual image
of the turbine’s performance while changing screens.

Typical Gas Turbine Screens

Control Screens Monitor Screens Auxiliaries Tests

Startup Bearing temperature Flame Overspeed test
Motors Exhaust temperature Water wash
FSR control Generator RTDs Start check
Generator/exciter Wheelspace temperature Trip diagram
Synchronizing Seismic vibration Timers

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 17

Buttons on the right side of all The main screen is the Startup screen. Since the gas turbine control provides fully
screens produce sub-menus of automatic startup including all interfaces to auxiliary systems, all basic commands
category-specific screens. and all primary control parameters and status conditions start from this screen.
For example, the Start command can be sent to the Mark VIe control when Ready
to Start displays in the startup status field. A pop-up window displays above the
Startup button for verification. Upon verification, the application software checks
the startup permissives and starts a sequence that displays, Starting and Sequence in
Progress messages.
If startup permissives were not satisfied, the message, Not Ready to Start displays
and a message in the alarm field that identifies the reason. Additionally, when the
Aux button is clicked and the Start Check screen is selected, it displays graphical
information for the Start Check/Ready to Start permissives.
A message reminds you to To access trip conditions that display in the alarm field and trip diagram click the
investigate the nature of the Aux button and select the Trip Diagram screen. A trip during startup displays the
latched trip prior to clicking message, Not Ready to Start.
Master Reset.
Mark VIe control also allows you to change a numeric setpoint, such as Megawatts
for a generator drive or Speed Reference for a mechanical drive, by entering a
setpoint value rather than issuing continuous discrete raise/lower commands. The
setpoint is compared with acceptable limits and the present output to determine a
suitable ramp rate to the new target.
The Mark VIe control supports trending displays for comparing operating
parameters. A startup trend can be set with pre-assigned parameters, such as mean
Exhaust Gas Temperature, speed, maximum vibration, Compressor Discharge
Pressure, and Fuel Stroke Reference. More detailed information and trending are
provided on supporting screens, along with the capability to create customized

Typical Turbine Instrumentation

18 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

Software Maintenance Tools (ToolboxST)
Mark VIe control is a fully programmable control system, which uses proven GE
control and protection algorithms integrated with the custom I/O, sequencing, and
displays for each application. Multiple block libraries are provided with general-
purpose blocks, math blocks, macros (user blocks), and application-specific blocks.
The application software is password protected and can be downloaded while the
system is running. In redundant control systems, the application software in each
controller is identical and represented as a single program to maintenance personnel.
Downloads of changes can be automatically distributed to redundant controllers by
the control system, and differences are monitored by diagnostics. All application
software is stored in non-volatile memory.
Application software is run sequentially and dynamic data is shown in function block
and ladder diagram formats. Maintenance personnel can add, delete, or change
analog loops, sequencing, I/O assignments, and tuning constants. To simplify
editing, use the drag-and-drop operation to move data points on the screen from one
block to another.

- Field programmable
- Floating point
- Dynamic data display
- Drag & drop points
- Math blocks
- Macros (User Blocks)
- Function and ladder blocks
- Multiple block libraries
- Editors for:
- Application software
- I/O assignments
- Tuning constants
- Password protection
- Boolean and analog forcing

m 0 ,fl..U.idIM U
•U— O..flCMó........
10ucs34 U.tPCALS*...d SS,.,..S1

Editing Tools (ToolboxST)

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 19

Points can also be dragged from the application software diagrams onto trends. Other
features include Boolean (digital) forcing, analog forcing, and trending at the running
frame rate of the application software.

- Automatic upload of capture blocks
- Micro-second resolution
- Drag and Drop of variables to trender
- Browser for variables selection
- 100's of signals per trend
- Mask-unmask of selected variables
- Video type forward-reverse
- Left-right drag of time axis
- Dual cursor
- Delta, min, max, average
- Stacked traces
- Alarm messages on trip trend
- Events log linked to trend
- Export to .CSV

Trending Tools (ToolboxST)

Application software documentation is created directly from source code and can be
compiled and printed. This includes the application software diagram, I/O
assignments, the settings of tuning constants, etc. The software maintenance tools are
available for use in the Mark VIe HMI or as a separate software package on a
Windows-based PC.

20 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604

System Monitoring
High/low (hardware) limit checking is provided for each analog input. These limits
and are selected to be outside the normal operating range but inside the linear
hardware operational range (before the hardware reaches saturation). A composite
diagnostic alarm state is provided in the database for each I/O pack and a separate
logic state is provided to indicate an input channel fault.
Diagnostic and system (process) alarms are time-stamped in the controller(s) and
transmitted to operator and maintenance stations. Communication links to a plant
DCS can contain software (system) and composite hardware diagnostics.
Diagnostic LEDs are provided on I/O packs. Standard LEDs indicate power status,
attention (abnormality detected), Ethernet link connected, and Ethernet link
communicating. LEDs on discrete I/O packs also indicate the status of each point.
Terminal boards have an electronic ID that contains the board name, revision, and a
unique serial number. When power is applied to the I/O pack, it reads the terminal
board ID and uses this information for system asset management.
Plant-level control systems integrate the diagnostic data from the individual turbine
and generator controls with the overall plant. This allows maintenance personnel to
identify the defective control node, switch, or station and locate the device needing

Network Diagnostics for:

z Operator stations
z Maintenance stations
z Engineers stations
z Switches on:
- Plant data highway
- Unit data highway
- IO Net
z Control nodes
- Boards within nodes
- I/O packs

Plant Network Diagnostics

GEI-100604 Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications • 21

Codes and Standards

Safety Standards EN 61010-1 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for

Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use, Part 1: General
CAN/CSA 22.2 No. 1010.1-92 Safety Requirements for
Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control, and
Laboratory Use, Part 1: General Requirements
ANSI/ISA S82.02.01 1999 Safety Standard for Electrical and
Electronic Test, Measuring, Controlling, and Related
Equipment – General Requirements

Printed wire board assemblies UL 796 Printed Circuit Boards

ANSI IPC Guidelines
ANSI IPC/EIA Guidelines

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) EN 55081-2 General Emission Standard

EMC Directive 89/336/EEC as amended EN 50082-2 Generic Immunity Industrial Environment
by 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC EN 55011 Radiated and Conducted Emissions
IEC 61000-4-2 Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility
IEC 61000-4-3 Radiated RF Immunity
IEC 61000-4-4 Electrical Fast Transit Susceptibility
IEC 61000-4-5 Surge Immunity
IEC 61000-4-6 Conducted RF Immunity
IEC61000-4-11Voltage Variation, Dips & Interruptions
ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1 Surge

Low-Voltage Directive 72/23/EEC EN 61010-1 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for
Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use, Part 1: General

ATEX Directive 94/9/EC EN 50021 Electrical Apparatus for Potentially Explosive


g GE Energy General Electric Company

1502 Roanoke Blvd.
Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA

+1 540 387 7000

22 • Mark VIe Gas Turbine Control for Retrofit Applications GEI-100604