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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MAYlJUNE 1988

**The Generalized Theory of Indirect Vector Control for AC Machines
**

Abstract-In recent years, numerous papers on ac machine vector control have been published. It is well known that the instantaneous torque produced by an ac machine is controllable when vector control is applied. However, the published papers od vector control deal with induction machines or synchronous machines, separately. A generalized vector control theory is developed to a generalized ac machine such as a salient-pole synchronous machine having three kinds of torque, Le., the field torque, the reluctance torque, and the induction torque. The theory can be extended to ac machines producing a voluntarily combined torque among the three. The experimental system consisted of applying the generalized vector control theory to a non-salient-pole synchronous machine with damper winding. It was verified experimentally that the instantaneous torque was controllable, not only in synchronous or induction machine operation but also in the transient state transferring between synchronous machine operation and induction machine operation without any change of the control circuit.

i:JTw ,

flux coordinate rotor coordinate stator coordinate

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1

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Control Parameters CT CCFC

Vector

CCFC

: Coordinate Transformer

1

Current-Contro/led Frequency Changer

PS

: Position Sensor

Fig. 1 . Feedforward vector control.

I. INTRODUCTION

coordinate coordinate HE INSTANTANEOUS torque of the ac machine is the 'lux vector product of the interlinkage flux vector and the CCFC 1 torque component current vector which is orthogonal to the flux vector. The torque component current vector and flux component current vector are decomposed from the current vector of the ac machine and are controlled independently where the flux component current vector is parallel to the interlinkage flux vector. If the amplitude of the interlinkage F D : Flux Detector F C : Flux Golculator flux is kept constant, the machine torque is controlled instantaneously by the amplitude of the torque component Fig. 2. Feedback vector control. current vector. Therefore the ac machine controlled by the vector control scheme is equivalent to a separately excited dc the feedforward control utilizing the machine parameters 181, machine. Concerning the flux control method, the vector 1131, [161-r191, [221, 1261, 1271. control is classified into two schemes, as follows. b) Flux-Feedback Vector Control (Direct Vector Cona) Flux-Feedforward Vector Control (Indirect Vector trol): Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of the flux-feedback Control): Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the flux- vector control. The amplitude and position of the interlinkage feedforward vector control. The so-called indirect vector flux vector ?Ilo, 40 are detected or calculated by the flux control circuit inputs the amplitude of the torque component detector or flux calculator. The magnetizing current reference current reference vector i f and the amplitude of the interlink- i,* is determined by the direct comparison between the age flux reference vector 'kt and calculates the current amplitude of the interlinkage flux reference vector 'kt and reference vector based on the rotor coordinate i;,, utilizing the actual value 'ko. The amplitude of the torque component machine parameters. The inputs of the coordinate transformer current reference vector i f and the magnetizing current are i;) and the rotor position r#+, and the output is the current reference i; are transformed to the current reference vector reference vector based on the stator coordinate i*. There is no based on the stator coordinate i* by the coordinate transinterlinkage flux feedback loop, but the flux is controlled by former, using the position of the interlinkage flux vector $0 [11-[41, 161, ~71,191, [io], [121, [141, [201, 1241. Paper IPCSD 87-35, approved by the Industrial Drives Committee of the Nowadays, the flux-feedforward vector control system is IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1986 Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, September 28-October 3. preferred to the flux-feedback type because it requires no flux Manuscript released for publication August 25, 1987. detector or flux calculator. The authors are with the Technological University of Nagaoka, 1603-1 The instantaneous torque produced by an ac machine is Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-21, Japan. IEEE Log Number 8719046. controllable. whether the ac machine is an induction machine

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0093-9994/88/0500-O470$01 .OO O 1988 IEEE

] and ifx. respectively. the armature current vector i. : INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL FOR AC MACHINES 47 1 or a synchronous machine [5]. MATHEMATICAL OF AC MACHINE MODEL Fig. is expressed as io. as follows: interlinkage flux of the armature winding 4a is equal to the ua = [uad u. 4f. =MJai. [15]. and the damper current vector ik linkage flux which is converted to an equivalent nonsalientpole machine winding having inductance Lax. and Tkaare important time constant matrices which determine the transient characteristics of ac machines. a generalized fluxfeedforward vector control scheme is described. and column vectors. GTG = I ) . io. regarding a salient-pole synchronous machine as a generalized ac machine. and ikx show the field. [23].. However.if 01 ' flux vector produced by the equivalent nonsalient-pole machine having inductance Lox with the equivalent exciting i k = [ikd ikq] ia = [ iad iaq] current vector io. (8) Tko.] Equation (7) is obtained by substituting (4) and (5) in (6) (refer to Appendix I): L The bold-faced capital letters and small letters denote matrices do. The G matrix is an orthogonal matrix which is used to rotate a vector 90" counterclockwise (i. the field current vector 4. 3. Synchronous machine with damper windings. From (2).exciting current vector io. expressed in d.. equals that of the armature nous machine is given by interlinkage flux vector tpa. Furthermore. the interlinkage flux vector of the armature winding is . 01 R. armature.. respectively. the voltage-current equation of the damper circuit is expressed as Lj=diag [Lf 01 L. Therefore the direction of the equivalent The voltage-current equation of the nonsalient-pole synchro. no generalized flux-feedforward vector control that can operate as both an induction machine and a synchronous machine without any change of the control circuit has been reported so far as the authors know. the armature voltage vector u. The subscript x denotes the variable corresponding to the equivalent nonsalient-pole machine. and damper windings. 3 shows a synchronous machine with damper winding.=diag [Lad La. 11. That is.q axes. The value of the equivalent inductance Lox can be determined at will. and damper current vectors converted to the equivalent nonsalient-pole machine winding. The field voltage vector uJ.e.UJ 01 4 [ . respectively. Fig. respectively.+Laia+ = Loxiox (3) where iox is an exciting current vector of the armature inter- (9) . the are expressed..q] UJ= [ .OGASAWARA et al.= irX iaX ikx + + where (4) where Rf= diag [R. Equation (7) is converted as follows: 4. armature. TkJ. and 4 k are the interlinkage flux vectors of the field.. Note that UJ and 4fvectors have only d-axis components. = diag [Rod R.. From (2). In this paper. i.

are the amplitude of iuTand iox. the damper interlinkage flux vector is an important vector that determines the state variable vector of the synchronous machine. X = Tkoiox - Tkfifx Tkuiax. 111. CONTROL THEORY A. Control of Instantaneous Torque where 8 is an unit vector that is parallel to the exciting current vector of the armature interlinkage flux io. iuTand iuFare called the torque-component armature current vector and flux-component armature current vector. iox = Since iuTrelates to the instantaneous torque and iaFrelates to the armature interlinkage flux. 4. * ~ Lox 1 TkOq -. The unknown quantities of (19) are the amplitude of the fluxcomponent armature current iuF in the matrix A and the direction of the unit vector 8. (18) is expressed as follows: The armature current vector i. (18) Lox Furthermore.TGiox. the following equation is obtained: Let the amplitude reference of the exciting current vector of the armature interlinkage flux.TkfGX-. Block diagram of synchronous machine. 24.TkuqLuq iuF Lox L 1 i4= iUT i . the block diagram shown in (9).ifx. .-Lu(iaT iuF) + Lox + (Muqkq ikq iud . NO. MAYIJUNE 1988 Obviously the parentheses on the right side of (9) indicate a state variable vector of the synchronous machine x. the instantaneous torque of the synchronous machine r is given as follows: r = i.i. 4 expresses the synchronous machine with damper winding. From (19) and llell = 1 .TG'$. From (16) and (17).. the state variable vector of the machine x is given by 1 X=i&Tkoe. the instantaneous torque of the machine r is expressed as r = Loxi. therefore. The actual ture current vectors be i$x and field current 4 can be detected. That is.and the flux component armature current vector iuF expressed as are r = Loxi. Therefore the exciting current vector of the armature interlinkage flux io. and the actual field current 4 is detected. and outputs an instantaneous torque T. the torque component armature current vector iuT. G. (13) iox iZXe = iuT iZTCe = iaF iuFe = (17) From (3.TkuLu(io*. the second term is a reluctance torque.Mudkd ikd iuq (12) where the first term of the right side of (12) is a torque produced by the field winding (field torque).. respectively. 3. > 0. can be decomposed into the here iaTis orthogonal to the exciting components iuTand iuF. Giox (14) Substituting (14) in (1 3). and iuF parallel is to it: --1 TkudLud i . and the third term is a torque produced by the damper winding (induction torque). Fig.e. and (13). .and torque-component armarespectively.Ge+ iuFe). therefore the z vector can be considered to be already known. Substituting (3) in (12). It corresponds to a system in which the field current and the armature currents are fed by the current-controlled converters. = Mfudifiuq (Lud .472 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. VOL. which inputs a field current vector if and an armature current vector i.Laq)iudiuq - 1 io.. The following equation is obtained by substituting (5) and (14) in (9): From (1 l ) . the following equation is obtained: - Fig. and ioT.TF = 0 . iuT= d .TTGioxLOxiaTiOx = (15) The state variable vector of the machine x can be calculated by (9) and (18). On the other hand. ~ iZTiOx 0 + = i. current of the armature interlinkage flux io. the where iuTand io. - (10) I I II II II Substituting (4)-(6) into (lo).

the control circuit needs only part IV. 5 shows the block diagram of the control circuit based on the above theory. the field torque. where Tkod = Tkoq = Tko Tkad = Tkaq = Tka 9 is the field current reference vector.QX . the following equation is obtained: x+TkfMf. A field current reference 'f* is input to the field current controller so that the power factor of the synchronous machine is unity.. having an amplitude of izx. Therefore the exciting current of the armature interlinkage flux vector io. bd b. and it is determined by the solutions of (21).Tkfifx Tkaier).biaF) + b2iX . Part I is the instantaneous torque control circuit described in Section 111-A. (25) = (adaq bdb.. Control Circuit where z = [Zd z . because the field current is always zero and the reference is meaningless.) The following is the state equation of the nonsalient-pole synchronous machine with damper winding. and the induction torque.. = iox. Note that (21) may result in plural solutions. and the unit where vector 8* in this equation is different from 8 in (19). Control circuit. Fig. a nonsalient-pole machine is described as an example.OGASAWARA et 01. This vector control circuit of induction machines is based on the interlinkage flux of the primary winding. following equation is obtained: The solution of (24) is the field current reference which forces the power factor to be unity.iax . as distinct from the conventional vector control circuit based on the interlinkage flux of the secondary winding. Le. ANALYSIS NONSALIENT-POLE OF AC MACHINES B. the time constant matrices are zero matrices because the damper resistance is infinite. ] ~ . 0IT Lox 1 (22) The generalized vector control described in Section 111 is applicable to an ac machine having a voluntary combination among the three kinds of torque.: INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL FOR AC MACHINES 473 Fig. It is assumed that the actual armature current vector is equalized to the reference vector by a current-controlled converter. From (19). iaF = 0. In the control circuit.ifx.e. unit vector 8 equals A . C. In this section. Part 111 is the calculation circuit of x and t vectors. The amplitude of the flux component armature current iaFis determined by the solution of (21). and the flux component armature current vector iaFare determined. the torque component armature current vector iaThaving an amplitude of iZT. From iie*ii = 1. = IV. i. From (19). the saliency of an ac machine is included in the time constant matrix and inductance matrix. if*=['. Control of Field Current The power factor of synchronous machines can be controlled by the field current. (Therefore it is not necessary to consider the reluctance torque. The aim of this process is to calculate the armature current vector io and output the instantaneous torque 7 which is expressed by a product of izx and i&. the reluctance torque.iax 0. 5. a similar control circuit is composed by using a relationship io.p ( Tkoiox.if*=A*O*. In the case of ac machines having no induction torque. i X ) + Equations (21) and (24) are changed from ad = aq = a. However. = b: z i + Z: = (a .l z . In the case of induction machines. Part I1 is the field current reference calculation circuit described in Section 111-B.

which are solved by the aforementioned method. Analysis of Induction Machine Operation in Steady Fig. In the following. NO.the equivalent armature current vector i. and the state equation is expressed as iox-ia= -p(Tkoiox. equals the actual armature current vector i. (37) Ge In (37).TkaiaFGe). (31) From (3 l).Qx .iaFx -p x = 0 . iaT const. ifx= const. vx. Observ= = = ing these vectors from a coordinate which is rotating counterclockwise with the angular velocity us. Lox . and the observation from a the coordinate rotating at the angular velocity us. the synchronous machine is assumed to output a constant torque by a constant field current in asynchronous condition (ifx< iaTx). In the first and . A. the machine is assumed to operate at steady states. . - iOTcharacteristic. as B..iaTx) = ifx.. 3 .e. are given by us=- 1 2 TiaiaT {(Tko.iaTx . are summed up. the When amplitude of the equivalent field current vector kx becomes smaller than the amplitude of the equivalent torque component armature current vector iaTx.. .Tkoia). an analysis of the synchronous machine rotating with some slip will be executed. VOL.. (35) The slip angular velocity usand the flux component armature current iaF. (30) f. based on the flux component armature current direction. Putting Lox=La(= Lad= Laq). respectively. following equation is obtained. 24.i. the first and second terms of the left-side and rightside term vectors always form a right-angled triangle.474 Two solutions of ioF IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. iox const. 6 .(30) is converted as follows (refer to Appendix 11): ioxe. MAYIJUNE 1988 and 7 exist. 6 shows the uS-iaTcharacteristics calculated by (33). Steady-state vector diagram. i. 8 shows the loci of the flux component armature current iaFxand the slip frequencyf. the nonsalient-pole synchronous machine with damper winding produces only the induction torque as the instantaneous torque and is equivalent to an induction machine. For simplification. States At b= 0. w. therefore. respectively. and iaF const. That is TkaiaF (32) iox= i a F - Us TkaiaT. For simplification. The terms parallel and orthogonal to io.F. = (34) where iaTx=. This is equivalent to the slip-torque curve of an induction machine fed by constant voltage and constant frequency. iaTx= const. 7.( = wJ2 T ) . the minus sign in (28) and the plus sign in (29) are selected.us( TkoioxGe TkaiaTe.iaTxGe iaFxe (33) Fig. and some slip arises.Tka)iox J(TkO- From substituting (35) into (25).usTkaiaFx .ioFx+ws~kaiaTxT~~ dt )e + (us Tkoiox. --lag- I -1eod- Fig. vector is rotating (Appendix 11): TkU)2itx-4Tiai&) + io@.iaTGe iaFB = . 7 shows a vector diagram in steady states producing a constant instantaneous torque T = (L~x/La)iaTxiox. Analysis of Synchronous Machines in Asynchronous Operation (Constant Instantaneous Torque Operation) A state equation of the synchronous machine at steady states is expressed as lox - ( diaFx io.the synchronous machine cannot be operated in synchronous speed any longer. They are t Under the normal condition. where us is an angular velocity with which the io.iaT La Lox La iaFx=. the following equations are obtained: a TkOiOx= iaT+ u s s + Fig.. iox=const. Fig.

9. q axis armature current references izd. the propriety of the aforementioned analysis is confirmed. System configuration. The synchronous machine with damper winding is a peculiar wound-rotor induction machine having two sets of three-phase stator windings. lox " 20 /A) Fig.con t r ol led Fig.+. 5A/div Fig. This machine is therefore a nonsdient-pole synchronous machine with damper winding. V . the instantaneous torque control is possible under induction machine operation (if = 0) and under asynchronous machine operation (ifx < iuTx). The . are small. Table I shows the machine constants. Furthermore.Since the system shown in Fig. The control circuit in Fig.*. fourth quadrants the torque due to the field winding acts in the positive direction. I I I I armature I I flux c o o r d i n a t e I d-q coordinate coordinate a .+ frequency changer c u r r e n t . the exciting current reference of the armature interlinkage flux i&. The main circuit of the current-controlled rectifier is a three-phase thyristor rectifier using six thyristors. 8. 9 is a locus of the flux-component armature current vector ioF obtained by the experimental control circuit at the same condition as Fig. 8. this vector control system is an indirect vector control system. From the identity of both loci.. therefore both iuFxand f. 10 shows the configuration of an experimental system. Furthermore.: INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL FOR AC MACHINES 0 k lHzld 475 1 =const " . 10. Experimental result. and the other set of stator windings is used as field winding. Fig. are large so as to produce the large torque due to the damper winding. The main circuit of the current-controlled frequency changer is a neutral point clamped inverter using 12 transistors [ 111. and the actual field current if. they are converted to each phase current reference by the coordinate converter. ia*. and it outputs the d. SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONEXPERIMENTAL AND RESULTS Fig. izd. Analytic result. therefore both iaFxand f. 10 allows control of the instantaneous torque and operation at unity power factor. A set of stator windings is used as damper winding. The control circuit inputs the torque-component armature current reference i&. and izq. In the second and third quadrants the field torque acts in the negative direction. 10 does not have a flux feedback loop.OGASAWARA el al. and the field current references ij!.

The instantaneous torque is controlled. and induction torque. it means that the unity power factor operation is performed. the vector control had been studied on induction machines or synchronous machines separately.Mfk cf>ifx k (39) Rk c iax +P (Lk k c!i-Mak c~)iax. Fig.3 ms Tkj= 10. 11. 3. VI. converting current references from flux coordinate to d-q coordinate. In both cases. while in Fig. 12 shows that the induction machine operation is of the same condition as Fig. Substitution of (4) and (38) into (6) gives Although the principle of the torque generation of ac machines was well known. . 12. The exciting current is fed by the armature winding as shown in Fig. but also at transient states between the two operations. 11 it is fed by the field winding. VOL. when the exciting current reference itx is 10 A. and the limited value of the torque component armature current reference i. under the same control circuit. because no speed variation occurs. CONCLUSION this paper the generalized indirect vector control is applied to the generalized ac machine. The speed responses arc identical. and then returns to synchronous operation.2 ms Tko=19.e. 11 shows the response of the synchronous machine operation when the speed reference is changed between k 500 rfmin.*Txis 12 A. In Rk CkiQx PLk CkiQx = Rk ckifx + P (Lkc . Fig. 24. MAYIJUNE 1988 TABLE I MACHINE CONSTANTS Tk. 11. even at a transient state varying between synchronous and induction operation. it is confirmed experimentally that the instantaneous torque is controlled not only at synchronous operation and induction operation. NO.. 13 shows the transient response when the field current is reduced to zero by decreasing the input voltage of the field rectifier and retrieved to the original state. (38) Cf=diag [Lox/Mfod01 Ca=diag [LOx/Lud LOx/Luql c = diag k [LOx/Mudkd LOx/Maqkql. reluctance torque. By applying the generalized theory to a nonsalient-pole synchronous machine. Fig. excellent torque controllability is obtained. i. The machine varies from synchronous operation to induction operation.=76. the salient-pole synchronous machine with damper winding having field torque. APPENDIX I DERIVATION(7) OF Equation (5) gives G= Cfbx where ia= Cuiax ik= Cik.5 ms control circuit can be regarded as a kind of coordinate converter.476 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. At the constant-speed operation in Fig. the armature current is very small.

L k d . Since QX consists of the d-axis component only. the following viewed from the cr-p coordinate. Then relation is used: = diag [ TkOd T k O q l MfkdMudkd M/ad . I IU Fig. as]T a2=Cwal cw = [cos w t -sin w t where [kd denotes the leakage inductance of the d-axis damper winding. 13. Tkf= ( R k C k ) . The time derivative pa.I L k c k =diag [LkdlRkd Lkq/Rkq] =diag [Tkod Tkoq]. 14. 14. In deriving the above equations. viewed from the cr-p coordinate is . -M a k c a ) Fig.OGASAWARA el ul.I ( L k C k . and let a2 denote the vector a as which gives (7). TkO = ( R k c k ) . let al denote the vector u as viewed from the d-q coordinate.M f k C / ) = diag [ I k d / R k d Tko =( R k C k ) 01 = diag [ T k f 01. ' (LkCk = diag ' [(LadLkd-M~dkd)/(RkdLad) ( L a q Lkq -Mtqkq)/( Rkq 11 APPENDIX I1 TIME DERIVATIVE OF VECTOR AND ITS COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION As shown in Fig.lkd al=[ad aq]T @=[a. .: INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL FOR AC MACHINES Iu Fig 12 Induction machine operation. Transient characteristic. which rotates at an angular velocity w .

B. Gabriel.” in IEEEIAS Ann. “Principles of vector control and field orientation. 155-161. Japan He is now interested in the energy conversion and control systems Dr.” T. Akagi. Japan. 1984.. R. 430-437. W. 4. “A new neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter. pp. and H. and J. in 1947. From 1951 to 1970 he was engaged in the research and development of rectifier and inverter technology at Tsurumi Works Engineering Department. “A high-performance controlledcurrent inverter drive. Nordin. Joetten and G. 1951 He received the B. pp. pp. 5.. IA-17. A. F. no. Rec. Appl. Nabae.” IEEE Trans. “AC servo motor drive for precise positioning control. W. Japan. no.” Siemens Rev. Nabae.= (pale + waGe. W. Satoshi Ogasawara (AM’87) was born in Kagawa Prefecture. vol. R. 3. pp. IA15. vol.S. pp. Appl. Rec. 1971. Rec.” in IEEE-IAS Ann. Japan. Leonhard. 1465-1476.. Appl. Meeting Conf.. K. 1981. vol. 397407. M. Japan. 1A-20. Inokuchi. ) [25] REFERENCES F. W. Espelage.. Ind.” IEEE Trans..” in IPEC-Tokyo Conf. Doran. active power filters. 147-154. Sonoda. R. and Ph. Plunkett. 518523.” in IPEC-Tokyo Conf. Ueda. R. (40) [24] is rewritten as c W ( p a .. the vector as viewed from the CY-0 coordinate a2 is always in the same direction.. K. 1980. K. vol. no. and only the amplitude varies.a 2 ) }= C. Japan. 1982. Appl. Japan. . A. pp.” IEEE Trans. Japan. Japan. 1275. Sivakumar. on July 27..” IEEE Trim. pp. 1979. D. NO. Hirofumi Akagi (M’87) was born in Okayama Prefecture. Leonhard. 1982. Wesselak. Krishnan. IA-16. AppL. Control of Electrical Drives. 1984..478 given by IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. S.” in IEEE-IASAnn.” presented at the IEEE-IAS Ann. Endoh. vol. T. Tokyo. 1 ( p a z )+ (PCJ ‘ ) a 2 } [201 [21] + (40) If the is set to the Of [22] the vector a. Therefore. A. He received the B. 3. and hlgh-frequency inverters Dr. Since 1978 he has been a Professor at the Technological University of Nagaoka. vol. 1A-16. “Field-oriented control of a standard ac motor using micropressors.. Meeting Conf. “Transistor-fed ac-servo drive with microprocessor control. “A high-performance cycloconverter-fed synchronous machine drive system. pp. Since 1983 he has been an Assistant Professor at the Technological University of Nagaoka. no. R. From 1970 to 1978 he was involved in research and development of power electronics. Rec. 1983. 385-396. pp. { CJ = cw I =pa2 wGa2. 1983. and D. Gabriel and W. Natarajan. Darmstadt. Leonhard. vol. Rec.45. respectively. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Meeting Conf. K. . 761-764.” IEEE Trans. Doran. 1983. Nakano. Hasse. R. pp. in 1976 and 1979. and W. Meeting Conf. die Grundlage fur die TRANSVEKTOR-Regelung von Drehfeldmachinen. respectively. 1985. and T. L. XXXIX. Sharaf. Since 1984 he has been an Associate Professor at the Technological University of Nagaoka.” IEEE-IAS Ann. 672-683. Blaschke.” Siemens Z . letting the unit vector having the same direction as [23] the vector a2and the amplitude of the vector II be 8 and a.. H.’’ in IEEE-ISPCC Conf. Hirai.S degree from the Nagoya Institute of Technology.. H. Iwakane. in 1974 and the M. Nabae is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan He received the 1985 JIEE Transactions Paper Award. 5 . 2. 1453-1464. R. section 2 . B. 529-535. Nordby.” in IEEE-ISPCC ConJ Rec. Takahashi. Meeting Conf. 510-524.” IEEE Trans. A. no. Akagi is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. and the Dr Eng degree from Wasada University. 2. A. Niigata. Leonhard. “Zur Dynamik drehzahlgeregelter Antrieble mit Stromrichtergespeisten Asynchronkurzschlusslaufermotoren Dissertation. Uchino. 24. Krishnan and F. J. and C.D degrees from the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Bose. Siemens Z . “Identification of thermally safe load cycles for an induction motor position servo. D’Ater. from 1972 to 1978 he was a nonoccupied Lecturer of Wasada University. on August 19. 1969. pp. “Control methods for good dynamic performance induction motor drives based on current and voltage as measured quantities. “Synchronous control of a static ac induction motor drive. 126. Floter and H. Y. variable voltage supplies. pp. pp. Rec. and M. Japan. Rec. “Microprocessorcontrolled ac-servo drives with synchronous or induction motors: Which is preferable?” in IEEE-IASAnn. Rec. MAYIJUNE 1988 cw(pal){ p(c. Yoshida. no. D. Nagoya. C . and K. Ind. K. “Improving the performance of indirect field orientation scheme for induction motor drives. H.. Appl. Maeden. B. He is engaged in research on ac drive systems. degrees in electrical and electronic engineering from the Technological University of Nagaoka. 1986. 1986. 525531. VOI. “The influence of motor parameter deviations in feedforward field orientation drive [26] (271 systems. Latos. “Method of flux control in induction motors driven by variable requency. 1958. Abbondanti. pp.S. and T. degree from Tokyo University. Leonhard. Power Electronics and AC Drives. C.S. Schumacher and W. all in electrical engineering. T. Ohsawa.’’ in IPEC-Tokyo Con$ Rec. VOL. “An Approach to flux control of induction motors operated with variable-frequency power supply.. pp. Tokyo. A. and R. “A new inverter-fed induction motor drive with a function of correcting rotor circuit time constant. 1984. pp. 1972. Ripperger. Zinger. IA-16. He joined Toshiba Corporation in 1951. in 1981 and 1983. “Study of parameter sensitivity in high performance inverter-fed induction motor drive systems. 591597. Lessmeier. pp. Nabae. . “Das prinzip der Feldorientierung. 1980. M. 193-202. Appl. H. 177-184. no. B. Ind.. p. Plunkett. Pillay.. 1971. “Direct flux and torque regulation in a PWM inverterinduction motor drive. “Microprocessor control of induction motor. Meeting Tutorial Course. 1975. “Variable-speed ac drive with static frequency converter fed. Mr. S. Ind. 3. H. 1977. Lipo. Walker and P. Novotny. Ind. p. Novotny and T. 1980. Lipo. Akagi and A. “Sensitivity analysis and comparison of parameter compensation scheme in vector controlled induction motor drives. Meeting ConJ Rec. W. 1985. 1924 He received the B. S. Otsuka. pp. Schumacher. W. H. 4. Kai. 1986. 1984. New York: Springer Verlag. and K. especially ac drive systems at the Heavy Apparatus Engineering Laboratory Also. A. R. no. Ind.. T. IA-20.” in IEEE/IAS Conf. vol. Bohm and F. pp. on September 13. Japan. Akira Nabae (M’79) was born in Ehime Prefecture.” IEEE Trans. I. D.” in IEEE-ISPCC Conf.. 1984. Rec. W. Ogasawara is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Krishnan and P.. Rec. 757-760. Kurosawa. 1984. He is engaged in research on ac motor drives. 633-641. Ind. 45. Englewood Cliffs. 186-192. vol. 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