Possible Health Effects from

Terrestrial Trunked Radio
(TETRA)
Report of an Advisory Group on
Non-ionising Radiation

Power Modulation Spectra of
Signals used in TETRA
Technical Note

VOLUME 12 NO 2 2001
VOLUME 12 NO 2 2001

National Radiological Protection Board
National
Radiological
Protection
Board
Chilton,
Didcot, Oxon
OX11 0RQ
Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ

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Radio signals Hand portable terminal Vehicle-mounted terminal (a) Base station infrastructure Trunked Mode Operation ( TMO ) Continuous signal ( not pulsed ) (b) Direct Mode Operation ( DMO ) Pulse-modulated signal .

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Coverage Hand portable Continuous signal ( not pulsed ) Repeater Base station Pulse-modulated signal .

MHz 394 396 398 400 .Mobile terminal transmit band (uplink) Paired channels 25 kHz 380 382 Base station transmit band (downlink ) 384 386 388 390 392 Frequency.

7 ms .2 ms Time Burst of ~400 MHz sine wave One frame = 56.14.

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2 Combiner Tr ans. 3 Tr ans. d Plant room Mast Base station Tr ans. each with an output power. at distance. 1 Tr ans. S. 4 Base station contains up to four transmitters. L Beam Power .Antenna Gain. Pt x . G Loss in cables and combiner.

Antenna Feedpoint Half a wavelength (35 cm at 400 MHz) Mast Roof top .

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1 1 Distance. m 10 Elevation Plan 0. W m -2 Inverse square law NRPB guidelines ICNIRP workers 10 ICNIRP public 1 0.5 m boundary Compliance boundar 1m .100 Power density.

Antenna 18º Building 16 m 50 m .

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100 Power density. MHz 10000 . W m -2 NRPB ( no children ) ICNIRP workers ICNIRP public 10 NRPB ( all people ) 1 10 100 1000 Frequency.

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5 0.0 5 1 –0. Mag.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º –135º – 90º – 45º .5 8 6 –1.5 0.0 Real. a 1 0.0 7 –1. a 2 0.0 No.5 1.0 –0.8 code states 3 1. Phase 2 4 a  Imaginary.

6 1.6 –1.6 –1.0 –0.8 1. a1 0.1.0 Real.4 0.4 0.8 Imaginary.8 –0. a2 0.2 0.6 .4 –0.2 –0.2 1.2 –1.4 0.8 –1.

826 0.170 1.101 1.0 1.0 Amplitude bin .0.514 1.0 2.620 0.139 0.483 0.689 0.445 1.414 0.582 1.376 1.308 1.651 More Percentage of samples in each bin 4.964 1.551 0.033 1.895 0.208 0.239 1.758 0.0 0.0 Bin width = 0.014 units 3.277 0.345 0.070 0.

67 ms) Control frame 1 2 3 4 1 timeslot = 255 symbols or 510 bits ( ~14.17 ms) 1 2 3 4 1 symbo l = 2 bit s (~55.02 s) 1 2 3 4 5 17 18 1 frame = 4 timeslots (~56.1 hyperframe = 60 multiframes (61.56 µs) 509 510 .2 s) 1 2 3 4 5 60 1 multiframe = 18 frames (1.

Normal uplink burst 34 4 216 22 216 4 14 A Mobile to base station in TMO Normal continuous downlink burst Block 1 12 2 216 Block 2 14 22 16 216 2 10 Synchronisation continuous downlink burst Block 1 12 2 80 120 Block 2 38 30 216 2 10 B Base station to mobile terminal in TMO with continuous mode Normal discontinuous downlink burst Block 1 10 2 2 216 Block 2 14 22 16 Block 1 10 2 2 C 216 Synchronisation discontinuous downlink burst 80 120 Block 2 38 30 216 Mobile to mobile in DMO Random sequences Ordered sequences Data block Frequency correction Broadcast block Synchronisation training Tail bits Training Phase adjustment 2 10 2 2 10 2 .

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2 0. r µW 16 12 8 4 0 75 78 Time.6 Power.5 0.4 0. r µW 0.3 0.0. ms 82 . ms 20 Bloc k 2 (6 ms) Power.7 Bloc k 2 (6 ms) 0.1 0 76 83 Time.

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0567 Time.0425 0.1134 .0709 0. s 0.25 1 frame (56.7 ms) 3 2 1 Slot numbers 1 4 3 2 4 Power.0284 0.0000 0.0142 0.0992 0.0851 0. mW 20 15 FCCH 10 5 0 0.

084 0. Hz Magnitude.29 52. Hz 140 160 180 200 .47 194.53 141.084 0.4 0.82 176.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency.209 0.88 123. % Static 17.12 99.402 0.23 105.327 0. % 0.18 158.203 0.8 0.0 Continues to 99.184 0.6 0.59 88.853 0.2 0.64 35.1.853% Frequency.080 Power modulation.94 70.117 0.162 0.381 0.

095 0.6 Frequency.94 70. Hz 14 16 1.0 Continues to 100% Power modulation. % Static 17.2 0.23 105.294 0.59 88. Hz Magnitude.094 0.29 52. Magnitude.072 0.062 0.980 8.100 0. % 0.294 0.000 0. % 0.040 0.0 Power modulation.010 0.735 0.88 123.4 18 20 Hz .8 0.64 35.294 0.18 158.2 0.294 0.070 0.202 0. Hz 140 160 180 200 .53 141.4 0.6 0.273 0.82 176.064 0.337 0.8 0.47 194.327 0.1.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency.823 17.245 0.490 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Frequency. % 0.647 0.12 100.

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0567 0. µW 120 1 17 18 100 80 60 40 20 0 .1133 0.3967 5 0.4533 6 0.Time.9633 Frame number 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.5667 0.6800 0.2833 3 0.7933 0.0200 0.2267 2 0. s 1.5100 7 0.6233 0.9067 0.8500 0.1700 0.3400 4 0.0000 Power.7367 0.

12 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency.Power modulation.64 39.95 88.96 194.23 5.59 3.77 52.18 4.88 9.82 1.58 141. Magnitude.46 123.29 29.18 4.53 8.34 105.52 35.56 17. % 40 Frequency.47 4.46 158. Hz 140 160 180 200 .94 16. Hz % Static 21.14 176.71 70.

s 1.2267 2 0.5100 7 0.6233 0.3400 4 0.4533 6 0.1133 0.9633 Frame number 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.3967 5 0.Time.0200 0.5667 0.6800 0. µW 10 1 17 18 8 6 4 2 0 .7933 0.1700 0.9067 0.7367 0.0000 Power.0567 0.2833 3 0.8500 0.

96 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency.12 30 20 27.47 194.18 158.22 5. % 40 Frequency.64 4.59 88.Power modulation.71 5.27 11.87 14.94 70. Hz % Static 17. Magnitude.23 105.29 52.42 4.58 0.82 176. Hz 140 160 180 200 .86 4.88 123.70 36.53 141.01 35.64 35.93 7.

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eg speech or music Carrier radio signal with higher frequency Carrier with speech or music information Time Time Amplitude shift keying Phase shift keying Signal to be modulated .binary data stream Carrier radio signal Carrier signal modulated Modulation interval Time Modulation interval Time .Amplitude modulation Phase modulation Signal to be modulated.

5 0.0 –0.0 Real.0 Real.0 BASK BPSK 0.Imaginary.0 –1.5 0. a2 1.5 1.5 1. a1 0.5 2 0.0 1 1 2 –0.5 –1.0 –0.0 –1.0 . a1 0.

Binary 1 datastream 0 Unmodulated radio carrier Modulated radio carrier Phase change – 90° + 90° + 90° – 90° + 90° – 90° .

1 Amplitude –1 1 Power (instant) –1 1 Power (average) –1 .

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f N . % 16 0 0 5000 10000 15000 Frequency. Hz 20000 25000 . of 4015 Hz and its multiples upwards in frequency fN f 2f N f 3f N f 4f N f 5f N f 12 8 4 Power modulation at the symbol rate of 18 kHz Aliased power modulation at the symbol rate Power modulation.Mobile Nyquist frequency.

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