Kornhauser, A. A. “Internal Combustion Engines” The Engineering Handbook. Ed. Richard C.

Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

© 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

Internal Combustion Engines
66.1 Basics of Operation 66.2 Engine Classifications 66.3 Spark Ignition Engines
Idealized and Actual Cycles • Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions • Control • Advantages Idealized and Actual Cycles • Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions • Control • Advantages 4-Stroke Intake and Exhaust • 2-Stroke Scavenging • Supercharging and Turbocharging Engine Arrangements • Valve Gear • Lubrication • Cooling

66.4 Compression Ignition Engines 66.5 Gas Exchange Systems 66.6 Design Details

66.7 Design and Performance Data for Typical Engines

Alan A. Kornhauser
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

An internal combustion (i.c.) engine is a heat engine in which the thermal energy comes from a chemical reaction within the working fluid. In external combustion engines, such as steam engines, heat is transferred to the working fluid through a solid wall and rejected to the environment through another solid wall. In i.c. engines, heat is released by a chemical reaction in the working fluid and rejected by exhausting the working fluid to the environment. Internal combustion engines have two intrinsic advantages over other engine types: 1. They require no heat exchangers (except for auxiliary cooling). Thus, weight, volume, cost, and complexity are reduced. 2. They require no high temperature heat transfer through walls. Thus, the maximum temperature of the working fluid can exceed maximum allowable wall material temperature. They also have some intrinsic disadvantages: 1. Practically, working fluids are limited to air and products of combustion. 2. Nonfuel heat sources (waste heat, solar, nuclear) cannot be used. 3. There is little flexibility in combustion conditions because they are largely set by engine requirements. This can make low-emissions combustion hard to attain.

© 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

4. Exhaust valve opens to expel combustion products from the working volume. Engine working volume increases. Exhaust. Work is done on the working fluid. I. it is injected at this point. 3. These are the engines described in this chapter. i.1 Operating cycle for a 4-stroke i. Pressure and temperature inside the working volume increase dramatically. In customary usage. Working volume increases. Intake valve opens to admit air or air/fuel mixture into the working volume. and gas turbines. Intake. rotary (Wankel) types.c.c. engines include reciprocating types. Valves are closed. According to the definition given above. Figure 66.The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. A more proper designation might be "positive displacement internal combustion" engines. 66.1 Basics of Operation The basic operation of an i. If fuel was not admitted previously.1. and the air or mixture is compressed.c. engine. Air/fuel mixture burns and releases chemical energy. and work (much greater than that of compression) is done by the working fluid. engine is shown in Fig. 66. however. the title "internal combustion" is used only for the first two of these three types.c. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . The typical engine cycle is divided into four steps: 1. Compression. Engine working volume decreases. Combustion and expansion. Engine working volume decreases. 2. engines comprise more individual units and more rated power than all other types of heat engines combined.

some external device is required to ensure that fresh air or mixture replaces the combustion products.. 66. A complete 4-stroke cycle takes two crankshaft revolutions. Some important classifications are: Spark ignition/compression ignition.c. the fuel is injected after the compression process.i.. 66.2 Engine Classifications I. oil. In a 2-stroke engine intake and exhaust strokes are eliminated: gas exchange occurs when the piston is near bottom center position between the expansion and compression strokes. with each stage (intake. The high temperature of the compressed gas causes ignition. engines can be classified in various ways.1.2 Engine arrangements. or diesel) engines.i. An electric spark ignites the mixture. exhaust) comprising about 180°. or Otto) engines. 4-stroke/2-stroke. A complete 2-stroke cycle takes only one crankshaft revolution. petrol. Figure 66.The engine shown is a 4-stroke reciprocating type. In 4-stroke engines. In compression ignition (c. the fuel is either mixed with the air prior to the intake stroke or shortly after inlet valve closure. details would vary for 2-stroke or rotary engines. In spark ignition (s. the working cycle is as shown in Fig. Because the piston does not provide pumping action. expansion. gasoline. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . compression.

water). 4. a compressor. 66. in a vee. The cylinders can be arranged in line. Additional rotor-stator pairs can be stacked on a single shaft to form larger engines. fuel injected). rocker arm or overhead cam.2.) engine can be idealized as an Otto cycle using an ideal gas with constant specific heat [Fig. The thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle (Fig. wedge. The total number of cylinders per engine ranges from 1 to 20 or more. flat. radially. Reciprocating i. Figure 66. Rotary i. 66. bowl-in-piston). isentropic expansion. or uniflow-scavenged). engines use an approximately triangular rotor which revolves eccentrically in a lobed stator. and constant volume cooling (simulating 1¡° intake and exhaust). 66. or 4 valves per cylinder. with 1. Intake system. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .1. and by cylinder wall cooling method (air. the pumping action of the piston face draws air into the cylinder. Various mechanical layouts are shown in Fig. In supercharged engines. constant volume heating (simulating combustion). ell.c.Mechanical layout.c. forces air into the cylinder. 66. 3. or horizontally opposed.3(a)]. The Otto cycle consists of isentropic compression. where rº is the compression ratio and ° is the gas specific heat ratio. A single rotor-stator pair is thus equivalent to three cylinders. loop-.3 Pressure-volume diagrams for ideal and actual engine cycles. the pumping action of the back side of the piston in the crankcase forces air into the cylinder. typically driven off the crankshaft. In naturally aspirated engines.3 Spark Ignition Engines Idealized and Actual Cycles The spark ignition (s. the compressor is driven by a turbine which recovers work from the exhaust gas. hemisphere. The spaces between the rotor and the stator go through essentially the same processes shown in Fig. engines can be classified by valve number and design (2. cross-. and 8 the most common. by fuel addition method (carbureted. 66. Besides the major classifications above. In crankcase scavenged engines. 6. engines use multiple piston-cylinder arrangements driving a single crankshaft. by combustion chamber shape (tee.i. In turbocharged engines.4) is ´t = 1 ¡ rº .

4 Efficiency of ideal cycles and actual engines.Figure 66. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .

low turbulence combustion chambers. It takes a 15−25° crank angle for the first 10% of the mixture to burn. with lean mixtures (low Á) giving maximum efficiency and the rich mixtures (high Á) giving maximum power.3.5(a)]. engines.3(c)] differs from the Otto cycle: (1) in that heat transfer occurs during compression and expansion. and actual engine rº is limited by combustion knock. Combustion. 66. Fuels. 66.The actual engine "cycle" [Fig. while the next 85% is burned within an additional 35−60° [Fig. a turbulent flame front travels smoothly and rapidly across the cylinder space. and Emissions In an s. in increased flame speeds. (3) in the presence of intake and exhaust processes.7 to 1. 66. Combustion is initiated by an electric spark. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . To time the heat release optimally. engine. If the engine is operating properly. The low numbers of these ranges correspond to Á ¼ 1. For a given rº . Figure 66.5 Heat release rates for s.i.i. The mixture is heated by compression.4). the spark is typically discharged 5° to 40° before top center. and low engine speeds. Equivalence ratio (Á) generally ranges from about 0. air and vaporized fuel are generally premixed before they enter the cylinder. engine is considerably lower than that of the ideal cycle (Fig. with this advance automatically varied according to engine speed and load. the total crank angle for combustion increases only slightly as engine speed changes. Because higher engine speeds result in increased turbulence and. and high engine speeds. The high numbers correspond to rich or lean mixtures.i. the efficiency of a typical s. but not enough to cause autoignition. thus. and (4) in the variation in gas composition and gas specific heat.i. (2) in that combustion takes place gradually during compression and expansion rather than instantaneously. high turbulence combustion chambers. and c.

i. but not so volatile as to cause problems with storage and transfer. retarding the spark. fuel be resistant to autoignition. NO is formed from air at high temperatures. these octane numbers are usually obtained with the aid of additives. the phenomenon is known as knock.i. S. or natural gas. Besides carbon dioxide and water. 66. and nitric oxide (NO). engines are usually fueled with gasoline. based on an empirical scale on which iso-octane has been assigned a rating of 100 and n-heptane a rating of zero. but can use other liquid or gaseous fuels.i. Because of the noise. NO is typically reduced by limiting flame temperature through lean operation and exhaust gas © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Large amounts of CO are formed as an equilibrium product in rich mixtures. Most contemporary engines meet CO and HC emissions standards by running lean and using catalytic converters in their exhaust systems to complete the combustion. increasing flame speed. unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). the combustion process in s. This resistance is expressed in terms of the octane number of the fuel. engine fuels must be adequately volatile to evaporate fully prior to ignition. HCs are left over from the combustion of rich mixtures and from flame quenching at walls and crevices in lean mixtures. and designing the combustion chamber to ensure that the last mixture burned is in the coolest part of the cylinder.6 Effect of knock on cylinder pressure. Figure 66. and the chemical kinetics allow it to remain as the burned gas cools.Under some operating conditions.6) which is noisy and can damage the engine.i. while smaller amounts remain in the products of lean mixtures due to chemical kinetic effects. Knock can be avoided by decreasing the pressure ratio.7): carbon monoxide (CO). It is important that any s. alcohol. Typical gasolines have octane numbers in the 85−105 range. using more knock-resistant fuels. In these cases the mixture ahead of the flame front is heated by compression and autoignites before the flame arrives. engines produces several pollutants (Fig. the flame does not burn smoothly. Liquid s. 66. The resulting detonation wave causes an extremely rapid pressure rise (Fig.

i. and HC are also in use. engine emissions. CO. but they require careful control of the air/fuel ratio. Catalytic converters that can simultaneously control NO.recirculation. Since the ranges of Á and spark timing over which the engine will run smoothly are limited. Figure 66. but it must also regulate equivalence ratio and spark timing.i. Control The control system of an s. engine must govern engine output.7 Effect of equivalence ratio on s. engine output is varied by reducing air flow while holding Á and © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .

but they are not widely used. a single injector serves for multiple cylinders. There are two basic methods of mixing fuel and air for s.S. each © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . This reduces net output by reducing the heat release and increasing the pumping work [Fig. 66. shutting down cylinders of multicylinder engines) have been tried to reduce output with less efficiency penalty. no contemporary U. The manifold between the carburetor and the cylinder(s) must be arranged so that fuel evaporates fully (and is evenly distributed among the cylinders). 66. production automobiles use carburetors. engine fuel addition devices. A fuel injector [Fig. Figure 66. A carburetor [Fig.8(b)] injects a spray of fuel into the air stream.i. 66.i. with enrichment to Á > 1 for starting and maximum power operation.8 S. The intrinsic control is imperfect because air is compressible while liquid fuels are not. Control of Á and timing is directed toward maximizing efficiency and minimizing emissions at a given speed and torque. In throttle body injection.8(a)] provides intrinsic control of Á by putting fuel and air flow through restrictions with the same differential pressure. Various corrective methods are used to provide near-constant lean Á over most of the air flow range. Engine output is usually controlled by throttling the intake air flow with a butterfly-type throttle valve. in port injection (more common). Due to the difficulty in obtaining low emissions levels.timing essentially constant. Other methods (late intake valve closing. engines: carburetion and fuel injection.3(d)].

i. The advantages of s. the mixture is kept lean. For a given rº and rc . Emissions are lower with use of a catalytic converter. the efficiency of a typical s. 66. isentropic expansion.) engine can be idealized as a diesel cycle using an ideal gas with constant specific heat [Fig. The diesel cycle consists of isentropic compression.4). and constant volume cooling (simulating intake and exhaust). For older designs. constant pressure heating (simulating combustion).8 shows carburetors and fuel injectors used for liquid fuels.3(c)] differs from the diesel cycle (1) in that heat transfer occurs during compression and expansion. (2) in that combustion takes place at varying rather than constant pressure. 66. The volume of injected fuel is controlled in response to various measurements. As for carburetors. control is almost entirely mechanical. control is mainly through electronic sensors. engines are quite similar. and solenoid actuators. idealizes the volume ratio over the fuel addition period. (4) in the presence of intake and exhaust processes. greater fuel availability (for automotive use). with the necessary adjustments to the fuel addition and ignition systems made through pressure-driven diaphragms. and linkages. engine is considerably lower than that of the ideal cycle (Fig. The thermal efficiency of a diesel cycle (Fig. lower first cost. Some electronically controlled engines incorporate vibrational knock sensors to retard the spark if required. except for starting and maximum power. Figure 66.4 Compression Ignition Engines Idealized and Actual Cycles The compression ignition (c. The actual engine cycle [Fig. (3) in that combustion continues after the end of fuel addition. to allow evaporation time. digital electronics. The cutoff ratio. and c.i. the arrangements for gaseous fuels are similar. and exhaust oxygen concentration.i.i. and wider speed range. On newer designs.i. 66. They are typically controlled by digital electronics.i. The spark advance is typically regulated in response to engine speed and manifold vacuum. engines have higher mass and volume power density. engines become more pronounced for smaller sizes. The pressure-volume diagrams for actual s.cylinder has its own injector. 66. The switching required for spark generation and control can be done either mechanically or electronically. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Advantages Relative to compression ignition engines. high speeds and high vacuums require more advance.3(b)]. inlet manifold vacuum. including speed. The high voltage (10−25 kV) for the ignition spark is provided either by interrupting current through a choke or discharging a capacitor. 66. Port injectors are timed to spray fuel while the inlet valve is closed. s. centrifugal speed sensors.4) is 1¡° ° ´t = 1 ¡ rº (rc ¡ 1)=(rc ¡ 1)=° . and (5) in the variation in gas composition and gas specific heat. rc .

combustion takes place at near Á = 1. high compression ratio. low-speed engines. Since the premixed combustion has a rapid pressure rise which causes rough operation. Overall equivalence ratio (Á) generally ranges from about 0. The fuel and burned gases from the prechamber then expand into the main combustion chamber and combine with the remaining air.d. the combustion chamber must be designed for increased turbulence in order for combustion to take place in the time available. combustion is initiated in a small. engine. 66. engine combustionchamber types.i. hot. Fuels.i. high-speed engines. knock. In the late combustion phase. Minimum delay is obtained by injecting at the optimum time (10−15° before top center). fuel evaporates.9). Engines with a single chamber are known as direct injection (d. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . C.i. mixes with the air. medium-speed engines. the fuel which evaporated and mixed during the delay period burns rapidly in a process similar to that in s. while those with a prechamber are known as indirect injection (i.i. and high cetane number fuel. For large. This is done by minimizing ignition delay time and evaporation rate during that time. 66.i. highly turbulent prechamber. air is compressed before fuel is added. engines does. and reacts slowly.i. it is desirable to minimize the amount of fuel vaporized before it begins.) engines.5(b)]. In the mixing−controlled combustion phase. with high cylinder wall temperature.i. engine combustion takes place in four stages [Fig. Since the fuel and air are not premixed. In the ignition delay period.8. In the premixed combustion phase.Combustion. engines does not speed up with increased turbulence as much as the process in s. a diffusion flame exists at the boundary between a rich atomized fuel-air mixture and the remaining air in the cylinder. no matter what the overall Á.i. Fuel is injected as a fine spray beginning slightly before the volume reaches a minimum and ignites after coming in contact with the hot air. and Emissions In a c. combustion is adequate when the fuel is injected directly into the center of a relatively quiescent combustion chamber. with lean mixtures (low Á) corresponding to idle and low power.15−0. the pockets of fuel which so far have escaped the flame are consumed. Indirect injection (see below) gives little premixed combustion.) engines (Fig. Figure 66. and rich mixtures corresponding to full power with considerable smoke emission. The combustion process in c. In small. For medium-size.9 C.

Carbonaceous soot is formed by fuel pyrolysis in rich regions near the flame front. engines are fueled with petroleum oils consisting of longer-chain molecules than those in gasolines. It is important that any c. the combustion process in c. but are controlled by regulating the amount of fuel injected and the injection timing. nitric oxide (NO). Besides carbon dioxide and water. fuel have adequate autoignition properties. driven by a shaft running over all the cylinder heads.10). and the chemical kinetics allow them to remain as the burned gases cool.i.i. Because of the required high injection pressures. fuels. fuels have cetane numbers in the 30−60 range. based on an empirical scale on which n-hexadecane (cetane) has been assigned a rating of 100 and heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane) a rating of 15.C. Hydrocarbons then adsorb onto the soot particles during expansion and exhaust. Depending on the engine design. For heavy. Typical c. high pour point can be a problem. but a single barrel with a fuel distributor is also used. there is a pump and nozzle on each cylinder.10 C. oils ranging from crude to kerosene can be used. 66. Some of these fuels must be heated before they can be pumped.i.i. and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). almost all diesel engine fuel injectors are mechanically rather than electrically driven.i. In an injection pump system. The pump typically has individual barrels for each cylinder.i. fuel systems. Carbon monoxide and gaseous hydrocarbon emissions from diesel engines are relatively small. the most important of which are soot (carbon plus hydrocarbons).i. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . NO and NO2 are formed from air at high temperatures. engines produces several pollutants. low-cost c. Soot emissions are highest at high loads. Control C. In a unit injector system. a central pump timed to the camshaft delivers fuel to nozzles located at each cylinder. Figure 66. Two types of systems are used: injection pump and unit injector (Fig. The ignition quality is expressed in terms of the cetane number of the fuel. engines are not throttled.

In carbureted s. In s. It has been found experimentally that engine air flow and torque are inversely proportional to the square root of the stagnation temperature of the air entering the cylinder. Advantages Relative to spark ignition engines. However.i. electronically controlled injector pumps have become common. High performance engines utilize two or three intake valves per cylinder to maximize flow area. Intake valves are thus made as large as possible. In the past.i. reducing flow friction in the intake system. Intake system design is therefore a major factor in determining the torque for a given engine displacement. torque is increased by the cooling effect of fuel evaporation. c. They also are capable of using inexpensive fuels such as heavy fuel oil. Since residual exhaust gas takes up space that could be used for fresh charge. 4-Stroke Intake and Exhaust Air flow into a naturally aspirated 4-stroke engine is optimized by reducing charge temperature. engines. reducing residual exhaust gas. the control was generally accomplished through purely mechanical means and consisted mainly of increasing the injection duration in response to increased torque demand. In these units. c. engines. and tuning and extended valve opening. Electronic control allows fuel delivery to be adjusted in response to engine operating conditions and is useful in achieving low emissions. According to both experiment and theory. This pressure is increased by minimizing the intake pressure drop.5 Gas Exchange Systems The torque of an internal combustion engine is primarily limited by the mass of air that can be captured in the cylinder. In recent years. the power is supplied mechanically. some heat transfer is necessary to prevent fuel from puddling in the intake manifold. Since c. This effect is much larger with alcohol fuels. Intake piping is normally designed for minimum pressure drop. the intake manifold is often designed for optimal fuel evaporation and distribution rather than for minimum flow friction. but fuel delivery is controlled by unloading solenoids. they do not provide engine braking. engine torque is proportional to the pressure of the air entering the cylinder.i. Exhaust design is also driven by the need to muffle the noise generated by the sudden flow acceleration at exhaust valve opening. exhaust system design also affects engine output.i.i. in carbureted s. Torque is adversely affected by heat transfer to the intake air from the hot cylinder and exhaust manifold. which are therefore used in many racing cars. engines have higher thermal efficiency at full load and much higher thermal efficiency at low load. engines are often fitted with auxiliary compression brakes which increase engine pumping work. however.i. For heavy vehicle use. engines are not throttled at reduced load. 66. engines. Intake air cleaners are designed for minimum flow resistance consistent with adequate dirt © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .The injection start and duration are varied according to engine load and operating conditions.

In either case. but pressure falls rapidly when the exhaust valve opens. Good intake and exhaust system design makes use of the dynamic effects of gas acceleration and deceleration. These allow more freedom in crankcase lubrication. engines are generally crankcase scavengedthe bottom face of the piston is used to pump the air and oil is generally added to the fuel to lubricate the crank bearings. or one carburetor per cylinder engines because the design of intake manifolds for other carbureted engines and throttle-body injected engines is dominated by the need for good fuel distribution. Small s. Most engine designs incorporate open periods well over 180° of crank angle: intake valves open 5−30° before top center and close 45−75° after bottom center. pressure at the intake valve can be increased during the critical periods near valve opening and closing. intake and exhaust take place simultaneously.12(c)] requires poppet valves as well. 4. Cylinder pressure just prior to exhaust valve opening is much higher than atmospheric. 66. an extended valve open period is detrimental to performance. the correct flow direction is maintained by gas inertial effects. At high engine speeds. Cross-scavenging [Fig. The tuning penalizes performance at some speeds away from the design speed. The effect of exhaust system pressure drop is less than that of intake system pressure drop. at design speed. 66. Some engines incorporate variable valve timing to obtain optimum performance over a range of speeds. Intake systems are often acoustically tuned as organ-pipe resonators. Branched exhaust systems are tuned so that.12(a)] and loop-scavenging [Fig. The cylinder and piston are arranged to maximize inflow of fresh charge and outflow of exhaust while minimizing their mixing. or more complex resonating systems. 2-Stroke Scavenging In a 2-stroke engine. Helmholtz resonators. uniflow scavenging [Fig. expansion waves reflected from the junctions arrive at the exhaust valve when it is near closing. but two exhaust valves per cylinder are sometimes used to minimize pressure drop.11). or 5 times the cycle frequency. exhaust valves open 40−70° before bottom center and close 15−35° after top center. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Exhaust system pressure drop is usually increased by the use of a muffler to reduce exhaust noise. Larger engines use either rotary superchargers or turbochargers. performance away from the design speed is penalized. 66. By tuning the intake to 3. . At low engine speeds. Individual cylinder exhaust systems are tuned as organ-pipe resonators. 66. and some means of air pumping is needed for gas exchange (Fig.removal. The extended valve open period is generally used in combination with intake and exhaust tuning.) Valves are thus open when piston motion is in the opposite direction from the desired gas flow. (The longer valve open times correspond to high performance engines. port fuel injected. Back pressure due to exhaust system pressure drop increases the concentration of burned gas in the charge and thus reduces torque.12(b)] require only cylinder wall ports. Such tuning is usually limited to diesel.i.

© 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .12 Scavenging arrangements. In compression ignition engines. engines are thus used mainly where low weight and first cost are of primary importance. Two-stroke s.i. only air is lost through the exhaust.11 Scavenging and supercharging systems Figure 66. engines can be built to be suitable for any service.i.Figure 66. Scavenging spark ignition engines involves a trade-off between residual gas left in the cylinder and air-fuel mixture lost out the exhaust. while 2-stroke c.

the density of the air entering the cylinder intake. large truck engines. Opposed engines are used primarily where low height is importantin rear engine automobiles and for small marine engines meant for below-deck installation. Rotary (Wankel) engines have been used primarily in sports cars. small truck engines. or valve-in-head/overhead cam. thus. 66. valve-in-head/rocker arm.2. Their disadvantage is that the use of shaft power to drive the compressor results in decreased overall thermal efficiency. Although it actually applies to all types of auxiliary air compression systems. Shaft-driven.11). and very large marine and stationary engines. the most common being the Roots blower (Fig. 66. the term supercharger is generally used to describe systems driven by the engine output shaft. In-line engines are favored for applications in which some sacrifice in compactness is justified by mechanical simplicity and ease of maintenance. to increase the pressure and. When supercharging or turbocharging is added to a naturally aspirated engine.13. Vee engines are used for large automobile engines. or supercharger. Valve Gear Poppet valves on 4-stroke and uniflow 2-stroke engines fall into one of three categories: valve-in-block. The arrangements are illustrated in Fig. They have not captured a major share of any market sector. They are also used for some small aircraft engines. The in-line design is most popular for small utility and automobile engines.Supercharging and Turbocharging The output of a given i. Radial engines are used primarily in aircraft. the engine is usually modified to reduce its compression ratio. where their design allows for efficient air cooling. Vee engines are used where compactness is important. positive-displacement superchargers have the advantages of increasing their delivery in proportion to engine speed and of responding almost instantly to speed changes.6 Design Details Engine Arrangements Various engine cylinder arrangements are shown in Fig. engine can be increased by providing an auxiliary air compressor. 66. However. Air compression systems powered by an exhaust gas-driven turbine are known as turbochargers. locomotive engines.c. the overall compression ratio is increased. They are also used where the need for a narrow footprint overrides length and height considerations. Roots blowers are unacceptably inefficient at pressure ratios greater than about 2. Most shaft-driven superchargers are positive displacement compressors. where they allow for ease in air cooling and servicing. and medium-size marine and stationary engines. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . 66.

and the designs are currently used only for inexpensive utility engines. a hydrodynamic film is maintained by rotation. intake and exhaust valves are on the same side of the cylinder. Piston rings ride on a hydrodynamic film at midstroke. In an L-head arrangement. For the connecting rod bearings the two effects are combined. gear or chain driven at half the crankshaft speed. The performance of these engines suffers from the elongated shape of the combustion chamber. In recent years. Lubrication The bearings of most i.13 Valve arrangements.Figure 66. they are on opposite sides. overhead cam designs have become increasingly common in high-performance automobile engines. in a T-head engine. but are in a boundary lubrication regime near top and bottom center. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .c. engine are at the piston rings. which are required to seal the high-pressure gas in the cylinder and prevent excess oil from entering the cylinder. The design allows compact combustion chambers. but is more expensive to manufacture and more difficult to maintain than rocker arm designs. The design allows both compact combustion chamber design and accurate control of valve motion. in the piston pin bearings. engines are plain or grooved journal bearings. Typical designs have two compression rings to seal the gases and an oil control ring to wipe oil from the cylinder wall. Valve-in-head/rocker arm engines have the valves installed in the cylinder head while maintaining a camshaft in the block. The most critical lubrication areas in an i. The valves are directly driven by a camshaft located in the block. Valve-in-head/overhead cam engines have valves in the cylinder head directly driven by a camshaft running over all the heads. the maintenance of a film depends on the oscillating nature of the load. Lubrication is aided by good ring (alloy cast iron) and cylinder wall (cast iron or chrome-plated steel) materials.c. In the crankshaft bearings. but control of valve motion suffers from the slack in the long mechanical drive train. A majority of production automobile engines have this type of valve drive. Valve-in-block engines are the cheapest to manufacture. Rolling contact bearings are rarely used.

. Cooling Most large i.9 Rated Speed (rpm) 9000 8000 3600 7000 3600 6800 5200 5600 Mass (kg) 5. Automobilele 4-stroke.a. s. 2-stroke. while others have auxiliary oil coolers.7 10.i.s.. Small marine engines are typically cooled directly with water from the environment.5 2.2 2:2 2:2 © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . it gives lower freezing and higher boiling points.0 6.i.. s.5 19.6 9.i.1 Design and Performance Data for Various Internal Combustion Engines Application and Type Cylinders/Arrangem ent 1 1 1 2/in-line 1 2/in-line 4/in-line 4/in-line Displ.6 13. but all other engines have force-feed lubrication systems that deliver filtered oil to the bearings. (l) 0:10 0:13 0:17 0:30 0:45 0:89 Comp. n.9 61 73 106 38.i.2 7. Automobilele 4-stroke. c. c.1 8. s. Liquid-cooled engines use either water or an aqueous ethylene glycol solution as coolant. 4-stroke.4 11.i.c.Low-cost engines are splash lubricated by running the crankshaft partly in an oil pan. the cylinder walls below the piston.i. s. Table 66. s.0 8.9 7. 66. engines are liquid cooled.1. 4-stroke.2 Utility.i. Motorcyclele 2-stroke.c. While most air-cooled engines are small.a. many large aircraft engines have been air cooled. n.7 Design and Performance Data for Typical Engines Design and performance data for various engines are given in Table 66.s..a. and the valve train.s.. s. s. n. s. Marine. Ratio 9.0 10. n.. Smaller engines depend on convection from the oil pan to cool the oil. t.5 6. and most small engines are air cooled.. 2-stroke. Air-cooled engines have finned external surfaces on their pistons and heads to improve heat transfer and fans to circulate air over the engine. most engines have the coolant pumped through numerous passages in the cylinder walls and heads and then into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to the environment. c. The larger passages needed for air require that the cylinders be more widely spaced than for liquid-cooled engines. Although some natural-convection cooling systems have been built. Rated Power (kW) 8.. Motorcyclele 4-stroke.i.a. but also increases the viscosity of the coolant. When the glycol is used. About a third of the energy input to a typical engine is dissipated through the cooling system. Utility. Utility.

t. Locomotiveve 4-stroke.: turbocharged. Aircraft 4-stroke.i. Aircraft 4-stroke. Automobilele 4-stroke. c.i.i. n. normally slow. The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice.. C. Diesel cycle: Thermodynamic idealization of compression ignition engine. t. t.4 17 16. s. Cutoff ratio: Fraction of expansion stroke during which heat is added in diesel cycle.a. c. c.i.c. Large Marine. Automobilele 4-stroke. Indirect injection c.. Compression ignition engine: Fuel and air compressed separately. 4/in-line 4/in-line 4/opposed 8/vee 8/vee 6/in-line 9/radial 16/vee 16/vee 12/in-line 2:3 2:3 2:8 5:0 9:5 10 30 172 239 14 500 23 21 6. t.a. Truck/Bus. 2nd ed.21 16 12.i.c. n.. engine fuels.Automobilele 4-stroke. Truck/Bus. Equivalence ratio: Fuel/air ratio relative to fuel/air ratio for stoichiometric combustion. engine: Fuel is injected into a prechamber connected to the main combustion chamber.: crankcase scavenged. n. t. which destroy pollutants. engine: Fuel is injected directly into the main combustion chamber. Cambridge.. Catalytic converter: Uses catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. c. c. Locomotiveve 2-stroke. c. MIT Press.i. 4-stroke.. 1985. s. F. Defining Terms Carburetor: Controls fuel-air mixture by flowing air and fuel across restrictions with the same differential pressure. c. t.i.c..a. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .i.3 7. Direct injection c. Compression ratio: Ratio of maximum working volume to minimum working volume.: naturally aspirated.i.i..i. MA.c. t..i.c.c.a.i. c. 2-stroke. ignited by high air compression temperatures. Cetane number: Empirical number quantifying ignition properties of c. c.s.c.3 8. 2-stroke. n.2 53 66 48 100 280 201 1 140 2 800 3 400 36 000 4500 4150 2300 3400 2100 1900 2800 950 1000 87 76 1100 890 670 16 700 25 000 1:62 ¢ 106 Based on Taylor..c. C..

Tuning: Designing intake and exhaust so that flow is acoustically reinforced at design speed. rev. Overhead cam engine: Valves are in head. Warrendale. Spark ignition engine: Fuel and air compressed together. fuels. New York. Jr. 1968. Obert. 1989. Taylor. driven by camshaft running over top of head. Knock: Spark ignition engine phenomenon in which fuel-air mixture detonates instead of burning smoothly. engine. Cambridge. J. 4-stroke engine: One power stroke per cylinder per two revolutions. D. R. engine cylinder. New York. References Benson. McGraw-Hill. 1988.. driven from camshaft in block by push rods and rocker arms. Otto cycle: Thermodynamic idealization of spark ignition engine.i. Valve-in-block engine: Low-cost design in which valves are driven directly by a camshaft in the cylinder block. Unit injector: Combination pump and nozzle which delivers metered fuel to a single c. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Cummins. 2nd ed. Rocker arm engine: Valves are in head. N. The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. E. Scavenging: Intake/exhaust process in 2-stroke engines. 3rd ed. ed. L. Supercharged engine: Shaft-driven air compressor forces air into cylinder.i. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. F. Internal Combustion Engines. B. Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution. Heywood. Fuel injector: Controls fuel-air mixture by metering fuel in proportion to measured or predicted air flow. PA. C. Internal Fire. 2-stroke engine: One power stroke per cylinder per revolution. New York. Octane number: Empirical number quantifying antiknock properties of s.Injection pump: Delivers metered high-pressure fuel to all fuel injector nozzles of a c. MIT Press. F. 1989. C. Society of Automotive Engineers. Thermal efficiency: Engine work divided by heat input or lower heating value of fuel used. Naturally aspirated engine: Piston face pumping action alone draws in air. Pergamon. ignited by electric spark. Turbocharged engine: Air forced into cylinder by compressor driven by exhaust gas turbine. Harper Collins. 1985. and Whitehouse. MA.i. S.

they are still invaluable sources of information.c. engine. Cummins. 400 Commonwealth Drive. Obert and The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice by Charles Fayette Taylor are comprehensive and highly readable texts on i. Phone (412) 776-4841. but is less accessible to those with no previous i. Heywood is an up-to-date and comprehensive text.c. Jr. 15096.Further Information Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution by Edward F. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .. Warrendale. Internal Fire by Lyle C. For more information contact: SAE. USA. engine background than the texts above. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals by John B. PA. engines. Although they are somewhat dated. The Society of Automotive Engineers publishes SAE Transactions and a wide variety of books and papers on internal combustion engines.c. is a fascinating history of the i.

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